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PLAN GENERAL DEL ARTÍCULO

Economic Relations and Development

(Introduction)

I. Introduction

II. (summary presentation)The UN structure for dealing with international economic


relations, 506

(The body of the argumentation is in parts III, IV, V and VI)

III. The UN as a source of international law, 513

1. Creating International Economic law by Treaty, 514

2. Creating International Economic Law Through Non-Treaty


Process, 541

IV. Authoritative interpretation and enforcement of international economic law, 554

V. Specialized Agencies and the administration of discrete legal regimes, 561

VI. Enforcing international economic regimes : dispute resolution, 563

CONCLUSION

VII. International Economic regulation and the United Nations an evaluation, 569

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TABLA DE MATERIAS DEL ARTÍCULO

Economic Relations and Development

I. Introduction

II. (summary presentation)The UN structure for dealing with international economic


relations, 506

A. Economic and Social commission (ECOSOC), 507


B. Specialized Agencies, 509 (GATT, UNCTAD, IMF, IBRD, IFC, IDA, IFAD,
WIPO)
C. Other Bodies, 512 PNUD, WFC

* Atención con las siglas

(The body of the argumentation is in parts III, IV, V and VI)

III. The UN as a source of international law, 513

Five different processes for generating rules of International Economic Law

1. The treaty – making and treaty amending process


2. The promotion of codes of conduct that amount to quasi – legal regimes
3. The generation of rules of customary international law
4. The development of administrative rules that contribute to the development of
international economic regimes
5. The harmonization of national laws and the development of rules of private
international law

A. Creating International Economic law by Treaty, 514

1. The Bretton Woods System, 514 (1944) IMF, GATT and World Bank (the
three systers)

2. The International Trade Regime the GATT and UNCTAD, 515

(a) The GATT, 515

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(b) United Nations Conference on Trade and development (UNCTAD),
518

3. International Monetary Relations 520

(a) Exchange rate stabilization (parités fixes), 521


(b) Balance of payments assistance, 521
(c) The international payments regime, 523
(d) The IMF regime evaluated, 524

succeed of the IMF must be viewed as mixed …Monetary


affairs are crucial to national economic policy – making, and
therefore lie at the very center of notions of national
sovereignty. As the initial experiment in multilateral law –
making, the IMF’s accomplishments should be measured
against the vacuum in international law that preceded

4. International Finance and Development Assistance, 525

1. The World Bank group (International Bank for Reconstruction


and Development), 525

International Financial Corporation (IFC) to encourage


private investment in member countries through IFC financial
participation in specific projects that lack government guarantees

Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between


States and Nationals of other States (The ICSID convention)

Multilateral Investment Guaranty Agency (MIGA)

Other development banks

2. Other programs for development assistance, 527

PNUD

5. Protection of Intellectual Property rights, 528

6. Foreign Investment and Transfer of technology, 530

Among the important legal subjects for which there are no multilateral
agreed rules, the following topics stand out :

Rules regarding the expropriation


Guarantees of and limitations on repatriation of investments
Remedies for breaches of investment agreements
Operations of multinational corporations, and the liability of
parent corporations for acts of subsidiaries

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Rules governing the licensing of technology, including
limitations imposed by licensors on licensees

7. Preliminary Evaluation and Criticism of the Treaty-Based Bretton Woods


Regime, 533

Multilateralism is an important advance

1. Developing country criticism of the Bretton Woods system, 534


NIEO resolutions

(b) Difficulty of amending the basic economic treaties : The


"Balkanization" of the Bretton Woods regime, 535
One result of the inability to amend the Breton Woods regime has been
the tendency for governments to slip outside of that regime to
undertake more informal arrangements and to find solutions to
economic problems that are not dictated by the Breton Woods
frameworks
(c) Overlapping jurisdiction and lack of coordination of international
economic agencies, 537

B. Creating International Economic Law Through Non-Treaty Process, 541

1. Resolutions of the UN General Assembly, 541

2. Codes of Conduct, 542

3. Customary International Economic Law, 545

(a) The new International Economic Order and the generation of


international economic law, 546

(b) International law and development assistance, 549

4. Creation of International Law through the dissemination of general


principles of law, 550

5. Generation of International Economic Norms through the Operations of


Specialized Agencies, 551

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IV. Authoritative interpretation and enforcement of international economic law, 554

A. Authoritative Interpretation, 554

1. Interpretation by International Tribunals, 555

The international court of justice, the highest judicial body of the UN,
has had very few occasions to address issues of international law,
BARCELONA TRACTION

2. Interpretation by Specialized Agencies, 556

3. Interpretation by National Courts, 559

4. Interpretation by International Arbitrators, 560

V. Specialized Agencies and the administration of discrete legal regimes, 561


Indeed, the strength of the specialized agencies lies more in their operational or
functional effects than in their generation of binding rules, especially when one
considers the criticism of the “soft law” nature of those rules

VI. Enforcing international economic regimes : dispute resolution, 563

A. Direct Enforcement by international Economic Organizations, 564

B. Enforcement by States through dispute settlement procedures administered by


the Rule - creating Agency, 566

C. Other Enforcement Mechanisms, 368

(Conclusion)

VII. International Economic regulation and the United Nations an evaluation, 569
A. Accomplishments of the United Nations System in Establishing an
International Legal Order, 570

B. The International Economic Regime - Problems and Prospects

1. The challenge of Global Markets

2. The Liberal Economic Regime versus Managed Trade "Balkanization" of


the Bretton Woods regime

3. Regionalism versus a Global regime

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4. Developing Country Criticism

5. Overlapping jurisdiction of International Economic Agencies: Lack of


coordination

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ANOTACIONES SOBRE ALGUNAS DE LAS HIPÓTESIS Y CONCLUSIONES DEL
ARTÍCULO

Tópico general

El sistema de NNUU se propone al final de la segunda guerra mundial crear un


sistema de cooperación económica internacional.

(104) Este estudio se ocupa de las formas en que las agencias del sistema de Naciones
Unidas asumen cierta función normativa, teniendo en cuenta que las funciones
propiamente normativas y las operativas no son completamente distintas.

Hipótesis centrales

I. Las funciones operativas de un organismo internacional pueden generar ellas


mismas normas de conducta, o eventualmente reglas formales de derecho
económico internacional ? (104)

II. USA favoreció desde el inicio de NNUU el establecimiento de agencias


funcionales. Funcionalismo : método para reforzar la cooperación internacional por medio de
agencias separadas con funciones muy específicas. El bienestar público y la cooperación internacional
sería mejor servido si organizaciones internacionales especializadas remplazasen a los Estados para
reducir los conflictos políticos internos, mediante la aplicación de criterios técnicos

III. En su origen el proyecto de NNUU se propuso promover la cooperación


económica a dos niveles : (1) La determinación y coordinación de políticas
(comerciales, monetarias, de inversión) a través de los órganos de NNUU; y
(2) Agencias especializadas encargadas de ejecutar operaciones dentro de su
competencia. Las NNUU en realidad no han podido cumplir el primer objetivo
En realidad siguiendo la tesis funcionalista es mucho mas fácil abordar los
problemas económicos a través de la aplicación gradual de normas, a través de
agencias técnicas especializadas. (ejemplo : programas de liberalización y
estabilización económica en los países del tercer mundo durante los años 90)

Cuerpo de la demostración

Conclusión

i. Para evaluar si NNUU han tenido cierto éxito se nos propone imaginar las relaciones
monetarias sin el FMI, el comercio Internacional sin el GATT, o el financiamiento del
desarrollo en los países del tercer mundo sin el Banco Mundial. El mundo hubiera
terminado en una suerte de bilateralización de las relaciones internacionales

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ii. A pesar de la globalización, el sistema de NNUU continua dependiendo de los
ordenes jurídicos internos para confrontar los problemas económicos; pero estos
ordenes muchas veces no son conformes con las tendencias internacionales
(confrontación entre el orden interno y el orden internacional)

iii. Soluciones bilaterales versus sistemas multilaterales