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# By using Excel, the following data series are obtained :

𝑥̅ 0.225
𝑦̅ 14.105

𝑎1 133.4476

𝑎𝑜 -15.9207
Table 2

Calculation :

## ii) 𝑥𝑖 𝑦𝑖 = (0.17)(5.10) = 0.8670

𝑛 ∑ 𝑥𝑖 𝑦𝑖 −∑ 𝑥𝑖 ∑ 𝑦𝑖 12(39.9918)−(2.70)(169.26)
iii) 𝑎1 = 2 = = 133.4476
𝑛 ∑ 𝑥𝑖 2 −(∑ 𝑥𝑖 ) 12(0.6218)−(2.70)2

∑𝑥 2.70
iv) 𝑥̅ = = = 0.225
𝑛 12

∑𝑦 169.26
v) 𝑦̅ = = = 14.105
𝑛 12

## viii) (𝑦𝑖 − 𝑦̅)2 = (5.10 − 14.105)2 = 81.0900

2
ix) (𝑦𝑖 − 𝑎𝑜 − 𝑎1 𝑥𝑖 )2 = (5.10 − (−15.9207) − (133.4476)(0.17)) = 2.7735

Then, calculation for (i) until (ix) is repeated for 𝑥𝑖+1 until 𝑥12 . (refer to Table 1)
 Least square fit is given by : 𝑦 = 𝑎𝑜 + 𝑎1 𝑥
𝑦 = 133.4476𝑥 − 15.9207

60.00

## 50.00 y = 133.45x - 15.921

R² = 0.2602
40.00

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00
-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
-10.00

-20.00

-30.00

## The values of St and Sr is obtained by referring to Table 1;

𝑆𝑡 = ∑( 𝑦𝑖 − 𝑦̅) = 978.6341

𝑆𝑟 = ∑(𝑦𝑖 − 𝑎𝑜 − 𝑎1 𝑥1 )2 = 723.9761

𝑆𝑡 978.6341
𝑆𝑦 = √ =√ = 9.4322
𝑛−1 12 − 1
Standard Error of the Estimate, Sy/x ;

𝑆𝑟 723.9761
𝑆𝑦/𝑥 = √ =√ = 8.5087
𝑛−2 12 − 2

Coefficient of Determination, r2 ;

𝑆𝑡 − 𝑆𝑟 978.6341 − 723.9761
𝑟2 = = = 0.2602
𝑆𝑡 978.6341

Number of observation selected was (n=12) because if the selected number of observation is
less than 10 (n < 10), the coefficient of determination will be lower or equal to zero (r2 ≤ 0)
which means there is no improvement over simply picking the mean (if r2 = 0) and the model
is worse than simply picking the mean (if r2 < 0).