Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Data Collection

Meta Analysis was the most appropriate form of data collection because there is a variety

of raw data available on studies of food preservation in microgravity. Therefore the four

following articles were analyzed for comparison, Evidence Report: Risk of Performance

Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System, Food Fortification Stability

Study, A review on mechanisms and commercial aspects of food preservation and processing,

and Initial assessment of the nutritional quality of the space food system over three years of

ambient storage.

Irradiation Thermostabilization Freeze drying


------------------------- -------------------------- --------------------------
Gaps Gaps Gaps

Perchonok, M., “Pre-processing “Approximately 10% “The JSC


Douglas, G., & estimates compared of the 65 Microbiology
Cooper, M. (2016). to post-processing thermostabilized Laboratory reported
Evidence Report: empirical items are estimated to that 26 out of 1802
Risk of Performance measurements have a shelf life of products failed to
Decrement and Crew suggest that vitamin five years or more meet the
Illness Due to an B6 and niacin and 45% of the microbiological
Inadequate Food concentrations products are specifications
System. NASA decreased following estimated to have a between 2012 to 2015
Johnson Space irradiation with the shelf life of more than and hence were not
Center, Houston, TX. exception of niacin in three years” approved for ISS
poultry, which ------------------------- flights. Though only a
increased. Vitamin D Same as previous gap small number of the
was also shown to samples failed, even
increase in one contaminated
mushrooms following food lot can result in
irradiation. Vitamin A crew illness and
degradation of 22% – possibly death,
85% from original especially given
levels was also noted medical limitations as
after irradiation. [...] distance from Earth
Additionally, foods increases.”
and nutrients react -------------------------
differently to doses “There have been
and sources of instances where
radiation.” rehydratable foods
------------------------- did not pass
“The effect that microbiological
particulate radiation specifications due to
present in galactic contamination from
cosmic rays and solar mold, yeast, or
particle events will bacterial pathogens
have on food is detected during
unknown, and must preflight testing”
be quantified to
ensure development Same as previous gap
of a nutritious and
acceptable food
system”

OVERALL“Current
space food
technology is not
adequate to maintain
food acceptability for
five year missions.
Inadequate food
acceptability
decreases food
consumption and may
affect crew nutrition
and psychosocial
health, and limit the
crew’s ability to
complete mission-
critical tasks. [...]
need to identify the
methods,
technologies, and
requirements that will
deliver a food system
that provides
adequate safety,
nutrition, and
acceptability for
proposed long-
duration Design
Reference Mission
operations.”
Sirmons, T. A., n/a “Thiamin was “Vitamin fortification
Cooper, M. R., & extremely susceptible alone does not
Douglas, G. L. to thermal negatively impact
(2017). Food inactivation, with sensory properties of
Fortification Stability vitamin content space foods. The
Study. degrading rapidly in organoleptic quality
thermostabilized of foods is most
foods that were stored affected by high-
at 35 ̊C. Vitamin E temperature storage.
was relatively [...] Vitamins are
resistant to thermal most stable when
inactivation, with stored at 4 ̊C,
vitamin content therefore refrigeration
remaining above 85% may prove beneficial
of the original added during long-duration
concentration in most missions.”
products, regardless --------------------------
of storage
temperature.”
--------------------------

Amit, S. K., Uddin, “[Through n/a “Drying has


M. M., Rahman, R., irradiation], Vitamin numerous advantages.
Islam, S. R., & Khan, C is reduced by 20 It reduces weight and
M. S. (2017). A per cent, soluble volume of foods,
review on calcium and facilitates foods
mechanisms and phosphorus are storage, packaging,
commercial aspects reduced by 5 per cent, and transportation,
of food preservation and thiamin and and also provides
and processing. vitamin B12 are different flavors and
Agriculture & Food reduced by 10 per smells. With all these
Security, 6(1), 51. cent.” benefits, drying is
-------------------------- apparently the
cheapest method of
food preservation.”
------------------------
“In some cases,
significant loss of
flavor and aroma has
been observed after
drying. Some
functional compounds
like vitamin C,
thiamin, protein, and
lipid are also lost
because of drying.”

Cooper, M., “The freeze-drying, “A shorter thermal “The more labile


Perchonok, M., & irradiation, or retort exposure in MATS vitamins in
Douglas, G. L. thermostabilization processing and the spaceflight food
(2017). Initial processing employed slowed kinetic rates degraded during 21
assessment of the to achieve food safety of chemical °C temperature
nutritional quality of induce chemical and degradation at storage over a 3-year
the space food system structural changes reduced temperatures storage period.
over three years of that alter the food is expected to Vitamins B1 and C
ambient storage. npj quality and stability. improve vitamin declined rapidly, but
Microgravity, 3(1), Processing and stability and increase several vitamins
17. storage impact most shelf life.” (including A, B6, and
vitamins, but -------------------------- B12) only showed
degradation is “Available stability minor degradation or
specific to the food data is not specific to were available in
matrix, processing space food enough foods that
history, packaging, parameters and nutrient delivery
and shelf life cannot be accurately remained adequate.”
parameters.” extrapolated.” --------------------------
-------------------------- Same as first gap
“This study addresses response
a fraction of that
complexity,
highlighting potential
nutrient delivery
concerns from a
multi-year stored
food system, which
may have
implications for
future exploration
crews”

Interpretation, Results, and Analysis

Each journal either includes all criteria or only fits one. All articles have information on

freeze drying, but one fails to mention the role of thermostabilization. Additionally, another fails

to incorporate the irradiation preservation process. A review on mechanisms and commercial

aspects of food preservation and processing has valuable information on the overall concept of
food preservation, but lacks depth. The data included is noteworthy; however, further analysis

and experimentation could have been done in order to explain the reasoning behind the

information presented in the journal. Minimal information is depicted on Thermostabilization

and irradiation whereas in other journals, it is a vital asset.

Freeze drying, Thermostabilization, and Irradiation are all perceived as the most

prominent ways food preservation is used in microgravity. In the journal, Evidence Report: Risk

of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System, all forms of

preservation are accounted for and assessed with great detail. With regards to

Thermostabilization, a study found that roughly 10% of the chosen 65 foods are estimated to

have a shelf life of five years or more. All other vitamins and minerals are greatly affected by

thermal heating and are therefore denatured during thermostabilization and overall, losing

nutritional value. However the study conducted in, Food Fortification Stability Study journal,

found that Vitamin E is resistant to thermal inactivation because 85% of its original composition

remained after one year in microgravity. This evidence can be backed up with the study

mentioned previously, Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due

to an Inadequate Food System, because the six foods that remained nutrition after five years,

contained high amounts of Vitamin E.

Perhaps the reason that other vitamins do not have as high of success rates in

thermostabilization preservation could be due to how it is done. The study, Initial assessment of

the nutritional quality of the space food system over three years of ambient storage, found that

by using microwave-assisted thermal stabilization (MATS) will improve vitamin stability and

therefore increase nutritional capacity thus, preserving food for longer. This is done by exposing

food to short and slowed kinetic rates of chemical degradation.


As for freeze-drying it is viewed as commonly used form of preservation in the following

study, A review on mechanisms and commercial aspects of food preservation and processing.

However a study concluded in the Evidence Report: Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew

Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System found that 26 out of 1802 products failed to meet the

specifications between 2012 to 2015 and were therefore were not approved for ISS flights.

Although these numbers may seem insignificant to some they are still alarming because

astronauts already are limited with the amount of food available to them due to microgravity.

Lastly, the Irradiation preservation process causes the following vitamins and minerals to

lose nutritional value, vitamins A, B6, B12, C and minerals, niacin, calcium, and phosphorus.

This is evident through comparing the following journals, Evidence Report: Risk of Performance

Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System and A review on mechanisms

and commercial aspects of food preservation and processing.

Overall all three forms of food preservation studied and compared for analysis, Freeze

drying, Thermostabilization, and Irradiation are important and are needed in order to keep food

from losing macronutrient and micronutrient value. By comparing those specifically chosen

journals, it is evident that some vitamins and minerals will preserve for longer under certain

conditions more than others. Therefore it is prominent that each individual vitamin that makes up

a certain food is assessed to see what type of preservation works best. If many vitamins are not

seeing high success rates in thermostabilization (which is evident in studies displayed above)

perhaps scientists need to change the rate at which the food is absorbing the thermal heating and

use microwave-assisted thermal stabilization instead.