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Blast Resistant Buildings IP 4-3-2

INTERNATIONAL Page 1 of 8
PRACTICE
Rev. 1 March 1998

Changes shown by ç

SCOPE
I 1.1 This practice covers the design of blast resistant buildings.
I 1.2 An asterisk (V) indicates that additional information from the Owner, or approval by the Owner is required.

SUMMARY OF ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS


I 2.1 Table 1 lists the practice, standards, specifications and publications which shall be used with this practice.

TABLE 1

PRACTICE
IP 4-3-1 Plant Buildings for Operation and Storage

STANDARDS, SPECIFICATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS

ACI Standards
318 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete
531 Building Code Requirements for Concrete Masonry Structures
AISC Specifications
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings -
Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design
Load and Resistance Factor Design
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings
AISI Specification
Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
ASCE Manuals of Engineering Practice
No. 42 Design of Structures to Resist Nuclear Weapons Effects
U.S. Department of Commerce, NTIS
Structure to resist the effects of Accidental Explosions
Vol. IV Reinforced Concrete Design (AD/A178 901)
Vol. V Structural Steel Design (AD/A180 470)
Vol. VI Special Considerations (AD/A154 275)

I 2.2 Table 2 lists the practice which shall be used with this practice as appropriate.

TABLE 2

PRACTICE
IP 4-3-4 Special Category 3 Blast Resistant Buildings

DEFINITIONS
I 3.1 Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE): An incident producing blast wave having certain specified overpressure
and duration. Three incidents are specified for the design of blast resistant buildings:
a. VCE #1: Characterized by high overpressure of relatively short duration, as specified in Table 3,
which a blast resistant building must withstand with slight to moderate damage consistent with
continued use.
b. VCE #2: Characterized by lower overpressure of longer duration, as specified in Table 3, which a
blast resistant building must withstand with slight to moderate damage consistent with continued use.
V
c. VCE #3: An extreme incident (high overpressure and relatively long duration) which a blast resistant
building must survive without collapse. Unless specified otherwise by the Owner's Engineer based on
a site specific evaluation, the overpressure and duration for VCE#3 shall be as listed in Table 3.
V
I 3.2 Building categories - buildings are categorized for the purpose of blast resistant design based on spacing
from a credible VCE hazard. Spacing category for blast resistant building will be specified.
I 3.3 Blast-resistant buildings - buildings designed to specified blast loading and performance criteria.

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IP 4-3-2 Blast Resistant Buildings
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Rev. 1 March 1998 PRACTICE

I 3.4 Dynamic resistance or equivalent static load is the structural strength required or the capacity provided
to permit a structural component to resist the effects of the blast loadings within the specified deformation
limits.

LOADS

BLAST PRESSURES AND DURATIONS


S 4.1 Overpressures and durations for the blast loads shall be as listed in Table 3.
I 4.2 Each blast overpressure load shall be assumed to have a shock front and to decrease linearly from the
specified peak value (Po, Pa or Pr) to zero for the duration (to, ta or te).
S 4.3 Structural components of a blast resistant building shall be designed for the blast loads in Table 3 based
on the specified building category and applicable VCE.
a. Each Wall shall be designed for the peak reflected pressure, Pr, with effective duration, te.
b. Slab, cladding or beams of a flat roof (sloped less than 20°) shall be designed for the peak incident
overpressure, Po and duration, to.
c. Main structural framing shall be designed for the blast load or its effects on any wall per Par. 4.3a,
together with the average roof blast overpressure loading, Pa, ta, or its effects.
I 4.4 Other structures beside flat roof, rectangular box-shaped buildings, if specified to be blast resistant, shall
be designed for blast loading based on their shapes, spacings and functions, subject to the approval of the
Owner's Engineer.
S 4.5 Reduction of blast loading due to shielding by obstacles or structural barriers shall not be applied unless
approved by the Owner's Engineer.

TABLE 3
BLAST LOAD OVERPRESSURES AND DURATIONS
Peak Incident Average Roof Blast Load(1) Peak Effective Duration, te(2)
VCE Load Overpressure, Overpressure for span w 100 ft (30 m) Reflected msec
Case and Po Duration, to Overpressure Duration, ta Pressure, Pr One-Story Two-Story
Category psig (kPa) msec Pa, psi (kPa) msec psi (kPa)
VCE #1
Category 0 10.0 (70) 40 6.5 (45) 60 15.0 (103) 40 50
Category 1 6.5 (45) 50 3.5 (24) 90 15.0 (103) 40 50
Category 2 3.0 (21) 55 1.8 (12.5) 95 6.0 (41) 50 60
Category 3 1.5 (10) 65 1.0 (7.0) 110 3.0 (21) 55 75
VCE #2
Category 0 3.0 (21) 230 3.0 (21) 230 6.0 (41) 120 140
Category 1 3.0 (21) 200 2.5 (17) 240 6.0 (41) 120 140
Category 2 1.9 (13) 200 1.5 (10) 240 4.0 (27.5) 120 140
Category 3 1.1 (7.5) 200 0.9 (6) 245 2.25 (15.5) 120 140
VCE #3
Category 0 11.0 (75) 100 7.0 (48) 155 16.5 (114) 75 100
Category 1 7.0 (48) 130 5.5 (38) 165 16.5 (114) 75 100
Category 2 3.5 (24) 155 2.7 (19) 200 7.5 (52) 90 130
Category 3 1.5 (10) 200 1.2 (8.5) 250 3.5 (24) 110 135
Notes:
(1) Values listed are for 100 ft (30 m) span parallel to blast direction. For spans less than 20 ft (6 m) use incident values (Po, to).
To obtain values for spans between 20 and 100 ft (6 and 30 m) use linear interpolation.
(2) “One-story" values are for buildings having height or half-width not more than 16 ft (5 m). “Two-story" values are for buildings
having height or half-width more than 33 ft (10 m). Linear interpolations may be used for values between these limits.

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PRACTICE
Rev. 1 March 1998

RESISTANCE - STATIC LOAD EQUIVALENT OF BLAST LOADING


I 4.6 Static equivalent loads may be used to represent the dynamic effects of the blast loading (pressure,
duration, rebound) on each structural component provided that:
a. Static equivalent load shall be the resistance (R) or rebound, (Rr) required for the component to
resist the specified blast loading without exceeding deformation limits specified in Pars. 4.10 and
4.11.
b. Governing static equivalent load for each structural component shall be for the VCE scenario that
requires the greatest structural resistance according to Par. 4.7, taking into account the specified
deformation limits for each VCE scenario.
I 4.7 Required dynamic resistance (R) in the direction of blast loads shall be calculated in accordance with the
procedure outlined in ASCE Manual 42, the referenced NTIS publications, or an equivalent acceptable
method which takes into account dynamic response. Required dynamic resistance may be calculated in
accordance with the following general formula:
P
R=
α ατ
+
πτ 2δm ( τ + 0.7)

where: R = required dynamic resistance of structural element, expressed as static load equivalent
of blast pressure and duration, psi (kPa)
P = peak blast load = Pr or Po or Pa as appropriate for the element under consideration, psi
(kPa)
α = energy absorption factor = 2δm -1
δm = maximum displacement factor = Xm / Xy
τ = duration factor = to / T
Xm = maximum dynamic displacement, inches (mm)
Xy = effective displacement at initial yield of the equivalent bilinear load-displacement
function, inches (mm)
to = duration of blast load, milliseconds.

T = fundamental period of vibration of structure or element under consideration,


milliseconds
I 4.8 Required rebound resistance Rr, opposite in direction to the blast loading, shall be taken as 50 percent
of the undamped value as determined by procedure in the ASCE or NTIS publications, or an equivalent
acceptable method, but shall not be less than 25 percent of the required dynamic resistance,
S 4.9 Minimum static equivalent loads (resistance and rebound) for all structural components, except for
lateral frames, in blast resistant buildings shall be as follows:

RESISTANCE R REBOUND, Rr
CATEGORY psi (kPa) psi (kPa)
Category 0 and Category 1 2.0 (14) 1.0 (7.0)
Category 2 1.0 (7.0) 0.5 (3.5)
Category 3 0.5 (3.5) 0.25 (1.7)

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IP 4-3-2 Blast Resistant Buildings
Page 4 of 8 INTERNATIONAL
Rev. 1 March 1998 PRACTICE

DEFORMATION LIMITS
S 4.10 Maximum dynamic displacement factor, δm, shall not exceed the following limits for the specified VCE's:
VCE #1 & VCE #2 VCE #3
a. Structural steel loaded in flexure or tension 5.0 20.0
b. Reinforced concrete loaded primarily in flexure 3.0 10.0
c. Reinforced concrete subjected mainly to axial compression and/or 1.5 3.0
shear
d. Reinforced masonry, where permitted 2.0 5.0
e. Cold-formed steel panel cladding in flexure
1. closed-hat type 3.0 6.0
2. open-hat type 2.0 3.0
f. Girder for a rigid frame which resists both vertical and lateral loads 1.0 2.0
S 4.11 Plastic rotation gradient, ∆ = X m /l s , (or tangent of the angle of rotation) at a structural joint shall not
exceed the following limits for the specified VCE's:

VCE #1 & VCE #2 VCE #3


a. Structural steel 0.040 0.10
b. Reinforced concrete 0.025 0.05
c. Reinforced masonry 0.015 0.03
d. Cold-formed steel panel 0.020 0.04

where: ls = segment length between plastic or design hinges in the element under consideration, in.
(mm)
δm R
Xm = Ke
Ke = effective elastic stiffness of structural element, psi/in. (kPa/mm)
δm ,R, X m are as defined in Par. 4.7

I,O 4.12 Deformation limits specified in Pars. 4.10 and 4.11 for VCE #3 may be used for all blast load cases for a
protective structure around an existing building, provided that there is enough clearance to accommodate
the deformation of the surrounding structure without damage to the protected building.
S 4.13 Deformation limits for other structural materials or systems shall be approved by the Owner's Engineer.

CONVENTIONAL LOADS
I 4.14 Conventional loads such as dead load, live load, wind or earthquake load shall be as specified in IP 4-3-1
and/or by local building codes.

LOAD COMBINATIONS
S 4.15 Normal (conventional) loading conditions, as specified by the applicable building codes, specifications or
standards, shall be considered for all blast-resistant buildings and other structures.
S 4.16 Blast loading conditions shall include load combinations as follows:
a. Total resistance (U) required in direction of blast loading.
U=D+L+R

where: D = dead load or its effect


L = live load or its effect
b. Total rebound resistance (Ur) required in direction opposite to blast loading.
Ur = D - Rr

c. Wind, earthquake or other extreme loads shall not be considered in combination with blast loading.

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PRACTICE
Rev. 1 March 1998

STRUCTURE DESIGN

STRUCTURE DESIGN CAPACITY


S,I 5.1 Dynamic capacity of any structural element shall be determined according to the plastic design method
for structural steel and the ultimate strength method for reinforced concrete or reinforced concrete
masonry as provided by AISC Specification and ACI Standard, respectively, except that:
a. Dynamic strengths of materials per the Tables below shall be used.
b. Capacity reduction factor (∅) can be increased by 10 percent.
c. Dynamic modulus elasticity of concrete or concrete masonry shall be 1.25 times the static value.
For structural steel it shall be taken as the static value.

DYNAMIC STRENGTHS OF STRUCTURAL


AND REINFORCING - STEEL DYNAMIC STRENGTHS OF CONCRETE, psi (MPa)
(Relative to conventional specified (Relative to 28-day standard cylinder
minimum yield strengths, fy) compressive strength f′′c in. psi (MPa)(3)

For steels with fy < 60 ksi (415 MPa) Axial or flexural compression (fdc)......................1.25 f’c
Direct tension of flexure (fdy) ........................... 1.2 fy Shear, direct (vd) ................................................0.20 f’c
Direct compression .........................2 Fa(1) but < fdy Shear, diagonal tension (vdc).... 2.25 f' c  0.187 f' c 
 
 
Shear (fdv) ..................................................... 0.60 fy
Bond on deformed bars (ud)...............................0.15 f’c
For steels with fy > 60 ksi (415 MPa)(2)
Direct tension (fdc) ..................... 7.5 f' c  0.622 f' c 
Direct tension flexure (fdy) ............................... 1.1 fy  
 
Direct compression .....................1.8 Fa (1) but < fdy Bearing (fbc) .......................................................0.85 f’c
Shear (fdv) ..................................................... 0.55 fy

Notes:
(1) Fa is the allowable compressive stress per AISC Specification.
(2) Use of steel in this category requires approval by the Owner's Engineer.
(3) In no case shall f'c be less than 3000 psi (20.7 MPa).

ADDITIONAL STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


I 5.2 Design and construction of blast-resistant building shall comply with the following general requirements:
a. Blast resistant building should preferably be one-story but no more than two-story in height. The
layout (plan and elevation profiles) shall be free of reentrant corners to the maximum extent possible.
S b. Blast-resisting components of Category 0 or Category 1 type buildings shall be reinforced concrete
and/or structural steel.
c. Blast-resisting walls of Category 2 or Category 3 type buildings may be of reinforced masonry or
cold-formed steel panels, as well as of reinforced concrete, precast or cast-in-place, provided that the
structural framing is of reinforced concrete or structural steel.
d. Roof cladding for Category 2 or Category 3 type buildings may be of reinforced concrete or cold-
formed steel panels.
S e. Lateral load carrying system shall be shear walls, rigid frames, or braced frames with ductile
connections.
f. Beam or girder spans between supports shall not exceed 50 ft (15 m).
S g. Materials of limited ductility, such as unreinforced concrete, unreinforced masonry (concrete
blocks, bricks, stones, etc.) are not permitted for blast-resisting structural elements. When such
materials are used for non-structural functions in a blast-resistant building, consideration shall be
given to their collateral damage due to the blast-induced motion of the building.

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Rev. 1 March 1998 PRACTICE

I 5.3 Reinforced concrete structures shall satisfy the following additional requirements:
a. Roof slabs and external walls shall be double reinforced. The amount of reinforcement on each
face shall be between 0.25 percent and 2 percent of the effective cross-sectional area. Slabs and
walls shall be a minimum of 5 in. (125 mm) and 8 in. (200 mm) in average thickness, respectively.
b. Frames and shear walls shall be designed in accordance with Special Provisions for Seismic
Design, ACI 318, except as modified herein.
I 5.4 Structural steel design and construction shall satisfy the following additional requirements:
a. All members shall be designed with stiffeners and bracing to prevent local or general buckling before
their full plastic capacities are developed.
b. Joints and connections shall be capable of developing the full capacities of the connected
members. The allowable stresses in bolts and welds shall be as specified in the plastic design
portion of the AISC Specification.
I 5.5 Reinforced masonry walls for Category 2 and Category 3 buildings shall be designed according to ACI
531 and Volume VI, Special Considerations, of the NTIS publication listed in Table 1, except as modified
above and as follows:
a. Masonry units shall be hollow concrete blocks conforming to ASTM C90, Grade N, with minimum
static crushing strength, fm of 1500 psi (10 MPa). The nominal thickness of the masonry units shall
not be less than 10 in. (250 mm) and 8 in. (200 mm) for Category 2 and Category 3 construction,
respectively.
b. Masonry walls shall have both vertical (cell) and horizontal (joint) reinforcements conforming to
ASTM A82 and A615, respectively. All reinforced cells shall be filled with grout of compatible
strength.
c. Reinforced masonry wall design shall be based on the principles of ultimate strength design for
reinforced concrete according to ACI 318, or an equivalent acceptable method, except that the limit
stresses shall be based on the dynamic crushing strength of the masonry units, fdm = 1.2 fm.
d. Reinforcement shall be provided for shear and the wall tied to the structural framing to resist
rebound.
I 5.6 Cold-formed steel panel cladding for walls and roof or Category 2 or Category 3 buildings shall be
designed according to Volume V, Structural Steel Design, of the NTIS publications listed in Table 1, except
as modified above and as follows:
a. Steel cladding shall have closed or open type corrugation. For closed (double skin) type cladding,
the minimum metal thickness shall not be less than 0.04 in. (1.0 mm). The corresponding value for
open (single skin) type cladding is 0.06 in. (1.5 mm).
b. Steel cladding shall be designed and anchored to provide for tension-membrane action under the
blast loading conditions.
c. Oversized washers shall be used to secure the cladding to the girts to prevent tearing under the
effects of suction or rebound.
d. Other types of steel cladding may be used, provided that its blast-load carrying capability is verified
by tests, subject to the Owner's approval.
I 5.7 Pre-engineered steel construction may be used for Category 3 buildings provided it can adequately
support the appropriate static equivalent loads specified herein and complies with the following:
a. Cladding shall be 24 gage (0.6 mm) minimum thickness.
b. Girts and purlins shall be of symmetric shapes, either individual sections such as wide flange
members, or composite sections such as back-to-back channels. Girts shall be spaced a maximum
of 3.5 ft (1.0 m), and purlins a maximum of 5 ft (1.5 m) center-to-center.
S 5.8 Supports for roof and floor supported equipment:
a. Supports for equipment suspended from the roof shall be designed using normal static allowable
stresses to resist a horizontal or vertical force equal to three times the weight of the equipment.
Provisions shall be made to accommodate horizontal movement of the roof.
b. Floor-supported equipment such as lockers, electrical cubicles, and tubing racks shall have a
minimum clearance from the outside walls commensurate with the anticipated displacement of the
building under blast loads, or 1.5 in. (40 mm), whichever is greater.

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PRACTICE
Rev. 1 March 1998

FOUNDATION DESIGN

LOADS
S,I 6.1 Foundations shall be designed for the maximum values of the reactions resulting from the combined
effects of the following loadings:
a. Peak reflected pressure (Pr), specified in Table 3, acting on any one wall.
b. Average roof blast loading (Pa) per Table 3.
c. Applicable dead and live loads.
In lieu of a dynamic analysis the maximum value of the combined reactions to loads a, b and c can be
considered as the reaction to the total structural resistance (U) applied as a static load. The durations and
time phase relationships shall be disregarded.
S 6.2 In no case shall the ultimate static capacity of foundation be less than the ultimate static capacity of the
structural system it supports or 1.2 times the transmitted loads, whichever is less.

CAPACITY
V
I 6.3 Allowable dynamic soil bearing pressures shall be based on the results of a soils investigation, and
consideration of permissible total and differential settlements.
S 6.4 Foundations shall be designed so that the safety factor against overturning due to the unbalanced lateral
dynamic reactions is not less than 1.2.
S 6.5 Passive resistance of the foundation, where required in addition to friction to resist sliding, shall be at
least 1.2 times the unbalanced lateral load. The unbalanced lateral load is defined as the total horizontal
dynamic reaction force less the frictional resistance.
V
S 6.6 Vertical pile capacity - For piled foundations the allowable vertical load under blast condition shall be the
ultimate static capacity divided by 1.2 or 2.5 times the conventional allowable load, whichever is less. The
ultimate static capacity shall be based on the results of a soils investigation and/or pile load test.
S 6.7 Lateral pile capacity - Where piles are required to resist lateral movements of the structure, they shall be
designed as follows:
a. If only vertical piles are used, the combined ultimate lateral capacity of the piles and the passive
resistance on the foundation walls and footing shall be equal to or greater than 1.2 times the full
lateral resistance required.
b. Where batter piles are used, the allowable lateral resistance of the foundation shall be taken as 0.8
times the ultimate lateral load capacity of the batter piles plus 0.5 times the passive resistance.
I 6.8 Allowable foundation capacities for VCE #3 blast load cases can be increased by 20 percent.

DOORS AND OPENINGS

DOORS
S 7.1 Doors in external blast-resistant walls of Category 0, 1 or 2 building, their frames and anchorage,
shall be designed statically for inward and outward pressure as follows:
a. Equivalent static load:
Pressure, psi (kPa)
Inward Outward
Category 0 or 1 building 7.5 (52) 4.0 (28)
Category 2 building 3.0 (21) 2.0 (14)
b. Allowable stresses shall be taken as the dynamic yield values for the material being used.
R 7.2 Exterior entryways for Category 2 building may be provided with paired heavy duty industrial doors in
tandem to form vestibules, as an alternative to blast resistant doors per Par. 7.1. The exterior doors shall
be equipped with rebound latches.
R 7.3 Exterior doors of Category 3 building and associated hardware, shall be heavy duty industrial type
equipped with rebound latches.

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S 7.4 Exterior doors for all blast resistant buildings shall open outward and shall be supported on all edges
by the door frames. Each such door shall be recessed no more than one-half its width into the building.
R 7.5 Latch and hinge mechanisms shall be capable of withstanding the door rebound loading.
R 7.6 Blast resistant doors and associated hardware shall be designed and fabricated by a vendor approved
by the Owner's Engineer.

WINDOWS AND OTHER OPENINGS


S 7.7 Openings such as vent intakes and fume hoods shall be designed for blast effects. Such openings shall
by location, use of blast valves, blast attenuators or other means, prevent entry of shock waves and debris
into personnel and critical equipment areas.
I,R 7.8 Openings other than doors in the exterior blast-resistant wall, such as for air intakes, fume hoods, cable
ducts, etc., shall be kept to a minimum in number and total area.
S 7.9 Windows are not normally permitted in exterior blast-resistant walls of Category 0, 1 or 2 buildings.
Where local requirements mandate such windows in blast-resistant buildings, they shall be qualified by
design and/or tests for blast-resistance to the specified blast loading, subject to the Owner's approval.
S 7.10 Windows in Category 3 buildings, shall be minimized. Exterior glass in such windows shall be qualified
for blast resistance by design and/or tests, or it shall be sized per IP 4-3-4.
S 7.11 Glass in interior walls and doors of all blast resistant buildings (Category 0, 1, 2 or 3) shall be minimized.
Where used such glass shall be fully tempered per ASTM C 1048, and shall have minimum nominal
thickness of 0.25 in. (6 mm) and shall be monolithic or laminated with interlayer 0.060 in. (1.5 mm) thick.

EQUIPMENT AND APPURTENANCES


V
S 8.1 Equipment critical to the operation of facilities housed in blast-resistant building, shall be blast protected,
unless otherwise specified, by being located within the building or in a blast-resistant enclosure, if such
equipment can be rendered inoperable by the blast effects.
8.2 All externally-mounted heavy equipment shall preferably be located at grade rather than on the building
roof. Such equipment shall be securely anchored to its support.
S 8.3 All non-structural appurtenances on the exterior of the building shall be securely fastened to avoid being
torn off in a blast and becoming damage projectiles.

Revision Memo
9/68 Original Issue of Basic Practice
1/72 Revision 1
1/73 Revision 2
1/75 Revision 3
6/80 Revision 4
1/83 Revision 5
6/83 Revision 6
3/90 Revision 7
12/92 Revision 8
12/94 Revision 0 - Original Issue of International Practice
3/98 Revision 1
Editorial revision to rationalize this practice with the referenced standards and other IPs. Old Par 1.3 deleted.

© Exxon Research and Engineering Company, 1994, 1998

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