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CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

USER'S GUIDE AND REFERENCE MANUAL

October 2006

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Copyright CYME International T&D Inc.

All Rights Reserved

This publication, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form, by any method, for any purpose.

CYME makes no warranty, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, regarding these materials and makes such materials available solely on an "as-is" basis.

In no event shall CYME be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of purchase or use of these materials. The sole and exclusive liability to CYME, regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of the materials described herein.

CYME reserves the right to revise and improve its products as it sees fit. This publication describes the state of this product at the time of its publication, and may not reflect the product at all times in the future.

The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement.

CYME International T&D inc. 67 South Bedford Street, Suie 201 East Burlington, MA 01803-5177 1-800-361-3627 (781) 229-0269 FAX: (781) 229-2336

International and Canada:

1485 Roberval, Suite 104 St. Bruno QC J3V 3P8 Canada (450) 461-3655 Fax: (450) 461-0966

Internet :

http://www.cyme.com

E-mail :

support@cyme.com

Windows 98 and Windows NT, 2000 & XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft. Autodesk Inc.

Autocad is a trademark of

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

GETTING STARTED

....................................................................................................

1

  • 1.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................

1

  • 1.2 SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

1

 
  • 1.3 INSTALLING CYMGRD

.................................................................................................................

2

  • 1.4 CYMGRD MODULES

2

  • 1.5 FIRST-TIME USER

3

  • 1.6 INTERACTIVE DATA ENTRY

3

  • 1.7 HOW TO USE CYMGRD TO DESIGN A NEW GROUNDING GRID

4

  • 1.8 DIVIDING THE GRID INTO ELEMENTS

4

  • 1.9 HOW TO USE CYMGRD TO REINFORCE AND VERIFY EXISTING GROUNDING GRIDS

5

  • 1.10 CREATING AND OPENING PROJECTS AND STUDIES

6

  • 1.11 THE WINDOWS LAYOUT OF CYMGRD

8

CHAPTER 2

SOIL RESISTIVITY AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT

11

  • 2.1 SOIL RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AND SOIL MODELS

11

 
  • 2.2 SOIL RESISTIVITY: METHODOLOGY AND ALGORITHM

12

  • 2.3 HOW TO PERFORM A SOIL ANALYSIS

14

  • 2.4 HOW TO SPECIFY THE SOIL MODEL TYPE

16

  • 2.5 HOW TO PERFORM SAFETY ANALYSIS

17

  • 2.6 TRANSFERRING THE RESULTS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR DANGER POINT EVALUATION

19

  • 2.7 IMPORTING PROJECTS FROM THE PREVIOUS VERSION

19

  • 2.8 IMPORTING PROJECTS FROM THE PREVIOUS VERSION – AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

21

CHAPTER 3

THE GRID ANALYSIS MODULE

23

  • 3.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................

23

 
  • 3.2 ELECTRODE TYPES AND TERMINOLOGY

23

 
  • 3.3 ELECTRODE SIZING

24

  • 3.3.1 LG fault parameters

24

 
  • 3.3.2 Electrode Material

..............................................................................................................

25

  • 3.3.3 Electrode Sizing report

.......................................................................................................

26

  • 3.4 GROUNDING SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND LOCATION

27

  • 3.5 ENTERING THE GRID DATA

29

  • 3.5.1 Asymmetrically-arranged grid Conductors

........................................................................

31

  • 3.5.2 Symmetrically-arranged ground Rods

................................................................................

32

  • 3.5.3 Asymmetrically-arranged ground Rods

..............................................................................

33

 
  • 3.5.4 Arc Conductors

...................................................................................................................

34

  • 3.6 MODIFYING AND INSPECTING THE STATION GEOMETRY DATA

36

 
  • 3.7 IMPORTING/EXPORTING GRID DATA AND STATION LAYOUTS

37

  • 3.8 OVERLAPPING CONDUCTOR

37

  • 3.9 GRID ANALYSIS AND REPORTS

38

  • 3.10 VISUALIZE THE STATION LAYOUT IN

41

  • 3.11 THE STATION LAYOUT AND THE ‘INSTALLATION

45

  • 3.12 A NOTE ON MODELING GROUNDING STRUCTURES

45

  • 3.13 SOIL DATA FROM EARLIER VERSIONS OF THE APPLICATION

46

CHAPTER 4

THE PLOTTING MODULE

.......................................................................................

47

  • 4.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................

47

 
  • 4.2 HOW TO GENERATE ‘TOUCHAND ‘SURFACEPOTENTIAL CONTOURS

47

  • 4.3 TOUCH AND SURFACE POTENTIAL CONTOURS

52

  • 4.4 CONTOUR COLOR CODING AND SAFETY ANALYSIS

53

  • 4.5 HOW TO GENERATE 3-D CONTOUR

55

Table of Contents

1

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 4.6 CONTOUR GRAPH REPORTS

56

  • 4.7 CONTOUR GRAPH MANAGEMENT

57

  • 4.8 HOW TO PERFORM SPOT-CHECKDANGER POINT EVALUATION

58

  • 4.9 HOW TO GENERATE PROFILE VOLTAGE PLOTS

59

  • 4.10 INSPECTING POTENTIAL PROFILE PLOTS

61

  • 4.11 COMPARING CONTOUR PLOTS FROM TWO DIFFERENT STUDIES

61

CHAPTER 5

EXAMPLE STUDIES

65

  • 5.1 EXAMPLE 1: PRIMARY ELECTRODE ONLY

65

  • 5.2 METHODOLOGY

66

  • 5.3 FIRST STEP: SOIL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

66

  • 5.4 THIRD STEP: GROUNDING INSTALLATION DATA ENTRY

70

  • 5.5 FOURTH STEP: DANGER POINT EVALUATION AND SURFACE ANALYSIS

74

  • 5.6 EXAMPLE 2: PRIMARY, RETURN AND DISTINCT ELECTRODES

77

  • 5.7 GROUNDING INSTALLATION DATA AND LAYOUT

77

CHAPTER 6

COMPARISON WITH THE IEEE80 GUIDE

83

  • 6.1 COMPARISON WITH THE IEEE80 GUIDE

83

  • 6.1.1 CASE NAME : Example 1: Preliminary design

83

  • 6.1.2 CASE NAME : Example 2: Improved

86

  • 6.1.3 CASE NAME : Example 3: Finalized design

......................................................................

88

CHAPTER 7

CADGRD - THE CYMGRD - AUTOCAD INTERFACE MODULE

.....................

91

  • 7.1 PROGRAM

SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................

91

  • 7.2 DRAWING A STATION GROUND GRID WITH AUTOCAD

93

General outline

  • 7.2.1 ...................................................................................................................

93

  • 7.2.2 Drawing the Grid Layout using AutoCAD:

........................................................................ 94

Example

  • 7.2.3 ............................................................................................................................

101

  • 7.3 VALIDATION & UPDATE OF THE AUTOCAD DRAWING

113

  • 7.3.1 Validating the AutoCAD drawing

.....................................................................................

113

  • 7.3.2 Updating the AutoCAD

117

  • 7.4 IMPORTING FROM AUTOCAD TO CYMGRD

119

  • 7.5 EXPORTING FROM CYMGRD

TO AUTOCAD

............................................................................

121

  • 7.6 WORKING WITH AUTOCAD

122

APPENDIX A – NEW FEATURES IN CYMGRD

.............................................................................

125

A.1

DEFAULT PARAMETERS ..................................................................................................................

125

A.2 GROUND ELECTRODE SIZING BY CYMGRD

125

A.3 SPLIT-FACTOR (SF), DECREMENT- FACTOR (DF) AND DEFINITION FOR REMOTE-CONTRIBUTION IN [%]

 

127

A.4 ROD ENCASEMENT

129

A.5 MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE SHOCK

130

A.6 ALLOWABLE LG FAULT CURRENT

131

APPENDIX B - TROUBLESHOOTING

.............................................................................................

133

2

Table of Contents

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Chapter 1

GETTING STARTED

  • 1.1 General introduction

CYMGRD assists engineers to design grounding facilities for substations and buildings. The program can be used to perform soil resistivity measurement interpretations, elevation of ground potential rise and danger point evaluation within any area of interest.

The program supports soil resistivity analysis taking into account field measurements, an analysis necessary to arrive at a soil model that will subsequently be used for the analysis of the potential elevations. The module supports both “single-layer” and “two-layer” soil model analysis. The same module also computes the tolerable Step and Touch Voltages per IEEE Standard 80- 2000. The user defines the prospective fault current magnitude, the thickness and resistivity of a layer of material (such as crushed rock) applied to the soil surface, the body weight and the anticipated exposure time.

CYMGRD is capable of performing ground-electrode sizing and ground potential rise calculations. CYMGRD can also determine the equivalent resistance of ground grids of arbitrary shapes that are composed of ground conductors, rods and arcs since it employs matrix techniques for resolving the current distribution to ground. Directly energized and/or passive electrodes, not connected to the energized grid, can be modeled to assess proximity effects.

CYMGRD calculates surface voltage and touch voltage potential gradients at any point of interest within the area of investigation. The program can also generate equipotential contours for surface and/or touch potentials, and potential profiles showing touch and step voltages along any direction. Color-coding is used to view the results. These can be displayed in either two or three dimensions, making it easy to evaluate the safety of personnel and the equipment in and around the grounding grid.

The results of alternative grid designs may be displayed simultaneously for comparison.

  • 1.2 Software and hardware requirements

CYMGRD can be used with Windows NT or Windows 9X platforms. The minimum hardware requirements are:

Pentium computer;

64 MB RAM;

20 MB free memory on the hard disk;

A Microsoft mouse or equivalent;

A color monitor with Super VGA and a graphic card supporting 256 colors or more;

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Any printer or plotter supported by Windows.

  • 1.3 Installing CYMGRD

The CYMGRD package requires a license to operate. Access is granted with the use of either a physical hardware key (Parallel port / USB) and/or a license string (Added manually or by importing a license file). You may, however, install the CYMGRD package independent of the license.

Installation steps:

  • 1. Start Microsoft Windows.

  • 2. Insert the CYME CD into the CD-ROM reader. If installing the WEB based package, open the executable and proceed to step 7.

  • 3. The installation program should start automatically after a few seconds. If it does not start by itself, use Windows Explorer to inspect the main directory of the CYME CD. Locate the icon “Setup32” and double-click on it.

  • 4. Click on the option to “Install Products or Demos”.

  • 5. Choose English and then your version of Windows.

  • 6. Choose CYMGRD from the list of software names.

  • 7. Follow the prompts and screen instructions.

  • 1.4 CYMGRD modules

The functions outlined in the General Introduction (section 1.1) can be performed using the following modules:

Soil Analysis module (includes Safety Assessment): Defines either a two-layer, a uniform, or a user-defined soil model CYMGRD plots the measured and calculated resistivity on the same graph to allow easy verification of the quality of the soil model. The maximum allowable step and touch voltages are calculated according to IEEE Standard 80-2000. The results are automatically communicated to the other modules.

Electrode Sizing module: Determines the minimum required ground electrode (conductor and/or rod) size in accordance with the IEEE 80-2000 standard. To determine the electrode size, CYMGRD uses the parameters of the electrode material and the ambient temperature setting. Users can select one or more of the materials from the CYMGRD library. A number of parameters for the materials can be modified and retained on a per-study basis.

Grid Analysis module: Calculates the current diffused by every element of conductor in the grounding grid. The potential at the soil surface is determined from these results. You may define the grid one conductor at a time and/or by using groups of conductors arranged in rectangular sub-grids. You can define the grounding rods in a similar way. Other buried conductors (such as nearby foundations) and/or neighboring grounding structures may also be defined, to be able to assess the influence of their presence on the surface voltages. These structures may be included in the analysis or excluded at any time for comparison purposes.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Plotting module: Generates a visual representation of the grid analysis results on Potential Contour and/or Potential Profile plots. Potential Contour plots can be used to display both touch and surface voltages. Both representations can be color-coded in 2 or 3 dimensions. Potential Profile plots can be used to display both step and touch voltages along a straight line, in any desired direction. The voltage variations, along with the corresponding maximum allowable voltages, can be shown simultaneously on the same graph. Both Potential Contour and Potential Profile graph types allow for easy identification of hazardous areas (i.e. areas where tolerable voltages are exceeded). These graphics can be sent to a printer, a plotter or copied to the Windows clipboard.

  • 1.5 First-time user

If you have not used CYMGRD before, we suggest you read this manual before performing a grounding study, to familiarize yourself with the capabilities of the program. Illustrated step-by- step examples have been included in Chapter 5 to assist you in the utilization of CYMGRD.

Please note:

The ‘ReadMe’ file includes important information as well. Please refer to the contents of this file before operating the program.

  • 1.6 Interactive data entry

CYMGRD features a modern multi-window interface for data entry. A spreadsheet is used to enter the data about station layout, soil resistivity, bus, and electrode sizing. Any remaining data is provided via standard dialog box entries.

Please note:

Besides interactive data entry, the program remains backwards compatible with earlier releases. All cases entered via earlier Windows versions can be directly imported. In the unlikely case where users are interested in importing cases entered with the DOS version of the package, they should contact Customer Support for further assistance.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 1.7 How to use CYMGRD to design a new grounding grid

The first step in performing a grounding study is to define a ‘Project’ and then a ‘Study’ within CYMGRD. A ‘Project’ can be viewed as a container of ‘Studies’. The studies may be variations on a design theme towards optimizing a grid design.

The second step is to determine the soil model that will be used for the subsequent analyses. This is done using the Soil Analysis module. It is the same module that performs the Safety Assessment calculations, thus yielding the maximum permissible step and touch voltage for particular surface and exposure conditions as defined in IEEE Standard 80-2000.

The third step is to determine the electrode sizing (conductors and rods) taking into account the worst single line to ground fault parameters in the substation and material of the electrodes.

The fourth step is to actually enter the geometrical configuration of the station layout. All electrodes (conductors and rods) need to be entered with their exact coordinates, burial depth and physical dimensions.

Please note:

Auto™CAD drawings of the station layout may be directly imported into CYMGRD assuming that certain design rules are followed. Please refer to Chapter 7 for more details.

The final step is to make certain that the design for the station meets the necessary safety criteria. This can be accomplished through direct inspection of the danger points on the surface. Entire areas may need to be verified by generating Potential Contours plots of the touch voltages, particularly near the grid edges. Finally, Potential Profiles plots should be generated to ascertain that touch and step potentials are not exceeded. If any of the safety criteria is not met, the grid design may need to be reinforced or modified. This is accomplished by repeating this procedure from the third step until acceptable results are obtained.

  • 1.8 Dividing the grid into elements

The Grid Analysis module calculates the surface potentials by dividing the conductors and rods into smaller segments called ‘elements’. These elements are the basic units that diffuse the injected fault current to ground. Using a higher number of smaller elements may give greater precision. However, the total number of elements in any grounding study cannot exceed 3500, including the main ‘Primary’ electrode and any ‘Return’ or ‘Distinct’ electrode.

Please note:

You must select the number of elements so that the length of each element is greater than 0.275 meters. So if you are presented with the error message “…element(s) with minimum resolution found” after performing a grid analysis, you will need to reduce the number of elements for each of the conductors shown.

The number of elements defined is not necessarily related to the number of conductors in the grid or to the number of meshes the grid features.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

How many elements per conductor/rod the program uses does not appear in any graphical representations and is solely related to the desired accuracy of the numerical simulations. There are cases for which increasing the number of elements may result in higher accuracy. This is not, however, necessarily the case despite the fact that the computational burden increases considerably whenever the number of elements is increased.

An increased number of elements does not necessarily mean a more accurate estimate of neither the station resistance nor the ensuing surface potentials. A general rule of thumb is to begin by creating a study using one or two elements per grid conductor (assuming the conductors physical length does not exceed 1 meter). If greater accuracy is desired, a new study with further conductor/rod subdivisions may be carried out to see if there is indeed a significant change in the results.

  • 1.9 How to use CYMGRD to reinforce and verify existing grounding grids

For existing grids, soil measurements may be available from the original design.

If the soil

model has already been determined and remains valid, it is not necessary to enter the soil measurements.

  • 1. To take the existing soil model into account, choose the ‘User-defined’ model for soil analysis type in the Soil Parameters dialog box and enter the required information for the upper, the lower and the surface layers. If desired, you may also enter ‘User-defined’ data for use with the safety assessment data, which will be used to determine the maximum permissible touch and step voltages.

  • 2. Verify the station conductor and rod data entries and make certain any reinforcements and/or additions are included in the station data. Determine the Ground Potential Rise (GPR) and station resistance using the Grid Analysis module.

  • 3. Use the plotting facilities, potential contours and/or profiles, to visualize touch and step potentials in selected areas of interest.

  • 4. Based on the results, judge the adequacy of the existing or reinforced grounding system.

  • 5. If the grid is not adequate, return to Step 2 and make the necessary changes to the grid layout by adding or removing conductors and/or rods.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 1.10 Creating and opening Projects and Studies

A ‘Project’ can be viewed as a container of ‘Studies’, which may be variations on a design theme towards optimizing a grid design. The real ‘container’ of data and results, however, remains the ‘Study’. Defining a project and a study is done via the ‘Files’ menu, as shown below, from the menu bar of CYMGRD.

To define a new project, the ‘Newoption needs to be chosen for the File menu. In this case, the dialog box shown provides the possibility to define a new Study, as well as a new Project that will contain the study. If, a new study is desired within the active project, click on the check box “Insert into the active project” and the lower project-related prompt will no longer be accessible.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 1.10 Creating and opening Projects and Studies A ‘Project’ can be

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows To open an existing Project , click on the ‘Open Project’ command

To open an existing Project, click on the ‘Open Project’ command of the File menu.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows To open an existing Project , click on the ‘Open Project’ command

A browse function is activated that lets you see the various Projects already created in the active folder.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 1.11 The Windows layout of CYMGRD

Once a Project has been created and a new Study generated within that Project, you will need to begin entering your substation data. The CYMGRD interface is sub-divided into dedicated sections that occupy specific regions within the overall display.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 1.11 The Windows layout of CYMGRD Once a Project has been

The upper-left section is referred to as the ‘Workspace’ view. It is reserved for the Studies and the corresponding Project file, shown in a tree structure. If more Studies were included, they would be shown as part of the root Project. The active Study is shown using a red checkmark as part of its icon. Note that this window features 3 tabs. The tab named ‘Studies’ shows the Project/Study tree structure. The tab named ‘Contours’ shows the various potential contour plots generated for the active Study. The tab named ‘Profiles’ shows the potential profile plots generated within the active Study. Thus, the second and third tabs are context-sensitive and dependent on the first tab.

The middle-left section is the ‘Installation’ view. It displays a condensed view of the station grounding grid layout (NOT UNDER SCALE AND WITHOUT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE ASPECT RATIO OF THE MAIN ‘GRID LAYOUT’ WINDOW). The Installation View contents appear only when data is has been entered for the station layout. Gradual station data entry enriches the view accordingly.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

The upper-right section is the ‘Workbook’ view. It is reserved to show the Grid Layout, Soil Model and Potential Contour and Profile plots generated during the simulation. It is the main display area of the application. The ‘Soil Model’ tab displays a visual representation of all the soil measurement data and possibly any calculated results due any soil analysis. The ‘Grid Layout’ tab displays a visual representation of all the conductor data representing the station geometry.

The lower-left section is the ‘Data Entry’ view. It is used for data tabular input. The tab named ‘Soil measurements’ is reserved for soil measurement data entry. The tab named ‘Asymmetrical Conductors’ is reserved for the grid conductor asymmetrical data, and so on.

The lower-right section is the ‘Reports’ view. It is used to display the reports pertinent to all analysis options. The tab named ‘Soil Analysis’ contains the report of soil analysis module, while the tab named ‘Grid Analysis’ contains the report of the Grid analysis module. Any contour or profile plots shown in the ‘Workbook’ view will also have a corresponding report shown here.

The default view of a study with actual data is shown below to illustrate these principles:

Workbook View Workspace View Installation View Data Entry View Reports View
Workbook View
Workspace View
Installation View
Data Entry View
Reports View

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Chapter 2

SOIL RESISTIVITY AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT

  • 2.1 Soil resistivity measurements and soil models

The ambient soil may contain a uniform resistivity to a significant depth. It is however more common to find that soils are stratified (i.e. composed of layers having different resistivities). In general, to identify the exact soil stratification is a difficult problem. Many approaches have been suggested over the years, both graphical and analytical, but on many occasions, a judgment call will need to be made in order to arrive at practical soil models. There are currently techniques to interpret a set of soil resistivity measurements as a multi-layer soil model. CYMGRD offers a choice between ‘Uniform’ and ‘Two-layer’ soil models. ‘Multi-layer’ soil models are not currently supported by CYMGRD.

The Two-layer model has an upper layer of a definite depth and a lower layer of an infinite depth and with a different resistivity. The approach is a practical one and has been followed for many years in substation grounding practice. Of the various soil measurement techniques, CYMGRD supports only the Wenner technique, in which the distance (a) between each pair of probes is equal.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Chapter 2 SOIL RESISTIVITY AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT 2.1 Soil resistivity measurements and

A current (I)

is

injected and the resulting voltage (V) is measured by the voltmeter. The

apparent or measured resistivity is given by

4 π a V I ( ) ρ =   2 a a  1
4 π a V I
(
)
ρ =
2
a
a
 1 +
2
2
2
2
a
+ 4
 
b
a
+
b
 
where b is the length of the probe.

or

ρ = 2πaV(

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Chapter 2 SOIL RESISTIVITY AND SAFETY ASSESSMENT 2.1 Soil resistivity measurements and

I )

if a >> b

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 2.2 Soil resistivity: Methodology and algorithm

Let ρ a be the apparent earth resistivity as computed by a two-layer model, ρ 1 and ρ 2 the resistivity of the upper and lower soil layers, and h the thickness of the upper soil layer (CYMGRD assumes that the thickness of the lower layer is infinite). The module will find ρ 1 , ρ 2 and h according to the mathematical equations described below. The results will be automatically communicated to the Grid Analysis module, which calculates the surface potentials.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 2.2 Soil resistivity: Methodology and algorithm Let ρ be the apparent

K = reflection coefficient = (ρ 2 - ρ 1 ) / (ρ 2 + ρ 1 )

n = integer varying from 1 to

h = upper layer thickness

a = electrode spacing

ρ 1 , ρ 2 = upper & lower soil layer resistivity

By finding ρ 1 , ρ 2 , and h, CYMGRD minimizes the following function:

f

(

x

)

=

N

[(

P

mi

i = 1

( ))

P i

2

/

2

P

mi

]

where the sum spans all the available measurements.

P

mi

= Measured value of earth resistivity at probe distance Di

P (i ) = Computed value of earth resistivity at probe distance Di

Please note:

CYMGRD uses reduced gradient techniques to calculate the optimal model and to minimize the RMS error. The term ‘optimal’ signifies that the soil model that will be deduced will be the one that best fits the available measurements.

CYMGRD identifies measurements that do not seem to fit very well the computed resistivity function. In order to try to improve the accuracy of the soil model, you may remove one or more such measurements from the input data and run the analysis again. These ‘Suspect measurements’ can be found in the Soil analysis report and are also shown in the graphical representation of the soil model marked with a ‘cross’ and labeled ‘Doubtful points’.

CYMGRD interprets either resistivity measurements or resistance values.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

When the soil model is determined, all subsequent electrodes (no matter the type) and grounding structures analyzed by CYMGRD will assume the same soil model.

No pockets of soil discontinuity are supported by the embedded technique. In other words, any local soil resistivity discontinuities, like regions of very high conductivity surrounded by the native soil are not accounted for.

Only horizontal soil stratification type is supported by CYMGRD. No vertical stratification is taken into account.

Whenever two sets of soil measurements with identical probe spacing are entered, the program will not interpret the soil measurements and a warning will be generated in the Soil Analysis report. This will be the case even if the two sets of measurements feature different resistivities.

Whenever measurement sets along different search directions are made for the same site, it is not advisable to enter the various measurements as one set, not only because duplicate probe spacing is not permitted but, more importantly, because, a distorted soil model may result.

You must enter at least one measurement for uniform soil. You must enter at least three

measurements for two-layer soil. measurements.

CYMGRD

can

accept

a

maximum of 100

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 2.3 How to perform a soil analysis

Soil resistivity and/or safety assessment analysis are done within the Soil Analysis module, which is activated by selecting the ‘Soil Analysis’ engine from the drop-down list that contains all available analysis modules.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 2.3 How to perform a soil analysis Soil resistivity and/or safety

The available data is shown in the Data Entry view window at the ‘Soil Measurements’ tab that uses a spreadsheet-like interface as shown above. Note that any of the measurements can be disabled using the checkmark in the dedicated column. This is where you can remove any suspect measurements before recalculating the soil model.

The calculation is performed by clicking on the ‘Run Engine’ button, which is the button that has the lighting bolt as a symbol, next to the drop down list for the selection of the analysis module.

The soil model is seen graphically in the Workbook view. Any measurements that the simulation found departing from the average RMS errors that resulted from the optimization fit are marked with an “X” on the graphic. The RMS error is computed to indicate the degree of correspondence between the calculated soil model and the measured values, and is calculated as follows:

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

RMS error =

N 2 ∑ error ( ) i i N
N
2
∑ error
( )
i
i
N

The user will need to decide either to retain or to discard them by performing a new simulation with a reduced set of measurements.

You can track the curve values with the mouse. Select any point on the curve with the cursor to see the probe distance and the calculated apparent resistivity values.

The text results of the soil analysis simulation can be seen in the Report view, within the ‘Soil Analysis’ tab. The measured and calculated resistivities for the provided probe spacing are listed along with the associated errors. The same measurements marked with an ‘X’ in the Workbook View are shown in red in the Report view. You can enlarge the Report view section by dragging the split bar to the position you want. The reports are shown here for illustration. The calculated soil model results are translated in the written report. This, actually, is a very good way of verifying the soil model that the program has in memory before proceeding with the potential rise calculations.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows RMS error = N 2 ∑ error ( ) i i N

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 2.4 How to specify the soil model type

The report shown in the illustration above pertains to a two-layer soil model. For a two-layer soil model, the program calculates the resistivity of the upper and of the lower layers of soil, along with the thickness of the first layer (or upper layer). The second layer (or lower layer) is assumed ‘infinitely thick’ and the program simply calculates a resistivity for it.

To specify the soil model desired, select the ‘Parameters’ option in the ‘Soil’ menu item.

The module provides the options of interpreting the soil measurements as a two-layer soil model or as a uniform model. It also gives the possibility of entering any soil model desired (‘user- defined’). If a uniform soil model is selected, the program will provide only one soil resistivity value, which is the average of all the entered measurements.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 2.4 How to specify the soil model type The report shown

Please note:

CYMGRD no longer supports the function of entering the Soil data as part of the Grid analysis as some earlier versions did. Thus, the Soil data can no longer be bypassed if new soil data are to be used for analyzing the same grid. ALL SOIL DATA NEEDS TO BE DEFINED AS PART OF THE SOIL ANALYSIS. However, once analyzed, the Soil data results are still communicated to the Grid module.

Whenever a ‘User-defined’ model is selected, the results are calculated and transferred automatically to Grid module without requiring the user to perform an analysis.

Whenever one or more measurements are changed a new calculation must be performed. The calculation will assure that the new soil model is used by the program for subsequent analysis.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 2.5 How to perform Safety Analysis

This option allows the user to estimate the maximum permissible touch and step voltages under specific surface and exposure conditions. The safety assessment calculations comply with standard North American practice as described in the ’IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding’, 2000 edition. This standard requires the following data:

Body weight of the shock victim (by default equal to 70 kg, with an alternative of 50 kg).

The thickness and resistivity of the material (i.e. crushed rock) on the surface of the station native soil.

Soil resistivity of the upper and lower layers, and thickness of the upper layer of the native soil (additional surface material excluded).

Shock duration (0.1 seconds by default). Protection reaction time.

CYMGRD uses the following equations, taken from IEEE 80-2000, to calculate the maximum permissible touch and step voltages.

For a 50 kg body weight:

E touch = (1000+1.5CsPs) 0.116/

t
t

E step

= (1000+6.0CsPs) 0.116/

t
t

For a 70 kg body weight:

E touch = (1000+1.5CsPs) 0.157/

t
t

E step

= (1000+6.0CsPs) 0.157/

t
t

where:

t is shock duration in sec.

Cs is the de-rating factor when high resistivity surface material is present. The reduction factor Cs is a function of the reflection factor k and the thickness of the upper layer h.

Ps is the resistivity of the surface material in ohm-m.

This safety assessment data is defined in the same dialog box that specifies the soil model data. The purpose of the calculation is to arrive at a “de-rating” factor that will permit to take advantage of the high resistivity surface layer, thus permitting a higher touch voltage to be tolerated. The de-rating factor Cs can either be calculated or obtained from graphs according to the IEEE 2000 Guide. CYMGRD calculates the de-rating factor Cs according to Equation 27 of IEEE Std 80-2000, i.e.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Cs =

1

0.09(1

ρ ρ s
ρ
ρ
s

)

 

2

h

s

+

0.09

where:

h

s

is the thickness of the high resistivity surface layer material

ρ

s

is the resistivity of the surface material

ρ

is the resistivity of the earth below the high resistivity surface material.

Please note:

For metal-to-metal calculations, of this kind assume

ρ = ρ

s

when calculating the de-

rating factor, and

ρ

=

ρ

s

= 0

, when calculating maximum permissible touch and step

voltages (IEEE Std 80, 2000)

The safety calculations are the only part of CYMGRD that uses the surface layer high resistivity and it does so for the sole purpose of calculating the maximum permissible touch and step voltages. Actual potential rise analysis of the grounding assemblies takes into account only the native soil resistivity model reported by the Soil analysis.

The results of the Safety Analysis are included in the Soil Analysis report.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 2.6 Transferring the results of Safety Analysis for danger point evaluation

Once the Safety Analysis has been performed, or, if user-defined safety thresholds are entered, maximum permissible touch and step voltages have been established, the results are automatically transferred to the Plotting module. (See Chapter 4)

Please note:

The Plotting module will only permit the utilization of the maximum permissible step and touch voltages as calculated by the Soil analysis or defined by the user

  • 2.7 Importing Projects from the previous version

A Project may be imported from a previous version of CYMGRD by using the ‘Import’ option found in ‘File’ menu.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 2.6 Transferring the results of Sa fety Analysis for danger point evaluation

Once this is selected you will need to specify the directory in which the projects that are to be updated reside. Click on the “…” (i.e. Browse) button to change directories and navigate.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Once a directory is selected, any projects found are listed by

Once a directory is selected, any projects found are listed by name.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Once a directory is selected, any projects found are listed by

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Continue by selecting the project you want to import, followed by clicking the ‘OK’ button.

Please note:

Only one project at a time can be imported.

All studies within the selected project will be automatically imported as well.

If a project has already been imported into version 6.00 or higher, OR has been constructed using the version 6.00 or higher of the application, an asterisk will be shown under “Exists” to show that there is no need for the import operation to take place for this particular project. You do, however, retain the option to overwrite it by rebuilding it from the older version.

  • 2.8 Importing Projects from the previous version – An alternative method

A Project may be imported from a previous version of CYMGRD (prior 6.0) using the following alternative procedure. Start by running the old version of CYMGRD and open the Project you wish to import. Then, verify the Project number indicated at the right of the Project title on the status bar at the bottom of the application window. The number in question is shown in white with a gray background. This value represents the extension of the project file on your hard drive (i.e. grdprj.001). It will also be necessary to note the working directory for the Project on the title bar at the top of the application window. Start the new version of CYMGRD and select the 'Open' item from the ‘File’ menu. Change the working directory to that of the old Project as outlined previously and select the file extension 'grdprj.*' in the Open dialog window. You should see one or more files with the name 'grdprj' but with different extensions. Selecting and opening the one with the same extension as the Project number from the old version of CYMGRD, should import the contents of your Project into the application. At the same time, a file with the same name as the Project name from the previous version of CYMGRD, but with the extension 'cgp', will be created in the working directory. From now on, when you wish to open this Project from the new version of CYMGRD, you need only select this 'cgp' file using the ‘Open’ item from the ‘File’ menu.

Please note:

This alternative technique can be used if, for any reason, the directory cannot be scanned with the previously described technique.

Only one project can be imported at the time, importing along all the studies within that project.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Chapter 3

THE GRID ANALYSIS MODULE

  • 3.1 General introduction

The GRID module is used to calculate the grounding system’s resistance, the ground potential rise (GPR) and the potential gradients at the soil surface. These results are needed to assess the adequacy of the grid design and to evaluate the safety of the personnel working at the site.

  • 3.2 Electrode types and terminology

CYMGRD supports three types of electrodes also referred to in this guide as ‘grounding systems’, since they may be composed of both conductors and ground rods. The first type is the ’Primary’ electrode and is the electrode that absorbs the grounding current. The second type is called the ’Return’ electrode and is used to model electrodes. It there is no Return electrode all the current absorbed by the primary electrode would have been diffused to ground. Finally, the third type, the ’Distinct’ electrode, is not connected to the primary or the return electrode but may be subjected to the influence of their electric fields. Although Return and Distinct electrodes are not often found as components of a grounding system, it is sometimes necessary to represent them.

The ‘Primary’ electrode

This is the grounding grid that absorbs the fault current. You may build it up out of conductors and rods. The vast majority of grounding studies will consider only the Primary electrode.

The ‘Return’ electrode

If two grounding grids are in the vicinity of each other, and current injected to ground at the first grid returns to the system via the second, then the second grid is a Return electrode. The presence of a Return electrode will alter the surface potential distribution.

You can model the Return electrode in the same way that you model the primary electrode. Even a single rod can serve as a Return electrode. In addition, you must enter the current absorbed by the return electrode, in Amperes. This value must be negative.

The ‘Distinct’ electrode

Conductive structures like pipelines and building foundations, which are near a grounding installation, but not connected to the electric network (not energized), are Distinct electrodes.

You model the Distinct electrode in the same way that you model the Primary electrode. Even a single rod or buried conductor can act as a Distinct electrode.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Please note:

Within CYMGRD, ‘Conductor’ means horizontal ground-electrodes, and ‘Rod’ means vertical or none-horizontal ground-electrodes.

No Return electrode should be modeled in the absence of a Primary electrode.

By using a Split-factor, CYMGRD takes into account Return current via the locally grounded transformers, transmission line and distribution feeders.

If the substation fence is not bonded to the grounding grid, model the fence posts as parts of a Distinct electrode. Otherwise, model them as part of the Primary electrode.

You must define whether or not all elements of the Distinct electrode have the same potential. They have the same potential if they are connected together. If the Distinct electrode is comprised of insulated sections, they do not have the same potentials. This will have a bearing on the simulation and needs to be specified as part of the Grid data.

  • 3.3 Electrode Sizing

If desired, prior to designing the grounding grid, the minimum required conductor and/or rod size can be determined. Simply enable one or more electrode types provided in the ‘Electrodes’ tab of the ‘Data Entry’ view. CYMGRD calculates the minimum required ground conductor or rod size in accordance with IEEE 80-2000.

  • 3.3.1 LG fault parameters

LG fault current and corresponding X/R are the results of fault analysis and are required for Electrode Sizing analysis.

In the “Buses” tab of ‘Data Entry’ view, the user must enter data for all the buses in the substation. CYMGRD will automatically choose the bus that requires the thickest electrode and apply it towards the Electrode Sizing analysis.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Please note: Within CYMGRD, ‘Conductor’ means horizont al ground-electrodes, and ‘Rod’

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

As shown under the Buses data entry tab above:

When the ‘Enabled’ box is checked, it means that the bus data will be considered in the analysis.

Usually a substation has two or more buses. CYMGRD identifies each bus and the

corresponding

parameters by

a

‘Bus ID’.

The

results

of

the

analysis appear in the

‘Electrode Sizing’ tab in the ‘Reports’ view with corresponding Bus ID (See following

image).

‘LG Fault Current’ is the total single line- to-ground fault current in amperes.

‘Remote Contribution’ is the summation of the contributions (of the LG Fault Current) from the transmission lines (not the local transformers within the substation) divided by total fault current and multiplied by 100.

‘LG X/R’ is ‘(2x1+Xo)/(2R1+Ro)’ for the corresponding single line-to-ground fault current.

Please note:

CYMGRD does not use the following parameters for Electrode Sizing, however, in order for the bus data as a whole to be saved, they must be supplied. CYMGRD uses this additional data for grid analysis when a ‘Current Split Factor’ needs to be determined.

‘Transmission Lines’ is the number of the lines connected to the bus.

‘Rtg’ is the ground electrode resistance of the above transmission line (Default = 100 Ohms).

‘Distribution Feeders’ is the number of the feeders connected to the other side of the transformers which, in turn, is connected to the bus.

‘Rdg’ is the ground electrode resistance of the above feeders (Default = 200 Ohms).

  • 3.3.2 Electrode Material

To determine the minimum required electrode size, a correction factor (i.e. Decrement factor), the constant parameters for the electrode material and ambient temperature value are required:

The ambient temperature is defined in the Grid Parameters dialog box (Default = 40 degrees Celsius). The ‘Grid Parameters’ dialog box can be accessed under the ‘Parameters…’ item of ‘Grid’ menu.

The type of the material along with its parameters is specified in the “Electrodes” tab of the ‘Data Entry’ view (See below).

CYMGRD uses the information in the ‘Buses’ tab to calculate the Decrement factor in

accordance with the standard. This factor is used

to

take

into

account

the DC

components, resulting in the asymmetrical fault current for the corresponding fault

duration.

The following image shows the CYMGRD ground conductor library (“Electrodes” tab). In this example, ‘Copper commercial hard-drawn’ is selected for the conductor sizing and ‘Copper-clad steel’ is selected for the rod sizing.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Please note:

Certain parameters, such as the Melting Temperature (Tm) can be modified in order to

better define the materials in use. active study.

Any altered values will be saved only as part of the

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Please note: Certain parameters, such as the Melting Temperature (Tm) can
  • 3.3.3 Electrode Sizing report

After

all

the

required data for the Electrode Sizing has been

specified, the result of the

analysis automatically appears in the ‘Electrode Sizing’ tab of the ‘Reports’ view (See below).

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Please note: Certain parameters, such as the Melting Temperature (Tm) can

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 3.4 Grounding system structure and location

CYMGRD is capable of analyzing grounding systems of either symmetrical or asymmetrical configuration. A grounding system is made of electrodes, which the program divides into ‘elements’ for calculation purposes. If a two-layer soil model is used, then the grid conductors must be located in the upper layer. Grid rods may cross the two-layers boundary. Important factors for the calculation of station resistance are the station geometry and the soil model as determined from the Soil analysis. When calculating the Ground Potential Rise, the injected current needs to be known as well.

While the station geometry data is entered in the ‘Data Entry’ view, the remaining data can be entered through the ‘Grid Parameters’ dialog box, which can be accessed under the ‘Parameters…’ item of ‘Grid’ menu.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 3.4 Grounding system structure and location CYMGRD is capable of analyzing grounding

That same dialog box allows the user to specify the attributes of the Distinct electrode and specify the current for the Return electrode.

The single line-to-ground fault current (LG) at the fault location produced by the substation, does not necessarily flow to the ground via the grid. Some of it may be diverted back to the system through line-to-ground wires, cable sheaths and/or tower counterpoises. The fact that only a part of the total fault current usually flows between the grounding system and the surrounding earth has implications on both per sonnel safety and equipment requirements.

To calculate that portion of the fault current, CYMGRD presents three options in the ‘Grid Parameters’ dialog box.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Infinite Z: CYMGRD considers that total LG current goes to the surrounding earth via the ground grid.

Current Split Factor: CYMGRD estimates the current split factor (Sf) in accordance to IEEE Std-80. The current split factor is a ratio based on the portion of the LG current that goes back to the remote sources via the ground grid. Thus;

GPR = S

f

× I

LG

× R

g

User Defined (Split Factor or Parallel Z): When you choose this option, you can directly enter your desired ‘Splitting Factor” or ‘Parallel-Z’.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows • • Infinite Z : CYMGRD considers that total LG curr

The equivalent resistance in parallel with the grounding grid, Parallel Z (Zeq), is the total equivalent resistance (in ohms) of the sky wires and counterpoises of all the lines connected to the substation. The LG fault current is divided between these two resistances (Rg and Parallel-Z).

The following equation shows the relationship between Split Factor (Sf), Parallel-Z (Zeq) and Ground resistance.

S

f

=

Z

eq

 

R

g

+

Z

eq

The

same dialog box allows the activation

or deactivation of entire sets of electrode

components to assess their effect on the performance of the grid grounding design without

resorting to extensive editing of the station data.

Please note:

To direct the entire ground fault current into the grid, without any current division, set the Parallel-Z (User-defined) to 9999 or the Split Factor (User-defined) to 1.

For a Return electrode enter the return electrode current. If not, the current is 0.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

If you change any of the electrodes after performing an analysis, you will have to re- analyze the ground potential rise and grid resistance.

Grid conductors cannot bridge two soil layers if a two-layer soil model is used. However, Rods can bridge the two layers of the soil model.

  • 3.5 Entering the Grid data

Ground Grid data can be entered by either specifying directly their geometrical coordinates or can be imported from an AutoCAD file formatted for use with CYMGRD. This section describes data entry for the case where AutoCAD data files are not available. In CYMGRD, the ‘grid components’ data is classified into five categories: Symmetrically arranged grid conductors, asymmetrically arranged grid conductors, arc conductors, symmetrically-arranged ground rods and asymmetrically arranged ground rods. All are explained in the following sub-sections. Section Symmetrically-arranged grid Conductors explains the import/export of AutoCAD data. Importing/Exporting Grid data and Station layouts

This type of array is rectangular, with a number of conductors laid out along the long and short axes, creating a grid. CYMGRD assumes that symmetrically-arranged grid conductors are buried horizontally and are oriented along two perpendicular axes (the X and Y axes in the graphic window). The spacing between the conductors is assumed to be equal along each axis, but the spacing along the Y-axis can be different from the spacing along the X-axis. The data for symmetrically-arranged components is entered using the ‘Symmetrical Conductors’ tab of the ‘Data Entry’ view.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows If you change any of the electrodes after performing an analysis, you

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Symmetrical Conductor data is shown above. Note that the check box ‘Enabled’ is selected, which means that it will be considered in the Grid Analysis. Furthermore, the ‘Primary’ electrode type is selected (default). The drop-down box allows modifying that default to ‘Return’ or ‘Distinct’.

For this example, we have used the symmetrical conductor arrangement to represent the lower rectangular part of an L-shaped grid.

The following set of data is used to define a symmetrically-spaced grid:

Type: Primary, Return or Distinct.

[X1, Y1] and [X2, Y2]: Coordinates of two opposite corners of the rectangular array.

Grid conductors parallel to X: The number of grid conductors parallel to the X-axis.

Elements per conductor parallel to X: CYMGRD considers this number of elements in

finite-elements analysis, for conductors parallel to the X-axis. Grid conductors parallel to Y: The number of grid conductors parallel to the Y-axis.

Depth: The distance between the soil surface and the center of the conductor.

Diameter: Ground conductor diameter.

Please note:

If the electrodes (Conductors or rods) placed in the grid cannot satisfy a placement pattern with some symmetry, then they should be defined using asymmetrical electrodes.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 3.5.1 Asymmetrically-arranged grid Conductors

An asymmetrically-arranged conductor is a single straight conductor stretched between two points defined by two coordinates (X1, Y1, Z1) and (X2, Y2, Z2). Asymmetrical conductors that are slanted may be represented in the model (Z coordinate), which is not the case for the symmetrical arrangements, which are entered using a common burial depth (X,Y). Furthermore, each conductor may have a different diameter, which is not the case for the symmetrical arrangements with a common diameter for all conductors.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 3.5.1 Asymmetrically-arranged grid Conductors An asymmetrically-arranged conductor is a single straight conductor

Asymmetrical conductor data is shown above. Note that the check box ‘Enabled’ is selected, which means that it will be considered in the Grid Analysis. Also, the ‘Primary’ electrode Type is selected (default). The drop-down box allows modifying that default to ‘Return’ or ‘Distinct’.

For this example, we have used the asymmetrical conductor arrangement to represent the upper left protruding part of an L-shaped grid.

The following set of data is used to define an asymmetrical grid:

Type: Primary, Return or Distinct electrode.

[X1, Y1, Z1] and [X2, Y2, Z2]: Coordinates of two ends of each conductor. Conductors may be inclined with respect to the soil surface, which CYMGRD assumes to be horizontal.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Number of conductor elements: CYMGRD considers this number of elements for conductors parallel to the X (or Y-axis) in finite-elements analysis.

Diameter: Ground conductor diameter.

  • 3.5.2 Symmetrically-arranged ground Rods

A symmetric array of ground rods covers a rectangular area in which rods are located in rows parallel to the X-axis with all rods in a row equally spaced. All rods defined in the same array have the same burial depth, length and diameter.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows • Number of conductor elements: CYMGRD considers this number of elements

Symmetrical rod data is shown above. Note that the check box ‘Enabled’ is selected, which means that it will be considered in the Grid analysis. In this example, the ‘Primary’ electrode Type is selected (default). The drop-down box allows modifying the default to ‘Return’ or ‘Distinct’.

The following set of data is used to define symmetrically-arranged rods:

Type: Primary, Return or Distinct electrode

[X1, Y1] and [X2, Y2]: Coordinates of the two opposite corners of the area where the rods are placed.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Rod rows parallel to the X-axis: Number of the horizontal rod rows on the display.

Number of ground rods per row : Number of rods along each row (Defined above).

Length: Ground rod length.

Depth: Burial depth (the distance between the soil surface and the top of the rods).

Diameter: Ground rod diameter.

  • 3.5.3 Asymmetrically-arranged ground Rods

An asymmetric array of ground rods is a single row of equally spaced rods. The position of the first rod is given by the coordinates (X1, Y1, Z1) and the position of the last rod in the row is given by the coordinates (X2, Y2, Z2). The upper end of each rod lies on the straight line between these two points. All rods defined in the same array have the same length and diameter. If a single rod is specified (Number of Rods along axis = 1), then only the starting point coordinates (X1, Y1, Z1) need to be entered.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows • Rod rows parallel to the X-axis : Number of the horizontal

Asymmetrical rod data is shown above. Note that the check box ‘Enabled’ is selected, which means that it will be considered in the Grid analysis. The ‘Primary’ electrode Type is selected (default). The drop-down box allows modifying the default to ‘Return’ or ‘Distinct’.

For this example, we have used the asymmetrical rod arrangement because all the rods placed in the grid were strategically positioned at specific coordinates. It is seen in the data that

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

we have entered the rods one at a time using different coordinates for the beginning and the end points.

The following set of data defines a row of rods:

Type: Primary, Return or Distinct electrode

[X1, Y1, Z1] and [X2, Y2, Z2]: Coordinates of the two end points of the row of rods.

Number of rods along axis: Number of rods in the row.

Elements per Rod in upper soil layer: Number of elements for rods in upper soil layer for the finite-elements analysis.

Elements per Rod in lower soil layer: Number of elements for rods in lower soil layer for the finite-elements analysis.

Length: The rod length.

Diameter: The rod diameter.

  • 3.5.4 Arc Conductors

An arc conductor is a circular or arced conductor laid in the ground.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows we have entered the rods one at a time using different

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Arc conductor data is shown above. Note that the check box ‘Enabled’ is selected, which means that it will be considered in the Grid analysis. The ‘Primary’ electrode Type is selected (default). The drop-down box as allows modifying that default to ‘Return’ or ‘Distinct’.

The following set of data defines an arc conductor:

Type: Primary, Return or Distinct electrode.

[X1, Y1]: Coordinates of the arc center.

Starting angle: Beginning of the arc in degrees.

Ending angle: End of the arc in degrees, assuming a counter-clockwise rotation.

Radius: The radius of the arc.

Number of conductor elements: Number of conductor elements the arc is to be approximated with as an inscribed polygon.

Depth: The arc burial depth (common for both ends).

Diameter: The arc conductor diameter.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Please note:

A positive value of Z denotes a position below the surface of the soil for all electrode types and arrangements. No negative Z is permitted.

Both ends of an asymmetrical grid conductor must be in the same soil layer. Only ground rods are permitted to bridge two separate soil layers.

The minimum number of conductor elements that an arc can be approximated to is 3.

Electrodes are color-coded in the graphic window. ‘Primary’ electrodes are red, ‘Return’ electrodes are blue and ‘Distinct’ electrodes are green.

  • 3.6 Modifying and inspecting the station Geometry data

Enabling and disabling entries

Click on the ‘Enabled’ check box located in the dedicated spreadsheet column of the Data Entry view. If a check mark is shown the component is enabled. To disable it remove the check mark.

Reviewing and verifying the data

Any spreadsheet entry can be highlighted on the station layout drawing for verification and inspection. In order to do that, the appropriate cell on the far left column needs to be highlighted. It is the column that shows the entry number of the component. When you select a conductor in this fashion, it is highlighted in yellow on the grid layout, so that you may see which electrode you have selected. This is particularly useful when erroneous coordinates have been entered and you wish to correct them.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 3.7 Importing/Exporting Grid data and Station layouts

These commands allow you to import from or export to an AutoCAD drawing the grid layout design. The menu commands are listed under ‘Grid->Electrodes’.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 3.7 Importing/Exporting Grid data and Station layouts These commands allow you to

More details about the preparation of the data in AutoCAD, the import/export mechanism of CYMGRD and its CAD Editor function is detailed in Chapter 7 of this guide.

Please note:

Data files from earlier DOS versions of CYMGRD can still be imported. If such a case arises, please contact CYME International T&D Customer Support for instructions.

CYMGRD does not save station data in dedicated files. Instead, they constitute an integral part of the entire study.

  • 3.8 Overlapping conductor elements

CYMGRD cannot perform a station analysis if conductor elements are found to overlap each other. The term ‘elements’ pertains to the subdivision of ground conductors and rods in order to increase the accuracy of the calculations. If overlapping elements are found during execution the calculations will stop and an appropriate error message will be generated indicating which components overlap. Common errors causing that condition are duplicates of either asymmetrical conductor elements or grounding rods that are placed one on top of another. When the duplicate is disabled or removed from the grid design, the problem should be alleviated.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 3.9 Grid analysis and reports

The Grid analysis can be performed in the same manner that the ‘Soil’ analysis was invoked. Run the ‘Grid Analysis’ by clicking on the lightning bolt button. The time bar at the bottom of the desktop provides an estimate of the time required to complete the analysis.

The results of the simulation are shown in the ‘Grid Analysis’ tab within the ‘Reports’ view of the application, the first part of which is illustrated below. It is seen that, at first, the soil model used in the calculations is echoed in the report. It is important to verify that the soil model used in the grid analysis is indeed the one obtained from the soil analysis results. Otherwise, the grid analysis results may not be relevant.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 3.9 Grid analysis and reports The Grid analysis can be performed

Next, the coordinates of the grid elements and the current every each element diffuses to ground are listed. Note that for each element, a column indicates whether it belongs to a symmetrical or an asymmetrical assembly and a second one indicates the reference number of the assembly it belongs to. The reference number is the row item number of spreadsheet data entry. This way, it is easy to track the elements even if they might represent subdivisions of original data entities.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

The last

part of

the ‘Grid Analysis’ report is shown below. Conductor data is listed first,

followed by the rod data. Similarly, ‘Primary’ electrode results will be followed by any ‘Return’ electrode results and finally, by ‘Distinct’ electrode results, if any.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows The last part of the ‘Grid Analysis’ report is shown below. Conducto

The Ground potential rise and the station resistance is displayed at the end of the report.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Please note:

The various elements of the grounding installation, as resulted from the partitioning of the grid conductors and ground rods diffuse a positive current into the ground.

The simulation may however indicate that the current diffused to ground by one or more elements is zero. This indicates that CYMGRD found that each such element diffused a small negative current and consequently set it to zero. This situation is due to numerical instability. To avoid this problem, change the number of elements in the affected conductors or rods so that these elements are about as long as other elements in other conductors in the grid.

If negative currents are found for some of the elements of the Primary electrode during the analysis, CYMGRD will indicate these elements in the grid report flagging them in Red. This may be the result of false numerical representation, since currents from all elements should be positive (diffused to ground). If the negative current, from one or more elements, adds up to more than a few percent of the totally injected current, a new simulation should be performed with the number of elements changed as explained above. The same considerations apply if a positive current is found for any of the elements of the Return electrodes. No such considerations apply to the Distinct electrodes.

Experience has shown that the negative current is a very small fraction of the injected fault current and that the error introduced in calculating the station resistance and GPR is negligible. Simulations performed after changing the number of elements in conductors should indicate no change in the overall results, apart from correcting the negative currents.

It is always advisable to verify that strictly positive currents are diffused to the ground by all the elements.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 3.10 Visualize the station layout in 3-Dimensions.

The station layout shown in previous illustrations was a 2-D representation (Default). It is however, possible to view the station layout in three dimensions as well. The 3-D view is often useful, since a common error when entering input data is to introduce disparities in the burial depth of both conductors and grounding rods. A 3-D view of the station layout usually helps to locate these inconsistencies via a simple inspection.

To generate a 3-D representation, position the mouse on the window containing the grid layout and right-click.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 3.10 Visualize the station layout in 3-Dimensions. The station layout shown in

This provides access to the “Chart Settings” dialog that allows access to the actual graph settings.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 42 Chapter 3- - The Grid Analysis Module

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

By default, the Style setting “Area” is selected, which means that the grid layout will be shown as a function of the dimensions and aspect ratio of the display window. If the option “Scaled Area” is selected, the grid will be drawn to scale with proper consideration of its actual dimensions.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows By default, the Style setting “Area” is selected, which means that the

More options are available for the Graph and other components of the Chart from within the ‘Chart Settings’ dialog. The following illustration shows how to make the symmetrical grid conductors in the station representation invisible.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Similar settings can also be applied to all ot her electrode

Similar settings can also be applied to all other electrode types for both the 2-D and 3-D representations.

..

The same settings are used

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Similar settings can also be applied to all ot her electrode

Please note:

The Grid Analysis calculations are not affected even if an electrode component is made invisible. It is solely a method for the visual examination of the Grid layout.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 3.11 The station layout and the ‘Installation’ view.

A representation of the station layout is always shown in the ‘Installation’ view of the application. The station layout can be visualized in ‘2-D’, ‘3-D’ or ‘Auto’ mode. When in 2-D mode, the station layout is always shown in 2-D. When in 3-D mode, the station layout is always shown in 3-D. With the ‘Auto’ mode, the station layout is shown using the opposite mode defined for the ‘Grid Layout’ in the adjacent ‘Workbook’ view.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 3.11 The station layout and the ‘Installation’ view. A representation of the
  • 3.12 A note on modeling Grounding Structures

The Primary electrode is the grounding structure that absorbs the fault current. The basic analytical assumption CYMGRD makes, in compliance with International Standards, is that the entire grounding system that absorbs the fault current, and diffuses it to the ground, is elevated to a single potential. This is the Ground Potential Rise of the Primary electrode (i.e. the calculated GPR). Thus, voltage drop along the grid electrodes is not modeled. Furthermore, the ground structures are assumed to contain only resistance (i.e. no reactive component for the grounding grids and structures is modeled by CYMGRD). Modeling of the reactive component of the grid impedance may be necessary for stations possessing either a resistance of less than 0.5 Ohms or if they extend over an unusually large area.

Any metallic structures bonded and/or connected to the primary electrode by accident or with purpose such as fences, building foundations etc, and that help in reducing the GPR should be modeled as part of the Primary electrode.

The Return electrode should only be used in the case where a grid absorbing current from the ground exists and is located in the vicinity of the energized Primary electrode. Both Primary and Return electrodes can only be energized by virtue of currents, not voltages.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

The Distinct electrode should be used to model underground metallic structures that are adjacent to the Primary electrode but are inert (i.e. they are not energized by any current). Despite the fact of being inert, they should be modeled since they absorb currents, thus altering the surface potentials in the vicinity.

When a simulation comprises Primary, Return and Distinct electrodes, all electrodes are assumed to be within the same soil featuring the soil model obtained from the Soil analysis module of CYMGRD. Neither the Return nor the Distinct electrode can feature a galvanic connection with the Primary electrode.

  • 3.13 Soil data from earlier versions of the application

The application provides dedicated embedded safeguards against inconsistent data and is less permissive than earlier versions. It has already been mentioned that soil model values can no longer be entered separately within the grid parameters. Earlier versions, however, did permit this. As a result difficulties may be experienced when importing studies generated with previous versions. If inadvertent program termination or inconsistent results are seen, an effective remedy will be to re-affirm a slight modification to the soil data. Re-typing in the same value should be sufficient. This will simply invalidate all analysis results. Simply perform a new set of analysis to obtain new and consistent results.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Chapter 4

THE PLOTTING MODULE

  • 4.1 General introduction

The Plotting module is used to calculate and view the results of the surface potential analysis. With this module the user can perform danger-point evaluation on various surface points and/or areas of the substation. 2-D and 3-D contour plots illustrating the equipotential touch and/or surface contours can be generated. These can be color-coded for easy evaluation. Finally, touch and step potential graphs can be generated for linear directions by specifying the beginning and end points and the step size.

  • 4.2 How to generate ‘Touch’ and ‘Surface’ potential Contours

Equipotential contours can be generated only after the Grid analysis has been performed. A graph containing equipotential contours is a graph that pertains to a particular portion of the station layout (that can be the entire grid) and that shows the variations of the touch or surface potential.

When the area of interest is specified, CYMGRD performs calculations taking into account the various surface points and the current diffused to the ground from all grid elements. To specify the area of interest, position the mouse on the station layout graph and left click. The crosshair that appears determines one corner of the area. Hold and drag the mouse to select the area, as shown below.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Once the mouse button is released, the program displays the coordinates of the
Once
the
mouse
button
is
released,
the
program
displays
the
coordinates
of
the

encompassed area. At this point, the number of intervals in the X and Y directions can be

specified. CYMGRD uses these values to divide up the area before calculating the surface potentials. By default, the program considers 20 intervals in both X and Y directions. More can be specified for higher accuracy since more intersections will result for the area under consideration.

Once the area and the resolution are defined the program generates a graph that portrays the potential gradient in the selected area.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Chapter 4 – The Plotting Module 49
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Chapter 4 – The Plotting Module 49

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

As seen on the previous image, the generated graph is solid-filled. Actual equipotential contours can be seen along with their associated levels if the appropriate options are applied. Position the mouse on the contour graph and right click.

Select the “Settings…” item, which will open the Chart settings dialog. By highlighting ‘Contours’, it is seen that different options are available for drawing contours in the ‘Style’ drop- down box.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows As seen on the previous image, the generated graph is solid-filled.

The default setting is ‘Solid-filled’. If another option is selected, ‘Lines with labels’ for example, then the equipotentials appear along with their levels indicated in the form of labels as shown in the following image.

If, for some reason, the number of generated equipotentials is too large generating a graph that looks too busy, less can be plotted so the graph will be amenable to inspection. The number of equipotentials ‘Levels’ can be controlled from within the Chart settings dialog.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows As shown above, it can be controlled by in creasing or decreasing
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows As shown above, it can be controlled by in creasing or decreasing

As shown above, it can be controlled by increasing or decreasing the desired number of ‘Levels’ that are to be drawn.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 4.3 Touch and Surface potential contours

Once the equipotentials have been generated it is very easy to switch between Touch and Surface potential contours. In fact, both are contained within the same graph. Right-click on the generated contour plot to access the ‘Contours’ sub-menu. Switching from Touch to Surface creates the reverse stress patterns as shown below. This is due to the fact that areas with high touch potential are actually characterized by low surface potentials.

Please note:

It is not necessary to access the contour settings to ascertain whether an equipotential contour plot pertains to Touch or Surface potentials.

When moving over the chart with the mouse, Touch contour plots display the mouse cursor in the shape of a hand instead of an arrow to designate the touch nature of the potentials shown.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 4.3 Touch and Surface potential contours Once the equipotentials have been

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 4.4 Contour color coding and Safety Analysis

Equipotential contours plots are color-coded based on the results of the safety analysis calculations as conducted within the Soil Analysis module. Whenever a safety analysis is conducted, maximum permissible touch and step voltages are calculated. The program considers 4 thresholds for the touch potentials and another 4 for the surface potentials. The thresholds considered for the touch potentials are 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the maximum tolerable touch voltage. Anything above the maximum permissible touch voltage is shown in various shades of red to signify dangerous areas.

The user can define the colors although default settings are provided by CYMGRD. As shown below the threshold colors can be accessed under the tab thresholds in the appropriate Chart settings. In this example, for the ‘Touch potentials’ Chart settings, the first threshold region is defined to be between 0 and 25% of the maximum permissible touch voltage, and the default color is coded as green.

The last threshold region is defined such that everything above 100% will be red, while
The
last
threshold
region
is defined such
that everything
above
100%
will
be
red, while

everything between 75% and 100% of the maximum permissible touch will be plotted in blue.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Thresholds are defined for the surface potentials as well. Four thresholds are defined here as well; the difference being that the maximum threshold is set to the Ground Potential Rise as calculated by the Grid analysis module. As can be seen in the illustration below, the thresholds are accessed in the same way as with the touch equipotentials. The last threshold is shown here for illustration.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Thresholds are defined for the surface potentials as well. Four thresholds

The color-coding of the Surface Potential thresholds are by default the reverse of the touch potentials.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 4.5 How to generate 3-D contour plots

The plots shown in 2-D can also be generated in 3-D, in the same way that station layout plots were generated in 3-D. Right click on the 2-D graph, select ‘Settings…’, and under ‘Graph’ check 3-D. All contours, both touch and surface, are now shown in 3-D.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 4.5 How to generate 3-D contour plots The plots shown in 2-D

3D graphs can be rotated with the mouse (left click, hold and move) to position the graph for better inspection.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 4.6 Contour graph reports

Whenever a contour plot is generated the program produces a corresponding tabular report. This report contains among other things, the point of maximum potential found within the area selected. This point may be of interest since it represents, for touch voltage contours, the steepest gradient found during the analysis. The same point is shown with a yellow cross-hair on the contour graph both in the 2-D and the 3-D views.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 4.6 Contour graph reports Whenever a contour plot is generated the

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 4.7 Contour graph management

All contour plots generated within a study are saved as part of the study and displayed in the ‘Contours’ tab of the ‘Workspace’ view. The contour plots shown in the ‘Workbook’ view pertain only to the active study and are identified with a user-definable title. Charts can be deleted and renamed using the facilities shown in the illustration below. Right click with the mouse on any contour chart and select an activity to either rename or delete it all together.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 4.7 Contour graph management All contour plots generated within a study are

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 4.8 How to perform ‘spot-check’ danger point evaluation

Besides generating contour plots that, essentially, assess the safety of certain areas of interest, specific points can be checked for their potential values using the mouse.

For instance, in the example below, we show an assessment of a particular danger evaluation point is done near the lower left region of the grid. As we move the mouse within the contour graph., the program generates a tool tip showing the coordinates (the first two numbers) and the voltage value (the last number). At each location, that last value is the touch or surface voltage depending on whether the contour graph is a touch or a surface contour plot.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 4.8 How to perform ‘spot-check’ danger point evaluation Besides generating contour

Another important feature of this facility is that whenever the mouse is moved within the contour plot, a cross hair appears in the ‘Installation’ view indicating the actual position of the searched point with respect to the entire grid. This option may prove useful, when the contour graph encompasses only a small region of the grid area as opposed to the entire grid area, which is always shown in the ‘Installation’ view.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
  • 4.9 How to generate Profile voltage plots

Profile plots are useful whenever an analysis along an axis is desired in order to assess the touch and surface potential instead of an entire grid area or single coordinate. Another important use for generating these graphs is the evaluation of step potentials. In order for CYMGRD to generate profile plots, the appropriate option must be selected in the same manner as for performing Soil analysis, Grid analysis etc. The ‘Profile Plot’ item can be selected from the drop- down menu of the engine selection list.

A starting and an end point can be defined using the mouse (left-click, hold and move), as shown below.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 4.9 How to generate Profile voltage plots Profile plots are useful whenever

Once the two points have been identified, and the mouse is released, and the coordinates appear in the ‘Profile Parameters’ dialog box. In the same dialog box, the step size is specified for the step potential evaluations. The step interval defines the distance between the two feet of a potential shock victim for the purpose of displaying the step voltage between two points along the profile.

Once the step size is specified and the coordinates are re-entered to eliminate any manual selection inaccuracies, a graph is generated by clicking on the ‘OK’ button.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 60 Chapter 4 – The Plotting Module
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 60 Chapter 4 – The Plotting Module

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

In the example above, surface, touch and step potentials are indicated with red, blue and green curves respectively. The dashed curves of the same colors pertain to the limiting values for each (i.e. the GPR along with the maximum permissible values, as resulted from the safety analysis). It is clearly seen that violations for the step potential are recorded in the area where no grid conductors are placed, as expected.

Please note:

The same philosophy for tabular report generation applies to the profile plots as seen in the appropriate tab of the ‘Reports’ view.

The same chart management principles for the generated profile plots can be seen in the appropriate tab of the ‘Workspace’ view.

Graphs can be tracked with the mouse to visualize potentials along the search direction. Activating the “Scroll-Lock” button will restrict movement of the mouse to one of the graph curves. Moving the mouse up or down switches between curves.

The ‘Installation’ view indicates the actual position of mouse on the station layout when moving over an active profile plot window.

  • 4.10 Inspecting potential profile plots

You can track the profile plot curves with the mouse. Move the mouse along the curve to see the distance and the voltage between a selected point and the starting point.

You can also show the absolute coordinates of a specific point along the axis. In order to do this, track the curve with the mouse and every time the X-Y coordinates are needed, simply left- click the mouse and hold. The same applies for the step potential curve. However, since the step potential is the difference between the surface potentials of two consecutive points, the coordinates displayed define the second point only.

  • 4.11 Comparing contour plots from two different studies

It is common to compare two contour plots from different studies in order to ascertain station design improvement and/or danger point elimination. While any two graphs from the same study can be concurrently visualized, graphs from different studies first need to be exported to CYMVIEW for concurrent visualization. CYMVIEW is a general-purpose chart viewer that is provided with the CYMGRD application.

For purposes of illustration, assume that we want to assess the difference the addition of an arc conductor makes in the local touch potential distribution of a station. First, generate the graph from within the study that contains no arc in the station layout and export it to CYMVIEW.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Then generate the same graph from the study that contains the

Then generate the same graph from the study that contains the arc conductor in the station layout and export it to CYMVIEW as well. Tile the windows within the CYMVIEW application to readily view the two situations.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows It is seen that adding an arc conductor significant ly reduces the

It is seen that adding an arc conductor significantly reduces the risk of shock exposure by diminishing the touch potentials.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Chapter 5

EXAMPLE STUDIES

In this chapter, two step-by-step sample studies are detailed: A primary electrode only model, below, and a Primary, Return and Distinct electrodes model, Section 5.6.

The descriptions of the two examples show how the most commonly used functions of the application are actually utilized.

  • 5.1 Example 1: Primary electrode only

In this example, the grounding grid is square and symmetrical (meshes of equal area). It is 76.2 meters long and 76.2 meters wide. All conductors are buried at a depth of 0.5 meters. Nine conductors lie parallel to the X-axis and Nine parallel to the Y-axis. The diameter of all the conductors is 19.1 millimeters. Finally, 25 grounding rods are connected to the grounding grid at the perimeter. The rods are 10.9 meters long with diameter 2.858 centimeters (1-1/8 inches). There are no auxiliary grounds in the vicinity and the fence of the station is to be disregarded, for now.

The grounding installation is in parallel with a resistance of 25 ohms, simulating the presence of overhead sky wire and counterpoise resistance. The total fault current is 4000 Amperes, but since the equivalent impedance of the sky wires is not infinite (9999 ohms), not all of that current will contribute to the station potential rise.

This example shows how to build the station from scratch with all resistivity measurements taken along the same direction, using the Wenner technique, in order to determine the soil characteristics.

In order to test the Soil Analysis module in CYMGRD, the following measurements were obtained from one of IEEE sample. (IEEE 80-2000, page 168 & 169. Soil type 2)

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Chapter 5 EXAMPLE STUDIES In this chapter, two step-by-step sample studi es

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

The station surface is to be backfilled with crushed rock of 2500 Ohm-meter resistivity at a thickness of 0.2 meters. Safety design considerations focus concerns on an exposure duration of 500 milli-seconds and a weight of 70 Kilograms for the potential shock victim.

  • 5.2 Methodology

The first step is to interpret the soil resistivity measurements and arrive at a soil model for the subsequent analysis. It is at this point that CYMGRD is used to calculate a two-layer soil model from the measurements.

The second step is done automatically by CYMGRD as part of the soil model calculations. The maximum permissible touch and step voltages for the soil model is determined according to the IEEE Std 80-2000 and in accordance with the station surface treatment conditions and safety requirements.

The third step is to enter the dimensions of the grounding assemblies and perform station potential rise analysis as well as to determine the station resistance.

The fourth step is to carry out a danger point evaluation.

5.3

First

step:

Soil

measurements

Analysis

and

interpretation

of

resistivity

Activate CYMGRD and define a new Project and Study. Enter the soil measurements in the appropriate ‘Data Entry’ view tab.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows The station surface is to be backfilled with crushed rock of

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

You will notice that as soon as the measurements are entered, they are reflected as dots on the ‘Soil Model’ chart in the ‘Workbook’ view.

Continue by opening the ‘Soil Parameters’ dialog box by selecting the ‘Parameters’ item in the ‘Soil’ menu, to define the safety analysis settings.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows You will notice that as soon as the measurement s are entered,

Click the lightning bolt symbol on the main toolbar to perform the analysis. The results will be shown in the ‘Soil Analysis’ tab of the ‘Reports’ view. This is the second step of the process.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 68 Chapter 5 – Example Studies
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 68 Chapter 5 – Example Studies

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

Despite the fact that the results show a considerable RMS error of around 14 percent, the user can accept the soil model as is without discarding any measurements. But, should the user decide to reject some of the measurements in order to improve (i.e. reduce) the RMS error, the third or fourth items in the list can be good choices. For this example, we decided to disable the first four measurements, which produces the following results:

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Despite the fact that the re sults show a considerable RMS error
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows Despite the fact that the re sults show a considerable RMS error

The following table shows the comparison between CYMGRD results and the values obtained from IEEE. (See IEEE 80-2000 pages 168 and 169)

 

Upper Layer

Upper Layer

Lower Layer

Thickness [m]

Resistivity [Ohm-m]

Resistivity [Ohm-m]

CYMGRD

6.11

298.24

99.98

IEEE 80-2000

6.1

300.0

100.0

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

  • 5.4 Third step: Grounding installation data entry

In this example, all conductors are buried at a depth of 0.5 meters. Nine conductors lie parallel to the X-axis and nine are parallel to the Y-axis. For analysis purposes, the conductors parallel to the X-axis are subdivided into 16 elements and the conductors parallel to the Y-axis into 24 elements.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 5.4 Third step: Grounding installation data entry In this example, all

Conductor parallel to Y-axis

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 5.4 Third step: Grounding installation data entry In this example, all
Conductor parallel to X-axis
Conductor
parallel to X-axis
CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 5.4 Third step: Grounding installation data entry In this example, all

We can enter all pertinent general type data in the dialog box shown below, which is accessed from ‘Parameters’ item under the ‘Grid’ menu. Since there is no return electrode, the return current is 0.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows 5.4 Third step: Grounding installation data entry In this example, all

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

The geometrical data can now be entered. Since the conductor assembly is a symmetrical arrangement (i.e. it can be defined as equally spaced and equidistant both X and Y directions), we will use the ‘Symmetrical Conductors’ tab in the ‘Data Entry’ view to supply the data. As soon as the data is entered the station layout is shown on the screen.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows The geometrical data can now be entered. Since the conductor assembly is

We will now add the ground rods to the conductor assemblies. We can enter the grid and the rods in any order, but it is better to enter the grid layout first and then the ground rods. Similarly the symmetrical ground rod layout allows us to use the ‘Symmetrical Rod’ tab for entering the data. The rods are now shown superimposed on the grid conductors. The rod depth is defined as the distance from the surface of the earth to the top of the rods and is always entered as a positive value.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows

For illustration purposes, the station layout is shown in 3-D in the following image.

CYMGRD 6.3 for Windows For illustration purposes, the station layout is shown in 3-D in

Perform a grid analysis by selecting the Grid Analysis engine and clicking on the lightning bolt icon.