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Data Communication Homework 3

A phase modulation system transmits the modulated signal Acos(2πfc t + φ) where
the phase φ is determined by the 2 information bits that are accepted every T-
second interval:
for 00, φ = 0 ; for 01, φ = π/2 ; for 10, φ = π; for 11, φ = 3π/2.
(a) Plot the signal constellation for this modulation scheme.
(b) Explain how an eight-point phase modulation scheme would operate.

The transmitted signals corresponding to the phase values are as follows:

for 00 φ= 0, so x(t) = Acos(2πfct)

for 01 φ= π/2, so x(t) = Acos(2πfct +π/2) = -Asin(2πfct)
for 10 φ= π, so x(t) = Acos(2πfct +π) = Acos(2πfct +φ)
for 11 φ= 3π/2, so x(t) = Acos(2πfct -π/2) =- Asin(2πfct)

The signal constellation is shown below :

The generalization to an eight-point constellation is straightforward. In the
above figure we can see that the four constellation points are placed at
equidistant points in a circle about the origin. The figure below shows how eight
points can be placed in a circle with angle π/4 between them.
Suppose a header consists of four 8-bit words: (11111111, 00000000, 11110000,
00000011). Find the internet checksum for this code.

𝑎1 = 11111111
𝑎2 = 00000000
𝑎3 = 11110000
𝑎4 = 00000011

𝑎1 +𝑎2 = 11111111 -> one’s complement -> 00000000

𝑎3 +𝑎4 = 11110011 -> one’s complement -> 00001100

Internet checksum = 00000000 + 00001100 = 00001100

g(x) = 𝑥 3 + 𝑥 2 + 1. Consider the information bits (1,1,0,1,1,0).
Find the codeword corresponding to these information bits if g(x) is used as the
generating polynomial.

Compare the efficiency of BLSR and UPSR rings in the following two cases:
(a) All traffic originating at the nodes in the ring are destined for a given central node.
(b) Each node originates an equal amount of traffic to all other nodes.

Considering that the total capacity of working and protection lines in both BLSR
and UPSR is the same, the total bandwidth utilized in both BLSR and UPSR in this
scenario is the same. The difference is the distribution of the traffic and unused
capacity across the ring in the two cases.

As an example we consider the ring shown in the figure below, consisting of four
nodes. We first consider the UPSR scenario. The last hop before the central node is
the bottleneck in this case limiting the traffic in the other hops on the working ring
shown with solid lines. Assuming equal distribution of bandwidth among the
nodes, if the last hop is fully utilized the hop prior to the last hop will be utilized up
to 2/3 of its capacity and the one before that will be utilized up to 1/3 of its
capacity. The remaining hop will not be utilized at all. The lines on the protection
path will be utilized similarly but in the opposite order, shown with dotted lines. As
a result the sum of working and protection lines together will be utilized only to
half of the total capacity all across the ring.

Now we consider the BLSR scenario. In this case the working traffic can be sent in
both directions but the protection traffic will be sent in the opposite direction and
as a result as seen in the figure the total of working and protection traffic all across
the ring will be the same as the other case as well as the unused capacity of the
In both BLSR and UPSR lines can be shared by traffic from other nodes. The more
nodes share the same line the less the line can be utilized by the node attached to
the line. In the given scenario each line is shared by the traffic from twice the
number of nodes in UPSR compared to the BLSR. As a result BLSR is more efficient
in this case.
Consider the multistage switch with N = 16, n = 4, k = 2.
(a) What is the maximum number of connections that can be supported at any given
time? Repeat for k = 4 and k = 10.
(b) For a given set of input-output pairs, is there more than one way to arrange the
connections over the multistage switch?