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Power System for Rural Electrification Using

Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

*Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

**Department of Electrical Engineering, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University

s_lotfi@srbiau.ac.ir, fl0tfi@yshoo.com, m.ghiamy@iauardabil.ac.ir

‡

Corresponding Author; Saeid Lotfi Trazouei, Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Science and Research

Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran, +989398208778, s_lotfi@srbiau.ac.ir

Abstract- In this paper, optimal design of a stand-alone hybrid solar- wind- diesel power generation system using Imperialist

Competitive Algorithm, Particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization is presented. The final goal of this paper is

minimization of net present cost of hybrid system for lifetime of project ( here 20 years) considering by reliable supply of load

and loss of power probability (LPSP) reliability index. In order to find out the least expenditure and best combination, the

result of these algorithms compared together. Among these algorithms, the imperialist competitive algorithm is faster and more

accurate than others and has more certain design in comparison to PSO and ACO algorithms. In this paper, first the

mathematical model of various parts of hybrid system is presented. Then the purposed algorithm is used. Finally, simulation

results ( number of PV panels, number of wind turbines, number of battery storages, system total cost ,power diagram of

hybrid power system components and reliability diagram) for solar-wind -diesel systems is presented.

Keywords- Renewable energy, stand- alone power system, reliability, Imperialist competitive algorithm, optimization.

developed the Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms

In recent years, a considerable growth in using (HOGA) program helping to determine the optimal

renewable energy resources has been observed. Specially, configuration of the hybrid PV/diesel system. [6] presented a

solar and wind energy are infinite, site-dependent, non- techno-economic analysis based on solar and wind biased

polluting, and high potential sources for alternative energy months for an autonomous hybrid PV/wind energy system.

production. For remote systems such as radio He has observed that an optimum combination of the hybrid

telecommunications, satellite earth stations, or at sites far PV/wind energy system provides higher system

from a conventional power system, the hybrid energy performances than either of the single systems for the same

systems is referable [1,2]. Such systems are usually equipped system cost for a given battery storage capacity. He has also

with diesel generators to meet the peak load demand during observed that the magnitude of the battery

short periods, when the available energy is deficit [3]. Hybrid

storage capacity has an important bearing on the system

energy systems are best suited to reduce dependence on

performances of single photovoltaic and wind systems. [7]

fossil fuel using available wind speed and solar radiations. A

analyzed solar radiation data of Rafha, K.S.A., to assess the

configuration of a hybrid energy system is shown in Fig. 1. It

techno-economic feasibility of hybrid PV- diesel-battery

includes PV panels and/or wind turbines and/or diesel

ower systems to meet the load requirements of a typical

generator and/or batteries. These energy systems are

remote village Rawdhat Bin Habbas (RBH) with annual

considered as one of the cost effective solutions to meet

electrical energy demand of 15,943 MWh. HOMER software

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH

Saeid Lotfi Trazouei et al., Vol.3, No.2, 2013

has been used to perform the techno-economic evaluation. In where PPV is the PV panel power (W) at the maximum

[8], The optimal model of the solar system for a region of power point at day t, Vmpp is the PV panel voltage at the

Turkey is done using the SA algorithm. [9] presents the

analysis and design of a mixed integer linear mathematical maximum power point (V) at day t, Vmpp ,ref is Vmpp at

programming model (time series) to determine the optimal reference operating conditions (V), I mpp is the PV panel

operation and cost optimization for a hybrid energy

generation system consisting of a photovoltaic array, current at the maximum power point (A) at day t, I mpp,ref is

biomass (fuel wood),biogas, small/micro-hydro, a battery I mpp at reference operating conditions (A), I SC ,ref is the

bank and a fossil fuel generator for a remote rural of India.

short circuit current at reference operating conditions (A),

GT is the daily irradiance on a tilted surface (W/m²), Gref is

the irradiance of 1000W/m² at reference operating

conditions, V ,OC and I , SC are the temperature coefficients

for open circuit voltage (V/°C) and short circuit current

(A/°C) respectively, TC ,ref is the PV panel temperature of

25°C at reference operating conditions and TC corresponds

to the PV panel operating temperature (°C) at day t and

which can be expressed as follows [18] :

NOCT 20

TC t Ta t .GT (4)

Fig. 1. Schematic of a hybrid solar- wind- diesel power 800

system[2]

where Ta is the ambient temperature (°C) of the site under

The main goal of this paper is the size optimization of consideration at hour t and NOCT (Normal Operating Cell

hybrid solar- wind- diesel power system regarding to the Temperature) is defined as the cell temperature when the PV

LPSP reliability index to provide reliable time with panel operates under 800W/m² of solar irradiation and 20°C

minimum cost using an evolutionary algorithm based on of ambient temperature, NOCT is usually between 42°C and

socio-political behaviour (ICA). In order to find out the least 46°C [19,2].

expenditure and best combination, the result of this algorithm

compared by the PSO algorithm and ACO algorithm. Also The PV panels are connected in series to form strings,

the simulation results for solar-wind -diesel systems with where the number of panels to be connected in series N pv, s

reliability index are presented

is determined by the selected DC bus voltage ( Vbus ) as

follows [2]:

2. Mathematical model

VBus

N PV,S (5)

The models used in this paper for optimal design of V pv , nom

hybrid systems is based on a sampled average daily weather

data, which has been recorded by Ardabil meteorological Where VPV ,nom is the nominal PV panel voltage. Then

organization. This data includes the ambient temperature, N PV , s is not subject to the optimization, whereas the number

solar irradiation and wind speed [10].

of parallel strings N pv, p is the design variable that needs

optimization.

2.1. PV Array Modeling

The output power from a PV panel can be calculated by 2.2. Wind Turbine Modeling

an analytical model which defines the current-voltage

relationships based on the electrical characteristics of the PV The relationship between output from wind turbine and

panel. This model includes the effects of radiation level and wind speed is as follows [11]:

panel temperature on the output power. With a maximum

power point tracker (MPPT), the output power from a PV v vei

panel is given as [10]: v v PR Vei V Vr

t PR

r eo

PWT Vr V Vei (6)

PPV Vmpp .I mpp (1) 0 other wise

Vmpp Vmpp,ref V ,OC (TC TC ,ref ) (2)

Where V is sampling wind speed; vei is cut-in wind

I mpp I mpp,ref I SC ,ref (GT / Gref ) I , SC (TC TC ,ref )

speed; veo is cut-out wind speed; vr is rated wind speed; PR

(3)

is rated wind turbine power.[11] Using the wind speed at a

reference height hr(m) from the database, the velocity at a

404

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH

Saeid Lotfi Trazouei et al., Vol.3, No.2, 2013

specific hub height (h(m)) for the location is estimated on an The number of batteries to be connected in series is

hourly basis throughout the specified period through the therefore not subject to the optimization but is a

following expression.[2] straightforward calculation, whereas the number of parallel

battery strings, each consisting of Nbat ,s batteries connected

h

V t Vr t (7) in series, is a design variable that needs optimization [2].

hr

Fig. 2 shows typical wind turbine characteristics 2.4. Power Reliability Model Based on LPSP Index

speed characteristics, which highly influence the resulting

energy production, power reliability analysis has been

considered as an important step in any system design

process. A reliable electrical power system means a system

has sufficient power to feed the load demand during a certain

period or, in other words, has a small loss of power supply

probability (LPSP). LPSP is defined as the probability that

an insufficient power supply results when the hybrid system

is unable to satisfy the load demand. It is a feasible measure

Fig. 2. Wind power versus wind speed. of the system performance for an assumed or known load

distribution. A LPSP of 0 means the load will always be

satisfied; and an LPSP of 1 means that the load will never be

2.3. Battery Bank modeling

satisfied. Loss of power supply probability (LPSP) is a

statistical parameter; its calculation is not only focused on

For the charging process and discharging process of the the abundant or bad resource period. Therefore, in a bad

battery bank, the state of charge (SOC) can be calculated resource year, the system will suffer from a higher

from the following equation: probability of losing power. There are two approaches for

P t the application of LPSP in designing a stand-alone hybrid

SOC t t SOC t bat B t (8) system. The first one is based on chronological simulation.

Vbus This approach is computationally burdensome and requires

the availability of data spanning a certain period of time. The

where bat is equal to the round-trip efficiency in the second approach uses probabilistic techniques to incorporate

charging process and is equal to the 100% in the discharging the fluctuating nature of the resource and the load, thus

process [12], Vbus is the DC bus voltage (V) and t is the eliminating the need for time-series data. Considering the

daily time step is set equal to 1day. For longevity of the energy accumulation effect of the battery, to present the

battery bank, the maximum charging rate ( SOCmax ) is given system working conditions more precisely, the chronological

method is employed in this research. The objective function,

as the upper limit, it is equal to the total nominal capacity of LPSP, from time 0 to T can then be described by

the battery bank ( Cn (Ah)) which is related to the total

∑

number of batteries ( Nbat ), the number of batteries ∑

(12)

connected in series ( Nbat ,s ) and the nominal capacity of each

Where LPS(t) can be calculated as follow:

battery ( Cn (Ah)), as follows

LPS (t ) Pload .t ( Pp .t SOC (t 1)

(9) (SOCmin ))inv

(13)

The lower limit that the state of charge of the battery

Where Δt is the step of time used for the calculations (in

bank cannot exceed at the time of discharging ( SOCmin ) may

this study Δt =1 Day). During that time, the power produced

be expressed as follows by the hybrid system are assumed constant. So, the power is

SOCmin 1 DOD .SOCmax (10) numerically equal to the energy within this time step [13,14].

The batteries are connected in series to give the desired 2.5. System Operation Strategies

nominal DC operating voltage and are connected in

parallel to yield a desired Ah system storage capacity. Then, The power generated by the hybrid system and the

the number of batteries connected in series depends on the amount of energy stored are time dependent. So, the

DC bus voltage and the nominal voltage of each individual input/output power of the battery bank, is controlled by the

battery Vbat ,nom , it is calculated as follows following equation []:

(11)

Where

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH

Saeid Lotfi Trazouei et al., Vol.3, No.2, 2013

Pl (i ) (15)

inv

3.1. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm

where Pload is the power demanded by the load and inv is

the DC/AC converter efficiency specified by the Optimal sizing algorithm the proposed algorithm starts

manufacturer. Depending on the P value, the following with an initial population (countries in the world). Some of

cases apply: the best countries in the population are selected to be the

imperialists and the rest form the colonies of these

If P 0 , the remaining power will be used to charge imperialists. All the colonies of initial population are divided

the batteries. If the batteries are completely charged, the among the mentioned imperialists based on their power. The

exceed power is dumped. power of an empire which is the counterpart of the fitness

If P 0 : the remaining power will be given by the value in GA, is inversely proportional to its cost. After

batteries or by the diesel generator, depending on the dividing all colonies among imperialists, these colonies start

dispatch strategy: moving toward their relevant imperialist country. The total

power of an empire depends on both the power of the

if the batteries are able to give P , then: batteries imperialist country and the power of its colonies. We will

discharge and diesel generator turns off model this fact by defining the total power of an empire by

the power of imperialist country plus a percentage of mean

Pb (i) P (16)

power of its colonies .Then the imperialistic competition

if the batteries are not able to give P , the diesel begins among all the empires. Any empire that is not able to

generator turns on, and the batteries will neither be charged succeed in this competition and can’t increase its power (or

nor discharged. Then the diesel generator output power at least prevent decreasing its power) will be eliminated from

Pd (i) is expressed as follows the competition. The imperialistic competition will gradually

result in an increase in the power of powerful empires and a

Pd (i) P (17) decrease in the power of weaker ones. Weak empires will

lose their power and ultimately they will collapse. The

The flowchart of this strategies shown in figure (3). movement of colonies toward their relevant imperialists

along with competition among empires and also the collapse

mechanism will hopefully cause all the countries to converge

to a state in which there exist just one empire in the world

and all the other countries are colonies of that empire. In this

ideal new world colonies, have the same position and power

as the imperialist [15].

approach for global stochastic optimization. It simulates a

swarm, or flock, of beings wandering in the parameter space

and is based on a "social interaction" metaphor in which the

path of the beings in the parameter space is controlled

according to a swarm- or flock-like set of rules [22].

social insects with an exceptional ability to find the shortest

paths from the nest to the food sources using a chemical

substance called pheromone. [23].

[16]:

AC ( x) N {[CC RC K (ir , L, y )]

Fig. 3. The flowchart of system operation strategies CRF (ir , R) CM } (18)

406

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH

Saeid Lotfi Trazouei et al., Vol.3, No.2, 2013

where, N may be number (unit) or capacity (kW or kg), CC N PV N PV , P N PV , S is the total number of PV panels

is capital cost ($/unit), RC is cost of each replacement

($/unit), and O&MC is annual operation and maintenance and NWT is the total number of wind turbines.

cost ($/unit-yr) of the component, and R is the useful lifetime

of the project (here, 20 years). ir is the real interest rate (here, PB is the input/ output power of the battery bank,

6%) which is a function of nominal interest rate (irnominal) and Pb 0 during the charging process of the battery and Pb 0

annual inflation rate (fr), defined by in the discharging process .[2]

(ir , no min al f r ) Then, the model of the sizing optimization of the

ir (19) standalone hybrid PV-Wind-diesel system is expressed as

1 fr

follows

lso, CRF and K are capital recovery factor and single

payment present worth [20], respectively, which are defined Min STC(x) = minx{AC(x)+Cfuel} (26)

as follows: where x {N PV , P , NWT , N Bat , P } (27)

(1 ir ) R 1 PP t PL t (28)

CRF (iR , R) (20)

(1 ir ) ir

R

SOCmin t SOC t SOCmax t (29)

y

1 (30)

K (ir , L, y ) n L

(21)

n 1 r 0 N PV , P N PV , P max (31)

where, L and y are useful lifetime and number of

replacements of the component during useful lifetime of the 0 NWT NWT max (32)

project, respectively. Number of replacements of each

component is a simple function of useful lifetimes of the 0 N Bat , P N Bat , P max (33)

component and the project [16].

The following equation shows the fuel consumption cost

for 1 h of running of the diesel generator [2]

where Pr fuel is the fuel price ($/l), A = 0.246 l/kW and

B= 0.0845 l/kW are the fuel curve coefficients.

The minimization of the objective function is subject to

the constraints that the power produced by the system is

larger than to the power demanded by the load and the state

of charge of the battery bank is limited between SOCmin and

SOCmax and LPSP is limited between LPSPmin and LPSPmax

as follows

Pp Pl

SOCmin SOC SOCmax (23)

LPSPmin LPSP LPSPmax

where PP is the power produced by the system, it is

calculated as follows

Pp PRE PD Pb (24)

where PRE is the power produced by the renewable

resources as follows

power point of the PV panel (W) and the output power of the

wind turbine (W), N PV and NWT are respectively the total

number of PV panel and wind turbine and

407

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH

Saeid Lotfi Trazouei et al., Vol.3, No.2, 2013

The goal of optimization is to find an optimal solution in

terms of the variables of the problem. The algorithm form an

array of variable values to be optimized. In ACO

terminology, this array is called "ant", In PSO terminology is

called "particle" but here the term" country" is used for this

array. In a N var - dimensional (in this paper Nvar 4 )

optimization problem, a country is a 1 Nvar array. this array

is defined by

Country [ NPV ; NWT ; Nbat ; Ninv ] (34)

Fig. 5. Daily mean values of ambient temperature

floating point numbers. The cost of a country is found by

evaluating the cost function f at the variables (NPV ,NWT, Nbat,

Ninv).then

Cost f (country) f ( NPV ; NWT ; Nbat ; Ninv ) (35)

of size N pop (here N pop 30 ) is generate. Then select N imp

of most powerful countries to form the empires. The

remaining Ncol of the population will be the colonies each of

which belongs to an empire. The formation of the N imp and

Ncol is explained completely in [15].Then for each initial

Fig. 6. Daily mean values of solar irradiation

population (in this algorithm countries) operation strategy is

checked for the overall performance during the year.

Populations that able to supply the load selected by the Wind speed measured at a height of 40 meters and has

algorithm. The algorithm continues to find the best been shown in the figure 4.

combination by minimum cost and compliance with the

relevant Constraints of the objective function is carried out.

This process is done until the number of iterations for the

algorithm to be finished and it is shown in figure (4). Finally

the best system with the minimum cost is obtained. In this

paper outputs are the optimum number of the components of

hybrid system ensuring that the system total cost is

minimized subject to the constraint that the load demand is

completely supplied. In this paper, number of population

(Npop for the ICA) is set to 30 and the number of iterations

(decades for the ICA) is set to 100.

Daily distribution of power demand for a year is shown

The proposed method was used for design a hybrid

in Figure(8)

system to provide variable power (15 kw peak load) for a

region of northwest of Iran (in Ardebil province). 12-month 16000

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

A diesel generator has been used in this application, has

a rated power of 15 kW. The system components

408

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH

Saeid Lotfi Trazouei et al., Vol.3, No.2, 2013

4

characteristics and initial investment, maintenance and 6.55

x 10

6.5 PSO

ICA

Table 1. PV panels specifications 6.45

ISC(A) 8.85

6.35

Vmax(V) 26.6

Best Cost

Imax(A) 7.9 6.3

6.2

Replacement cost($) 400

Maintenance cost ($/year) 4 6.15

6.05

Rated power (KW) 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Decade (Iteration)

vr (m/s) 11

vci(m/s) 2.5

vCO(m/s) 24

Fig. 9. Convergence of optimization algorithms

Capital cost($) 7500 According to Figure (9) and Table (4), the ICA

Replacement cost($) 7500

Maintenance cost ($/year) 75

algorithm is faster and more accurate than other algorithms

and has more certain design in comparison to PSO and ACO

Table 3. Battery specifications algorithms.

4

Nominal capacity (Ah) 230 3

x 10

DOD (%) 80 Pl

Pp

Efficiency (%) 85 2.5

Replacement cost($) 225

2

Maintenance cost ($/year) 2

The PV panel lifetime is 20 years. The diesel generator

[W]

p

lifetime is 15000 h. The fuel price is 0.9 $/l. The capital cost

P e,P &P

1.5

l

r

Hence, the number of PV panels and batteries connected in 0.5

expected battery lifetime has been set to 3 years with proper 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Number of Days

Results of the optimal design of hybrid systems with the

power(Pre) and load demand (Pl)

overall system costs are shown in Table 4.

4

Table 4. Optimal results of different hybrid system 2.5

x 10

Optimization algorithm 2

ICA ACO PSO

optimal results

1.5

NPV 31 34 34

NWT 4 4 4 1

P [W]

NBat 16 15 15

b

Ninv 10 8 8 0.5

0

Finally the cost of various combinations with diesel

generator has been shown in Figure 6 : -0.5

-1

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Number of Days

409

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH

Saeid Lotfi Trazouei et al., Vol.3, No.2, 2013

power providing. Also, the batteries SOC and system LPSP

14000

in hybrid system is shown.

12000 Figure (9) , shows the power produced by renewable

sources ( Pre ), the total power produced by the hybrid system

10000

( Pp ) and the demand power load solar - wind – diesel

8000 system. Figure (11), represents the input/ output power of the

P [W]

d

6000 them over the years for the solar - wind – diesel system.

Pb 0 is indicates the battery charging and the input power

4000

and Pb 0 represents the battery discharging and output

2000 battery power. Figure (12), are show the diesel usage over

the year. In this design the diesel generator will supply the

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

load, when the renewable sources and the battery banks can’t

Number of Days supply the load. According to figure it is noted that the diesel

generator does not work with the rated power. Its maximum

Fig. 12. Diesel generator power during a year output power in the hybrid systems is 13 KW, which

operated 1 days per year for hybrid solar- wind -diesel

110 systems. Also, for 256 days the diesel generator is off which

represents the fuel saving. Figure (13) shows that the state of

100 charge of the battery bank never exceeds the permissible

90 maximum value of SOCmax (100% of SOC), and never be

80

below the permissible minimum value of SOCmin (20% of

SOC). Figure (14) illustrate the reliability index (LPSP) of

70

the hybrid system during the year. If LPSP = 0, the designed

SOC %

designed system, will not be able to supply the load. From

50

the above figures concluded that, the 15 kW load, with

40 system can be fully supported. In each time, the batteries and

the renewable resources are unable to supply the load, the

30

diesel generator turns on and provides the load.

20

10 6. Conclusion

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Number of Days

In this paper the optimal design of a stand-alone hybrid

Fig. 13. State of charge of battery bank system using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, Particle

swarm optimization and ant colony optimization is

100

presented. This design, was implemented considering the

reliable load providing and the LPSP reliability index, for

90

wind- solar- diesel system. The results show that the

80 Imperialist Competitive Algorithm is faster and more

70

accurate than other algorithms and has more certain design in

comparison to PSO and ACO algorithms. The costs were

60

obtained for Imperialist Competitive Algorithm, Particle

LPSP %

40

60670 $, 61730 $ and 61600 $, respectively. The reliability

index for the optimal combination of these systems are 3.7%,

30

4.4% and 4.1%, respectively which these indices are in the

20 normal range. The cost of fuel consumption using the hybrid

10 solar - wind- diesel system, is 34700 $/yr, while in the diesel

system is 7282.8 $/yr. Finally, the cost saving in fuel

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 consumption using the hybrid.

Number of Days

Figures (9) to (13) represent the share of renewable

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