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Engineering Department

Switching Systems Section

Emergency Routing Methods


Table of Contents:

Emergency call without appended Cell ID......................................................................2

Emergency call with appended Cell ID............................................................................3

Enhanced emergency call routing....................................................................................4

Conclusions.........................................................................................................................7

Introduction.

There are different ways of handling emergency calls in a GSM network, and this document covers three
different methods. The following section is oriented for emergency calls routing but these methods are
valid for any location depending originated call.

Emergency call without appended Cell ID.


Having AXE parameter APPCI set to 0, the cell identity from where the emergency call originates will not
be used when routing the call to an emergency center.

DBTRI;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS,SETNAME=GSMMSSC,NAME=APPCI,VALUE=0;
DBTRE:COM;

At an emergency call, after different analysis steps, outside the document scope, B-number analysis is
invoked and the call leads to a routing case:

ANBSI:B=bo-XXX,L=l,A=a,CC=cc,RC=rc;

Different emergency centers can be reached depending on the emergency area (EA) category specified by
command MGCEC. The emergency area category is specified on a per cell basis.

MGCEC:CELL=cell,CO=co,RO=ro,NCS=ncs,EA=ea;

Routing case analysis is performed and an EOS code is derived. The branching is specified on the different
emergency areas defined among different cells, groups of cells in the same geographical area are assigned
with the same EA. The problem in this method is that the categorization on EAs may cause some conflicts
between different emergency service numbers, i.e. emergency service numbers 100 and 166 may be served
by emergency centers locating in different geographical areas which have been assigned different EAs.
Thus for an optimal routing separate analysis is required for each service number.

ANRPI:RC=rc;
ANRSI:BR=EA-1&-2,P01=1,ES=es1;
ANRSI:BR=EA-3&-4,P02=1,ES=es2;
ANRSI:BR=EA-5,P03=1,ES=es3;
ANRPE;

End of Selection analysis is performed and the new B-number is sent to the PSTN emergency center.

ANESI:ES=es1,M=X-YYYY,F=bo;
ANESI:ES=es2,M=X-YYYY,F=bo;
ANESI:ES=es3,M=X-YYYY,F=bo;

ANBSI:B=bo,L=l,BNT=bnt,RC=rc;

With this method it’s possible to make groups of EAs, depending of the destination PSTN code, each of
which take an EOS code. Note many times, depends on the destination PSTN code, routing case analysis is
needed, in order to achieve the required B-number destination code, to be performed so a limitation of the
available EOS codes arise.

Emergency call with appended Cell ID.


Having AXE parameter APPCI together with SII (Signal Information to Incoming side) in command
ANBSI set to the same value (for example 1), the cell identity from where the emergency call originated is
used when routing the call to an emergency center.

DBTRI;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS,SETNAME=GSMMSSC,NAME=APPCI,VALUE=1;
DBTRE:COM;

When B-number analysis is invoked, parameter SII states that the cell identity is to be appended.

ANBSI:B=bo1-XXX,L=l,A=a,CC=cc,F=bo2,SII=1;

In B-number tree for an emergency call, cells are specified with their CI part of the CGI parameter in
command MGCEI. For examle:

MGCEI: CELL=cell,CGI=cgi,BSC=bsc;
where: CGI=mcc-mnc-lac-ci (202-05-70-65161)
mcc= mobile country code
mnc= mobile network code
lac= location area code
ci= cell identification

ANBSI:B=bo2-XXX65161,M=X-YYYY,RC=rc;

With this method if there is a numbering plan for the cell identities, indicating the coverage location area,
groups of CIs could be created so that to limit the required B-number analysis needed for a network
constituted by for e.g. 1000 cells.

A special case in this method is the appending of cell identity with a separator. This can be set by the
following AXE parameter.
DBTRI;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS,SETNAME=GSMMSSC,NAME=APPSEPCI,VALUE=1;
DBTRE:COM;

When this parameter value is equal of SII parameter in b-number analysis the appending of CI it happens.
The separator is one of the characters H’A, H’B, H’C, H’D or H’E defined by exchange parameter in block
MTA. The separator is placed between B-number and CI.

The separator can be viewed with the following

TEST SYSTEM;
PRINT VAR MTA 522(25);
END TEST;

The only problem in this method is that in produced MO CDR, the Cell Identity is placed after B-number,
at Called Party Number field. This will lead to a suspended TT, so a special procedure must be developed
for this kind of CDRs.

Enhanced emergency call routing.


Enhanced emergency routing is an SS R8.0 feature, and is a bit more sophisticated than the emergency
methods earlier described. With new commands, different emergency areas can be connected to different
emergency centers (EC).

The Enhanced Emergency Routing is particularly useful at places where several different emergency
numbers are used. Depending on from which cell the emergency call originates, the call can be routed to
different emergency centers. The cell identity is however not used in the B-number analysis as previously,
but instead different Emergency Routing Numbers (ERN) are used.

Emergency Connections and Inheritance Function are the basic principles of the Emergency Routing
administration feature. Emergency Connection is a connection between an emergency area and an
emergency center. Emergency areas may be own MSC, location areas, cells and neighboring MSCs.

In case the emergency area isn’t connected to an emergency center, the inheritance concept is used, the
feature looks for a connection on the next higher level of hierarchy. For example, if there is no cell
connection, the feature continues on location area level and if this is the case the feature looks on a MSC
level. In case inter-MSC handover is necessary, the feature looks for the emergency connection of the
neighboring MSC. If there is no connection, the connection of own MSC is inherited, of course the feature
and all the necessary switching data must be active.

In order to activate the emergency connections, the following AXE parameter has to be set.

DBTRI;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS,SETNAME=GSM1APTC,NAME=APPERNUSE,VALUE=1;
DBTRE:COM;

The Append Cell Identity mode can’t be used simultaneously so the relevant AXE parameter has to be set
accordingly

DBTRI;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS,SETNAME=GSMMSSC,NAME=APPCI,VALUE=0;
DBTRE:COM;

The schematic flow below describes the different analysis tables that invoked for enhanced emergency call
routing.
B-NR DBTSC
ANBSI SII
XX APPRN1 ERIND=X
YY APPRN2 ERIND=Y
B-NR SII
ZZ APPRN3 ERIND=Z

ERIND
EC
ERN
MGRCI MGRCI
ANBSI
B-NR RC
LOCATION

When the numbers for e.g. 100, 166 and 199 which corespondes to different emergency centres, are dialled
B-number analysis is invoked.

ANBSI:B=bo-199,L=l,RC=rc,M=m,F=f,SII=32;
ANBSI:B=bo-100,L=l,RC=rc,M=m,F=f,SII=33;
ANBSI:B=bo-166,L=l,RC=rc,M=m,F=f,SII=34;

RC=rc is defined for all emergency numbers, telling the system where to route the calls in case of the
inheritance function didn’t find a connection between the emergency area and an emergency center, or if
the feature is deactivated (AXE parameter APPERNUSE set to 0). Note that this is feasible only if the
parameter NEEDENDOFBDIGITS (End of B-number) in block MTA is set to zero (0). This is a
major drawback for the feature since in our network the aforementioned parameter has to be set with value
1.

TEST SYSTEM;
PRINT VAR MTA 522(23)=0;
END TEST;

Parameter SII closely works together with parameter "ERIND" (command MGRCI) and with the 16 new
AXE parameters "APPERN1" to "APPERN16". For the "Enhanced emergency routing" feature, only SII
values 32 to 47 can be used, which means that 16 different emergency numbers can be defined with
enhanced emergency call routing.

DBTRI;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS, SETNAME=GSM1APTC, NAME=APPERN1, VALUE=32;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS, SETNAME=GSM1APTC, NAME=APPERN2, VALUE=33;
DBTSC:TAB=AXEPARS, SETNAME=GSM1APTC, NAME=APPERN3, VALUE=34;
DBTRE:COM;

APPERN1=32 means that emergency routing index (ERIND=1) is connected to SII value 32.
APPERN3=34 means that emergency routing index (ERIND=3) is connected to SII value 34.

Command MGRCI connect an emergency area with a given emergency routing index (ERIND) to an
emergency center. To enable connection of cells and location areas to different ERIND's, these ERIND's
must first be defined on own MSC level. For the inheritance function to fully work, it's also recommended
to connect the location areas to these ERIND's.
The cell names and the location area identities to use in command MGRCI are the names and identities
defined with commands MGCEI and MGLAI.

MGRCI:MSC=OWN, EC=ATHENS-FIRE, ERIND=1;


MGRCI:MSC=OWN, EC=ATHENS-POLICE, ERIND=2;
MGRCI:MSC=OWN, EC=ATHENS-HOSPITAL, ERIND=3;
MGRCI:LAI=LA1, EC=PIRAEUS-FIRE, ERIND=1;
MGRCI:LAI=LA1, EC=PIRAEUS-POLICE, ERIND=2;
MGRCI:LAI=LA2, EC=KIFISSIA-HOSPITAL, ERIND=3;
MGRCI:CELL=CELL1, EC=FALIRO-FIRE, ERIND=1;
MGRCI:CELL=CELL1, EC=FALIRO-POLICE, ERIND=2;
MGRCI:CELL=CELL2, EC= GLIFADA-FIRE, ERIND=1;
MGRCI:CELL=CELL2, EC=GLIFADA-POLICE, ERIND=2;

The EC parameter works as an input to command MGECI, where emergency centers are connected to
emergency routing numbers (ERN). These routing numbers are later used in the B-number analysis to route
the emergency call to the proper emergency center.

A new Size Alteration Global Event, SAE=1096 (0-65535) is introduced to store data for ECs. The ERN
consists of 1-20 digits, six of which maximum, can be overdecadic (#10 - #15, each occupies three digits)
and EC consists of 1-7 characters (overuse in our examples is more than 7 characters).

MGECI:EC=ATHENS-FIRE, ERN=2199;
MGECI:EC=ATHENS-POLICE, ERN=2100;
MGECI:EC=ATHENS-HOSPITAL, ERN=2166;
MGECI:EC=PIRAEUS-FIRE, ERN=3199;
MGECI:EC=PIRAEUS-POLICE, ERN=3100;
MGECI:EC=KIFISIA-HOSPITAL, ERN=3166;
MGECI:EC=FALIRO-FIRE, ERN=4199;
MGECI:EC=GLIFADA-POLICE, ERN=4100;

ANBSI:B=bo-2199, RC=XX, M=4-fire1;


ANBSI:B=bo-2100, RC=XX, M=4-police1;
ANBSI:B=bo-2166, RC=XX, M=4-hospital1;
ANBSI:B=bo-3199, RC=XX, M=4-fire2;
ANBSI:B=bo-3100, RC=XX, M=4-police2;
ANBSI:B=bo-3166, RC=XX, M=4-hospital2;
ANBSI:B=bo-4199, RC=XX, M=4-fire3;
ANBSI:B=bo-4100, RC=XX, M=4-police3;

With the following figure and some traffic cases we try to describe how the feature works.

EC 1 OWN MSC

EC 2 LA1 LA2 NMSC1 NMSC2

EC 3 CELL1 CELL2 CELL3 CELL4 CELL5

When the emergency number 199 is dialed from cell_1, the number is analysed in the first B-number table.
SII=32 is connected to the AXE parameter APPERN1, which means ERIND=1. Cell_1 is connected to two
different ERIND’s (MGRCI table), one going to FALIRO-FIRE brigade and the other to FALIRO-POLICE
department. Since SII=32 is used for number 199 (SII=32, indicating APPERN1, indicating ERIND=1,
EC=FALIRO-FIRE will be fetched from MGRCI table. The EC name works as an input to MGECI table,
where an emergency routing number (ERN) is defined for the specific EC. The ERN is sent to the second
b-number table where modified or not and routed to the corresponding emergency center.

If number 166 is dialed from cell cell_3, the inheritance function will route the call to the KIFISIA-
HOSPITAL. SII=34 is connected to the AXE parameter APPERN3, which means ERIND=3. Cell_3 is not
connected to ERIND=3, but the location area (LAI=LA2) where cell cell_3 belongs to is. ERN=3166 is
generated, and the call is sent to KIFISIA-HOSPITAL via the corresponding RC.

If number 100 is dialed from cell cell_3, the inheritance function will route the call to the ATHENS-police.
SII=33 is connected to the AXE parameter APPERN2, which means ERIND=2. Since neither cell_3 nor
it’s corresponding location area (LA2) is connected to ERIND=2, the call inherits the emergency
connection from the OWN MSC.

Conclusions.
For service numbers such as 100, 166 etc. the more suitable method seems to be the first method since no
numbering plan for the cell identities, indicating the coverage area, exist in our network and cite transfer
procedure is quite often. With the cooperation of the PSTN network, which provides the switching to the
Emergency Centers, the conflicts between different emergency service numbers may be limited. If in the
future the construction of the required PSTN codes becomes too complex requiring many EOS codes, the
third method can be used but with the confinement that the default RC, (RC telling the system where to
route the calls in case of the inheritance function didn’t find a connection between the emergency area and
an emergency center, or if the feature is deactivated) can’t be used since in our network parameter
NEEDENDOFBDIGITIS must have value 1. For service numbers which have impact on a little number of
cells, such as archeological sites service, the most suitable method is the “Append Cell ID” method. The
only drawback in this method is that a special procedure required for these kind of CDRs since the Cell ID
is presented after b-number at Called Party Number field in the produced CDRs.