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Computer Science

Science An Interdisciplinary Approach

ROBERT SEDGEWICK

K E V I N WAY N E

Section 7.4

http://introcs.cs.princeton.edu

COMPUTER SCIENCE

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PA R T I I : A L G O R I T H M S , M A C H I N E S , a n d T H E O R Y

16. Intractability

• Reasonable questions

• P and NP

• Poly-time reductions

• NP-completeness

• Living with intractability

CS.16.A.Intractability.Questions

Context

Fundamental questions

• What is a general-purpose computer? ✓

• Are there limits on what we can do with digital computers? ✓

• Are there limits on what we can do with the machines we can build? focus of today's lecture

Kurt Gödel

1909−1994 John Nash Michael Rabin Dana Scott Dick Karp Steve Cook Leonid Levin

Asked the question Asked the question Introduced the critical concept

in a "lost letter" to in a "lost letter" to of nondeterminism Asked THE question Answer still unknown

von Neumann the NSA

3

A difficult problem

• Given: A set of N cities, distances between each pair of cities, and a threshold M.

• Problem: Is there a tour through all the cities of length less than M ?

Exhaustive search. Try all N ! orderings of the cities to look for a tour of length less than M .

4

How difficult can it be?

If one took the 100 largest cities in the US and wanted to travel them all, what is the distance of the

shortest route? I'm sure there's a simple answer. Anyone wanna help? A quick google revealed nothing.

I don't think there's any substitute for doing it manually. Google the cities, then pull out your map and

get to work. It shouldn't take longer than an hour. Edit: I didn't realize this was a standardized problem.

Writing a program to solve the problem would take 5 or 10 minutes for an average programmer.

However, the amount of time the program would need to run is, well, a LONG LONG LONG time.

My Garmin could probably solve this for you. Edit: probably not.

5

How difficult can it be?

• With as many processors as electrons in the universe…

• Each processor having the power of today's supercomputers…

• Each processor working for the lifetime of the universe…

value

quantity

(conservative estimate)

electrons in universe 1079

supercomputer instructions per second 1013

age of universe in seconds 1017

Q. Could the UBERcomputer solve the TSP for 100 cities with the brute force algorithm?

A. Not even close. 100! > 10157 >> 107910131017 = 10109 Would need 1048 UBERcomputers

6

Reasonable questions about algorithms

Model of computation

• Running time: Number of steps as a function of input size N.

• Poly-time: Running time less than aNb for some constants a and b.

• Definitely not poly-time: Running time ~cN for any constant c > 1.

• Specific computer generally not relevant (simulation uses only a polynomial factor).

Def (in the context of this lecture). An algorithm is efficient if it is poly-time for all inputs.

Q. Can we find efficient algorithms for the practical problems that we face?

7

Reasonable questions about problems

Existence of a faster algorithm

A. Good question! Focus of today's lecture. like mergesort is not relevant

to this discussion

Example 1: Sorting. Not intractable. (Insertion sort takes time proportional to N 2.)

Example 2: TSP. ??? (No efficient algorithm known, but no proof that none exists.)

8

Four fundamental problems

Example of an instance A solution

LSOLVE x1 + x2 = 1 x0 = − .25

• Solve simultaneous linear equations. 2x0 + 4x1 − 2x2 = 0.5 x1 = .5

• Variables are real numbers. 3x1 + 15x2 = 9 x2 = .5

x0 = 1

5x0 + 4x1 + 35x2 ≥ 13

• Solve simultaneous linear inequalities.

15x0 4x1 + 20x2 ≥ 23

x1 = 1

• Variables are real numbers. x0 , x1 , x2 ≥ 0

x2 = 0.2

ILP x1 + x2 ≥ 1 x0 = 0

• Solve simultaneous linear inequalities. x0 + x2 ≥ 1 x1 = 1

• Variables are 0 or 1. x0 + x1 + x2 ≤ 2 x2 = 1

• Solve simultaneous boolean sums. ¬x0 ⋁ ¬x1 ⋁ ¬x2 = true x1 = true

• Variables are true or false. x1 ⋁ ¬x2 = true x2 = true

9

Reasonable questions

LSOLVE, LP, ILP, and SAT are all important problem- LSOLVE

solving models with countless practical applications. • Solve simultaneous linear equations.

• Variables are real numbers.

• Solve simultaneous linear inequalities.

A. Difficult to discern, despite similarities (!) • Variables are real numbers.

✓ LSOLVE. Yes. Ellipsoid algorithm (tour de force solution) • Solve simultaneous linear inequalities.

✓ LP. Yes. • Variables are 0 or 1.

? IP. No polynomial-time algorithm known.

SAT

? SAT. No polynomial-time algorithm known.

• Solve simultaneous boolean sums.

• Variables are true or false.

Q. Can we find efficient algorithms for IP and SAT?

10

Intractability

• Identifying a problem that we might want to solve.

• Showing that it is not possible to solve it.

A reasonable question: Can we do something similar for intractability?

Can we prove one of them to be intractable?

11

Another profound connection to the real world

Resources used by all reasonable machines are within a polynomial factor of one another.

• A thesis, not a theorem. • Use simulation to prove polynomial bound.

• Not subject to proof. • Example: TOY simulator in Java (see TOY lectures).

• Is subject to falsification. • Example: Java compiler in TOY.

=

Implications

• Validates exponential/polynomial divide.

NO

= YES

... ...

12

COMPUTER SCIENCE

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Image sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hilbert#/media/File:Hilbert.jpg

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/1994/nash-bio.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_O._Rabin#/media/File:Michael_O._Rabin.jpg

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cmu.edu/news/image-archive/Dana_Scott.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_M._Karp#/media/File:Karp_mg_7725-b.cr2.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Cook#/media/File:Prof.Cook.jpg

CS.16.A.Intractability.Questions

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16. Intractability

• Reasonable questions

• P and NP

• Poly-time reductions

• NP-completeness

• Living with intractability

CS.16.B.Intractability.PandNP

Search problems

Search problem. Any problem for which an efficient algorithm exists to certify solutions.

Example: TSP.

Problem instance:

Set of cities, pairwise distances, and threshold M.

Certify solution by

adding distances and

checking that the total

is less than M

15

NP

TSP ( S, M )

length < M that the total is less than M

ILP ( A, b )

satisfies Ax ≤ b each equation

SAT ( A, b )

satisfies Ax = b each equation

FACTOR ( M ) 147573952589676412927 193707721 long division

of the integer M

Significance. Problems that scientists, engineers, and applications programmers aspire to solve.

16

Brute force search

Brute-force search. Given a search problem, find a solution by checking all possibilities.

number of

problem description N (size) possibilities

number of

TSP ( S, M ) Find a tour of cities in S of length < M N!

cities

number of

ILP ( A, b ) Find a binary vector x that satisfies Ax ≤ b 2N

variables

number of

SAT ( Φ, b ) Find a boolean vector x that satisfies Ax = b 2N

variables

number of

FACTOR ( x ) Find a nontrivial factor of the integer M 10√N

digits in M

17

P

solvable by an efficient

Definition. P is the class of all tractable search problems.

(guaranteed poly-time) algorithm

SORT ( S ) Insertion sort, Mergesort

items in S in order

18

Types of problems

Decision problem. Does there exist a solution?

Optimization problem. Find the best solution.

Some problems are more naturally formulated in one regime than another.

"Find the shortest tour

formulated as an

connecting all the cities."

optimization problem.

The regimes are not technically equivalent, but conclusions that we draw apply to all three.

19

The central question

NP. Class of all search problems, some of which seem solvable only by brute force.

P. Class of search problems solvable in poly-time.

The question: Is P = NP ?

P ≠ NP P = NP

• Intractable search problems exist. • All search problems are tractable.

• Brute force search may be the best • Efficient algorithms exist for IP, SAT,

we can do for some problems. FACTOR ... all problems in NP.

NP

Intractable

P

problems

P = NP

Frustrating situation. Researchers believe that P ≠ NP but no one has been able to prove it ( ! ! )

20

Nondeterminism: another way to view the situation

and can guess the option that leads to the solution.

#:1

either x[0] = 0; or x[0] = 1;

either x[1] = 0; or x[1] = 1; solves ILP

either x[2] = 0; or x[2] = 1;

0:0 L

0:1

two

choices

P ≠ NP P = NP

• Intractable search problems exist. • No intractable search problems exist.

• Nondeterministic machines would • Nondeterministic machines would be

admit efficient algorithms. of no help!

Frustrating situation. No one has been able to prove that nondeterminism would help ( ! ! )

21

Creativity: another way to view the situation

Examples

• Mozart composes a piece of music; the audience appreciates it.

Creative genius

• Wiles proves a deep theorem; a colleague checks it.

• Boeing designs an efficient airfoil; a simulator verifies it.

• Einstein proposes a theory; an experimentalist validates it.

Frustrating situation. No one has been able to prove that creating a solution to a problem

is more difficult than checking that it is correct.

22

COMPUTER SCIENCE

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Image sources

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1101562/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart#/media/File:Wolfgang-amadeus-mozart_1.jpg

CS.16.B.Intractability.PandNP

COMPUTER SCIENCE

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PA R T I I : A L G O R I T H M S , M A C H I N E S , a n d T H E O R Y

19. Intractability

• Reasonable questions

• P and NP

• Poly-time reductions

• NP-completeness

• Living with intractability

CS.16.C.Intractability.Reductions

Classifying problems

A. The ones that we're solving with efficient algorithms. Can I solve it on my

cellphone or do I need

1048 UBERcomputers??

Q. Which problems are intractable (in NP but not in P)?

A. Difficult to know (no one has found even one such problem).

Possible starting point: Assume that SAT is intractable (and hence P ≠ NP)

• Brute-force algorithm finds solution for any SAT instance.

• No known efficient algorithm does so.

A reasonable assumption.

25

Poly-time reduction

X→Y

efficient solution to Y to develop an efficient solution to X.

• Using an efficient method to transform the instance of X to an instance of Y.

• Calling the efficient method that solves Y.

• Using an efficient method to transform the solution of Y to an solution of X.

Similar to using a library method in modular programming.

Method for solving Y

Transform Transform

instance input

instance solution

result

solution

of X of Y of Y of X

Note. Many ways to extend. (Example: Use a polynomial number of instances of Y.)

26

Key point: poly-time reduction is transitive

Method for solving Y

Transform Transform

instance input

instance solution

result

solution

of X of Y of Y of X

Method for solving Z

Transform Transform

instance input instance solution result solution

of Y of Z of Z of Y

27

Two ways to exploit reduction

Method for solving Y

Transform Transform

instance input instance instance result solution

of X of Y of Y to X

To design an algorithm to solve a new problem X Interested in details? Take a

• Find a problem Y with a known efficient algorithm that solves it. course in algorithms.

• Poly-time reduce X to Y.

The efficient algorithm for Y gives an efficient algorithm for X.

• Find a problem X with a known poly-time reduction from SAT. Critical tool

• Poly-time reduce X to Y. for this lecture.

An efficient algorithm for Y would imply an efficient algorithm for X (and SAT).

28

Example: SAT poly-time reduces to ILP

SAT ILP

• Solve simultaneous boolean sums. • Solve simultaneous linear inequalities.

• Variables are true or false • Variables are 0 or 1.

(1 − t0) + t1 + t2 ≥ 1

¬x0 ⋁ x1 ⋁ x2 = true

t0 + (1 − t1) + t2 ≥ 1 ti = 0 iff xi = false

x0 ⋁ ¬x1 ⋁ x2 = true

(1 − t0) + (1 − t1) + (1 − t2) ≥ 1 ti = 1 iff xi = true

¬x0 ⋁ ¬x1 ⋁ ¬x2 = true

(1 − t0) + (1 − t1) + t3 ≥ 1

¬x0 ⋁ ¬x1 ⋁ x3 = true

An instance of SAT x0 = false Poly-time reduction to an instance of ILP t0 = 0

x1 = true

t1 = 1

x2 = true

t2 = 1

x3 = false

t3 = 0

A solution

A solution

29

More poly-time reductions from SAT

SAT

Dick Karp

1985 Turing Award

EXACT COVER CLIQUE HAMILTON CYCLE

PARTITION

Implication. All of these problems are intractable.

KNAPSACK BIN PACKING

30

Still more poly-time reductions from SAT

Aerospace engineering Optimal mesh partitioning for finite elements

Biology Phylogeny reconstruction

Chemical engineering Heat exchanger network synthesis

Chemistry Protein folding

Civil engineering Equilibrium of urban traffic flow

Economics Computation of arbitrage in financial markets with friction

Electrical engineering VLSI layout

Environmental engineering Optimal placement of contaminant sensors 6,000+ scientific

Financial engineering Minimum risk portfolio of given return papers per year.

Game theory Nash equilibrium that maximizes social welfare

Mechanical engineering Structure of turbulence in sheared flows

Medicine Reconstructing 3d shape from biplane angiocardiogram

Operations research Traveling salesperson problem, integer programming

Physics Partition function of 3d Ising model

Politics Shapley-Shubik voting power

Pop culture Versions of Sudoko, Checkers, Minesweeper, Tetris

Statistics Optimal experimental design

Implication. All of these problems are intractable.

31

COMPUTER SCIENCE

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CS.16.C.Intractability.Reductions

COMPUTER SCIENCE

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PA R T I I : A L G O R I T H M S , M A C H I N E S , a n d T H E O R Y

19. Intractability

• Reasonable questions

• P and NP

• Poly-time reductions

• NP-completeness

• Living with intractability

CS.16.D.Intractability.NPcomplete

NP-completeness

Extremely brief proof sketch

• Convert non-deterministic TM notation to SAT notation.

• An efficient solution to SAT gives an efficient solution to

any problem in NP.

Nondeterministic SAT

Turing machine instance

Equivalent. Assuming that SAT is intractable is the same as assuming that P ≠ NP.

34

Cook-Levin theorem

SAT

Steve Cook Leonid Levin

1982 Turing Award

PARTITION

KNAPSACK BIN PACKING

35

Karp + Cook-Levin

SAT

3-COLOR ILP VERTEX COVER Steve Cook Leonid Levin Dick Karp

KNAPSACK BIN PACKING would yield a provably efficient algorithm for all of them

36

Two possible universes

P ≠ NP P = NP

• Intractable search problems exist. • No intractable search problems exist.

• Nondeterminism would help. • Nondeterminism is no help.

• Computing an answer is more difficult • Finding an answer is just as easy as

than correctly guessing it. correctly guessing an answer.

• Can prove a problem to be intractable by
• Guaranteed poly-time algorithms exist for

poly-time reduction from an NP-complete all problems in NP.

problem.

NP

P NP-complete P = NP = NPC

Frustrating situation. No progress on resolving the question despite 40+ years of research.

37

Summary

NP. Class of all search problems, some of which seem solvable only by brute force.

P. Class of search problems solvable in poly-time.

NP-complete. "Hardest" problems in NP.

Intractable. Search problems not in P (if P ≠ NP).

• An efficient algorithm for an NP-complete problem

would be a stunning scientific breakthrough (a proof that P = NP)

• You will confront NP-complete problems in your career.

• It is safe to assume that P ≠ NP and that such problems are intractable.

• Identify these situations and proceed accordingly.

38

Princeton CS building, west wall

39

Princeton CS building, west wall (closeup)

1

0 1

0 0 0

1 1 0

1 1 0

0 0 1 0

1 1 1 1

0 1 1

0 0 0

1 1 0 0

1 0

1 1 1

P 80 1010000

= 61 0111101

N 78 1001110

P 80 1010000

? 63 0111111

40

COMPUTER SCIENCE

S E D G E W I C K / W A Y N E

CS.16.D.Intractability.NPcomplete

COMPUTER SCIENCE

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PA R T I I : A L G O R I T H M S , M A C H I N E S , a n d T H E O R Y

16. Intractability

• Reasonable questions

• P and NP

• Poly-time reductions

• NP-completeness

• Living with intractability

CS.16.E.Intractability.Living

Living with intractability

• It is safe to assume that it is intractable.

• What to do?

• Don't try to solve intractable problems.

• Try to solve real-world problem instances.

• Look for approximate solutions (not discussed in this lecture).

• Exploit intractability.

43

Living with intractability: Don't try to solve intractable problems

Knows no theory

Knows computability

I can't find an efficient algorithm.

I guess I'm just to dumb.

Knows intractability

because no such algorithm is possible!

but neither can all these famous people! 44

Understanding intractability: An example from statistical physics

45

Living with intractability: look for solutions to real-world problem instances

Observations

• Worst-case inputs may not occur for practical problems.

• Instances that do occur in practice may be easier to solve.

Reasonable approach: relax the condition of guaranteed poly-time algorithms.

SAT

• Chaff solves real-world instances with 10,000+ variables.

• Princeton senior independent work (!) in 2000. TSP solution for 13,509 US cities

TSP

• Concorde routinely solves large real-world instances.

• 85,900-city instance solved in 2006.

ILP

• CPLEX routinely solves large real-world instances.

• Routinely used in scientific and commercial applications.

46

Exploiting intractability: RSA cryptosystem

• Electronic banking.

• Credit card transactions with online merchants.

• Secure communications.

Adi Shamir Len Adelman

Ron Rivest

• [very long list]

• To use: Multiply/divide two N-digit integers (easy).

• To break: Factor a 2N-digit integer (intractable?).

Multiply (easy)

Factor (difficult)

47

Exploiting intractability: RSA cryptosystem

• To use: Multiply/divide two N-digit integers (easy).

• To break: Solve FACTOR for a 2N-digit integer (difficult).

74037563479561712828046796097429573142593188889231289

Example: Factor this 08493623263897276503402826627689199641962511784399589

212-digit integer 43305021275853701189680982867331732731089309005525051

16877063299072396380786710086096962537934650563796359

equivalent statement:

A. Unknown. It is in NP, but no reduction from SAT is known.

"FACTOR is not known to be NP-complete"

48

Fame and fortune through intractability

74037563479561712828046796097429573142593188889231289

Factor this
08493623263897276503402826627689199641962511784399589 $30,000 prize

212-digit integer 43305021275853701189680982867331732731089309005525051 claimed in July, 2012

16877063299072396380786710086096962537934650563796359

Create an e-commerce

company based on the RSA sold to EMC

for $2.1 billion in 2006

difficulty of factoring

$1 million prize

Resolve P vs. NP unclaimed since 2000

for Turing award

e-commerce if P=NP

49

A final thought

7403756347956171282804679609742957314259318888923128908493623263897276503402826627689199641962511784399589

4330502127585370118968098286733173273108930900552505116877063299072396380786710086096962537934650563796359

A. Unknown. It is in NP, but no reduction from SAT is known.

A. Maybe, but not as safe an assumption as for an NP-complete problem.

Theorem (Shor, 1994). An N-bit integer can be factored in N 3 steps on a quantum computer.

Q. Do we still believe in the Extended Church-Turing thesis? are within a polynomial factor of one another.

50

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Image sources

http://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Adi_Shamir_at_TU_Darmstadt_(2013).jpg

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Len-mankin-pic.jpg

CS.16.E.Intractability.Living

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Computer Science

Science An Interdisciplinary Approach

ROBERT SEDGEWICK

K E V I N WAY N E

Section 7.4

http://introcs.cs.princeton.edu

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