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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

I. CONTEXT AND RATIONALE

Learning a language is an immense idea, be it a second or foreign language. English as the lingua

franca of the world has expanded by leaps and bounds and tremendously influenced people across

cultures due to global competitiveness brought about by the strong influence and control of USA and UK

after the post-World War I & II global affairs. Moreover, English has ceased to be an "English language"

in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically English (Romaine, 1999; Svartvik & Leech

2006). The Use of English is growing country-by-country internally and for international communication.

Most people learn English for practical rather than ideological reasons (Kachru, 2006). Many speakers of

English in Africa have become part of an "Afro-Saxon" language community that unites Africans from

different countries (Mazrui & Mazrui 1998). English is the dialect most generally instructed as a global

language in excess of 100 nations on the planet. In the Philippines, since English is not the native dialect,

it is taught as a foreign language from elementary to college. However, it is adopted as the Official

language as mandated in the 1987 Constitution with Filipino as the National language. Though it is our

second language, yet not all pupils have thoroughly learned and acquired it. Some may have claimed that

difficulty in learning English lies in the grammar and pronunciation. However, the researchers believe

that the first problem that needs to be addressed is the vocabulary of the pupils.

Eventually, what makes vocabulary acquisition and development important in learning the

English language? According to Wilkins, (1972)

“There is not much value in being able to produce grammatical sentences if one has not got the

vocabulary that is needed to convey what one wishes to say ... While without grammar very little

can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.”

It has been observed in the English classes at Bais City South Central School that vocabulary is a

key element in the construction of the English language. It is also used in the different subjects such as

English, Mathematics, and Science which require mastery of particular information and terms.

In addition, it has been perceived that numerous pupils face challenges in speaking and

comprehending the English dialect most particularly that they were oriented more in their Mother Tongue

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

since they began talking, and afterward when they were enrolled in primary school. Throughout the years,

resounding efforts were extended to bring pupils' capability up in the English dialect, yet has never

accomplished what was intended to be achieved considerably in their English, Science and Mathematics

subjects. Just very recently, the use of MTB has provided a more successful rate in using the language

after the Mother Tongue Based-Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) was implemented way back 2012 in

all subjects of Grade 1 to 3 except Filipino and English classes. While, the Department of Education was

successful in achieving their goal to make pupils in the elementary especially the lower grades understand

more about the subjects including Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao, Araling Panlipunan, Edukasyon sa

Pangkabuhayan Pantahanan, etc. using the Mother Tongue as the medium of instruction. However, some

pupils still have difficulty or weak in their vocabulary skills, thus, creating more comprehension

difficulties when they reach the fourth grade or in the higher grades.

The objective of this action research is to determine the effect of using the word-tree in

enhancing the English vocabulary development of the MTB-oriented pupils at Bais City South Central

School, Bais City.

II. ACTION RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This action research will determine the effect of using a word-tree as it is integrated it in all

subjects, in enhancing the English vocabulary development of the MTB-oriented pupils at Bais City

South Central School for the School Year 2018-2019.

Specifically, this action research has sought answers to the following problems:

1. What is the level of proficiency of pupils to recognize words in English with its equivalent in

Mother Tongue?

2. What are the significant effects of the Word-tree in the development of the English vocabulary of

the pupils?

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

3. What are the significant effects of the proposed intervention to the results of the English quarterly

tests?

III. PROPOSED INNOVATION, INTERVENTION, AND STRATEGY

The results of this action research will give a positive implications to the academic performance

of the pupils, then by the school year 2019-2020, the full implementation of the proposed innovation,

intervention, and strategy will take place and should be followed, to wit:

1. the use of the Word-tree (MTB to English words and meaning) and updating it daily;

2. daily inclusion of the magic words [to be put in the Word-tree] to almost all subjects to gain

familiarity;

3. weekly oral or written spelling of unfamiliar English words with its corresponding MTB

terminology; and

4. Quarterly English vocabulary test.

IV. ACTION RESEARCH METHODS

a. Participants and/or other Sources of Data and Information

1. The action research will be conducted at Bais City South Central School located at Combado,

Brgy. Calasgaan, Bais City, Negros Oriental.

2. The respondents of this action research will be the 48 incoming Grade 4 and 6 pupils of Bais City

South Central School in the School Year 2018-2019.

3. Results in the oral/written vocabulary test.

4. Results of the 1st and 2nd quarter examination in English.

b. Data Gathering Methods

There will be two (2) phases to be done in order to answer the research questions:

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

Actual Gathering Phase. In administering the action research, the researcher will orient the

respondents together with their parents as to the flow of the action research. The researcher will make

sure that no pupils will be hurt in any way possible.

After determining the respondents, the researcher will give them a preliminary test related to

vocabulary, spelling, and MTB to English translation (matching-type). For the implementation of the

proposed intervention, the Word-tree will be used within the first two (2) quarters. Each week at least five

new magic words in MTB and English will be introduced to the pupils. These words will be written on a

card in the form of a leaf. Before the class can put this leaf to the tree they must use the word the whole

day. The teachers also need to make use of these magic words to almost all subjects, thus, enhancing the

familiarity of the words in the minds of the students. A proficiency assessment related to vocabulary,

spelling, and MTB to English translation (matching-type) will be given to the selected pupils 2-3 days

before/after the quarterly examinations. The results of the 1st and 2nd quarter examination in English will

also be collected.

Post-Data Gathering Phase. After the retrieval of the results in their oral and written

standardized tests, as well as 1st and 2nd quarter examination results, the data will be organized and will be

checked for completion. Then, the researchers will consolidate the results for data analysis. The

researchers will analyze the data to determine the effects of the Word-tree in the English vocabulary

development of the MTB-oriented pupils at Bais City South Central School and to fully implement the

proposed intervention, strategy, and innovation.

c. Plan for Data Analysis

The descriptive method will be utilized as it attempts to systematically describe a situation,

problem, phenomenon, service or programme, or provides information about the living condition of a

community, or say describes attitudes towards an issue (Kumar, 2011). Corollary to the foregoing

statement, the level of proficiency of pupils in English and Mother-Tongue, the significant effects of the

Word-tree in vocabulary development in the use of the English language will be examined

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

comprehensively and described contextually, and the significant effects of the proposed intervention to

the results of the English quarterly tests will also be identified.

The dependent t-test and the standard deviation will be used to validate the level of efficiency of

pupils in words recognition in English with its equivalent terms in Mother Tongue-Based (MTB). Lastly,

the dependent T-test will be used to identify if there is a significant effect of the use of the Word-tree in

the English vocabulary development of the pupils.

V. ACTION RESEARCH WORK PLAN AND TIMELINES


ACTIVITIES JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER
1 Conduct orientation 8
to the respondents
with their parents.
2 Conduct of a written 11-15
and oral vocabulary
pre-test in English.
(Baseline data.)
3 Implementing the
Word-tree in all
grade levels and
integration of magic June 11 to August 15
words in all subjects
(if possible).

4 Writing of June 11 to August 15


observations through
a checklist and
journal by the
teachers (1st
Quarter)
5 Conduct a written 13-17
and oral
standardized test in
English. (Midline
data)

6 Consolidation of the
pupils' result for the
oral/written
standardized test in
the 1st quarter. August 18 to
(Midline data) September 18

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

ACTIVITIES JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER


7 Continuation of the
implementation the
Word-tree in all grade August 18 to
levels and integration September 18
of magic words in all
subjects (if possible).
8 Writing of
observations through
a checklist and
journal by the
teachers (2nd
Quarter)
9 Conduct a written and 6-12
oral standardized test
in English. (Endline
data.)
10 Consolidation of the
pupils' result for the
oral/written
standardized test in
the 2nd quarter 15-21
(Endline Data)
11 Consolidation of the
results of the 1st and
2nd quarterly
examination in
English through the
Monitoring and
Evaluation Form of
the teachers
12 Analysis of the data 15-21
collected
13 Giving information of 23
the results of the
action research to the
teaching and non-
teaching staff
14 Writing the 24-28
manuscript
15 Editing and 29-30
finalization of the
action research paper
16 Orientation for the 31
Parents and Students
about the results of
the action research

(June to August – 1st Tranche; September to October – 2nd Tranche)

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

VI. COST ESTIMATES

ACTIVITIES BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS


Particular Total Price
Description Quantity Unit Price
st
1 TRANCHE
1 Conduct a written and Bond papers 2 reams 180.00 360.00
oral vocabulary pre-test
Black Ink
in English. (Baseline 1 bottle 479.00 479.00
Cartridge
data.)
2 Implementing the Word- 2x3 Tarpaulins
tree in all grade levels for the Wall 6 pieces 350.00 2100.00
and integration of magic Display
words in all subjects (if Construction
possible) Paper for the 2 reams 500.00 1000.00
Leaves
Adhesive Tape 10 pieces 50.00 500.00
3 Writing of observations
through a checklist and
journal by the teachers Record Book 6 pieces 100.00 600.00
(1st Quarter & 2nd
quarter)
4 Conduct a written and Bond papers 1 ream 180.00 180.00
oral vocabulary test in
English. (Midline
Black Ink
data/1st quarter) 2 bottles 479.00 958.00
Cartridge

5 Consolidation of the Food 6 persons 90.00 540.00


pupils' result for the
oral/written standardized
Bond papers 1 ream 180.00 180.00
test in the 1st quarter
(Midline data/1st quarter)
6 Transportation
2000.00
Allowance
7
Unexpected Miscellaneous
15,103.00
activities/undertakings Expenses
TOTAL FOR THE 1ST TRANCHE 24, 000.00
2ND TRANCHE
1 Conduct a written and Bond papers 1 ream 180.00 180.00
oral vocabulary test in
Black Ink
English. (Endline 1 bottle 479.00 479.00
Cartridge
data/2nd quarter)

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

ACTIVITIES BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS


PARTICULAR
Total Price
Description Quantity Unit Price
2 Consolidation of the Food 6 persons 90.00 540.00
pupils' result for the
oral/written standardized
Bond papers 1 ream 180.00 180.00
test. (Endline data/2nd
quarter)
3 Food 2 persons 61.00 122.00
Analysis of the data
Snacks 2 persons 30.00 60.00
collected
Bond papers 1 ream 180.00 180.00
4 Giving information of
the results of the action
research to the teaching Snacks 10 persons 40.00 400.00
staff, school head, and
PTA President
5 Orientation for the Construction
Parents and Students Paper for the
1 ream 250.00 250.00
about the results of the Information
action research Guide
Snacks for the
110 persons 20.00 2200.00
participants
6 Writing, editing and Bond papers 1 reams 180.00 180.00
finalization of the 45.00 per
manuscript Food 2 persons person/day 450.00
(5 days)
30.00 per
Snacks 2 persons person/day 300.00
(5 days)
6 Writing, editing and
Black Ink
finalization of the 1 bottle 479.00 479.00
Cartridge
manuscript
TOTAL FOR THE 2ND TRANCHE
6,000.00
AMOUNT TO BE SPENT Php 30,000.00

VII. PLANS FOR DISSEMINATION AND UTILIZATION

The research’s testing period will cover the first and second quarters of the School Year 2018-

2019. If the research being studied will be successful, and the proposed intervention will give positive

effects to the pupils in the first and second quarter of School Year 2018-2019, then, the school will have

its full implementation by the next school year 2019-2020.

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EFFECTS OF A WORD-TREE IN THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

VII. REFERENCES

DO 16, s. 2012 - Guidelines on the Implementation of the Mother Tongue-Based- Multilingual

Education (MTB-MLE). (2012, February 17). Retrieved March 13, 2018, from

http://www.deped.gov.ph/orders/do-16-s-2012

Kachru, B. (2006). "English: World Englishes". In Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of language &

linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 195–202. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/00645-3. ISBN 978-0-08-

044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February 2015). – via ScienceDirect

(Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries.)

Kumar, R. (2011). Research methodology. Thousand Oaks, California. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Mazrui, Ali A.; Mazrui, Alamin (3 August 1998). The Power of Babel: Language and

Governance in the African Experience. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-51429-1.

Retrieved 15 February 2015. Lay summary (15 February 2015).

Romaine, S. (2006). "Language Policy in Multilingual Educational Contexts". In Brown, Keith.

Encyclopedia of language & linguistics. Elsevier. pp. 584–596. doi:10.1016/B0-08-044854-

2/00646-5. ISBN 978-0-08-044299-0. Retrieved 6 February 2015. Lay summary (6 February

2015). – via ScienceDirect (Subscription may be required or content may be available in

libraries.)

Svartvik, Jan; Leech, Geoffrey (12 December 2006). English – One Tongue, Many Voices.

Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-1830-7. Retrieved 5 March 2015. Lay summary (16

March 2015).

Wilkins, D. A. (1972). Linguistics in Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold.