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Improvements to Transformer Differential

Protection – Design and Test Experience

H.T. Yip, M. Moscoso, G. Lloyd, K. Liu, Z. Wang – ALSTOM Grid


Bias Characteristic

Traditional bias characteristic:


• Improves stability during CT saturation.
• Considers 2nd harmonic blocking or restraining to provide stability during inrush.

Traditional bias characteristic limitations:


• Dual slope characteristic on its own may not maintain stability without requiring excessive
over-dimensioning of the CTs.
• 2nd harmonic technique may slow down the bias differential element when CT saturation
occurs during internal faults.

April 2011 - P 2
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Bias Characteristic

Iop = Is1 for 0 ≤ Ibias ≤ Is1/K1

Iop = K1 × Ibias for Is1/K1 ≤ Ibias ≤ Is2


Idiff/In

Iop = K1 × Is2 + K2 × (Ibias - Is2) for Ibias ≥ Is2


I-HS2

I-HS1
K2
Operating region

Is1 K1
Restraint region

April 2011 - P 3
Is1/K1 Is2 Ibias/In
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient bias (patent pending) - Improves Differential
Protection Stability

• Transient Bias Algorithm:


− Enhances stability during external faults:
• Increases the operating threshold momentarily when there is a sudden increase in
the bias current.
• Does not affects the performance during internal faults as the differential current
rises much faster than the differential current.
− The transient bias algorithm considers a time decay constant, stability
coefficients and the differential function settings to provide a dynamic bias
characteristic.

April 2011 - P 4
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient bias (patent pending) - Improves Differential
Protection Stability

• Delayed bias:
− Ibias A_delayed = Maximum [Ibias, A(n), Ibias,A (n-1), ........., Ibias,A (n – (k-1))]
− Ibias B_delayed = Maximum [Ibias, B(n), Ibias,B (n-1), ........., Ibias,B (n – (k-1))]
− Ibias C_delayed = Maximum [Ibias, C(n), Ibias,C (n-1), ........., Ibias,C (n – (k-1))]

• Maximum Bias:
• Ibias,max = Maximum [IbiasA_delayed, Ibias,B_delayed, Ibias,C_delayed]

April 2011 - P 5
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient bias (patent pending) - Improves Differential
Protection Stability

• Operating Current at Maximum Bias:


− Iop = Is1 for 0 ≤ Ibias,max ≤ Is1/K1
• Iop = K1 × Ibias,max for Is1/K1 ≤ Ibias,max ≤ Is2
• Iop = K1 × Is2 + K2 × (Ibias,max - Is2) for Ibias,max ≥ Is2

• Differential current thresholds


− Diff threshold phase A = Iop at max bias + transient bias_phase A
− Diff threshold phase B = Iop at max bias + transient bias_phase B
− Diff threshold phase C = Iop at max bias + transient bias_phase C

April 2011 - P 6
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias Algorithm – Differential Thresholds
AN external fault on the star side of a Ynd11 transformer

2.5 1.8 transient bias - phaseB


transient bias - phaseA
Ibdiff
Iadiff 1.6 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseB
2 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseA
1.4

1.2
1.5
1

I (pu)
I (pu)

0.8
1
0.6

0.4
0.5
0.2

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
t(s) t(s)

1.8 transient bias - phaseC


Icdiff
1.6 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseC
1.4

1.2

1
I (pu)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
April 2011 - P 7 t(s)

© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias Algorithm –Dynamic Differential
Characteristic
AN external fault on the star side of a Ynd11 transformer
3.00 Nominal characteristic 3.00 Nominal characteristic
Iadiff Ibdiff
2.50 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseA 2.50 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseB

2.00 B'
2.00
Diff (pu)

Diff (pu)
1.50 B B'
1.50

B
1.00 1.00

0.50 C' A'


A' 0.50
C'
C
A C
0.00 0.00 A
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
Bias (pu) Bias (pu)

3.00 Nominal characteristic


Icdiff
2.50 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseC

2.00
Diff (pu)

1.50
B'

1.00

A' B
0.50
C'
C
0.00 A
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
April 2011 - P 8 Bias (pu)

© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias Algorithm – Differential Thresholds
BN internal fault on the delta side of a Ynd11 transformer

1.8 transient bias - phaseA 6 transient bias - phaseB


1.6 Iadiff Ibdiff
Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseA 5
1.4 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseB

1.2 4
1
I (pu)

I (pu)
3
0.8

0.6 2
0.4
1
0.2

0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
t(s) t(s)

6 transient bias - phaseC


Icdiff
5 Iop at max bias + transient bias - phaseC

4
I (pu)

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6
April 2011 - P 9 t(s)

© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias Algorithm – Dynamic Differential
Characteristic
BN internal fault on the delta side of a Ynd11 transformer
3.00 Nominal characteristic Nominal characteristic
6.00
Iadiff
Ibdiff
2.50 Iop at max bias + transient B
5.00 Iop at max bias + transient
bias - phaseA
bias - phaseB
2.00
4.00
Diff (pu)

Diff (pu)
1.50
3.00
B'
1.00
2.00

0.50 1.00
C'
A'
0.00 0.00 A
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 C
Bias (pu) 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
Bias (pu)

6.00 Nominal characteristic

Icdiff fundamental - phaseC


5.00
B
Iop at max bias + transient
bias - phaseC
4.00
Diff (pu)

3.00
B'

2.00

1.00
C'A'

0.00 A
0.00 0.50 1.00 C1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00
April 2011 - P 10 Bias (pu)

© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
CT Saturation and No Gap Detection (patent pending) -
Improves Differential Protection Operating Time

• CT Saturation Detection Algorithm:


− Distinguishes between magnetising inrush and CT saturation
• Based on discontinuity patterns observed on magnetising inrush and CT saturation
waveforms.
• Differentiates the differential current waveforms.
• CT Saturation and No Gap Detection:
− Considers the number of samples above a dynamic threshold within the last
“N” executions.

April 2011 - P 11
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
CT Saturation and No Gap Detection (patent pending) -
Improves Differential Protection Operating Time

• CT Saturation and No Gap Detection:


− Distinguish between inrush and saturation
• Saturated current waveforms are rich in 2nd harmonic.
• Second harmonic blocking does not distinguish between inrush and saturation.
• Second harmonic blocking might be asserted during internal faults with heavy CT
saturation.
• The low set differential element might be prevented to operate due to second
harmonic blocking.
• The low set differential element must clear the fault during low fault levels.
• Internal fault clearance might be delayed due to saturation.

April 2011 - P 12
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
CT Saturation and No Gap Detection - Enabled

Operating time = 32 ms

April 2011 - P 13
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
CT Saturation and No Gap Detection - Disabled

Operating time = 56 ms

April 2011 - P 14
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Biased Differential Trip Logic
Is CrossBlock enabled?
5th Har Blk A
Yes = 1
No = 0

Id Bias Start A & Id Bias Trip A

2nd Har Blk A


& ≥
CT Saturation A &


No Gap A 5th Har Blk B
&

External fault A Id Bias Start B & Id Bias Trip B

2nd Har Blk B


& ≥
CT Saturation B &


5th Har Blk C
No Gap B
&

External fault B Id Bias Start C & Id Bias Trip C

&
2nd Har Blk C

CT Saturation C &

≥ ≥
&
No Gap C
&

External fault C

April 2011 - P 17
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias – Effect on CT Requirements

• The transient bias algorithm avoids over-dimensioning the CT to maintain stability


during external faults.
− Distinguish between inrush and saturation
• To determine the CT requirements, through fault injection tests where done under
different:
− X/R ratios
− lead burdens
− Fault levels
− Fault types
− Point on wave fault inception

April 2011 - P 18
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias – Effect on CT Requirements

• When transient bias is not included, K factor might be more than 5 times the K
factor when transient bias is included (K = CT dimensioning factor). The K factor
might be reduced in at least 80%.

Transient bias technique applied Transient bias not applied


45.0 300.0
X/R = 5
40.0 X/R = 5
X/R = 10
250.0 X/R = 10
35.0 X/R = 20
X/R = 20
30.0 X/R = 40
200.0 X/R = 40
X/R = 80
25.0 X/R = 80
X/R = 120 X/R = 120
K

20.0
K 150.0

15.0
100.0
10.0
5.0 50.0
0.0
0.0
0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
If If

April 2011 - P 19
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias – CT Requirements

System K factor
(CT dimensioning factor) Knee point voltage
conditions

In < IF ≤ 64In K = 25 VK ≥ 25 × In × (RCT + 2RL + Rr)(1)


5 ≤ X/R ≤ 20 VK ≥ 25 × In × (RCT + RL + Rr)(2)

In < IF ≤ 64In K = 40 VK ≥ 40 × In × (RCT + 2RL + Rr) (1)


20 <X/R ≤ 120 VK ≥ 40 × In × (RCT + RL + Rr) (2)

Where:
K = CT dimensioning factor
IF = maximum external fault current
X/R = primary system X/R ratio
In = Relay rated current
Rr = resistance of any other protective relays sharing the current transformer (Ω)
(1) = single phase fault or phase-phase-ground fault
(2) = three phase fault or phase-phase fault

April 2011 - P 20
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Transient Bias – CT Requirements

• To ensure that through fault stability is achieved the following ratios should not exceed a
maximum disparity of 4:1. Fulfilling the disparity ratios ensures that during a through fault
condition the flux density in the current transformers is not greatly different.
− Vk-HV / Rtot-HV : Vk-LV / Rtot-LV
− Vk-HV / Rtot-HV : Vk-TV / Rtot-TV
− Vk-LV / Rtot-LV : Vk-TV / Rtot-TV
Where:
Vk-xx = Knee point voltage of CT at xx side
Rtot-xx = (RCT+ 2Rl + Rr) or (RCT + Rl + Rr)
Note: xx = HV, LV or TV

April 2011 - P 21
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
Conclusions

• The transient bias algorithm improves the stability of the biased differential element.
The biased characteristic varies dynamically taking into consideration the increase in
bias current as well as the differential settings.
• The CT requirements for a biased differential element are greatly reduced when the
transient bias technique is included.
• The CT saturation and no gap detection techniques improve the operating times as
the biased differential element is not longer blocked during internal faults with CT
saturation.

April 2011 - P 22
© ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice.
No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third
parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
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