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Jet Grouting Practice: an Overview

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Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828

Jet Grouting Practice: an Overview

Z.F. Wang1, S.L. Shen2, C.E. Ho3 and Y.H. Kim4
Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, China
Arup, 77 Water Street, New York, NY10005, USA
Korea Foundation Technology (KFT) Co., Ltd., Anyang-City, Korea

ABSTRACT: Jet grouting is one of the most popular ground improvement techniques due to its applicability in almost all soil types. In this
overview, the historical progress of technology development in jet grouting is briefly described, followed by the trace of the development of
empirical and theoretical approaches for predicting the achievable diameter of a jet grout column. This paper also introduces a recently
developed jet grouting technique called the Twin-Jet method. Twin-Jet method was developed to achieve quick solidification of soft soils by
jetting with two types of binders, cement-slurry and sodium silicate (water glass) as an accelerator. This technique is particularly
advantageous in horizontal jet grouting applications. Two case histories are presented to demonstrate the performance of Rodin Jet Pile (RJP)
method in the soft clayey and sandy soils in Shanghai and the application of the Twin-jet method in sandy soils in South Korea.

KEYWORDS : Soft deposit, Jet Grouting, Diameter, Twin-Jet, Two binders.

1. INTRODUCTION i) single fluid system (only grout), ii) double fluid system (grout and
air), or iii) triple fluid system (water, grout, and air). The single-
Jet grouting is a soil treatment technique for stabilizing soft ground fluid system utilizes grout as the cutting jet as well as to achieve
by mixing cement slurry with in-situ soil. Jet grouting has been cementation of the eroded soil. In the double-fluid system, a
widely used for soft ground modification in various underground compressed air shroud is introduced around the grout jet to enhance
projects to form base seals and buried grout struts for deep the cutting distance of the grout jet. In the triple-fluid system, water
excavations, structural support around tunnel eyes at the entrance is used for the cutting jet together with a compressed air shroud, and
and departure sites of tunnel boring machine, as well as sealing of grout is injected separately through a lower nozzle at much smaller
leaking joints in diaphragm walls (Shen et al., 2008b; 2010; 2012; pressure to mix with the eroded soil. The adoption of a lower
2013a; Peng et al., 2011; Sun et al., 2012; Tan and Wei, 2012; Wang viscosity fluid such as water (in comparison with that of grout)
et al., 2013). The jet grouting involves the injection of cement slurry allows the cutting distance to be further enhanced, especially in
under high pressure from a nozzle fixed on a rotating monitor into cohesive soils.
the ground. The resulting high speed fluid jet erodes the in-situ soil
and simultaneously mixes it with cement slurry to form a soil-
cement column. Some applications have indicated that the shear
strength of the soil-cement column could reach to several mega-
pascal (Maswoswe, 2003; Ho, 2009; Shen et al., 2013b).
Jet grouting was initially patented in 1968, under the name
Chemical Churning Pile (CCP) method (Nakanishi et al., 1997),
which is the fore runner of the single fluid system. With further
improvement of the installation process and supporting equipment,
alternate systems were developed, including the double fluid system,
triple fluid system, multi-fluid method (SSS-MAN), Rodin Jet Pile
(RJP) and Metro Jet System (MJS) (Nakanishi et al., 1997; Brill et
al., 2003; Burke, 2004).
This paper presents the historical development of jet grouting Figure 1 Schematic view of jet grouting technology
technology and highlights more recent research activities in
Shanghai for infrastructure construction. Recent research activities 2.3 Jet Grouting Operational Parameters
have focused on the technological development of the Twin Jet
method and RJP method in Shanghai. The key jet grouting operational parameters governing the jetting
performance are:
2. JET GROUTING TECHNOLOGY (1) Characteristics of jetting fluid (i.e. water-cement ratio of grout);
(2) Pressure and flow rate of jetting fluid;
2.1 Basic Concept (3) Jetting time (which is a function of the traverse velocity of
Figure 1 presents a schematic view of the jet grouting process. A nozzle, and hence the withdrawal rate and rotation speed);
high speed fluid (water jet or grout jet) is injected through small (4) Characteristics of nozzle (i.e. nozzle diameter, number of
diameter nozzles into the subsoil to erode the surrounding soil, nozzles and nozzle shape).
while the nozzles are rotated and lifted towards the ground surface Table 1 shows the range of jet grouting parameters commonly
at a constant speed. The eroded soil is simultaneously mixed with adopted for three conventional jet grouting systems (Burke, 2004;
the injected grout to form the admixture, and a soil-cement column Lunardi, 1997). The applied fluid pressure for cutting jet ranges in
with a quasi-cylindrical shape would be formed after some days of general from 30 MPa to 70 MPa for the single and double fluid
solidification. systems. In the triple fluid systems, typical injection pressure for the
water cutting jet is 30 to 40 MPa, while the grout is introduced of a
2.2 Conventional Jet Grouting Systems much lower pressure of 7 to 10 MPa and is just used to mix with the
soil eroded by the high pressure water jet. The traverse velocity of
Based on the different methods of fluid injection, jet-grouting the nozzle in the triple fluid system is smaller than that in single and
technology can be classified into three basic types (see Figure 2): double fluid systems.
Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828

Figure 2 Illustration of conventional jet grouting systems

Table 1 Ranges of jet grouting parameters for conventional jet 3.5

grouting systems (after Burke, 2004; Lunardi, 1997)
Single Double Triple

Column diameters (m)

Parameters fluid fluid fluid Burke, 2004
system system system 2.0
Water pressure, MPa NA NA 30~40
Flow rate of water, L/min NA NA 80~200 1.5
Number of nozzle NA NA 1~2 1.0
Nozzle diameter, mm NA NA 1.5~3.0
Air pressure, MPa NA 0.7~1.5 0.7~1.5 0.5

Flow rate of air, m3/min NA 8~30 4~15 0.0

Sand Silt Soft
Grout pressure, MPa 40~70 30~70 7~10 clay
Soil type
Flow rate of grout, L/min 100~300 100~600 120~200
Grout density, g/cm3 1.25~1.6 1.25~1.8 1.5~2.0 Figure 4 Variation of column diameters with soil type for triple fluid
Number of nozzle 1~6 1~2 1~3 system (after Burke, 2004)
Nozzle diameter, mm 1.0~4 2~7 5~10
Withdrawal rate, cm/min 15~100 10~30 6~15 3. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF JET GROUTING
Rotation speed, rpm 7~20 2~20 7~15 TECHNOLOGY
Note: NA=Non available Jet grouting technology was first invented in Japan in the 1970s
(Yahiro and Yoshida, 1973). With the development of technologies
2.4 Formation of Jet Grout Columns in other fileds, there were also many technical improvements to jet
Filed experience indicate that, for the same set of same jet grouting grouting in Japan, especially with regards to plant and equipment.
parameters, the column diameters formed in different soils are not Research and development in Japan were mainly performed by two
identical. The cutting efficiency in single fluid system is relatively groups, one led by Yahiro and the other by Nakanishi (Xanthakos et
small, and the typical column diameters formed ranged from 0.9 m al., 1994). Later, jet grouting technology was gradually introduced
to 0.4 m, with decreasing trend from gravelly soil to clayey soil, as to many other countries, such as United States, Europe, and China
shown in Figure 3 (Croce and Flora, 2000). Due to the utilization of etc.
compressed air in double fluid systems, the column diameters As shown in Figure 5, introduction of jet grouting as a single
obtained are 30% to 70% larger than that for a single fluid system fluid system began in the late-1970s in United States during the
(Lunardi, 1997). Figure 4 shows the variation of column diameters period of economic downturn in oil drilling services and a
with soil type obtained using triple fluid system (Burke, 2004), corresponding glut of jet grouting equipment became available (Brill
which suggests that the diameters formed were larger due to et al., 2003). In the mid-1980s, the triple fluid system was
increased cutting efficiency, and column larger than 2.0 m is introduced, since it can provide a more controllable and safer system
possible. in installation. The double fluid system enabled significant savings
1.0 in cost for many soil conditions and became popular in the 1990s.
The introduction of the Super Jet technology from Japan to United
States in 2000s enabled further cost saving for mass stabilization
Botto, 1985
with its ability to produce very large diameter columns (Brill et al.,
Column diameters (m)

2003). Jet grouting technology was first introduced into Europe in

the late-1970s and was mainly applied to water resource and
tunneling projects (Coomber, 1986; Lunardi, 1997; Brill et al., 2003;
0.4 Flora et al., 2007). The research and development of jet grouting in
Europe were mainly carried out in Italy, especially in the
0.2 development of design theory for ground improvement using jet
grout columns formed with the single fluid system (Croce and Flora,
0.0 2000; Modoni et al., 2006; Modoni and Bzòwka, 2012), using jet
Gravel Sandy Silty Clayey grout columns as ground water cut offs in water resource projects
Gravel sand silt
Soil type
(Croce and Modoni, 2007), and jet grouted umbrellas in tunneling
project (Flora et al., 2007; Lignola et al., 2008). Development of jet-
Figure 3 Variation of column diameters with soil type for single grouting in China began at the end of 1970s and was first used to
fluid system (after Croce and Flora, 2000) construct a retaining structure for an excavation at Baoshan Steel
Inc., Shanghai (Xu and Quan, 2004). With the development of large-
scale urban construction since 1990s, jet-grouting has been
employed in underground construction in mega-cities, such as
Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828

Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. During this period, jet-grouting MPa). Compared to the conventional double fluid system, Super Jet
technology was also applied to large-scale hydraulic projects, such technology has a higher injection volume of grout flow in
as the Three Gorges Dam project of Yangtze River, and the construction, and hence the diameter obtained by Super Jet
Xiaolangdi project of Yellow River. Since 1990, China has since technology can achieve about 5 m in some case (Essler and Yoshida,
become the leading country with the largest volume of jet-grouting 2004).
in the global construction industry.

2000 Super jet grouting

Double fluid system
Triple fluid system

Single fluid system


Original jet grouting

1970 patent development

Figure 7 Illustration of Super Jet technology

Figure 5 Historical development of jet grouting in United States
(after Brill et al., 2003) 3.2 X-Jetting Technology
Figure 6 shows several typical methods in historical Figure 8 shows the illustration of X-jetting technology, and it can be
development of jet grouting. As can be seen, the methods developed seen that X-jetting technology is developed on the basis of the
earlier were Chemical Churning Pile (CCP), Jambo Special Pile conventional triple fluid system (Essler and Yoshida, 2004). In X-
(JSP) and Column Jet Pile (CJP), which corresponded to the single, jetting technology, a pair of colliding erosion water jets (40 MPa)
double, and triple fluid systems, respectively. In order to meet the which is shrouded by compressed air (0.6~1.05 MPa), is adopted to
demands for increasing the dimensions and mechanical properties of produce a more controlled erosion range of soils, and then the low
jet grout columns, further technical improvements have been pressure grout jet is ejected from a lower nozzle to mix the eroded
introduced, such as Super Jet technology, X-Jetting technology, soil for forming a more uniform and controlled diameter of jet grout
Rodin Jet Pile (RJP) technology, Twin-Jet Method and Metro Jet column (Burke, 2004).
System (MJS) technology (Essler and Yoshida, 2004; Shen et al.,
2008a, 2009a).

Figure 8 Illustration of X-jetting technology

Figure 6 Typical methods in historical development of jet grouting
3.3 Rodin Jet Pile Technology
3.1 Super Jet Technology
A variation of the conventional triple-fluid system, called RJP
Based on the advancement in the tooling and support equipment, technology, was introduced by Tsujita (1996). In RJP technology,
Super Jet technology has been developed to produce larger jet grout both the water and grout jets are simultaneously injected under high
column (Brill et al., 2003). Figure 7 shows the illustration of Super pressures (Shen et al. 2009b), such that the soil is subjected to two
Jet technology. As can be seen, it is developed based on the stages of erosion, initially by the water jet, then followed by
conventional double fluid system. For creating a larger jet grout secondary erosion by the grout jet. The exposure of the soil twice to
column, this technology utilizes two opposing nozzles to eject high the cutting action of the jets enables a larger column to be formed.
pressure grout (30 MPa) shrouded by compressed air (0.7~1.05 Figure 9 shows the illustration of RJP technology.
Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828


The interaction mechanism between a high speed fluid jet and soil is
highly complex and is still not explicitly understood at present.
Kanematsu (1980) suggested a number of effects could be included
in the interaction of soil and high speed water jet: 1) hydrodynamic
pressure; 2) pulsation load of water jet; 3) water wedge effect; 4)
impingement force of water mass; 5) cavitation. For different soils,
the interaction between the high speed jet and soil is also different.
It is generally accepted that, for gravelly soils, permeation of the
grout through soil pores would be the important, while for sandy and
clayey soils, the mixing and replacement of the soil by the grout
would be important (Miki, 1985; Bell, 1993; Croce and Flora, 2000;
Modoni et al., 2006; Ho, 2007). In jet grouting, the degree of soil
erodibility is not identical for different soil conditions, so the
diameters achieved by the same jet grouting parameter may also be
different. Field experience indicates that high plasticity clays with
significant cohesion are more difficult to erode than granular soils,
Figure 9 Illustration of RJP technology as shown in Figure 12 (Burke, 2004). The critical erosion velocity of
soil (the minimum value of jet velocity that will initiate soil erosion)
3.4 Twin-Jet Method has been used by various investigations to represent the soil
To achieve a quick gel of soft ground after jet grouting, the erodibility (Dabbagh et al., 2002; Briaud, 2008). The critical erosion
hardening process of an admixture of grout-soil must be accelerated velocity is a function of the soil properties, and has been expressed
by adding a binder into the admixture of grout-soil. When water- in terms of the soil shear strength by several researchers (Dabbagh
glass is selected as the binder, the admixture of grout-soil can gel et al., 2002; Modoni et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2012). Nevertheless,
within 5 to 10 seconds. Thus, the Twin-Jet Method is developed the existing methods for calculating critical erosion velocity do not
based on this traditional triple fluid system (Kim, 2008; Shen et al. consider the effect of grain size distribution and soil stress level.
2009a). Figure 10 shows the schematic diagram of the materials
using the transporting process in the formation of a jet grout column 5. EXISTING METHODS FOR PREDICTION OF JET
while using the Twin-Jet Method. In the Twin-Jet Method, high- GROUT COLUMN DIAMETER
pressurized grout shrouded by compressed air is jetted out to erode The factors influencing the diameter of the jet-grouted column
the soil, and the admixture of grout-soil is formed. Then, the water- include soil properties and jet parameters. The existing methods for
glass solution shrouding the high-pressurized grout is jetted into the estimating jet grout column diameter are either based on an
admixture for a quick gel, and a jet grout column can be formed empirical approach or a theoretical approach (Table 2). The
after hardening. empirical methods were developed based on observations derived
from jet grouting field trials and attempt to correlate column
3.5 Metro Jet System Technology diameter to the various operational parameters mathematically using
As jet grouting involves the injection of large volumes of water or a power law. Hence, these relationships do not have a clear physical
grout into the soil, significant impact on the ground can be expected, meaning. In the empirical methods, certain operational parameters
such as lateral movement of soils and ground upheaval. By (such as jetting pressure, flow rate and withdrawal rate of the nozzle)
transporting out the spoil timely during jet grouting, a new jet have been considered, however, other important parameters (such as
grouting technology named MJS technology has been developed for nozzle diameter, effect of air shroud in double and triple fluid
reducing the inverse impact (Nakashima and Nakanishi, 1995). systems, rotation speed, grout characteristics and soil properties)
Figure 11 presents the sectional view of composite pipe used in have been ignored. The empirical coefficients were derived from
MJS technology, in which there are many pipes with different specific ground conditions, and it would be difficult to apply them
purposes, and this is highly different from conventional jet grouting for other jet grouting projects where the ground conditions are
systems that have 1 to 3 channels in general. As shown in Figure 11, different.
the different purposes of various pipes can be listed as: (1) for The theoretical methods were based on theories of turbulent
injecting the high pressure grout (grout pipe), (2) for injecting high flow and soil erosion (Modoni et al. 2006; Ho 2007; Shen et al.,
pressure water to erode soil (water pipe I), (3) for providing help to 2013c). With these methods, the physical process of jet grouting, i.e.,
transport out the spoil (water pipe II), (4) for injecting compressed the interaction between fluid jet and soils, can be reasonably
air (air pipe), (5) for the set of cables linking the sensor (cable pipe), described. Modoni et al. (2006) presented three models for
(6) for transporting the additive (additive pipe), (7) for transporting describing the physical process of jet grouting in different soils: a
out the spoil induced during jet grouting. seepage model for gravelly soils, and an erosion model both for
sandy soils and clayey soils.

Figure 10 Illustration of Twin-Jet method

Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828

6.1 Application of RJP Method in Shanghai
In 2004, the RJP method was adopted in the tunnel construction of
Metro Line No. 4 (Shen et al., 2009b). The construction site in this
project was located along the west bank of the Huangpu River in
Shanghai. The tunnel was constructed using open cut excavation.
The total length of the excavation was about 250 m with a depth of
43 m. A diaphragm wall system served as the retaining wall for the
excavation. The diaphragm wall was 1.2 m thick and 65 m deep.
The subsurface profile consisted of backfill, clayey silt, soft normal
consolidated marine clay, stiff dessicated silt clay, medium sandy
silt, and dense silt sand (Figure 13). The ground water level
fluctuated between 1 to 2 m below the ground surface. The backfill
layer was 7.5 thick with undrained cohesion of 10-20 kPa. The
Figure 11 Sectional view of composite pipe used in MJS technology clayey silt layer (CS) varied from lowly to highly compressible,
(after Nakashima and Nakanishi, 1995) with natural water content approximately equal to the liquid limit
and a rather uniform cohesion of about 10 kPa. The marine clay was
medium to highly compressible with high water content that were
high significantly higher than the liquid limit. The cohesion strength
of the marine clay increased with depth ranging from about 15 to
35 kPa. The stiff silty clay layer was of very low compressibility,
with natural water contents less than 25% and high cohesion of 40 to
50 kPa. The sandy silt exhibited a rather uniform strength with the
cone resistance averaging about 12 MPa. The bottom silty to fine
sand layer extended over a thickness of 17 m with CPT resistance
greater than 12 MPa and increasing with depth. Detailed information
can be found in Xu et al. (2009) and Shen et al. (2009b).
Figure 12 Soil erodibility scale for jet grouting (after Burke, 2004)
 (kN/m ) wn, wL, wp(%) e Cc C(kPa) qc (MPa) RJP
Soil Profile 16t 18 20 20 40 60 0.5 1.0 1.50.0 0.5 1.0 20 40 0 20 40 Columns
For the very pervious soils (gravels and sandy gravels), Modoni 0
Backfill ST
et al. (2006) presented a seepage model to simulate the phenomenon -10
of soil pore filling by an injected fluid. In the erosion models for CS

sandy and clayey soils, the rate of penetration of the fluid jet in the -20 MC
Depth (m)

soil and the duration of action of the jet on the soil are considered to SSC
be important factors governing the achievable column diameter. It Sandy silt
was determined that the penetration rate of the fluid jet increases -40
with the increase in fluid velocity and decreases with the increase in Silty Sand wL
soil resistance, while the duration of action of the fluid jet increases -50 wp C1 C2
with the height of each lift step and decrease in withdrawal rate of Note: MC=very soft clay; SSC=stiff silty clay.
the rod. In the derivation of the penetration rate and duration of t=unit weight; wn=water content; wp=plastic limit; wL=liquid limit; e=void ratio;
jetting action, certain variables such as fluid properties, flow rate,
withdrawal rate, nozzle diameter and number of nozzles as well as Figure 13 Geotechnical profile and soil properties at the RJP test site
soil resistance have been considered, while other factors such as the (after Shen et al. 2009b)
effect of compressed air (in the case of double- and triple-fluid
systems), rotation speed, and particle size distribution have been Field trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of RJP
neglected. installation in the various soil deposits (Figure 14). Four sets of test
columns (labeled as ST, C1, C2, and C3) were installed. Test
Table 2 Existing methods for predicting jet grout column diameter column ST was installed from the ground surface prior to the
excavation. Columns C1, C2 and C3 were installed along the
Methods Equations References
alignment of jet grout wall using standard RJP parameters to
D0  kp gk1 Qgk2 N k3Vmk4 (1) Shibazaki (2003)
Empirical confirm the efficacy of RJP in different types of soils. C2 and C3
Mihalis et al.
approach D0  n1  pg Qg vs  were used to verify the relationship among diameter, strength, and
(2004) jetting parameters.
t *
Modoni et al. The field trials showed that the eroding ability and uniformity of
D0  2  Vc t * dt * (3)
Theoretical 0 (2006) mixing in the various soil layers were significantly different. Within
approach pg  p0 the backfill, clayey silt, and marine clay (from ground surface to a
D0  12.5d 0  Dr (4) Ho (2007) depth of 25 m), the columns were very well formed and the cement
was uniformly mixed with the in-situ soil. The column within the
Note: k, k1, k2, k3, k4, n1, and n2 are empirical coefficients. stiff clay layer (from the depth of 25 to 29 m), also demonstrated a
good quality; however, the diameter of the columns were limited to
Ho (2007) presented a simplified method to estimate the column about 0.8 to 1.2 m due to the poor erosion in this soil layer. For the
diameter, which accounted for several important parameters (such as sandy silt and silty sand (layers below 30 m depth), the eroded
jetting pressure, nozzle diameter and soil bearing resistance). distance was much larger than that in the stiff silty clay. However,
However, other parameters such as the effect of compressed air, the uniformity of mixing in these two layers was observed to be very
particle size distribution, rotation speed, withdrawal rate and grout poor. In general, the diameter of the solidified columns varied
properties) have not been considered. between 0.8 m and 3.3 m, and the unconfined compressive strength
(UCS) after 28 days was between 0.9 and 8.1 MPa.
Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828

Figure 17 shows the plan view of the soil improvement zones under
piers P6 and P7 and monitoring instruments installed in the ground.
Diaphragm wall
Improvememt area
Two piezometers, two earth pressure cells and four inclinometers

were installed. The piezometers and earth pressure cells were


C3 C2
located close to the interface of the sand and sandy gravel layers.
East pit ST Figure 18 shows the layout of twin jet-grouting columns. The design
C1 diameter was 0.8 m at spacing of 0.7 m center to center. During jet
Position of test columns grouting, the pore water pressure, earth pressure and lateral
185.5m movement of the soils were monitored. After construction, cored
samples were extracted from the column to examine the in-situ
quality of the cement-soil product.
Figure 14 Layout of test columns using the RJP method
(after Shen et al. 2009b) : Inclinometer (I)
: Piezometer (P) 5m 13m 5m
: Earth pressure cell (E) 2m 1m 2m 2m 1m 2m
6.2 Application of Twin Jet Method in South Korea
Scale : 1:100 P7 P6
This case history describes the use of the Twin-Jet method to

improve a historical bridge foundation in South Korea. The Nam Ji-
Kyo Bridge, located at Chang-Ryeong, is listed as South Korea
Historic Cultural Property No.145. The bridge was constructed of

Twin jet zone
iron using rivets and was completed in 1952 (Figure 15). The
original foundation of the bridge consisted of concrete piles.

Although the original design allowed vehicles to pass through the
bridge, it is now restricted to only pedistrains. Bridge pier I-1

P-1 E-1

P-2 E-2



Figure 17 Plan view of layout of soil improvement zones and

monitoring instruments


Twin jet column Bridge

Scale : 1:100 9.8m
14×0.6m Bridge pier


Figure 15 View of historical bridge Nam Ji-Kyo in Chang- Ryeong,

South Korea 00


Figure 16 shows a sectional view of the soil improvement zone

using the Twin-Jet method and monitoring instruments. Two bridge
piers P6 and P7 were required to be strengthened. The subsurface
profile at the site comprised four soil types: silt, sand, sandy gravel Figure 18 Plan layout of twin jet-grouting columns
and soft rock. Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow counts for soils
above the soft rock were N=5 (silt), N=12 (sand) and N>30 (sandy Figure 19 shows the measured lateral soil movements induced
gravel). by installation of jet grouting using the Twin-jet method around the
two bridge piers P6 (Figure 19a) and P7 (Figure 19b). It can be seen
that the maximum lateral soil movements reached 260 mm after
field construction. The measured lateral soil movements along the
depth of the columns were approximately uniform as observed at
each inclinometer. Figure 20 presents the observed variation of
excess pore water pressure developed in the ground during jet
grouting. As shown, installation of twin-jet columns can induce
excess pore water pressures up to about 9 kPa. It can be seen that,
the generated excess pore water pressures were temporary and
dissipated over 4 to 5 days after completion of jet grout columns
Figure 21 shows the observed incremental earth pressure
induced by the installation of twin-jet columns. Earth pressure cell
E1 increased to a maximum of about 6 kPa. However, a decrease in
earth pressure was observed at earth pressure cell E-2 near P7,
suggesting that the flow of grout through the voids in the soil at this
Figure 16 Cross section showing soil improvement zones using location was fairly rapid and relatively unimpeded. Figure 22 shows
Twin-Jet method the continuous cored samples obtained from the twin-jet columns
and suggests that the quality was excellent.
Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828


I-1 (P6, 3m)


Twin jet zone

Depth (m)

20 2012.04.03

I-3 (P6, 5m)

30 Bridge side

0 100 200 300 400 500

Lateral displacement (mm)
(b) I-2 (P7, 4m)
10 2012.03.20
Depth (m)

Twin jet zone

15 2012.04.03

20 I-4 (P7, 7m)


30 Bridge side

0 100 200 300 400 500
Later soil movement (mm)

Figure 19 Effects of twin jet-grouting on lateral soil movements of

adjacent soils for (a) Inclinometers I-1 (P6, 3m), and I-3 (P6, 5m); Figure 22 Coring samples from the twin jet columns
(b) Inclinometers I-2 (P7, 4m), I-4 (P7, 7m)
P-1 (P1)
This paper provides an overview of the historic development of jet-
grouting technology and highlights the advancement achieved in
Excess Pore water pressure (kPa)

P-2 (P2)
recent years. With the progress of urbanization worldwide, the
5 applications of jet-grouting method have been confronted with more
challenging situations than those before. Greater attention was
focused on the installation process, resulting in the development of
the RJP technology in Shanghai and Twin-jet method in South
Korea. The following conclusions can be made:
(1) Experience with the application of the RJP method in the soft
soil deposits of Shanghai indicated that large diameter columns
with high quality mixing can be achieved in clayey soil. In
sandy soil, although column diameters up to 2.0 m were
-5 obtained, the uniformity of the resulting soil-cement mix with
0 10 20 30
2012.03.04 Time (day)
the column was highly variable with unconfined compressive
strengths ranging from 0.9 to 8.1 MPa.
Figure 20 Observed variation of excess pore water pressure (2) The Twin-Jet method was developed to achieve instant
10 solidification of soft grounds using sodium silicate solution
(water glass). Because the admixture of grout-soil can be gelled
within 5 to 10 seconds, the soft ground can be quickly
Incremental earth pressure (kPa)

5 solidified, hence significantly increasing the site productivity.

E-1 (P6) This new technology is implemented at low operating cost to
E-2 (P7) enhance work efficiency up to about three times.
(3) Experience in South Korea suggests that twin-jet method can be
successfully applied in sandy soils. The field observations
-5 show that the uniformity of jet grouted column was excellent.
However, the lateral soil movement induced by the installation
of twin-jet method may be large, up to about 260 mm.

0 10 20 30 The research work described herein was funded by the National
2012.03.04 Time (day) Nature Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant No. 41372283)
and the Innovative Research Project of Shanghai Municipal
Figure 21 Effects of twin jet-grouting on changes in lateral Education Commission (Grant No. 13ZZ021). These financial
incremental earth pressure of adjacent soils supports are gratefully acknowledged.

Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA Vol. 44 No.4 December 2013 ISSN 0046-5828

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