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An energy footprint is a measure of land required to absorb the CO2 emissions.

approach focuses on the outcome of energy use, that is CO2 emissions, to highlight the
problem and pave the way for corrective action to be taken. The demand for energy is increasing
every day, and it has become one of the most important things without which life would be very
difficult in this modern world

Since man invented fire, he has relied on one energy source or another. Energy plays a
huge factor in our lives, providing comfort, increasing productivity and allowing us to live
the way we want too. Our lives are literally surrounded by energy, but we do not often
stop to think about why those energy sources are important.
Today most of the energy the world consumes comes from hydrocarbons, with
crude oil being the dominant source of transportation fuels.

Energy is the key input in economic growth and there is a close link between

the availability of energy and the growth of a nation. Since energy is

essential to conduct the process of Production, the process of economic

development requires the use of higher levels of energy consumption.

There exists a strong correlation between per Capita gross National Product

(GNP) and energy consumption. Higher per capita GNP countries consume

more energy per head.

Energy is the major source for the economic growth of any nation.It is an
undeniable fact that energy fulfills an indispensable role in an economy. It
provides inherent support to core services such as manufacturing, mining,
communication, transportation etc. With specific reference to Brazil, it is
imperative to state that energy plays a key role in the national economy. As a
matter of fact, most of Brazil’s recent economic successes have been ascribed to
energy developments and exceptional energy infrastructure. However, one of the
country’s major challenges relates to the persistent increase of carbon dioxide
emissions. Despite a high and strong presence of renewables in the energy mix,
continuous demand for energy and its related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
in Brazil is on the increase.
Wind energy

The wind is produced as a result of large movements of air, driven by energy from the

Sun. This means that the kinetic energy in wind is a renewable energy resource. As

long as the Sun exists, the wind will too.

To begin, tides are the elevation and fall of huge amounts of water.

The cause of such is the different interaction of gravitational forces

exerted between the moon, the Earth and, to some degree, the sun. By

contrast, waves are simply the effects of powerful winds raging on

oceanic surfaces and even on some other bodies of water like lakes.

The cause for the rise and fall of water is probably the single most

important difference that the two have.

Read more: Difference Between Tides and Waves | Difference Between

Volcanic areas

Several types of rock contain radioactive substances such as uranium. These release energy, which warms up the rocks. In volcanic areas,

the hot rocks heat water, and this may rise to the surface naturally as hot water and steam. Here the steam can be used to drive turbines and

electricity generators.

Hot rocks

In some places, the rocks are hot, but no hot water or steam rises to the surface. In this case, deep wells can be drilled down to the hot rocks

and cold water pumped down. The water runs through cracks in the rocks and is heated up. It returns to the surface as hot water and steam.

The diagram shows how this works.

Solar cells and solar panels are both integral, and closely related, parts of a solar energy system.

When reading about solar energy systems, it may seem as if these titles are almost interchangeable.

Writers refer to them both when discussing energy production and output, and often do so without

explanation of how these parts work. However, each plays a distinct role. Solar cells contain all the

parts necessary to convert sunlight to electricity. Solar panels combine and direct all of that energy


The photovoltaic system

Solar panel systems are referred to as photovoltaic systems in the solar industry. This differentiates

them from other solar technologies, such as solar thermal and concentrated solar power.

Photovoltaic systems have several parts and each plays a distinct role.

The entire system begins with the solar cells. These cells are where sunlight is actually used to

produce electricity. Solar panels are a combination of multiple solar cells. These cells are arranged

in such a way that the solar panels can capture and combine the electrical output of each solar cell

and send it along a specified path. Once the solar panels have captured the electricity, they send it

all to an inverter which converts the DC electricity created by the cells to the AC electricity you use in
your home. After this, the electricity is sent through your meter and into your home. All of the parts in

a photovoltaic system have distinct roles, but each is so dependent on the other parts that it is easy

to confuse them.

The role of solar cells

Solar cells produce electricity through a natural reaction called the photovoltaic effect. This is where

the system gets its name. The basic premise of the photovoltaic effect is that sunlight creates

electricity in certain materials by knocking their outer electrons loose.

There are multiple layers within solar cells. The most important elements are the two

semiconductors in the center. The top semiconductor is a negative layer, which means the material’s

atoms contain extra electrons. These electrons are energized by sunlight and the extra electrons are

knocked loose. The bottom semiconductor is a positive layer. This material’s atoms have space for

more electrons. When electrons are knocked off the negative layer they are attracted to the positive

layer. A barrier is formed between them. Negative conductors on top of the cell and positive

conductors on bottom force the electrons to travel around the cell in a specific direction. This creates

the electrical current you will use. The conductors force the current out of the cell and into an

electrical load, which captures the energy. The electrons then continue their path until they re-enter

the cell and connect with the positive layer. This completes the circuit and allows the process to

continue. The entire purpose of the solar cell is to ensure this process flows unimpeded so that you

get as much electricity as possible.

The role of solar panels

The solar panel’s role is to amplify, protect and direct electricity. Solar cells can produce only a

limited amount of energy. When building a solar energy system, multiple solar cells are connected in

series or parallel circuits to create a solar module. This produces higher currents and more energy.

The modules also seal all of the solar cells and wiring in a protective case to guard it from the

weather. These modules are then wired together as a solar panel. It is important to note that a solar

panel may consist of just one module or multiple, meaning modules and panels are sometimes used

interchangeably. These solar panels are pre-wired and ready to be installed on your rooftop.
By connecting all of these parts into solar panels, the resulting electricity has a more precise path to

follow. When the electrical current leaves the solar cells to travel through the electrical load, it is

captured by the load and sent through the solar panels. The method by which the solar cells are

wired together determines how the electrical current will flow through the solar panels. Whichever

way it flows, it will direct the electricity from all the solar cells together. All the electricity will then be

directed out of the solar panels and toward the inverter, where the rest of the photovoltaic process is


Solar cells and solar panels work together to produce the electricity you need for your home.

Although they are closely related, with the solar panels actually containing the solar cells, each plays

its own part. Considered as one, the entire photovoltaic system works like an assembly line. Every

part performs its job alone, and then passes its product on to the next part. Each product is

necessary for the next section to do its job. Only the solar cells can perform alone, but its products

are useless without the rest of the system. Your entire solar energy system is a clean and quiet

production line working to create electricity for you in a natural and efficient way.