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Module 20 - Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)

Job hazard analysis is one of the safety management tools that can be used to define and control
the hazards associated with a certain process, job or procedure. Job Hazard Analysis is a term used
interchangeably with Job Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment. The purpose of a JHA is to ensure
that the risk of each step of a task is reduced to ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable).

Some type of risk analysis should be performed before every job. Some tasks are routine and the
hazards and controls well understood. For routine tasks consider using a Standard Operating
Procedure, a set of standing orders that control the known hazards. For tasks that are complex,
unusual, difficult, require the interaction of many people or systems or involve new tools or methods, a
JHA should be performed.

JHA should be created by the work group performing the task. Sometimes it is expedient to review a
JHA that has been prepared when the same task has been performed before but the work group must
take special care to review all of the steps thoroughly to ensure that they are controlling all of the
hazards for this job this time. The JHA is usually completed on a form.

Uses of JHA:
 Create/ Improve SOP’s
 Guide in observing employee performance
 Accident investigation
 Safety inspection

Establishing priorities are based on the following criteria:


 High frequency of accidents or near- misses
 History of serious accidents or fatalities
 Potential for serious harm
 New jobs
 Changes in procedures and standards

Selecting a JHA team:


 Involving others in the process reduces the possibility or overlooking an individual job step or
potential hazard
 It increases the likelihood of identifying the most appropriate measures of eliminating or
controlling the hazards.

An effective JHA team usually includes:


o The supervisor
o The employee most familiar with how the job is done and its related hazards
o Other employees who perform the job
o Experts or specialist when necessary, such as safety officer, maintenance personnel,
occupational hygienist, ergonomists, or design engineers.
Sample of JHA:

Step Hazard Control


(1) Prepare Surface Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome Wear thick gloves
Using Electric Wire
Brush Use vibrating tool no more than
20 minutes at a time and for no
more than 2 hours a shift
Paint dust possibly containing lead Wear a P3 organic vapor mask
when disturbing old paint. Wear
disposable coveralls. Wash hands
thoroughly before eating or
smoking. Thorough housekeeping.
Slips trips and falls Route all electrical cables sensibly
to keep walkways and stairs free of
hazards.
Sunburn Wear broad brim and SPF 40+ sun
block.
(2) Paint Handrails Damage to adjacent surfaces from Use drop sheets
thinners and paint
Exposure to fumes from thinners If poorly ventilated, use P3 organic
vapor mask
Paint in eyes Wear safety goggles when working
above shoulder height, safety
glasses at other times
Fire Keep containers of thinners and
flammable solvents closed properly
and stored in a cool place away
from sources of sparks
(3) Housekeeping Slip and trip hazards Remove waste to bin, tools to store,
ensure barriers and signs are in
place to denote wet paint.

Accidents can occur when:

 Work is performed incorrectly


 Workers use hazardous materials
 Work Under hazardous conditions

JHA Procedure

 List/ enumerate basic job steps necessary to perform the job from start to finish
 Identify every existing or potential hazards associated with each job step.
 Develop recommendations for ways to eliminate, or control each hazard
Note: it is best to complete JHA forms one column at a time.
1. Identifying Basic Job Steps

The purpose of JHA is to identify hazards associated with a job and to make recommendations
for ways to eliminate or control these hazards. Describing job steps in terms of what they are
supposed to accomplish provides maximum opportunity to explore alternative ways of
performing the job in a safer, healthier manner.

Most common errors:

 Describing the job in too much detail


 Describing the job in too little detail
Solution:

 List as steps only those tasks that would be described to someone being trained
to perform the job.

2. Determine the Hazards

Identify all of the existing or potential actions or conditions that could lead to an injury
or illness, or harm to the environment. To make sure that each step is examined
thoroughly, consider the following:

 Hazard guide:
o The physical actions required for that specific step
o The materials used
o The equipments used
o The conditions under which the step is normally performed.
 Physical action:
o Force (weight)
o Frequency (repetition)
o Posture (Prolonged)
o Position (distance)
 Materials
o Chemicals
o Corrosive
o Flammable
o Volatile
 Equipment
o Mechanical hazard
o Electrical hazard
o Conditions
o Noisy environment
o Temperatures extremes
o Vibration present
o Poor or high Illumination
o Pressure (atmospheric force)
o Prolonged hours
3. Recommending Corrective Measures:
 Should be developed at the job site whenever possible
 Should be developed in sequence, beginning with the first hazard
 Must be specific

Correcting the hazards

 Administrative control
 PPE
 Engineering control
 Physical action
o Modifying/Rearranging/Combining actions
o Change the process
o Training
o Use of PPE
 Material
o Substitution of materials
o Machine guarding or Safe guarding
o Limit employee exposure
o Use of PPE
 Equipment
o Installation of machine
o Use of automatic safeguard devices
o Replacement of a particular piece of equipment
o Training, experience, skills
o Use of PPE should also be considered
 Work Area Condition
o Relocation (isolation by place)
o Rescheduling (isolation by time)
o Redesign of the work area

Uses of a Job Hazard Analysis

1. Develop / improve SOP’s - To constantly improve / develop written procedures to perform the job in
the safest & healthiest way possible.

2. Employee Training
 Ensuring that each job step is performed safely & efficiently
 To point out particular job steps / hazards that requires special precautions.
 Refresher training (infrequent jobs)
 Increase awareness on hazards
3. Employee Observations
 Guide in employee performance observations
 Allows supervisors to focus on especially hazardous steps
 Ensures employee is performing steps according to SOP

4. Inspections - When developing inspection checklists, supervisors can use JHA’s to help identify
hazardous conditions that may need to be included.

5. Accident Investigations
 To determine if the job was being performed incorrectly
 To tell if a hazard was overlooked in the initial analysis.
Summary Key Points:
 Job hazard analysis (JHA) is one of the safety management tools that can be used to define
and control the hazards associated with a certain process, job or procedure.
 Should be created by the work group performing the task. Sometimes it is expedient to review
a JHA that has been prepared when the same task has been performed before but the work
group must take special care to review all of the steps thoroughly to ensure that they are
controlling all of the hazards for this job this time.
 JHA increases the likelihood of identifying the most appropriate measures of eliminating or
controlling the hazards.
 To make sure that each step is examined thoroughly, consider the following: Physical actions,
materials and equipments used, and the working conditions.
 Uses of a Job Hazard Analysis: Develop/ Implement SOP’s, Employee Training, Employee
Observations, Inspections, and Accident Investigations.

CONSTRUCTION OSH PROGRAM


COURSE OBJECTIVES

To practice preparing construction OSH program in compliance to Rule 1410 of the OSHS
and DO 13, series 1998 and best practices.
To submit to DOLE-OSHC the construction OSH program duly signed by the Project Manager
and OSH Consultant, for their review and approval.
To fully understand that construction OSH program must be strictly implemented,
monitored and sustained until project completion.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

When submitting the construction OSH Program to DOLE-OSHS for their review and approval,
the following must be incorporated:

Three (3) copies of letter of intent;


Name of authorized contact person with telephone numbers; and
Three (3) copies of the Occupational Safety and Health Program. One (1) copy-Client, one (1)
copy-RO, one (1) copy-OSHS.

CONTENTS OF CONSTRUCTION OSH PROGRAM

Name of Person who prepared the program


(please indicate if accredited by DOLE as OSH Practitioner)

Project Description

Specific name of project Name of main contractor

Location of the project Estimated number of workers to be deployed

Project classifications Estimated start of execution of project

Project owner Estimated duration

Company Safety Policy written on a company letterhead.

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Must be duly signed by the highest company official or the highest ranking company
representative who has over-all control of project execution.
Management/Owner's Commitment to comply safety and health policy.
Composition of Safety and Health Committee.(Per project)
Must specify the proposed structure and membership of the safety and
health

committee.(specify the names)

Names of site safety and health personnel.(depending on the number of workers to be


deployed in the in the construction site)
Specific duties and responsibilities of the Safety Officer.

 SPECIFIC PROVISIONS ON THE FOLLOWING:


On site safety and health promotion and continuing information dissemination.
Accident and incident investigation and reporting.
Protection of the general public within the vicinity of the construction site.
Environmental control.
Guarding of hazardous machinery.
Personal Protective Equipment.
Handling of Hazardous substances.
General material handling and storage procedures.
Workers’ skills and certification.(for critical occupation)
Provisions for transportation facilities for workers in case of emergency

 Temporary Fire Protection Facilities and equipment


First aid and health care medicines, equipment
Workers’ Welfare Facilities
Minimum wage and other statutory benefits
Proposed Hours of Work and Rest Breaks
Construction waste disposal
Testing and inspection of construction heavy equipment (if construction heavy equipment
will be utilized in the project per requirements of Sec. 10, D.O. No. 13)
Disaster and Emergency Preparedness contingency plan.





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Standards Operating Procedure and Job Hazard Analysis for the following activities and
other hazardous work not outlined herein.
Site cleaning
Excavations
Erection and dismantling of scaffolds and other temporary working platforms
Temporary electrical connections/installations
Use of scaffolds and other temporary working platforms
Working at unprotected elevated working platforms or surfaces
Use of power tools and equipment
Gas and electric welding and cutting operations
 Working in confined spaces
Use of internal combustion engines
Handling hazardous and/or toxic chemical substances.
Use of hand tools
Use of mechanized lifting appliances for movement of materials.
Use of construction heavy equipment.
Demolition
Installation, use and dismantling of hoist and elevators.
 Penalties/Sanctions for violations of the provisions of the OSH Program

 ATTACHMENTS
Application Form, 3 copies
Photocopy of Registration Forms received and approved by the concerned DOLE Regional
Office per D.O. 18-02 (require yearly renewal)/PCAB per Rule 1020 of the OSHS.(one time
 Registration)
Photocopy of Invitation to Bid/Project Contract.
Photocopy of Certificate of Completion on required Training of all designated OSH
Personnel. o Safety Officer - Construction Occupational Safety and Health Training for
 Construction Site
Safety Officer.

o OH Nurse - Basic Occupational Safety and Health Training for OH Nurse (for more than
50 workers.

o First Aider - Standard First Aid Training and valid PNRC ID as First
Aider. o OH Physician - Basic Course on Occupational Medicine.

Certificate of Inspection and Testing of Construction Heavy Organization accredited by


DOLE.(if any)
Skills Certificate of Construction Heavy Equipment operators issued by TESDA.(if any)
Contract with nearby hospital/clinic in lieu of the required infirmary hospital.(if any)

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