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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A (19-43)

‫ ذ‬-419‫بةرط‬,
A ‫) بةشى‬1( 43 ( ‫لثةرة‬) ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬
2006

Sequence Stratigraphy of Upper


Cretaceous Tanjero Formation
in Sulaimani Area, NE-Iraq
Kamal Haji Karim1 Ali Mahmood Surdashy2
1: Department of Geology/ College of Science /University of Sulaimani,
2:College of Engineering of Oli and Mineral University of Koyia, /Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Abstract
On the basis of the sequence stratigraphy, the whole Upper Cretaceous succession is divided into two
depostional sequences, named upper and lower sequences. About 80% of thickness of the Tanjero
Formation is deposited in the upper sequence, which is bounded by SB1 and SB2 from below and above
respectively. The rest (about 20%) of the formation belongs to the lower sequence. The SB1 is
regarded as the major erosional and unconformity surface, which extended down the basin paleoslope
from Chuarta area to Sharazoor plain. Thick conglomerate and sandstone wedges are deposited on this
surface by forced regression. The regression is resulted from tectonically enhanced eustatic sea level
fall. The formation ended by relatively thin conglomerate at the top of the formation and directly below
Red Bed Series. This conglomerate, as an unconformity, exists only in some places and changes to
correlative conformity in others. Therefore it is regarded as SMST, which is deposited as a result of
basin fill (normal regression). Between the two-sequence boundaries and within upper sequence, LST,
TST, HST and SMST are identified in addition to their surfaces.
The erosion of the shelf of the lower sequence shaped channels and incised valleys. More than four
major incised valleys are found in the sediment of the previous HST (shelf and upper slope of lower
sequence). The sediments of these valleys consist of low stand wedge of conglomerate and high stand
red claystone. Above the sandstone wedge at Dokan, Chaqchaq valley, Sharazoor and Piramagroon plains
the transgressive surface can be seen clearly which is represented by sudden change of clean sandstone to
marl( Hemipelagic sediments) with some interbeded marly limestone. This surface is the starting point
for the deposition of thick transgressive system tract on the shelf. On the slope and basin it is relatively
thin (30- 90m), which is lithologically similar to the lithology of Shiranish Formation (marl and marly
limestone), of deep marine environment. The maximum flooding surface and possible condensed sections
are discussed in detail.

Keywords:- sequence stratigraphy, Upper cretaceous, Tanjero Formation, Kurdistan


geology, Sulaimaniya area.

Introduction and biogenic limestone (Bellen et al.


Tanjero Formation is an Upper 1959) [3].
Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Karim (2004) [4] studied sedimentary
unit, which crops out within the structures, lithology, and environment of
Imbricated and High Folded Zones in the formation. On the basis of main
Northeastern Iraq (Buday, 1980)[1] and lithological distribution, he divided the
(Buday and Jassim, 1987) [2]. It stretches formation into three parts (lower, middle
as narrow northwest-southeast belt near and upper parts).These parts are correlated
and parallel to the Iranian border (Fig. 1). across eight different sections, which
The formation mainly consists of represent the available outcrops in
alternation of clastic rocks of sandstone, Sulaimaniya Governorate in addition to
marl and calcareous shale with one section inside Iranian land (Fig.2 and
occurrence of very thick conglomerate photo1). His correlation is based on
lithology and stratigraphic position of
Email: - Haji57barzinjy@yahoo.com.

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

distinctive conglomerate and its derivative Study at least a part of the basin fill
sandstones, which are discussed in detail succession, which extend beyond
in different localities. The lower part Shiranish Formation. The time span and
(lower regressive part) is mainly the related outcrops thickness which is
composed, on the lower slope and basin, treated in this paper, depends on the
of thick aggradation of sandstone (100- position of the closest overlying and
400m), whereas on the shelf it is underlying unconformities. When the
dominated by 500m thick succession of unconformities are found the correlative
conglomerate (in this study, it called Kato conformities also encountered by us in
conglomerate). The middle part (middle the Tanjero Formation. It was found that
transgressive part) is composed of 100- one of the biggest sequence boundaries
300m of bluish white marl and marly (SB1) is located within the Tanjero
limestone on the slope and basin plain Formation. This means that the formation
whereas it changes to calcareous shale on should be subdivided to two depostional
the shelf and to 20-50m thick of red sequences. This forced us to study and
claystone inside incised valleys at the area find the boundaries of both sequences
of coastal area. wherever they are located. Therefore, for
The upper part (upper regressive part) is finding the type one or two sequence
chiefly consisting of 50-200m thick mixed boundary (SB1 or SB2), the extent of this
carbonate-siliciclastic successions (in this study, has gone vertically beyond
study, it is named Kat mixed carbonate- underlying Shiranish and Kometan
siliciclastic successions). The constituents Formations and overlying Red Bed Series.
of this succession are alternation of thick Although the boundaries of the above
biogenic limestone beds and calcareous formations are studied previously, no
shale with miner amount of sandstone and correlation is done as concerned with
conglomerate. In literature, only Minas traditional and sequence stratigraphy. For
(1997) [5] referred briefly to the sequence this, extensive lateral fieldwork is
stratigraphy of Tanjero Formation. conducted to find all sedimentary facies
Sequence stratigraphy deposited in response to relative sea level
Sequence stratigraphy is defined as change. Finally, these facies are organized
subdivision of sedimentary basin fill into in system tracts (LST, TST, HST and
genetic packages (depositional sequence) SMST) and the associated sequence
bounded by unconformity and their boundaries are identified. The systems
correlative conformities (Emery and Myers, and boundaries rarely can be seen in one
1996) [6]. In the present study, the method continuous surface section. As the seismic
of Vail et al. (1977) [7] is used for division sequence stratigraphy is not used in this
of the rock body of the formation into study, therefore different surface sections
depostional sequences, this is because the are studied and combined to compensate
unconformities and correlative to the seismic lack.
conformities can be identified in studied The first one who classified the
succession. While the method of formation in viewpoint of sequence
Galloway, (1989) [8] is not used because stratigraphy is Minas, (1997) [5]. His
it is difficult to be applied on Tanjero study depended on the previous
formation. In order to indicate the traditional stratigraphic studies. He
sequence sequence stratigraphic position included the lower part and middle parts
of the Tanjero Formation, the authors as sediment of TST and HST
have tried to:

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

respectively. As will be discussed later in level curve (relative sea level change) that
this study the result is changed. enclosing Tanjero Formation in one or
Before discussion of the system tracts, more of its cycles.
it is better to see the boundaries between
Tanjero and adjacent formations. This is
to find the certain starting point of sea

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Boundary between Shiranish and Qandil Mountain (Photo 3). In spite of


Tanjero Formation these two localities, in this study, yet the
In all previous studies concerned with the boundary between the two formations is
two formations such as Bellen, et al. not regarded as unconformable. This is
(1959) [3] and Buday (1980) [1], it was because the erosional contacts are
recoded that the contact between the two attributed to position of section where all
formations is gradational. But in the sediments finer than conglomerate are
present study, at least in one locality, it removed due to elevation of the area in the
was found that the contact is coastal area and incision by rejuvenated
unconformable, as shown below: streams. The conglomerate represents
Iran Section onlap on the steep head of the incised
This section is located inside Iran valleys. The boundary between the two
near the border with Iraq (Fig.1 and 2) on Formations is conformable in all other
the left bank of the Do Awan River localities in side the basin. The
(upstream of Little Zab River) about 4km conglomerate represents sequence
to the west of Awa Kurte village and about boundary. Emery and Myers (1996, p.98)
20 km to the northwest of Mawat Town at [6] mentioned that the type one
the intersection of N 350 37- 20.6= and E sequence boundary is associated with
450 35- 16.4= . At this locality the superimposition of shallow or non-marine
Shiranish Formation (Bluish white marl deposit on deeper one (when the
and marly limestone) is overlain directly conglomerate regarded as non-marine or
by 13 to 150m of conglomerate then shallow marine deposits and the marl as
comes Red Bed Series exist at the top deep one).
of the conglomerate. Field study showed Contact between Shiranish and
that the conglomerate belongs to Tanjero Kometan Formations
Formation because which is correlated All the sections inspected in the studied
and traced laterally with Kato area (Sulaimaniya Governorate) have
conglomerate (Fig.4). Moreover, both gradational contact. So, primarily appear
have similar lithological constituents. that there is no major break in the
The contact between Shiranish and the sedimentation of Upper Cretaceous except
conglomerate is sharp and erosional. This the one inside the Tanjero
is also true for one location at the toe of

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Formation which represented by Kato alternation of thin sandstone beds and


conglomerate and its equivalent thick dark green calcareous shale. Theses
lithologies. lithologies suddenly change to thick
System Tracts of Tanjero Formation succession (500m) of boulder and pebble
The subdivision of the formation is conglomerate beds (Kato Conglomerate).
depended on the factors such as three- This type of upward lithological change
dimensional lithological correlation and represents incised valley sediment
facies changes (Fig. 4) in addition to overlying the fine sediment of previous
finding marker beds and HST unconformably.
stratigraphic position of the formation The Kato conglomerate is deposited
between older and younger units. The during late stage of LST when sea level
main system tracts of formation are as slowly rises. This is because it is
follows: equivalent to the low stand wedge on the
Lowstand-system tract of Tanjero slope toe. During this slow rise, coarse
Formation conglomerate is deposited which shows
It is most probable that the typical aggradations stacking pattern
lithology of the Tanjero Formation (lower demonstrated by 500m of coarse
part of the new division) is deposited as conglomerate beds of nearly same
lowstand system tract. This is deduced thickness and grain size. The erosional
from field study in the proximal area surface below the conglomerate (Fig.2 and
Chuarta and Mawat, Qaladiza and Qandil photo 2) is a major unconformity of the
mountain toe area. In these areas when Upper Cretaceous.
one cross the upper part of Shiranish
Formation, Tanjero Formation begins as

It also stands for a type one-sequence


boundary (SB1) on which the huge

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

quantity of sediments are bypassed from regarded as indication of lowstand system


the coastal area of prograding fan delta to tract in deep marine environment.
prodelta slope and basin plain during In the present study, the environment of
relative sea level fall. This surface can be boundary between Shiranish and Tanjero
identified from Kato Mountain to south of Formations can be regarded as deep
Sulaimaniya city at distance of 25km. This environment. The further advance into
distance is equal to about 30km if folding Tanjero Formation, the sandstone
shortening is eliminated. increases and changes to a thick
Near Tanjero stream it changes to succession (100-400m) sandstone wedge,
correlative conformity, which changes to the base of which consists of clean
coarse and fine sandstone. In the toe of succession 4-20m thick of sandstone with
northeastern limb of the Goizha and cross lamination and skolithos escape
Azmir and Daban anticlines also can be structures. This succession is equivalent to
seen in certain places, such as Azimra the erosional surface under the Kato
Bichkola valley, north of Bnawella village conglomerate (for simplicity it can be
in addition to Mararash village. The assumed as time equivalent of lower part
sediments above the erosional surface of Kato conglomerate and represent the
show that the shoreline and facies belt is deposit of the extreme shallowing during
probably shifted basin ward from the lowstand system tract. The whole
mountain to the north of Sulaimaniya city sandstone wedge is equivalent or derived
during Upper Cretaceous sea fall. The sea from Kato conglomerate (Fig.2 and 5).
level fall most probably supported by
tectonic and eustatic sea level changes. Components of lowstand system tract
All mentioned for the area between Kato
Mountain and Sulaimaniya city is also A. Lowstand fan
true for the following areas: The lowstand system tract consists
A. The area between Mawat Town and of two parts; lowstand wedge and
Kizlar Village in the Chaqchaq valley. lowstand fan. Low stand fan in turn is
B. The area at Qandil mountain toe and divided into slope fan and basin floor fan
Dokan area. Emery and Myers (1996) [6]. Tanjero
C. Type section at Sirwan valley and Formation, as has limited outcrops, so the
Khurmal town. The proximal area inferred lowstand fans are not clear. But some
indirectly to be near Khurmal town by dirty sandstone beds exist which may
applying the distance of the two areas of A represent basin floor fan. These beds
and B. exist at Sirwan, Chaqchaq valleys and
The proximal sediments (conglomerate) Dokan area. In these areas, there are two
do not exist in the Khurmal area due to beds of either coarse dirty sandstone or
later erosion. But their positions are paraconglomerate near the transition
inferred for the sediments of distal area in zone between Shiranish and Tanjero
Sirwan valley and Dokan area. At the Formations. These beds are isolated in the
distal area such as Dokan, Sharazoor and marls or calcareous shale. The position
Piramagroon plains, when one crosses the of these beds in the succession of the
boundary between the two formations, formation and relative sea level change
bluish white marl changes to sandstone suppose that they deposited during early
and calcareous shale. Emery and Myers phase of low stand time when the relative
(1996) [6] regarded this type of change is seal level fall was at its maximum rate.

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

These beds are generally massive and time when the sea level fall stabilized for
dirty (matrix supported) so they, most considerable time and subsequent slow
probably, deposited by debris flow and rise. The thickness and grain size of the
slumping of the shelf edge (shelf break). wedges are depending on the distance
Above these two beds comes very clear from the shoreline and limit of downward
lowstand wedge. The base of this wedge shift of coastal onlap. The wedges show
consists of 4-20m thick package of aggradation to progradation stacking
coarse and clean sandstone. This package patterns with nearly same thickness of the
is in most case associated with thin bed of layers.
conglomerate. The position of this The most important characteristics of
package between basin floor fan and sandstone wedge are their abundant
lowstand wedge possibly comprises the content of plant debris on surface of
slope fan. The beds of this fan contain sandstone beds. These plant fragments are
such sedimentary structures that indicate derived from plants grown inside incised
the shallowest environment of the valleys and on the surface of the
formation during deposition of the lower sediments of the alluvial fans during
part (LST) of formation. Karim (2004, middle Maastrichtian. They were then,
p.38-57)(4) discussed in detail these eroded by severe current of sediment
sedimentary structures (large scale cross influx from hinterland by river. The
bedding, hummocky cross stratification incised valleys of the shelf and upper
plant debris, cruziana and skolithos trace slope are flooded during early slow rise of
fossils. sea level and during late lowstand forming
B. Lowstand wedges some swamp and estuaries with possible
In contrast to lowstand fans, lowstand plant growth.
wedges are very clear as these wedges Erosional surfaces and unconformities
make up 70% of the whole succession of below and inside the wedges
the lower part of the formation (Photo2). As previously mentioned a major
The typical lithology of Tanjero formation erosional surface (SB1) exists below the
(alternation sandstone and shale) consists Kato conglomerate. This surface is formed
of these wedges and the slope fans. The after the exposure of the shelf (Mawat and
wedge is conglomerate-rich in the Chuarta areas). According to Van Wagoner
proximal area, which is represented by et al (1988) [11] type one sequence
500m of Kato conglomerate. But they are boundary is characterized by subaerial
sandstone-rich in the distal area (at exposure and concurrent subaerial erosion
Chaqchaq and Shadalla valleys and along associated with stream rejuvenation.
foothill area of Azmir and Goizha This erosional surface, as an
mountains). The distal sandstone wedge is unconformity, changes to several
correlative to the Kato conglomerate. unconformities toward south and
Einsele (1998, p.338 and 339) [10] southwest down dip. This occurred during
mentioned that during late lowstand the gradual fall of sea level, overlain by
lowermost portion of incised valley is more or less thick beds of conglomerate
filled with coarse fluvial sediment (Fig.4 photo 2). The down dip extension
(gravel in case of Tanjero Formation) of of this surface, with associated
braided stream. Therefore all thickness of conglomerate, reaches the middle part of
Kato conglomerate (conglomerate wedge) Sharazoor and Piramagroon plains (to
and most of distal sandstone wedges are positions beyond
mainly deposited during late lowstand

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Arbat and Piramagroon towns they called them “compound


respectively). In the literature similar type unconformity”.
of unconformities are cited by Potter and In some places, in the plains, the
Pettijohn (1977) [12] in basin margins, surface becomes correlative conformity.

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

These places represent interfan areas conglomerate during slow rise of see
(Fig.5) where the conglomerate changes to level. Three of valleys are discovered and
sandstones. The sandstones, near the base mapped (depending on availability of
of the wedge, have coarse and clean outcrops) in the field from shoreline
texture with high thickness. Both (proximal area) till the distal (basin) area.
thickness and grain size decrease The characteristics of the three mapped
downward and upward of the sections. valleys are used for inferring other one.
Downward, the lithology changes to This forth valley is deduced from the
bluish marl of Shiranish Formation and to lithology of the formation in the basin-
marl of Middle part at the top of the distal area at Sirwan valley. At this area
wedges. the lithology and sedimentary structures
are compared with the lithologies of
Incised valleys and their sediment fill mapped ones at the equivalent locations.
Incised valleys are developed during These valleys with submarine fans
negative accommodation, Mail (2002, descend from north and northeast toward
p.1209) [13]. This is true for Tanjero south and southwest. The first one starts
Formation which during sea level fall from the area around Mawat area, passing
(negative accommodation) the shelf and by Qizlar Village at the head of Chaqchaq
upper slope of the Tanjero Formation is valley and end at the area around Tasluja
exposed to subaerial erosion and fluvial Town in the Piramagroon plain. The
incision. The evidences for exposure is the second mapped one starts from the east of
Kato conglomerate and Kato red layers in Chuarta town and descends to the south
addition to trace fossils and sedimentary and southeast and ends at the Sharazoor
structures (see Karim 2004, p.38-56) [4]. plain at the southwest of Arbat Town near
The erosion is initiated as the stream Damirkan Village (6km southwest of the
base level is lowered. At least, four Town). The other one extend from
incised valleys are indicated (Fig.3). Each Suwais Village (Qandil mountain toe) to
one is associated with its prograding Dokan area (Fig.3). Many evidence exist
lowstand fan in front the valleys. When that the fan associated with this valley has
they fans directly entering the sea, they many lobes the largest one delivered thick
called lowstand fan delta. Most quantity alternation of conglomerate and sandstone
of the sediment is reworked from the delta beds to the north of Sulaimaniya city.
front to the deep basin through the by The width of these valleys is more
turbidity currents forming submarine than 2km and their lengths are more
fans. than 9 km. These valleys filled, on the
The valleys were filled by different previous highstand shelf area, with 500m
sediments when reversal of of Kato conglomerate and about 50 m
accommodation from negative (valley of red layers (photo 5.5).
cutting) to positive (valley filling occur The thickness and grain size of this
(Mail, 2002) [13]. This is exactly what conglomerate changes rapidly and
happened during filling of incised valley laterally in distance of one or few
of Tanjero Formation which are filled by

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

kilometers (Photo 2). In some cases the the incised valleys deposits where the
thickness change, along the depositional conglomerate terminated (on-lapped)
strike, from 500 to 10m in distance of two against the steep slope of the source area.
kilometers and grain size change to The shape of the valleys and their
sandstone in the same distances. This sediment fills can be reconstructed from
sedimentological phenomena also some outcrop sections exist in the studied
observed by Karim (1997) [14] in Gercus area. One of these sections (Photo 2) can
Formation in Sartaq-Bamo area. The hard be seen at the northern part of Kato
and well lithified conglomerate of these Mountain directly west of Suerala village.
valleys, now, forms high mountains This section is scored by recent stream
such as Kato, Gaza and Talishk perpendicularly on the elongation of Kato
Mountains. These mountains are formed conglomerate. The section shows thick
by reciprocal of topography. The beds of the conglomerate, which are
conglomerate of Tanjero formation is tilted at about 35 degrees toward
deposited during late lowstand system southwest. Tilt correction shows that the
tract. In this connection Haq (1991)[15] form of the paleo-valley has obtuse v-
mentioned that during low stand system shaped form (Photo 2). This latter photo
tract when the relative sea level begins to shows only part of the valley, which is not
rise slowly the stream incision is stopped more than 1km wide. The obtuse shape of
and the existed incised valley may begin the valley is most possibly attributed to
to be filled with coarser braided stream the fact that the incised valleys were
sediments (coarse conglomerate in case of scoured in soft sediments (partially
Tanjero Formation). The evidence, which lithified calcareous shale and marl of the
proves that Kato conglomerate is HST deposits of lower sequence).
deposited subaerially in the proximal area, The thickest and thinnest part of the
is that red layers that overlie it. These conglomerates exists at center and side of
layers represent deltaic deposits during valley respectively. Although the
TST. At Iranian section this conglomerate original outlook of the conglomerate
(13-150m thick) which is rested directly layers in the incised valleys are tilted and
on Shiranish Formation. This condition mostly eroded but the form and wideness
reflects the most landward occurrence of of one valley is reconstructed as shown

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

in the photo 2. In the field the bottom of These suppose that these locations (Kato
the valleys (as shown by sediments fills) Mountain and south and west of Mawat
is convex downward and planner at the town) are position of Upper Cretaceous
top (Photo 2.1). canyons that developed by subaerial and
The precise position of the Kato and possibly by submarine erosion. These
Tagaran conglomerates is shown in canyons are most possibly located on the
sequence stratigraphic model. In the previous lower shelf and upper slope.
model, the system tracts are illustrated by Field studies showed that the floor of the
the Wheeler diagram (time expanded canyons (base of Kato conglomerate) is
section) and depth section. These sections resting sharply on the alternation of
are so drawn to pass through the incised calcareous shale and sandstone of HST of
valleys (Fig.6and 7). the previous shelf and upper slope. The
According to Emery and Myers, (1996, scouring of the deep canyon is attributed
p.140) [6] as a result of river rejuvenation; to the softness of the lithology on which
incised valley commonly contains the the regression (sea level fall) occurred on
coarsest sediment available locally. They the previous HST. This softness (not
added (p. 137) if the new river course is lithified) is resulted from the lapse of
steeper than equilibrium river profile, the short time between previous HST and the
river would firstly straighten coarse and new LST that caused rejuvenation of the
then incise to form a valley. Furthermore, stream and canyon formation.
they mentioned that these valleys are
important because they represent
unequivocal evidence of a sequence
boundary and they can form stratigraphic
traps for hydrocarbon.

Possible incised canyon


According to Bate and Jackson
(1980)[16] a canyon is defined as
erosional geomorphologic features, which
are long, deep, relatively narrow steep-
sided valley confined between high and
nearly vertical walls in mountainous area,
often with a stream at the bottom.
According to Emery and Myers (1996, C. Channels and their sediment fill
p.140) [6] the thickness of incised valley In the definition of canyons, it was
fill cannot exceed 100m but submarine mentioned that there is a stream on the
canyon can exceed this thickness. In the bottom. This is also true for the incised
Bangal Gulf, Kottke et al (2003) [17] has valleys. Lots of evidence has been
found submarine canyon which occurred observed in the field, which show
as conduit for discharge fluvial sediments channels on the floor of the incised valley
that by pass the shelf and reach deep sea at southeastern side of Kato mountain
fan. very clear channel is exposed under the
In the studied area, there are many Kato Conglomerate. It is filled with about
places (at proximal area); the thickness 20m wide coarse conglomerates and
of the Kato conglomerate reaches 500m. located inside the calcareous shale of
But the sides of the valleys are not steep. sediment of HST of the lower sequence

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

(Photo 2). The layers of the conglomerate rises .The streams were, most possibly, of
pinch out rapidly against the channel wall braided type by which the thick pile of
and in some cases change to sandstone on Kato conglomerate is laid down during
the paleo flood plain. The pinching out late LST.
give the conglomerate lensoidal form. Sediment fill of the incised valleys
The channel shows at least two stages during TST
of incision at different levels. The lower At southwestern side of Kato Mountain
level is narrower than the upper one there are abnormal occurrence of 50m of
(Photo 2.1 shows channel below the red layers (red beds), which are composed
valley). They represent the depth reached of red claystones and sandstone with
by the stream during consecutive and intercalation of some thin bed of
falling by coarse sediment in late lowstand conglomerate (Photo5.5). These layers are
system tract when the sea level gradually called “Kato Red Layers”. These layers

are underlain and overlain by Kato


conglomerate and Kato mixed
carbonate-siliciclastic succession
respectively. This succession consists of
alternation of more than 10 beds of
rudist-bearing limestone and shale (Photo
5.4). The thickness reaches, in some place,
more than 150m.

30
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

These red layers are also present at the conglomerate) of the formation. This
area south of Mawat town near Qashan deposit consists of bluish marl in the
Bridge and directly east of Yalanqoz Sulaimaniya, Sharazoor and Piramagroon
village (N: 35o 51- 24=, E: 45o 24- 29.3=), areas, whereas in Chuarta and Mawat area
which reach only 20 m in thickness. These it consists of thick succession of dark
exist in the proximal area (near source green calcareous shale with some marls
area) while they are not observed in the which change to red layers at south of
distal area. Their equivalent lithology in Yallanqoz village and southern side of
the latter area is marl on the slope and Kato mountain inside incised valleys. At
calcareous shale one shelf area. The red Sirwan valley the lithology of HST is
layers and their equivalent represent the nearly the same as Chuarta with some
sediment of transgressive system tract sandstone layers and rare conglomerate
(TST), which is deposited during the intercalation, while in Dokan area it is
valleys flooding. They closely resemble relatively thin (no more than 130 meters).
Red Bed Series but can be differentiated During deposition of this system, Tanjero
by their stratigraphic position, which is environment has suffered sudden
located between lower and upper parts of deepening demonstrated in the field by
the formation between Kato conglomerate sudden vertical change of sandstone of
and Kato mixed carbonate-siliciclastic LST to hemipelagic marls, while at Kato
succession. Mountain, the conglomerate; it changes
These red layers have great importance with the same manner to Red claystone.
in the study of Tanjero Formation because Because of deepening, this system tract
one can decide that the Kato has no sedimentary structures and fossils
Conglomerate represents continental or found in the lower LST and upper HST.
coastal area deposits and not deep They contain only Upper Cretaceous
deposits. This is because these layers planktonic forams and shows
contain lenses of conglomerate and the retrogradational parasequences.
cooked samples yield no planktonic
forams.
During the time of late LST the Kato
Conglomerate is deposited. After the
Kato conglomerate the red layers are
deposited during rapid flooding of early
TST when the deposition of the
conglomerate sequestered.
Transgressive system tract of Tanjero
Formation

The deposit of the transgressive system


tract is very clear which is overlying
directly the low stand system tract
(lowstand sandstone wedge and Kato

31
‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪, 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫‪32‬‬
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

This is also confirmed by Smith and some place and unconformable in others.
Jacobi (2001, p.21) [18] during study of The unconformable contact is very clear
stratigraphy and sea level change of near Zarda Bee village and at Barda Qal
Upper Devonian Canadaway Group in and Siramerg valleys.
New York State. The explanation of Haq (1991, p.22)
[15], can be accepted for alternation of
Highstand-system tract biogenic carbonate and calcareous shale in
In Tanjero Formation, this system tract Tanjero basin. He mentioned that during
consists of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate lowstand, siliciclastic is deposited while in
succession. In this study, it called Kato highstand carbonate is deposited. This is
mixed siliciclastic-carbonate succession). true when each thick couplet of carbonate
This succession is more than 150m thick –shale is regarded as minor forth or fifth
in some places and consisting of order cycles which suffered from the
alternation of thick beds of biogenic high and low stand. The field evidence in
limestone and calcareous shale on the Chuarta agreed with that mentioned by
shelf (Chuarta area). Lawa et al (1998) Haq (op.cit) that in such successions
[19] called this succession limestones are mostly deposited in the
”interfingering of Aqra with Tanjero early high stand when the accommodation
Formation”. The biogenic limestone on the shelf is plentiful, while during the
laterally changes, in most cases, to sandy late high stand, in Chuarta area, shale,
limestone or calcarenite (detrital sand and conglomerate are deposited
limestone). Fossils of rudists, belemnites, when accommodation decreases and shore
and gastropods (or their bioclast) are line prograde basinward as can be seen
densely concentrated in some beds of near Zarda Bee village.
biogenic limestone (Photo5.4 and 5.5).
Other beds contain pelecypods, large Condensed section
forams (Discocyclina, Loftusia, Condensed sections as thin marine
Amphalocyclus), echinoderm and stratigraphic horizons are composed of
pelecypods or (their bioclast)Lawa et pelagic and hemipelagic sediments
al(1998) [19]. In many places the characterized by very slow sedimentation
calcarenite beds are cross-bedded and rate (Loutit et al. 1988) [20]. Within
burrowed by Planolite and Cruziana trace depositional sequence, the condensed
fossils. section occurs partly at the top of
The repetition of these beds suggests transgressive system tract and partly
aggradation parasequence. Above the within high stand system tract. They
mixed carbonate-siliciclastic parasequence represent the maximum landward extent
come another parasequence, which consist of marine condition. Marine condensed
of alternation of calcareous shale, sections are created by sediment
sandstone and conglomerate (of Tagaran starvation and thus characterized by
type). This pure clastic parasequence apparent hiatus, thin zones of burrowed
grades vertically into lithology of Red Bed and somewhat lithified beds (Haq 1991)
Series. This parasequence does not exist in [15].
all places such as near Mokaba village Only few of these characteristics fit
where the biogenic limestone grade in to some beds within Tanjero Formation, so
Red Bed Series). So the contact of the Red no typical condensed sections are found.
Bed Series and Tanjero Formation This may be returned to high
(including Aqra Lens) is gradational in sedimentation rate of formation in the

33
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

relatively active foreland basin and to Formation, the beds resembling or related
shallower water than Shiranish Formation. to condensed section are as following:
This latter formation contains at least one In the proximal area (coastal area
typical condensed section, which is during LST) there is a biogenic limestone
located at the top (in Dokan area) of the bed about 7m thick (Photo 5.4 and 5.4).
formation in the middle of the formation These limestones are located
(in Chuarta area). But, in the Tanjero

directly above Kato Red Layers. The


position of this bed is directly above TST
can be confidently regarded as a kind of
condensed section or proximal equivalent

34
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

deposit of a condensed section. It is


deposited during maximum flooding of Shelf margin system tract (SMST) and
the sea (maximum landward extent of type two-sequence boundary (SB2)
marine condition of Tanjero Formation) As mentioned above an alternation of
when the basin starved as concerned to dark color conglomerate (Tagaran type)
terrigenous clastic influx from source and shale (with or without sandstone)
area. This bed consists of several horizons exist, in some places, at the top of Kato
of limestones rich in Upper Cretaceous mixed carbonate –siliciclastic succession.
fossils (Photo 5.5) with or without their The thickness of this succession is about
bioclasts. 50m near Tagaran and Zarda Bee villages.
On the shelf (toe of northeastern limb In the other area (with same tectonic
of Azmir, Goizha anticlines) very thick setting) such as area around Mokaba,
TST calcareous shale is capped by Homarakh, Konamassi and Harmin
biogenic limestone (0.3 – 2m). The fossils villages these conglomerates are not
content shows densely populated by present. But the succession goes more or
diverse organisms such as rudist (Photo less gradationally to Red Bed Series. This
6.7) and gastropod (photo 6.2) this type of contact and lithologic change is
assemblage laterally changes to other ones evidence of shelf margin system tract at
such as: pelecypods (Gryphaea) (Photo the end of basin fill of Tanjero Formation
6.3) large forams, and echinoderm, large and the underlying surface is type two-
ammonite (Photo 6.) in other places sequence boundary. This SB2 may be
changes to bioclast of these organisms. changed to SB1 in other areas such as toe
These types of bed are not unique but of Qandil Mountain at the north of
repeat several times upward in the HST. Kometan village (Photo 3). This lateral
C. The most well developed condensed change of sequence boundary may be
section-like bed is a fine grain gray (white returned to high tectonic of the source
weathering) limestone occur nearly at the area and part of the basin.
middle of the formation at west of Diana Emery and Myers (1996) [6]
town on the left bank of Balakian stream mentioned that SB2 and overly shelf
(GPS reading: N: 36o 47- 56.2 =, E: 44o 22- margin system tract might be very
55.1= ) . This bed is 1.5 m thick and difficult to recognize in outcrops. They
lithologically very similar to Kometan added that could be differentiated from
Formation both in color and lithology as it underlying HST by subtle (minor)
contains Upper Cretaceous planktonic unconformity.
forams (Photo 5.3). Finally it seems that all system tracts
In the Piramagroon and Sharazoor of Tanjero formation belonged and
plain in addition to Dokan area, there are deposited during third order eustatic sea
many thin beds and lamina of marly level change. In literature Cunningham
limestone in the middle part (TST). These and Collins (2001) [21] studied the similar
may be regarded as relatively a kind of system tract in Morocco during Miocene
condensed section that represents time of and concluded that they belonged to third
non-deposition. order sea level change cycles.

35
‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪, 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫‪36‬‬
‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪, 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫‪37‬‬
‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪, 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫‪38‬‬
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Conclusion is deposited in the upper sequence while


The study revealed the following the rest is deposited in the lower sequence.
results: 2. In the upper sequence, the LST, TST
1-The whole rock body of the formation is and HST are identified with a SMST at
divided into two main depostional the top of the formation.
sequences and correlated in eight sections, 3. The lower sequence can be identified at
which are named lower and upper the Chuarta, Mawat, Qandil area
sequences. About 80% of the formation (proximal area) while at Sharazoor-

39
(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

Piramagroon plain, Dokan area it grade conglomerate changes to thick low stand
with Shiranish Formation and can not be wedge of sandstone at the distal area.
identified. 6. The transgressive surface and
4. A type one and two sequence boundary condensed sections are identified.
(SB1 and SB2) is identified; they located 7. All the system tracts in the studied area
at lower and middle part of the formation are as following:
respectively. Above each 500m and 30m Qamchuqa Formation… LST
of conglomerate are deposited Kometan Formation… TST
respectively. Shiranish …. Formation…. early HST
5. The (500m) conglomerate has Tanjero Fn…..late HST, LST, TST and
aggradational stacking pattern, which HST
deposited inside more than four the
incised valleys during sea level fall. This

References
[1]-Buday, T. Regional Geology of Iraq: vol. 1, Stratigraphy, I.I.M Kassab and S.Z.
Jassim (Eds) D. G. Geol. Surv. Min. Invest. Publ. 1980 , 445.
[2]-Buday, T. and Jassim, S.Z. The Regional geology of Iraq: Tectonism Magmatism,
and Metamorphism. I.I. Kassab and M.J. Abbas (Eds), Baghdad, 1987, 445 .
[3]-Bellen, R. C. Van, Dunnington, H. V., Wetzel, R. and Morton, D. Lexique
Stratigraphique, Interntional. Asie, Iraq, 1959 3c (10a) 333 .
[4]-Karim, K.H. Basin analysis of Tanjero Formation in Sulaimaniya area, NE-Iraq.
Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Sulaimani University, 2004 135.
[5]-Minas, H. A. A. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Upper Cretaceous succession
of Central and Northern Iraq. Unpubl. Ph. D. Thesis, Univ. Baghdad. 188,1997
[6]-Emery, D. and Myers, K. Sequence Stratigraphy. Blackwell Scientific Limited.
1996 297.
[7]-Vail, P.R., Mitchum, R.M., Todd, R. G., Widmier, J.M. and Hatleid, W.G. Seismic
stratigraphy and global changes in sea level. In: seismic Stratigraphy –Application to
Hyrocarbon Exploration (ed. by C. E. Payton). Memoir of the American Association
of the Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, 1977a, 26, 49-62.
[8]-Gallaway, E. W. Genetic stratigraphic sequences in basin analysis: Architecture and
genesis of flooding- surface bounded depositional units. AAPG, 1989, 73(2) 125-
142.
[9]-Jassim, S. Z. and Al-Hassan. Petrography and Origin of the Mawat and Penjuin
Igneous Complexes. Jour. Geol. Soc. Iraq. Special Issue on 4th Iraqi Geol. Conf.,
1977 Baghdad..
[10]-Einsele, G. Event Stratigraphy: Recognition and interpretation of Sedimentary
Even Horizons, in: Doyle, P. and Bennett, M. R. (editors). Unlocking the
Stratigraphical Record, John Wiley & Son, New York, 1998 and 532 ..
[11]- Van Wagoner , J.C., Posamentier, H.W., Mitchum, R.M., et al., , , An overview of
the fundamentals of sequence stratigraphy and key definitions, in Wilgus, C.K., et al.,
eds., Sea level changes: an integrated approach: SEPM Special Publication 1988 42,
39-45..
[12]- Potter, F. J. and Petijohn, F. J. Paleocurrent and Basin analysis. Springer Verlag.
1977,145.

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(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A
A ‫) بةشى‬1( ‫ ذ‬4 ‫بةرط‬, 2006 ‫ ئازارى‬2706 ‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى‬

[13]-Mail, A. D. Architecture and sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene fluvial system in


the Malay Basin, based on seismic time –slice analysis. AAPG Bulletin. 2002,
86(7) 1201-1220.
[14]-Karim, K. H. Stratigraphy of Sartaq-Bamo Area from northeastern Iraq. Iraqi
Geological Journal, 1997.31(1 )
[15]- Haq, B. U. Sequence stratigraphy, sea level change and significance for deep sea.
Special. Publs. int. Ass. Sediment, 1991.1212-39.
[16]-Bates, R. L., and Jackson, J.A.(ed.). Glossary of Geology, 2ed, American
Geological Institute, 1980, 749.
[17]- Kottke, b., Schwenk, T., Breitzke, M., Wiedicke, M., Kurdrass, H. R. and Spiess,
V. Acoustic facies and depostional processes in the upper submarine canyon swatch
of No Ground (bay of Bengal), Deep-Sea Research, 2003,11(50), 979-1001.
[18]-Smith, G. J. and Jacobi, R. D. ,Tectonic and eustatic signal in the sequence
stratigraphy of the Upper Devonian CanadaWay Group, New York State, AAPG,
2001, 85 (2), 325-360..
[19]- Lawa, F.A., Al-Karadakhi, A. I, and Ismail, K. M. An interfingering of the Upper
Cretaceous rocks in Chwarta-Mawat Region (NE-Iraq). Iraqi Geolo. Journal. 1998.
31(2),
[20]-Loutit, T. S., Hardenbol, J., Vail, P. R., and Baum, G.R. Condensed section: The
key to the age dating and correlation of continental margin sequences. In: sea level
change: an integrated approach (Eds Wilgus. C. K., Hastings, B.S., Kendall, C. G. St.
C., Posamentier, H., Ross, C. A. and Van Wagner , J.) Soc. Econ. Paleontol.
Mineral., Spec., Publ. 1988,42 . 183-215.
[21]- Cunningham, K. J. and Collins, L. S. Control on facies and sequence stratigraphy
of an upper Miocene carbonate ramp and platform, Melilla basin, NE- Moracoo.
Journal of Sedimentary Geology, 2002,146 (2), 75-89.
[22]-Haq, B. U., Hardenbol J. and Vail P.R. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since
the Triassic. Science, 1987. 235(3) , 1156-1167.
[23]-Abdel-Kireem, M. R. Planktonic Foraminifera and stratigraphy of the Tanjero
Formation (Maastrichtian), northeastern Iraq. Micropaleontology, 1986b, 32 (3),
215-231.

41
‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪, 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫ضينة لة دوايى يةكي ثيَكهاتووي تانجةرؤ (كريتاسي‬


‫رؤذهةل ًَ تي‬
‫سةروو ) لة ناوضةي سيَلماني‪ ،‬سةرووي ِ‬
‫عيراق‬
‫كمال حاجي كريم‪/‬بةشي جيؤلؤجي‪-‬زانكؤي سليَماني – هةريَمي‬
‫كوردستاني عيراق‬
‫علي محمود سورداشي ‪ /‬زانكؤي كؤية ‪ /‬كؤليجي‬
‫ئةندازياري نةوت و كانزا‬

‫ثــوختة‬
‫لة سةربنضينةى زانستي ضينة لة دوايى يةك ( سكويَنس ) ‪ ،‬هةموو‬
‫ضينةكاني كريتا سي سةروو دابةش كرا بة دوو ضينة لةدواي يةكى‬
‫بةردى نيشتوو ‪ .‬وة ئةم دوو لة دوواي يةكة ناو نران لةدوا ييةكى‬
‫خواروو وة سةروو ‪ .‬نزيكةى (‪ )%80‬ى سيكويَنسي ثيَكهاتوى تانجةرؤ‬
‫دةورة دراوة‬ ‫نيشتوة لة سكويَنس ي سةروو كةلة خوارةوةو سةرةوة‬
‫بة) ‪ ( SB1‬وة ) ‪ . ( SB2‬بةشةكةى ترى (‪ )%20‬ى ثيَكهاتوة كة لة‬
‫سكويَنس خوارةوة نيشتوة‪ )SB1( .‬بريتىية لة سرةكى ترين رووى‬
‫داخوران وئةنكؤنفؤرمبتى كة دريَذ دةبيَتةوة لة دةريا كةدا لةناوضةى‬
‫ضوارتاوة بؤ دةشتى شارةزووروثيرة مةطروون لةكاتى ماستةريختيانى‬
‫خواروودا ‪ .‬ثوازكى ئةستورى كونطلوميَريت و بةردى لمى لةسةر ئةم‬
‫رانةوة‬ ‫رانةوةى دةرياى بةزؤر ‪ .‬ئةم طة ِ‬ ‫لةكاتى طة ِ‬ ‫رووة نيشتوة‬
‫ية رووي داوة بة هؤي دابةزييني ئاستى ئاوى جيهانييةوة كة يارمةتى‬
‫دراو بةتةكتؤنى ‪ 0‬لة سةرووى ‪ ( )SB2‬نيشتني ) ‪ ( SMST‬رووي داوة‬
‫كاتي ماستريختانى سةروو كة بريتية لة ئةستووريية كي لة‬
‫ى شؤيَن وة بةكؤنفؤرميتي شؤيَنى تر ‪SMST ) .‬‬ ‫كؤنطلوميَريت لة هةند َ‬
‫ربوونى دةرياوة بة نيشتوو وة بةهؤي طةرانةوةى‬ ‫( نيشتوة بة هؤي ث ِ‬
‫ئاسايي دةرياوة ( لةم باسةدا وا دا نراوة ) ‪ .‬لة بةر ئةوة من ئةتوان نين‬
‫بلَيَين كة دةرياي فؤرلندى سةرةتاى كةريتاسي سةروو بةش بووة‬
‫بةهؤى دوو ئةنكؤنفؤرميتى لةتةمةنى ثيَكهاتوى تةنجةرؤدا كةلةناوقوليدا‬
‫دةبيَت بة كؤنفؤرمينى ‪ .‬لة لة نيَوان دوو رووةكةدا وة لة سكوينسى‬
‫رووةكانياندا‬ ‫سةروودا توانرا ‪ ) ,LS ) HST,TST, SMST‬بناسريتةوة لةطة َ‬
‫ل ِ‬
‫راكانة هةمان شتةكة لة بةشى خوارةوة و‬ ‫وة ليسؤلوجى ئةم سيستةم ت ِ‬
‫راست و سةرةوةدا لة ثيَشةوة ناو براون ‪ .‬سيستةم تراكى‬ ‫ناوة ِ‬
‫سكويَنسى خوارةوة نا توانريَت بناسريَتةوة ضونكة تةنها بةردى‬
‫دةرياى قولَى ئةو سكويَنسة بةديار كةوتوة كة هةموو سيستةم‬
‫تراكةكاني تيَكةلَبوون ‪.‬‬
‫روويداوة بةهؤى جؤطةو‬ ‫داخوران و دوو بارة نيشتن بؤ ناو ذينطةى قو َ‬
‫ل ِ‬
‫راوةوة لة كاتى دةركةوتنى هةوايى شيَلف و سلوثي‬ ‫ل و خندة قى داب ِ‬ ‫دؤ َ‬
‫سةرةوةي ذينطةي ثيَكهاتووى تانجرؤة بةهؤى دابةزينى ئاستى‬
‫راوى‬ ‫رانةوةى بةزؤر لةكاتى (‪ . )LST‬زياتر لة ضوار دؤلَى داب ِ‬ ‫ئاوةوةو طة ِ‬
‫سةرةكى دؤزرايةوة لةناو نيشتوى (‪)HST‬ثيَشو (شيَلَفي سكويَنى ثيَشوو)‬
‫نيشتووى دؤلًَة دابراوة كة بريتيية لة ثوازكي بةردي لم و كؤ نطلَؤميريت‬
‫و بةردى طلًى سوورى نيشتوو لةكاتي ((‪ ) High stand‬دا ‪ .‬لة ناوضةى‬
‫دووكان ودؤلًى ضةقضةق و دةشتى شارزور و ثيرةمة طروون رووى‬

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‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪, 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫رانىخيَراى‬
‫ى كةبرييتىية لة طؤ ِِ‬ ‫ر َ‬
‫ي بة رووني ببين ِ‬ ‫بةرووثيَشرةو ئةتوانر َ‬
‫كلسى مارلَي‬ ‫ي ناواخني بةردى ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫هةند‬ ‫َ‬
‫ل‬ ‫لةطة‬ ‫ل‬‫َ‬ ‫مار‬ ‫بةردى لم بؤ بةردى‬
‫‪ .‬ئةم رووة بريتية لة خالى سةرةتايى نيشتنى بةستةيةكى سيستةم‬
‫تراكى بةروثيَش روةو كةلةليةن ليسؤلؤجى يةوة زؤر لة ثيَكهاتووى‬
‫شيرانش دةضيَت لة ناوضةى دوورة سةرضاوة لة دةرياي قولَدا نيشتووة‬
‫رطةى ضر طفتوطؤي لة سةركراوة‪.‬‬ ‫رووى بةرزترين لفاو وة ب ِ‬
‫بةشى سةرةوة بريتية لة نيشتووي تيَكةلَوي كلس ‪-‬سليسيكالستيك كة‬
‫ريَتةوة بؤ ذينطة ى تةنكى شةثؤدار‪ .‬لةم ذينطةيةدا بةردي كلسي‬ ‫دةطة ِ‬
‫طياندارى (هةلطري رؤديست و ئامؤنايت و طاسترؤثؤدو ثليدسي )‬ ‫َ‬
‫نيشتووة سكؤيَنسي سةروو سةرى طيراوة بةهؤى سيستةم تراكى‬
‫شلَيَف مارجينةكة ئةستووري تارادةيةك كةمة‪.‬‬

‫ألطباقية التتابعية لتكوين تانجيرو (الطباشري العلى) في منطقة‬


‫السليمانية‬
‫شمال شرق العراق‬

‫كمال حاجي كريم‪/‬قسم الجيولوجي ‪/‬كردستان – عراق ‪ /‬جامعة السليمانية‬


‫علي محمود سورداشي ‪ /‬جامعة كؤية‪ /‬كلية هندسة النفط والمعادن ‪/‬‬
‫اقليم كردستان‬

‫الخلصــه‬
‫قسم الجسم الصخري الكلي للطباشيري العلى على أساس ألطباقية التتابعية إلى‬
‫التتابعيـن الرسـوبيين حيـث سـميتا تتابـع السـفلي والعلوي ‪ .‬ترسـب ‪ %80‬مـن سـمك‬
‫التكويـن ضمـن التتابـع العلوي والمحصـورة بيـن ‪ SB1‬و ‪ SB2‬مـن العلى والسـفل على‬
‫اهم‬ ‫التوالي ‪ .‬الباقي التكوين ‪ %20‬ترسب ضمن التتابع السفلي ‪ .‬يعتبر (‪)SB1‬‬
‫الموجودة داخل التكوين حيث يمتد من منطقة جوارتا‬ ‫سطح للتعرية وعدم التوافق‬
‫و ماوت إلى ســهلي شارةزور و بيرةمكرون خلل عصــر ماســترختيان اســفل ‪ .‬و قــد‬
‫ترســب ســمك كــبير مــن حجــر الرملي والمدملكات بشكــل وتــد على هذا الســطح‬
‫بواسـطة التراجـع الجباري ‪ .‬هذا التراجـع نتجـت مـن انخفاض مسـتوى السـطح العالمـي‬
‫‪ SB2‬ترســبت ســمك قليــل مــن رســوبيات (‬ ‫المعزز بحركات التكتونيــة ‪ .‬فوق‬
‫‪ )SMST‬خلل ماســـترختيان أعلى و المتمثلة بوجود المدملكات (عدم التوافـــق) و‬
‫الحجـر الرملي بعـض أماكـن وعدم وجوده ( توافـق) فـي أماكـن أخرى ‪ .‬ترسـيب (‬
‫‪ )SMST‬نتيجـة لملء حوض التكويـن مـع نزول بسـيط لمسـتوى البحـر حيـث اعتـبر‬
‫هذا الملء في هذا الدراسة كتراجع اعتيادي وليس إجباري ‪.‬يمكن القول إن رسوبيات‬
‫حوض مقدمة القارة الزاحفة والتابعة لكريتاسي العلى قد قسمت إلى القسمين خلل‬
‫عمــر تكويــن تانجرو بواســطة ســطحي عدم التوافــق و يتغيــر كلهمــا إلى التوافــق‬
‫الرسوبي داخل الحوض العميق ‪ .‬بين سطحين و ضمن تتابع العلى تم التعرف على‬
‫نظم المسارات التالية ((‪ LST, TST, HST , SMST‬بالضافة إلى أسطح التابعة لهم ‪ .‬أن‬
‫الرســوبيات هذه المســارات عبارة عــن نفــس مــا يحتوي ألجزاء الثلثــة المذكورة‬
‫العله ‪ .‬نظم المسارات التتابع السفلي ل يمكن تميزها بسبب وجود مكاشف البحر‬
‫العميق ( المناطق البعيدة عن المصدر ) فقط و اندماجهم معا‪.‬تعرية (بواسطة النهار )‬
‫الرف والمنحدر العلوي العائد للتتابــــع الســــفلي كونــــت القنوات والوديان و الخنادق‬
‫المقتحمة ‪ .‬و تم خلل هذه الشكال نقل الترسبات و إعادة ترسيبها في بيئة عميقة‬
‫‪ .‬هذا كله حدث أثناء تراجــع الماء مــن الرف نتيجــة لهبوط مســتوى المياه و تراجــع‬
‫الجباري أثناء ترسـيب ‪ . ))LST‬وجدت أربعـة وديان مقتحمـة داخـل الرسـوبيات (‬

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‫‪(KAJ) Kurdistan Academicians Journal, March 2006, 4(1) part A‬‬
‫طؤظارى ئةكاديميانى كوردستان نةوروزى ‪ 2706‬ئازارى ‪, 2006‬بةرط ‪ 4‬ذ (‪ )1‬بةشى ‪A‬‬

‫‪ )HST‬السابق ( رف التتابع السابق) حيث امتل هذا الوديان من بوتد من المدملكات‬


‫والحجـر الطينـي الحمراء التابـع لنظام المسـار‬ ‫الركود الواطـئ (‪)Low stand wedge‬‬
‫التقدمي(‪. ) TST‬فوق وتد الحجر الرملي وفي منطقة دوكان و وادي جقجق و سهلي‬
‫شارةزوور و بيرةمكروون يمكـن مشاهدة سـطح التقدم البحري بشكـل تغيـر سـريع‬
‫للحجر الرملي إلى المارل مع تداخلت من طبقات الرقيقة من حجر الجير المارلي ‪.‬‬
‫هذا السطح عبارة من نقطة البداية لترسيب السميك من رسوبيات (‪ )TST‬فوق الرف ‪.‬‬
‫رسـوبية هذه المسـار يشبـة كثيرا تكويـن شيرانـش فـي المناطـق البعيدة مـن السـاحل‬
‫( على المنحدر و فــي البحــر العميــق) ولكــن يتغيــر إلى الحجــر الطينــي الحمراء داخــل‬
‫الوديان ‪ .‬ســطح لتقدم بحري و مقاطــع مركزة نقشــت الذي تقــع بيــن الجزء‬
‫الوســـطي والعلوي ‪ .‬الجزء العلوي عبارة عـــن نظام لمســـار الركود العالي الذي‬
‫يتكون من تتابع من الطبقات المختلطة من الصخور الكاربوناتية و السليسيكلستيكة (‬
‫‪ )Mixed carbonate - siliciclastic succession‬الذي ساد أثناء ترسيبه بيئة ضحلة علي‬
‫الرف ذو جو و عاصف و ترسب فيها الحجر الجيري الحياتي و متكون من أصداف‬
‫مـن رودسـت و امونايـت و بطنيـة القدام و راسـية القدام و الفورامنفرا الكـبيرة‪ .‬هذا‬
‫المسار تم تغطيته بسمك قليل من نظام مسار حافة الرف ( ‪SMST(.‬‬

‫وةرطيرالة ‪ 2004 /2/6‬دا وثةسةندكرا ‪Received on 2/6/2004 .Accepted.26/5/2005‬‬


‫‪.26/5/2005‬‬

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