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Energy Efficiency Guide

AtypicaloperationalprofileofaTankerusingvoyagedata foroneyearisgiveninFig.14which
providesthepercentageoftimeforthevariousship’soperatingmodes(seapassage-inballast and laden
conditions,anchored -drifting,loading, discharging, pilotage and alongside).

Fig. 1:Typical Vessel Operational Profile byMode

The figureaboveshowsthatthe shipspendsabout72%ofthe totalvoyagetimeatseapassage (in


ballastandladenconditions),10.4%incargooperations,2.3% underpilotage(including
maneuveringoperations),andabout2%alongside.Alongsideincludesshippreparationforloading
/Unloading,agreementwiththeterminalonsafety matters,cargo tanklevelgauging/inspections
andcargocalculations,pilotandtugswaitingtime,un-berthingmanoeuvres,etc.About13.3%of
thevoyagetimeisspentatanchorageordriftingatwaitingareas. Thisanchorage/driftingwaiting
timeisdirectly relatedto “Justintime”arrival,andcanbeattributed to thecongestionattheloading
/discharging terminals, delaysdue to weather conditions,etc.

4.3.3. D/G PerformanceMonitoring System

D/Gperformance monitoringand guidance regardingwhichmeasurements mustbetakenis


establishedwithinthePMS.Forabetterunderstandingoftheuseofthe measureddata,the Chief
Engineershouldalsostudy therelevantsectionoftheD/G manual.Inadditionto theabove,the
KYMADieselAnalyzerorotherequivalentsystem may beusedwiththeaimofrecordingand
analysisofthecombustionprocessasexplained above.

ThemanufacturersofdieselgeneratorsprovidetheISOcorrectedSFOCcurve,buttheactual
SFOCisusually considerably higherthanthat.TheISOcorrectedSFOCisincreasingasthe engineload
decreases. A typical curve showing thisispresentedbelow:
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Fig. 48:Typical SFOC Curve vsPowerOutput for4-strokeMarine Diesel Generator Set

Ascanbeseen fromFig.2,fora950 kWengineload,adecrease from100%(950 kW) to50%


(475kW)leadstoan ISOcorrectedSFOCincreaseof5%from195to205gr/kWh. The SFOC increasefor
lower than 50% load is even more aggressive. The actual SFOC increase with
decreasingloadfollowsa similarpattern.

Duringthe D/Gperformance tests,the D/G’sSFOC should be calculatedand itshouldbeatleast


corrected forfuelcalorificvalue. WhencalculatingtheD/G’sSFOC,attentionshouldbepaidto the accurate
recordingoftheD/Gload. Ideally,itshouldbeassteady aspossibleandatabout75%of themaximumload.In
order toachieveaperiodofsteady loaditissuggestedthattheair compressors shouldbeisolated from
theair receiversandother intermittentloadconsumers during theperformancemeasurements.

4.3.8. D/G Engine LoadOptimizationand ElectricLoad Demand Minimization

LowD/Gloads(below 40%)haveanadverseeffecttotheoperationoftheengine(particularly the


FOsystemandcylinders)leadingtoincreased maintenancecostsand acceleratedwearofengine
components.Duetothesereasonsitisprudenttoexerciseefficientloadmanagement,withthe
aimtominimizethenumberofrunninggeneratorsandmaximize theirloadfactor, when
possibleandsafety permitting.Thetotalelectricitydemandwillbethesame,butlessoperating
enginesathigherload, i.e.lowerSFOC, translates toreducedfuel consumption.

ThefollowingtableprovidesagenericguideonthenumberofD/Gstobeinoperationdepending
on the vessel’soperational mode.
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Table3: Guidanceonthe Number ofD/Gs inOperation

Operational mode NumberofD/Gsinoperation


Atsea One(1)
Atanchor One(1)
Stand-by Two (2)
Discharge operation Two (2)
LoadingOperation One(1) –Two (2)when de-ballasting
Ballast Water Exchange,Tank Cleaning, Purging Two (2)
Attention:Theabove tableisindicativeandtheactualnumberofD/Gstobeinoperation
mustbe dictated bythe ship’s actual electricload demand.

Areview oftheelectricalservicesonboardcanrevealthepotentialforunexpectedefficiencygains.
Howevercareshouldbetakentoavoidthecreationofnewsafetyhazardswhenturningoff electrical
services(e.g.lighting).

4.3.8.1.Use of pumps
.1 Steeringgearhydraulicpumps
A simple example ofefficientelectricload managementis theoperationofthesteeringgearpumps.
According totheship’s ElectricLoadAnalysisbooklet,steeringgear hydraulicpumpsarenot
requiredtorunwhilstthevesselisinport.Reductionofsteeringgearhydraulicpumpsrunning
hours,viaswitch-offwhen thevessel isinport,issuggested.Theinstruction to thedeckofficers
wouldbe:Stop steering pumpin portafter“finishedwithengine”.Ifthesubjectpumps arenot
switchedoffduringportstaythentheexpectedincreaseinthefuelconsumptioncanbeupto100
MTperyear fora Capesize BulkCarrier.

.2 M/E LO andtheCamshaft LO Pumps


Another example is the M/E LO and the Camshaft LO Pumps, which can be switched off inport.
Many terminals require theM/E to be ready on short notices oitmightnotbepossibletoimplement
theabovestrategyatalltimes,butsameshouldbeconsideredwhenpossible.The implementation
ofthisinstructionisuptotheChiefEngineer‘sdiscretion.

.3 FWandSWcoolingsystemandpumpmanagement
Useportcoolingpumps atportoranchorage,whenavailable.Minimizepipingsystemresistance
whenpossible.Forexample,closecooling watersupplytotheaircoolerwhenatportor anchoragefor
long time.Thiswayyoureducethenumberofrunningpumpsand /orpumpload. Reducingthe
numberofpumps runningaccordingto theelectricloadanalysisbooklet,evenatport and anchorage,
canleadtoenergysavings.

Asa ruleof thumb:

 Use asmanypumpsasindicatedintheElectricLoad Analysisbooklet ofthevesselforeach


operationmode(seapassage,alongside, cargo operations, etc.).
IncreasetheefficiencyoftheHVAC systembyloweringtherefrigerantcompressorload.
 Whereveradualheatingsystem(electricandsteam)isavailable,preferusingsteam,which
isfreeduring navigationand costslessduringportstay.
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A good engineering practice for the vessel’s auxiliary machinery operation is also the
implementationof“Odd /Even”policy (changingthemachinery alternatively betweenoddandeven
months).LargecoolingFWandSWpumpsaswellasE/Rairsupplyfanswhichoperateforlong time
intervalsare important forenergyefficiency.

4.3.8.2. E/R Fans operationmanagement


TheE/R fansroleistosupplyairforcombustion tothedieselenginesandtoensureadequateair circulation
intheE/R.

TheE/R fansshouldbeoperatedtakinginto
accounttheE/R airbalancestudyand the actual
temperaturesintheE/R.Under mild
weatherconditions itshould be possible to
stoponeortwooftheE/Rfanswhenthe
Vesselisnotsailing,i.e. theM/E isstopped.

Implementationofthe abovestrategyis
expectedtoadditionally leadtoreduced
maintenancecosts fortheE/R fansdueto
loweroperatinghours.
Fig. 61: EngineRoom FanVertical Layout
(Source:MAN B&W)

Thefollowingshould bealwaysconsidered:

When switchingoff thefans, thosefansthat supplyairtoauxiliaryengines,boilersand air


Compressors’spacesarebest toremain on.

Asageneralrule,the E/Rpressureshouldbeslightly positive.Ahighpressureengineroomis


indicativeofairover-supply.MonitoringofE/R pressurecanbeused fordecidingontheexact number of
fansthat could beswitched off.

4.3.8.3. Eliminate Voltage


Unbalance
Voltageunbalancedegradestheperformanceandshortensthelifeofathree-phase motor.Voltage
unbalanceatthemotorstatorterminalscausesphasecurrentunbalance faroutofproportiontothe voltage
unbalance.Unbalanced currents lead to torque pulsations,increased vibrations and mechanical
stresses,increasedlosses,andmotoroverheating,whichresultsinashorterwinding insulation life.

Voltageunbalanceisdefinedby theNationalElectricalManufacturersAssociation(NEMA)as100
timestheabsolute valueofthemaximumdeviation ofthelinevoltagefrom theaverage voltage ona three-
phasesystem,dividedby theaveragevoltage.Forexample,ifthemeasuredlinevoltagesare
462,463,and455 volts,theaverage is460 volts.
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The voltage unbalance is:

(460455)
1001.1%
460

Itisrecommended thatthevoltageunbalances atthe motor terminalsnotexceed1%.Unbalances


over1%requirede-ratingofthe motorasper figurebelow andwillvoidmostmanufacturers’ warranties.

Fig. 62: De-ratingFactor(Source: NEMAMG-1-2003,Revision1-2004)

Commoncausesofvoltageunbalance include:
Faultyoperationofpower factorcorrectionequipment.
Unbalancedorunstableutilitysupply.
Unbalanced transformer bank supplyingathree-phase load that is toolargefor thebank.
Unevenlydistributedsingle-phaseloads onthe samepowersystem.
Unidentifiedsingle-phase togroundfaults.
An open circuitonthedistributionsystemprimary.

Theefficiency ofa rewound,1800-RPM,100-HPmotoris givenasa functionofvoltage unbalance


andmotorloadinthe tablebelow.The generaltrendofefficiency reductionwithincreasedvoltage
unbalance is observedforall motorsatall load conditions.

Motor Efficiency*underConditionsof VoltageUnbalance


MotorLoad MotorEfficiency,%
%ofFull VoltageUnbalance
Nominal 1% 2.5%
100 94.4 94.4 93.0
75 95.2 95.1 93.9
50 96.1 95.5 94.1
*Resultsvarydependinguponmotordesign,speed,full-loadefficiency,andhorsepowerrating.Typically,
electricmotorshavepeakefficiencynear75%load,buttheabovemotortestedin thelabshowedotherwise.

Voltageunbalanceisprobablytheleadingpowerqualityproblemthatresultsinmotoroverheating and
prematuremotor failure.
Thefigurebelowshowsthepercentageofthetemperatureriseasrelatedtothevoltageunbalance.
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Fig. 63: Percent TemperatureRise dueto VoltageUnbalance


(Source:PacificGas&ElectricMotors)

Theadditional temperature riseisestimatedwith thefollowingequation:

Percent additional temperaturerise = 2 x(%voltageunbalance)2.

Forexample,amotorwitha100°Ctemperaturerisewouldexperienceatemperatureincreaseof
8°Cwhenoperatedunderconditionsof2%voltageunbalance. Windinginsulationlifeisreducedby
one-halfforeach10°C increase inoperating temperature.
Thisissometimesreferred toasthe“HalfLife”rule.

Ifunbalancedvoltagesaredetected,athoroughinvestigationshouldbeundertakentodetermine thecause.
Energyand costsavingsoccurwhencorrective actionsaretaken.

Example:
Assumethatthemotortestedasshownintheabovetablewasfullyloadedandoperatedfor8,000
hoursperyear,withanunbalancedvoltageof2.5%.Withenergypricedat$0.05/kWh,theannual
energyand costsavings, aftercorrective actionsaretaken, areasfollows:

Annual Energy Savings=100HP x0.746kW/HP x8,000 hrs/yrx(100/93 –100/94.4) =


=9,517kWh

Annual CostSavings =9,517kWhx$0.05/kWh = $476

Overall savingsmaybemuchlarger because anunbalancedsupplyvoltagemaypowernumerous


motors.
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Testing forVoltageUnbalance

Whentestingforvoltage unbalance,thephase-to-phasevoltagesshould bemeasuredrather than the


phase-to-neutral voltagessince poly-phase motorsareconnected acrossphases.After
measuringthephase-phasevoltageswithaproperly calibratedvoltmeter,the followingcalculation
candeterminethepercentofvoltage unbalance.

VoltageUnbalance Formula:

Maximum V o l t a g e Deviation
Percent Voltage Unbalance =100
AverageVoltage
Example:

Assumethefollowingphase-phasevoltageswere measured: A-
B=479 V
B-C=472 V
C-A=450 V
479V427V450V
Average Voltage = = 467V
3
MaximumVoltageDeviationfromAverage =467V–450 V=17V
17V
VoltageUnbalance =100 = 3.6%
467V

Ifanunbalanceissueisfound,thenthefollowingtestcanhelpdeterminewhethertheproblem source
isthemotor itself or thepowersupplyingthe motor.

Checking fortheSourceofVoltageUnbalance:

1. Measureand recordthecurrent througheachmotor lead.


2. Rotateall threeinputpowerlinesby oneposition,makingsurenot tochange theorderofthe
leads.(Changing theorderwill changethemotor’s rotation)
3. Measureand recordthecurrentin each leadinthe newconfiguration.
4. Rotate allthree input powerlinesbyone moreposition.
5. Measureand recordthecurrentin each leadinthe newconfiguration.
6. Foreachofthe threerotationconfigurations,determinetheaveragecurrent,andnote the
particularpower-line/motor-leadcombinationthathasthe maximumdeviation from theaverage
current.
7. Compare the three power-line/motor-lead combinationswith maximumcurrentdeviation. If the
combinationalwayscontainsthesamemotorlead,thenitindicatesaproblemwiththemotor.If
thecombinationalwayscontainsthesamepowerline,thenthepowersupplymaybeat fault.
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An example is providedbelowforclarification.

MotorLeads:M1,M2,M3
Input PowerLines:P1,P2,P3

OriginalHookup Rotate LeadsOnce Rotate LeadsTwice


M1-P1:56A M1-P3:47A M1-P2:56A
M2-P2:54A M2-P1:58A M2-P3:48A
M3-P3:46A M3-P2:54A M3-P1:55A
Average: 53A
Average: 52A Average: 53A
MaxDeviation: MaxDeviation: MaxDeviation:
M3-P3:6A M1-P3:6A M2-P3:5A

Theabove example indicatestheincomingpower is thesourceoftheunbalance,becausethe


currentfarthestfromaveragefollows theinputpowerline “P3.”

FurtherConsiderations

Voltageunbalancecausesextremely highcurrentunbalance.The magnitudeofcurrentunbalance may


be6to10timesaslargeasthevoltageunbalance.Forthe100-HPmotorinthisexample,line currents(atfull-
load with 2.5%voltageunbalance)were unbalancedby27.7%.

4.3.9.W a s t e HeatRecovery

4.3.9.1. Exhaust GasEconomizers(EGE)


TheuseofEGEshouldbemaximizedwiththeaimofminimizingtheneedforoperatingthe Auxiliary Boilers.
TheEGEshouldbemaintained in a clean condition so as to maximize its efficiency.

4.3.9.2. SlowSteamingandExhaust GasEconomizers


IntermsoftheEGEinstallation,slow steamingdoesnotcauseanymajorconcerns;theissueof foulingshould
howeverbeaddressed.Depending on theenginetype,slow steaming mayresult in a
lesscompletecombustionthanatthenormalhigherloadandthereforecauseahigher/faster foulingof
theheatingsurfaceof theEGE.

This foulingwillobviouslycausealowerthan normalsteamproduction (normalbeingwhenthe


heatingsurfaceisclean) butwillalso increase the risksofa soot fire inwatertube exhaust gasfired
boilerswith extended heating surfaces.

Afrequentload-upofengineisnecessaryinordertoremovetheaccumulatedfouling/sootfrom the Engine


and Exhaust GasEconomizer. Engine load-up should be minimizedwhen slow steaming.Frequent
load-upcouldjeopardize the cylindercondition.

Duringslow steaming,whenitbecomesnecessary toincrease theengineloadinorderto remove


thefouling/sootfromtheexhaustgasways,thefollowingprocedureshouldbealwaysfollowed with
regardstotimerequiredforloadinguptheengine:
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 Loadupfrom10% to 40% : 30 minutesload-upprogram


 Loadupfrom40% to 75% : 60 minutesload-upprogram

TheaboveschemeshouldbefollowedinconjunctionwithEnginebuilt-inload-upprogramactivated
Afterthe “full”order bythe EngineTelegraph.

Exactfigures may differdependingonengine type,thereforeship-/engine-specificalterations (as


necessary)shouldbeconsidered.

Whenslowsteamingisprolongedformorethan15days,itisstronglyrecommendedtostopthe
shipforEGEcleaning(waterwashing).Theactualtimeneededforthisdependsonthefoulingof
theEGE,whichcanbeascertainedbythepressuredropacrosstheEGE.Indicativemaximum
valueforthepressuredropacross theEGEis400mmWG;howeverthismay varydependingon
EGEmakerandsize.Makers’ instructionsforwaterwashing theEGE should bealwaysfollowed.

4.3.9.3. Maintenance
EGEproper maintenancenotonly improvesenergy efficiency butalsoreducesmaintenanceoverall
costsand reducessafety risksassociatedwithsootfires.TheEGEefficiency ismaximized by
frequentsootblowing(soniccleaningmayalsobeused)whichshouldbecarriedoutatleastat
75%ofmainengineloadandinaccordancewiththefrequency setby themaker.Theexhaustgas
temperaturedifference andpressuredropwhichareindicationsofEGEcleanlinessshould be
regularlyrecorded(duringmainengineperformancetests). WaterwashingoftheEGEshouldbe scheduled
during majorrepairperiods.

4.3.9.4.CargoOperations
Avoidoperatingboiler(s)atlowload,sinceefficiency,i.e.kgofproducedsteamdividedbykgof
burntFO,isdeteriorating.Duringcargooperations,adjusttheoperation ofsteamdrivencargoand
ballastpumps, touseone boilerat thehighest possible load,ifpracticable.

.1 SeaPassage-EGE EfficiencyandOperation
MaximizeEGEefficiency by frequentsootblowing(once or twiceperday).Regularly record the
exhaustgas temperaturedifferenceandpressuredropwhichareindicationsofEGEcleanliness.
Waterwashingshouldbeperformedperiodically orwhenabove monitoredparametersdeviate from
themanufacturer’s indicatedlimits.

.2 CargoOperationsandAnchorage -Burner Operation Optimization


TheAuxiliary Boiler(s)optimum operation isexceeded when operatedin “Auto” mode.
Tomonitor thecombustionefficiencymoreaccurately,periodical combustionanalysisissuggested.

4.3.9.5. FrequencyandQuantityofBlow-downs
Adjust frequency andespecially quantityofboilerwaterblow-downstominimize dissolvedsolidsas well
as cleanhot waterloss.
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4.3.9.6. AuxiliaryBoiler(s) Operation Optimization


Significant fuel conservationcanbeachievedbyminimizingoverall steamconsumptiononboard.
Whenboilersareneeded,the operatorshouldensure thattheyarenotstarted too farinadvance fromthe
time theyareactuallyneeded,thereforeclosecooperation/communicationbetweendeck and
enginedepartmentsmust bemaintained.

Duringoperation,frequentlychecksshouldbe maderegardingthecolor,sizeandshapeofthe
burnerflameandthecoloroftheexhaust gas.Generallyflamesmustbe ofayellowtowhitecolor. Toowhitea
flame may beanindicationofsurplusexcessair.Althoughthis resultsininvisible
exhaustgas,surplusexcessairisheatedupandthrownthrough theexhaustduct,thus reducing
efficiency.Colorlessexhaustgasdoesnotautomatically meanefficientcombustion(excessair may be
muchmorethanthemaker’srecommended value,usually15%atloadshigherthan50%).

Forbetterunderstandingoftheinvolvedcosts,theoperationofoneboilerwith25%insteadof15%
Excess aircouldleadtoanincreasedfuelconsumptionof55MT/yearperboilerforaVLCC.

More orangecolorflameonthe otherhandmay beanindication ofpoorcombustionwhichshowsalso as


heavybrownorblacksmoke.Flameshape andsize mustfitto thecombustion chamber.Generally,
flamesshouldnotcontactthetubesandbrickwork,asthesecancausemechanicaldamage.

TheIGSO2 analyzerandtherelevantpipingsystemshouldbecheckedpriortoeveryoperation.
Mostshipsdonotcleanthesensing/samplelineandcondensation/dirtinthelineprevents good
sampleflowtotheanalyzer;hencetheO2 comesdownveryslowly.Thiscausesalotoffuel wastage
asengineers increasetheloadontheboilerto producebetterO2.

Auxiliaryboilersshould onlybeshutdown iftheyarenotneededforareasonable amountof time.

Theshipshouldavoiddumpingsteaminordernottogetalarmsthroughoutthenight.Pipeand
Valvelaggingsaretobemaintainedingoodordertominimizethermallosses.Excesssteam
dumping control valve should work in auto mode where applicable, while in case of manual
Operationthevalve’spositionshould becloselymonitored/adjustedto avoid excess steamlosses.

Whileatanchorageand whentheshipisinlow-demand mode(e.g.loading),the donkey boiler,if


available,should beused instead ofintermittentoperationof main auxiliaryboilers.

The minimumloadofauxiliaryboilersformaintainingthe required oxygen contentin the IGS line should


beadjustedsoastoavoid operationofboilersat a loadhigher thannecessary.

Sinceoxygenlevelisthe onlyusualexhaustgasindicationattheIGsystem, keep this toabout3%, which


correspondsto 15%excess air at loads higher than 50%.

4.3.9.7. Composite
Boilers
ACompositeBoilersisacombinationofoil-firedboilerandexhaustgaseconomizer.Whenthe
dieselengineisatthedesiredload,the fueloilburnerstartsonlyifthesteamdemandexceedsthe
steamproductionachievedfromthedieselengine’sexhaustgases. MostCompositeBoilers
nowadayshaveseparatedsectionsforthedieselenginesexhaustgasesandthefluegasesfrom
thefueloilburners.Itisrarebutthereisstillapossibilitytofindcompositeboilersthatmixthe diesel
engine’sexhaust gasesandthefluegasesfromthefueloil burner.
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Fig. 64: CompositeBoilerSchematic

ACompositeBoilerworksaswell,asasilencerforthedieselengine,butoftenitnotsufficient,
henceanadditionalsilencerunitisrequired.Dieselengine’sexhaust gases to beused as combustionairfor
theoil-firedburnerisquiteeconomically,althoughitmakesa rathercomplicated
unit.Starting,stoppingandmodulatingtheburnernormallycontrolsthesteampressurein the
CompositeBoiler.Previoustechnologiesusedahugedampertoby-passtheCompositeBoiler
whenthesteamdemandwaslessthanthe quantity produced by thedieselengineexhaustgases.
Nowadays the pressureisgoverned by controlvalveswhichdump the excess steamintoa condenser.

4.3.10.Heating Ventilation &AirConditioning(HVAC)System

The HVAC systemincludes the AirHandlingUnit(AHU)and the refrigeration system. There are a
numberofimprovements,operational andhardware,whichcan be made toan HVAC systemto
increasetheenergy efficiency,e.g.annualinspection,promptrepairs,etc.As faras thecrewis concerned,
the maininterventionisthe maintenanceoftherefrigeratingplantandtheAHU. Additionally,adjustments
canbemade,mainly totheAHU“frontend”,i.e.thedampers controlling the freshairinletandrecirculation.
These adjustments depend on the externalambientair conditionsandtheinternal comfortandin
certaincasescanleadto significantenergysavings.

HVAC Utilization and LoadFactor-


ThermostatAdjustment.
Settheairinletthermostatto27deg.Cinthesummerand21deg.Cinthewinter. Thecooling thermostat
usually operates refrigerant solenoid valves that stop the refrigerant flow to the
evaporatorandsubsequentlystopthecompressordue tolow suctionpressure,whenthesettingis
reached.Ifthe temperaturesettingistoolow,therefrigerantcompressorisexpectedtooperate
continuouslyorwithmorecylindersloaded.Inthewinter,thetemperaturesettingdoesnotplay such a
significant role,since the steamis coming from the EGE duringsea passage and is a small fractionof
theboilerloadduringdischarging.
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“FrontEnd”dampersadjustment
MostAHUshaveaninletairdamper,areturnairdamperandamixingsectionforthereturnand
inletair.Dependingon theexternalambientconditionsoftemperatureandrelativehumidityandthe
spaceconditions,significantenergysavingscan beachieved byadjustingthe freshandreturnair
mixingratio.Asaruleofthumb,the returnairshouldbemaximizedwhenhotandhumidexternal
ambientconditionsprevail. When theexternalairiscoolerthan theinsideair,itmaybeefficient to
maximizethefreshair.Forexampleinthediagrambelow,freshairisat31.4deg.C,61%RH and
returnairat28.4deg.C,53%RH.Freshtototalairratioisabout76%.By closingthefreshair damperso thatthe
freshairratiowillbe62%,acoolingloadreductionofabout30%canbe achieved. Thiscanbereflectedto
arefrigerant compressorelectricload reductiondependingon the
operatingpointandunloadcontrolsystem.Thereisalsoanupperlimittothereturnairratio imposedbycomfort
andhygiene conditions.

Itmustbenoted thattheAirConditioningPlantisnotexpectedtobestoppedexceptonlyinrare
cases.Thehumidity oftheairatseaisusually high,evenat favorableambienttemperatures; thereforede-
humidificationoftheairwhichisachievedduringcoolingisalwaysrequired.Itshould bealso notedthat
whileatsea,openingsto the accommodation areashould bekept totheabsolute
minimumwith theaimof minimizinguncontrolledlosses.

FreshAirInlet

ReturnAir
CoolerOutlet
(afteralleyways)
AverageSpaceCondition

Fig.65:HVAC Diagram

Black:Measuredconditionwith higherfreshair ratio.


Red:Proposedconditionwith higher returnair ratio,coolingloadreduction30%.
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Fig. 66: Example ofAHU and spaceconditionforlowfreshair temperature (about190deg. C),but high
humidity.Inthiscase theAHU mainlyplays the role ofade-humidifier.

Refrigerants’quantity
Maintainadequate quantity ofrefrigerantinthesystemforproperoperation.Aminimumamountof
liquidrefrigerant mustbepresentinthe condenser. Inadequate refrigerantquantity willleadto insufficient
cooling capacity with high compressor load, therefore to a low coefficient of performance.
ReducingemissionsofHCFCs
EmissionsofHCFCsare relatedto leaksduring the operation and maintenance of refrigeration plants.
Technicalmeasures to reduceleaksincludedesigns thatare moreresistantto corrosion,
vibrationandotherstresses,reducingtheimpactofleaksbyreducingtherefrigerantcharge(e.g.
byindirectcooling),andcompartmentalizingthepipingsystemsothataleakagemay beisolated.It
isalsoimportantthatfacilitiesareavailabletoallowforsafeandreasonablyburdensomerecovery of
refrigerantsduringmaintenance. Operational measuresincludeproperimplementation of planned
maintenance, monitoringofrefrigerantconsumptioninorder topreventleakages,detection
ofleakagesandmaintaininganODSRecordBook (MARPOL AnnexVI–Reg. 12).
Replacementof refrigerantscontainingHCFCswith HFCs
TheymaynotbesignificantinvolumebutHFCshaveazeroOzoneDepletionPotential(ODP)and a
moderateclimatechange.
Maintenance of thecoolingplantandAHU
Ensurethecompressor load /unload control isalwaysin goodcondition.
 EnsuretheAHUfilterandcoolingandheatingelementsareregularlycleanedforhygienic
reasonsandefficient air cooling/heating.
Regularlycheck&adjust/replaceAHUfandrivebelts&bearingsforoptimumoperation.
Ensurespaceairsupplyductinsulationiskeptingoodconditiontoavoidheatfluxfromtheducts.
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Windowseffect
Windowsaccountfornearly 50%oftheheatinflow orloss(dependingontheseason)whichinturn accounts
forclose to50%ofthe workloadon theairconditioningorheatingsystem.Untreated windowswillallow
about20 times moreheatintoaspace thananequalamountofinsulatedwall
space.Personnelonboardcanlimittheconsumptionby keepingtheblindsclosedwhensunlightis
notneededorthespaceisunoccupied.

4.3.11.CompressedAirSystem

4.3.11.1. Selection ofProper Compressorsfor ServingtheProperConsumers


Apropercompressedairsystemshouldbe equippedwithtwooreventhreecompressor types,i.e.
mainaircompressorsforenginestarting,acontrolaircompressorof deliveredpressureand
capacitytomatchcontrolsystemneeds,andalsoaserviceaircompressorto matchvariousdeck
toolsandothercompressedairequipmentneeds (diaphragmpumps,ladderandlifeboatpneumatic motors,
etc.).

Operateserviceand/orcontrolaircompressorsforE/Rcontrolpneumaticloads anddeck
serviceloads.Operatemainaircompressorsonly forkeepingthemainairreceivers
pressurizedforenginestarting.Theuseofmainaircompressorstocaterforthecontrolair
needsisnotanenergyefficientpractice. Thereasonisthatairiscompressedto28-30 kg/cm2and
thenpressurereduced to7kg/cm2to feedthecontrolairsystem.Anamountofpowerconsumedto
compresstheair isthuslostinthereducingvalve.

4.3.11.2. Control Air&ServiceAir Supply-AdvantagesofUsingScrew TypeCompressors


MostofthevesselsareequippedwithindependentServiceandControl AirCompressorswhichare
usuallyofdifferenttypes.TheServiceAirCompressorsinstalledonboardareusually reciprocating
pistonscompressorswith highpowermotors.

Fig. 67: Reciprocating Compressor


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Theoperational disadvantages of suchtypeofcompressors include thefollowing:

1. Start / stopfunctionintroduces high electrical startingcurrent while starting dueto large motors.
2. Manymovingpartsthat requireregularmaintenance.
3. Fluctuatingair output.
4. Excessive vibration/noise levels.
5. Frequent “valves”problems reducecapacity.

TheControlAirCompressorshavesignificantadvantagesforlow airpressureusage,suchasthe following:

Continuousoperationwith almoststandardelectrical load with lowconsumption.


With the electronic control system, the compressor “asks” for maintenance when it is
Necessaryand providesearlywarningofpotential problemsbeforetheybecomeserious.
Quiet / smooth operation.
automaticallyadjustedairproduction.
Constant airpressure independentofair consumption.
Lesswearandtear.
Long maintenance intervals.

Fig. 68: ScrewTypeCompressor

Takingintoaccountthe above,theobviousrecommendationisthatinadditiontothecontrolair, the


screw type compressors should be used to cover the service air demand to the
maximumextentpossible.

Note: Withthe aimofavoidinganyunfavorablesituation,the “ST.BY”air fromM/Estartingair


cylindersshouldbe suppliedviathe specificpressure reducersprovided (30->7Bar)tobothair
systems.Aforesaidpressurereducersshouldbe adjustedatapressure 0.2-0.4Barlowerthanthe
relevantpressure alarms.
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

4.3.11.3. System Pressure


Adjustments
Thehighereachsystempressureismaintained(startingair,controlair,deckserviceair),the
greaterwillbetheenergy requiredtocompressthatair.Especially inthecaseofcontrolanddeck
serviceairsystems,thepressuredemandofthe variousconsumers(pneumaticvalves,back flush
filters,chipping tools, diaphragmpumps)should be checkedandthepressureshould beadjustedto
beingnothigherthanthehigherrequiredconsumerpressure.Checkthepressureatthemost distant
consumer tocompensateforpressuredrop effects.

4.3.11.4. CompressedAirSystem Leakages


Useminimumairpressure foreachrequiredusetominimizeleakages.Installpressureregulators
beforeeachcontrol andserviceconsumer(e.g.diaphragmpump),andensureitisadjusted to the
pressurerequired fortheparticularconsumer.Regularlycheckallpipingconnections,valvesand
hosequickcouplingstoensurethat any leakagesarerectified.

Periodical checksand recordingsoftheair compressors’ runninghoursshould becarriedoutduring


periodswhenmaintenanceworksare notcarriedout(i.e.duringnighttimeovera12-hourperiod) aimingat
identifyingair leakages.

4.3.11.5. Minimize UseofCompressedAirSystemTools


Remember that the compressed air system efficiency is only about 10%. Avoid theuseof
pneumaticequipmentandtoolsifthereisnosafety restrictionindicatingtheiruse.Useelectricor
manuallyoperatedtoolswhere possible.

4.3.11.6. StopUnregulated UsesofCompressedAir


Avoid unregulatedusesofcompressedair.Suchusesare:

 Openblowing:Useof unregulatedhosesforcleaning and personnelventilation. This


practiceisbothunsafeandhighlyinefficient.Installpressureregulatorsandsafetyblow guns
instead.
 Diaphragmpumps:Ensurethepumpsusedaresuitable forthehighestdischargepressure and
capacityrequired.Supplyinghigherpressureto asmallerpumpisnot anefficientwayto
doyourjob. Installfeedpressureregulators to adjust thepump pressure to theone required.
Theregulatorshouldbeadjustedaccordingto therequiredpumpdeliveryhead.Installa
speedcontrolvalveupstreamoftheregulatorto controltherateofpumpstrokes(i.e.the
pumpcapacity forthemaximumallowabletimeavailable).Absenceofspeedcontrolvalve and
regulatorleadtoair wastage andpumpdiaphragm premature wear.
 Pressure regulators: A pressureregulatorshouldnormallybeinstalledbef oreeach
pneumaticconsumer.Frequentlycheckthattheseprovidethecorrectairpressuretothe equipment.

Uncontrolled blowing:Inefficient&Dangerous.Useablowguninstead.
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

Fig. 69: Compressed Air Hose(Left) and Air Blow Gun(Right)

4.3.11.7. SystemPressure Drop


Thereisalwaysapressuredrop from thecompressordowntothepneumaticconsumers.Sincethe latter
need to operate at a certain pressure, the higher the pressure drop, the higher the
compressorandreceiverpressuresettings.Pressuredrop isaffectedby theconditionofpiping, the
cleanlinessoftheairdryersand filtersdownstreamof thecompressors, thecondition ofpressure
regulatorsandtheconsumers.Toreducepressuredrop,maintainthefiltersandairdryersclean and
minimize sourcesof pipingcorrosion(mainlymoisture).

Fig. 70: Pressure DropfromSupplyto Consumers


Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

4.3.11.8. CompressedAir Quality


Compressedairqualityrequirementsmainlypertaintotheminimizationofmoistureandoilinthe air,
according totheconsumerequipmentrequirements. To ensure a properairquality,
thefollowingshouldbeobserved:

 Maintainthereciprocatingcompressorsattheindicatedintervals,especiallypistonsand
ringstoavoid lubricantcarry-overtothesystem.
 Ensureproperoperationandcleanlinessoftheairdryer.Regularlycheckcleanlinessofthe
refrigerantcondenserandrefrigerantcharge.In caseanautomaticdraintimerisinstalled,
checkadjustmenttoavoidairwastageon theonesideandensurethoroughremovalof
moistureontheother (moisturedrainage shouldbearound80%ofthedrain “open” time).
Frequentlyreplacethefilterelementsat theinletand /oroutlet of thedryer.
 Incasethatoverhaulingintervalsarenotspecifiedbythemanufacturer,thencondition- based
maintenancetechniquesmaytakeplace, i.e.overhaulingbasedonpresentcondition.

Fig.71: Dirty DryerRefrigerant Condenser

4.3.12.Lighting Loads

Lightingonboardships isnowadaysmainly realized byuseoftube fluorescentlamps(TFLs).


Incandescentbulbsconsumemoreenergy andhaveashorterlifespan thancompactfluorescent
bulbs.Fixtureswithtube fluorescentlampscontainthestarter,used forpreheatingthelampgas /
mercuryvapourmixtureandtheballast,mainlyusedtostartthesparkionizinglightingupthe heatedgasand
thenlimitthecurrent flowingthroughthelampelectrodesandthegas/mercury
vapourmixture.Limitingofthecurrentis requiredbecause ifa TFL is connected to avoltage source
withoutballast,increasingcurrent flow causesresistance todrop,consequentlyallowingmore
currenttoflow,ultimatelyleadingtodestructionofthelamp.Olderballastsaremagneticcoils,
havingaconsiderableresistance.Neweronesemploy electroniccircuitstocarry outthepreviously
mentioned functionsandaremoreenergy efficient.TFLlightingfixtureswithmagneticballasts contain
acapacitorusedforpower factorcorrection.
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

It isestimatedthat theuse ofenergysavinglight bulbs will save 33 megawattsper yearper ship.

4.3.12.1. LightsManagement
Optimumlights’managementisaquitestraightforwardmeasuretoimplementonboardanddoes not
requireany capitalinvestments. Ithas beenestimated thatswitchingoff75%ofaccommodation
internallightsduringdaylight(08:00-17:00)maysaveabout10tonsoffuelperyearforaVLCC. Withtheview
ofencouragingtheimplementationofsimplemeasuresonboard,thefollowing recommendationsaremade:

 Turn off thelightsin usuallyunoccupiedspaces. Thisincludes thecabinWCs.Keep onlythe


emergency lightson.
Turn off cabin lightswhengoingforwork.
 Lampflickeringwithoutstartingmeansthelamp’scathodesarewornout.Suchlamps
shouldberemoved from thelighting fixturesince repeatedattempts tostartthelampcause over-
heating of theballastandenergy loss.

Thebelownotice could be postednext totheelectricswitchesintheaccommodation.

Switch off thelightswhen not in use

Save energy –ReduceCO2emissions

4.3.12.2. TFL Selection


Avoid orderingolder T10typeTFLs. Order T8which aremore energyefficientinstead.
 OrderlampsandTFLsinparticulartakingintoaccountnotonlytheelectricalpowerbutalso
theluminousefficiency,i.e.the ratioofluminous flux (lumens)toelectricalpowerconsumed
(watt).Forexample,aWarmwhiteTFLismoreefficient(i.e.producingmorelumensper
Watt)co
mparedtoa DaylightTFL.

Fig. 72:TFLs(frombottom totop): T8, T5, compact T5


Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

4.3.12.3. LightingFixtureMaintenance
Establishapreventivelighting fixturecleaningprogramto maintainspaceilluminancecloseto the
“design”levels.Yearly inspectionandcleaning oflightingfixturesin theaccommodationspaces would
besuggested asastartinginspectioninterval.
4.3.12.4. Replacementof IncandescentLampsInstalledOnboard
CFLlampsarenot generally recommendedby manufacturersasvibrationresistant.Nevertheless good
quality CFLs are expected to operate well in an environment with vibration. Therefore
attentionshould bepaidtothequalityofCFLsprovided onboard.
AccordingtotheUSCG,CFLssometimes knownasradio frequency (RF)lightingdevicesmay
interferewithcertain communicationsequipment.CFLsemploy aRFlightingdevicetoexcitea gas
insideabulbinordertoproducelight.Themanufacturershouldbeconsultedpriortoinstallinga
CFL(particularlydevicescapableofproducingemissionsinthe0.45-30MHzband)ontheBridge
oftheshipand inother places thatare capableofcausing radio communications interferenc
4.4.2. Cargo PumpsOperation Optimization

InordertoachieveeconomicaloperationoftheCargoOilPumps(COPs)thefollowingshouldbenoted:

4.4.2.1. COP optimumoperatingpoint


Alwaystrytomeettheshorerestrictionrequirementwithrespecttopressureatthe manifoldsand
pumpingrate.Once thepumpingrequirementismet,maintainthisrequirementascloselyas
possiblebutavoid exceedingit.TheCOPoperatingconditionshouldtakeinto account thecargo
pump’scharacteristiccurve and anyshorerequirements.

Whendischarging,COPshouldstartandgradually increaseitsRPM.Inordertomeetshore
requirement,RPM shouldbeincreaseduntilthemanifoldpressurereachestheshorerequired
pressure.ItisrecommendedtocontroltheCOPRPM dependingontherequiredhead.Ifyouare
operatingCOP atitsfull oralmostfull RPMalways,youareconsuming too muchfuel.
Examplefora SHINKO KV500-2 pump:
WhenCOP isrunningatits90%RPM,itwilldischargeapprox.5500 m 3/h ata totalheadofapprox.
115mwithashaftpowerofapprox.2100kW. Ifthesamepumpisoperatedat100%RPM,itwill
3
discharge5500m /hat150mtotalheadwithashaftpowerof2680kW.Iftheshorerequiredhead
is115m,theheadshouldbereducedbythrottlingthedischargevalveandlosingapprox.580 kW (2680-
2100=580).
RunningthepumpwithhigherRPM,i.e.inthe overcapacity zone,mayresultincavitationinthe
pumpcasinganddamageto the pump.Fig.74depicts thepumpcharacteristicscurves(pumps of
capacity5000 m3/hr& 3000m3/hr).
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

Fig. 74: Pump CharacteristicCurves

Thepumpsmustbealwaysoperatedwithintheoperationzone(greenarea)takinginto account the


RPM (Time%/ minutesofmaximumRPM)andthedischarging pressure.
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

4.4.2.2. Operating1 COPvs. 2 or3COPs


Usetheminimumnumberof pumpsneededtomaintaintheshorerequirement.Running,for
example,twopumpsclosetotheirfullcapacityismoreenergyefficientthanusingthreepumps at reduced
RPM.

Examplefora SHINKO KV500-2 pump:

Whenyouneedtokeep5500m3/hat115mtotal head,youcanoperateoneCOPatits90%RPM, which is


consuming approximately2100kW.

Ontheotherhand,whendischarging5500m3/hby2COPs,eachCOPwillbeoperatedat2750 m3/hx 115m


total headatapprox.82.5%RPMconsumingapprox.1226kW.

Accordingly,2452 kWwill be required(2x1226kW)foroperating2 COPstofulfill the requirement of


pumping5500 m3/hx 115mtotalheadwhichisconsuming352kW(2452–2100=352)morethan
operatingoneCOP.

TheResponsibleOfficer shouldbearin mind thatwhen morethanonepumpisdischargingatthe


sameshorelineitisimportantto runallpumps atsimilarpumpingconditions(Speed&Delivery
Pressure).On theotherhand,thecargoflow through thepumpwithlow speedcouldbe reducedor stopped
andthismayresultin:

anincreaseoftemperature at thepumpcasing(safety and operational issue), and


 anincreasedfuel consumptionfortheparticularoperation(efficiency issue).Thisisbecause one
pumpispumpingagainsttheother.

4.4.2.3. FRAMOPump System


ThetermDeepWellPumpreferstoanalternativepumpingsystemforcrudeoilandproduct
carriers.Itcanhandle anytypeofcargo,beingfor example apetroleumproductonone voyage and acid
orsomethingheated /cooled /volatile orviscouson another.For this reason,itwas originally
developedfor theproductcarrierand OBO tankershipsegment,wheresegregationofcargoesis
necessaryinorder tobe abletoswitcheffectivelybetweencleananddirtycargoand thusachieve higher
vessel utilization.

Thegeneralprincipleofthesystemistheuseofindependentsubmergedpumps,oneforeach
cargotankdrivenbyahighpressurehydraulicsystem.Framohydraulicallydrivensubmerged cargo pumps
providesafe,efficientandflexible cargo handlingofanytypeofliquid cargo. Improved
cargohandlingperformanceprovidesquickerturnaroundtime,moreton-milesandfewervoyages in
ballast.

A cargo pumpingsystem mustbe able to discharge,drain and cleancargo tanksin an efficient


mannertomaketheshipreadytoreceiveanewcargo.Thedeepwellcargopumpisavertical
stagecentrifugalpump(singlesuctionimpeller,verticallybalanced)poweredbyahydraulicmotor
forsafeandefficientoperation. Theconstructionmaterialisstainlesssteelandthepumpsare
designedwithasmoothandeasy-to-cleansurfacehavingalimited numberofflangeswhich enables them
to pump anykindof fluid.
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

Ahydraulicpowerunit,driven by acombination ofdieselenginesandelectricmotors,isproducing


thehighpressure hydraulicoilwhichrunsthroughacommon lineforallthecargopumps and the
ballastwaterpumpsas well.Evenasmallhydraulicbowthrustercanpotentiallybefittedtothe
system,improving theportoperational behaviorofthevessel. Thecombinationoftheelectricmotor
anddieselengineprimemoversallowstheship’sgeneratorstobedesignedfortherelatively low
powerrequirementinsea-goingmode rather thantheconsiderably higherrequirementduringcargo
unloading. Theship’sauxiliary enginescan thereforeoperatewithaneconomicloadwhileatsea
wherethemajorityoftherunning hourswillbe. The hydraulic power packs willprovide any
additionalpowerneeded forahigh capacitydischarge.A powersavingdeviceincorporatedinto the
controlsystemautomatically regulatesandsharestheloadbetweeneachpowerpackinoperation.
Thedeepwell systemcanalsointegratecargoheatersthatare muchmoreefficientthan the traditional
heatingcoilsandaremountedondeck.

TheFramocargopump iseasy tooperate.Thehydraulicdriveprovidesforaremoteandlocal


steplesscapacitycontrol throughtheSpeed TorqueControl(STC)valveonthepump’stopplate.
Thecargopumpcanpumpany liquid,regardlessofspecificweightorviscosity.Itisimpossibleto
overloadortoover-speedthepump.TheSTCvalveautomatically regulateshydraulicoilpressure andflow
tothehydraulicmotoraccordingto the givendischargesituation. Thepumpdesignallows
operationwithaminimumofliquidinthetankwhichsavestimespentfordrainageandtank cleaning. The
Framocargopumphasabuilt-inefficientstrippingsystem.Anotherdesign featureof thedeep
wellpumpsisthatthedischarge rateismuch higherand thustheportoperations canbe moreefficient,
althoughthe timereductionisnot significant.

Thedeepwellpumpsoperatedby hydraulic powerpacksare much moreefficientdueto theuse of


dieselenginesandelectricmotors.Furthermore, theyaremoreenvironmentallyfriendlyasthe fuel usedby
thedieselenginesislow-sulphurMDOwhichproduceslessSOx andNOxemissions comparedto theHFO
burntinauxiliaryboilers.Thesavingsin fuelcostwithFramoversus a conventional pump
roomsystemduringacompletedischargeoperationaresignificant;however, they
aresmallcomparedtotheincreasedrevenuesthatare generated by theirability topickup
morereturncargoratherthan performingballast voyages.

Theneed forquality hydraulicinstallationonboardvesselsoperatingintheadversemarine


environmenthasled to thedevelopmentand manufacturingofFramo hydraulicpipingsystems. The
hydraulicpipingsystem isbasedonhighqualitycomponents andpipingmaterials.
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

Fig. 75: SchematicofaDeep-well PumpInstallation (Source:FRAMO)

4.4.3. AuxiliaryBoiler(s)Maintenance

Theplanned maintenanceoftheauxiliary boilersshouldbecarriedoutasperPMSrequirements


withtheaimofensuringtheirefficientoperation.Sootblowingshouldberegularly carriedout taking
intoaccount theoperational mode aswell as the runninghoursof theboiler.

.1 Boiler Water Quality


The qualityoftheboilerwatershouldbemonitoredonadailybasisbyproperlyimplementingthe
chemicaldosingprogram. Inadequateboilerwater quality couldaffectwatertubedeposits,whichin
turncause decreasedheat transferefficiencyto theboilerwater.

.2 BoilerInternal Cleaning
Basedonthefactthatineachwater-washingaslightcorrosionintheboileroccurs,boilerwater side chemical
cleaning and furnace side cleaning should be carried out only when there is indication of reduced
efficiency that cannot be attributed to burner problems. Such reducedefficiencywillmainlyshow
asanincreasetotheexhaustgas temperatureandpressuredrop deviation from the manufacturers’
indicated limits, without necessarily deteriorating other combustionparameters.
Whenperformingwaterwashing,itshouldbeensuredthatmaker’s instructionsarecompliedwith.

4.4.4. SteamDistributionandCondensateReturnSystem
Product Shipping & Trading Technical Department

.1 Drainageof Hot Water andSteamExhaust


Minimizesteamandcondensatepipingdrainage as faraspossible.Drainingsteamlinespriorto
operationofsteamturbinesisrequiredsoastoavoiddamagetotheturbine.Theaboveprocessis
ofgreatimportance.However,thedrainedwaterandsteam that followsisneverreturnedintothe system,
thussome energy loss isinevitable.

.2 Steam Lossesat Steam Traps, SafetyValvesetc.


Steamtrapsinstalledattheoutletofthevarioussteamconsumersinthe E/Rshouldberegularly
inspected,aswellas thesafety valvesinstalledon theboilersandatotherpartsofthesteam
system.Steamtrapsproperoperationcanbechecked by installingcocksandbrassdrainpipes to
thetraplowerpart(atthebottomofthe filterhousing).Byopeningthecockitcanbeverifiedif
condensateorlivesteamisextracted.Inthelattercasethetrapisnotfulfillingitspurposeof stoppingsteam
toenter thecondensatereturnsystem.Safetyvalvesoccasionally installedatthe pipingcanalso
bechecked bydrain cocksorbyan IR thermometerpointed at theoutletpiping. The
lattershouldnotbehotterthan ambienttemperatureifthe safetyvalveisnotleaking.Escaping steam
representsenergyloss.Inspection frequencydependsontheage andsizeoftheinstallation
butitmustbeconducted asaminimumatyearlyintervals.Duetotherelativelyshortpipingonship systems,
steam loss canalso beobservedat thecascadetank return.
Fig. 76: DiskTypeSteam Trap

Fig. 77: 16K/7K SteamPipeafterLeaking Safety Valve (Sp1:96.4°C)


.3 InsulationInspectionand
Maintenance
Steamandcondensate returnpipinginsulation shouldberegularly inspected.Externalsurface
temperaturesshall generallynotexceed50deg.C.Ensurevalveblanketsandpipinginsulationis restoredto
original conditionafterrepairs.

Fig. 78:Thermal imageoflocallywornsteam valve insulation (left)andthe actual valve insulation


onboard(right)
4.7. MINIMIZE THE USE OFTHE INCINERATOR

Theincinerationofwasteinvolvesthe generationofclimate-relevantemissions.Theseare mainly


emissionsofCO2 aswellasN2O,NOx,NH3 (ammonia)andorganiccarbon,measuredastotal
carbon.CH4(methane)isnot generatedin wasteincineration duringnormal operation.Itonlyarises
inparticular,exceptionalcasesandtoasmallextent(fromwasteremaininginthewastebunker), sothatin
quantitativetermsCH4isnottobe regardedasclimate-relevant.CO2constitutesthechief climate-
2
relevantemissionofwasteincinerationandisconsiderablyhigher,bynotlessthan10 , thantheother
emissions.

Shipsshouldmakeefforttoreduce theincineratorashby minimizingthe generationofwasteand


maximizingrecyclingopportunities.Theremainingquantitiesofsludgeandgarbageshouldbe
deliveredashoretotheextentpossible.

4.8. PERSONNELAWARENESSAND TRAINING

Ithasbeen reportedintheindustry thateven thesameshipcoulddifferasmuchas12%inenergy


efficiency fromonecrew toanother.This
meansthatwithoutadiligentinvolvementofeachcrew member,energy islost.Company’spersonnel
(ashoreandonboard)shouldbeawareoftheenergy
managementproceduresandinitiativesthatareinplacewiththeaimofcontinuallyimproving
energyefficiency. Therefore, thefollowingactionsshould beimplemented:

Energy EfficiencyBestPractices
AsetofenergyefficiencybestpracticeshasbeendevelopedandisincludedinAppendixIV.This
setofenergy efficiency bestpracticesmay beusedintheformofachecklistby superintendents
when boardingCompany’svessel in order toraisecrewawareness onenergyefficiency.

Training
Anin-housetrainingcourseon“Shipboardenergyefficiencyandmanagement”shouldbecarried
outattheCompany’strainingcenterwiththeview toimprovingofficers’awarenessofonboard
energyefficiencyandareasinwhichenergycanbeconserved.Theaimistointegrateenergy
savingmanagementinto generalshipmanagementoperationsandto ensure thatall relevant
informationisbeing usedand understoodbythe crew.
6. SYNOPSIS

AuxiliaryBoilers, SteamDistribution andCondensateReturnSystem

1. Avoidoperatingboilersatlowloadasmuchaspossible,sinceefficiencyi.e.kgofproduced steam divided


bykgofburnt FO isdeteriorating.

2. Frequentlycheckthecolor,sizeandshape ofthe burner flameand thecolorofthe exhaust gas.


Generallyflames mustbeofayellowtowhitecolor.Awhite flamemay beanindicationofextra
excessair.Althoughthisresultsininvisibleexhaustgasextraexcessairisheatedupand
thrownthrough,theexhaustductreduces the efficiency.Colorlessexhaustgasdoesnot automatically
meanefficientcombustion (excess airmay bemuchmore thanthe manufacturer
recommended15%). On theotherhandmoreorangecolorflamesmay beanindicationofpoor
combustion,whichshowalsoasheavy brownorblacksmoke.Flameshapeandsizemust fitto
thecombustionchamber.Generally,flamesshouldnotcontactthetubesandbrickwork,as thesecan
cause mechanicaldamage.To monitorcombustionefficiency moreaccurately the periodical
useofacombustion analyzerissuggested.

3. Frequentlymonitorandcontrolboilerwaterquality,whichaffectwatertubedeposits,whichin turncause
decreasedheat transferefficiencyto theboilerwater.

4. Adjust frequency and quantity ofboilerwaterblow-downtominimizedissolvedsolidsontheone


handbut alsominimize cleanhotwater loss onthe other.

5. Carryoutboiler watersidechemicalcleaningandfurnacesidecleaningatwhenthereis indication


ofreducedefficiencythatcannot beattributedto burner problems.

6. Minimizesteamandcondensatepipingdrainage asfaraspossible.Drainingsteamlinespriorto operation


of steam turbines is required to avoid damage to the turbine and is of great
importance.However,bearinmindthatthedrainedwaterandespeciallythesteamthatfollows
isneverreturnedintothesystemandrepresentssomeenergy loss.

7. Establisharegularinspectionprogramforsteamtrapsinstalledattheoutletofthevarious
steamconsumersinthe E/R.Steamtrapsproperoperationcanbe easily checkedby installing
cocksandbrassdrainpipestothetraplowerpart(atthebottomofthefilterhousing).By
openingthecockitcanbeverifiedifcondensate orlivesteamisextracted.Inthelattercasethe trap
isnotfulfilling itspurposeof stopping steam to enter the condensate return system.
Escapingsteamrepresentsenergyloss.Inspectionfrequencydependsontheageandsizeof
theinstallationand mustbedecidedonacase bycasebasis.Itissuggested tostartwith quarterly
intervals.

8. Increase boilersteamproductionefficiencyby frequentlywashingthe tubesatF.O.burningside and


exhaust gasside.

9. Thetemperatureof theboiler feed waterin thecascade tank to bekept 85deg.C. Whenin cool areas,
thecoolingseawater totheatmosphericcondenser mustbeclosed.

10.Steam pipesandheatersshould beproperlyinsulated.

11.Boilerpressureanddumpvalvepressureshouldbecorrectlytunedtopreventunnecessary
openingofdump valve or trip ofboiler.
12.Establish a regular inspection program for steam and condensate return piping insulation.
Externalsurfacetemperaturesshallgenerallynotexceed500C.Ensurethatvalveblanketsand
pipinginsulation arerestoredto original conditionafterrepairs.

13.Heatingcoilsin engine room tanksand bunker tanksshould betight.

14.Maximize heatcapacityextractedfrom theexhaust GasBoilertouseit forheating thecargo.

Compressed AirSystem

1. Useminimumairpressureforeachrequireduse.Operateserviceandcontrolaircompressors forE/R
controlpneumaticloads.Operatemainaircompressorsonlyfor keepingthemainair
receiverspressurizedforenginestarting.Install pressureregulatorsbeforeeach controland
serviceconsumer(e.g.diaphragmpump),andensureitisadjusted tothe pressure required for
theparticularconsumer.

2. Minimize airleakagesasfaraspossible byfrequentinspectionofpiping, valves and equipment.

3. Avoidtheuseofpneumaticequipmentand tools,ifthereisnosafety restrictionindicatingtheir


use.Remember that thecompressedairsystemefficiency ifonly about10%.Useelectricor
manuallyoperatedtools, ifpossible.

4.Avoidunregulatedusesofcompressedairlikeunregulatedhoses,used forcleaningand
personnelventilation.Thispracticeisbothunsafeandhighly inefficient. Installpressure regulatorsand
blowgunsinstead.

5.Minimizesystempressuredropby maintainingfiltersandairdryersdownstreamofthe compressors in


aclean condition.

6. Keep M/E AirCompressorsonmanualmodeat ports.

7. Aircompressorsoperation should becomparedwith sea trials results.

Auxiliarymachinery

1. Manageefficientlythepumpingsystembyoperatingtheminimumnumberofpumpsforthe
minimumnumberofloadsrequired.Reduce thenumberofrunningpumpswhenatportor anchorage.

2. Maintainpumps tobest possiblecondition.Avoidexcessivewearringclearanceswhich reduce


thehydraulicefficiencyof thepump.

3. In caseofsteam turbinedrivenballastpumpstry to utilize excesssteamfromboiler (forexample


duringinverting) forrunning thepumps

4. Replacedamagedmotorswith high efficiencymotors, insteadofrewinding them.

5. Electricalequipment/motors,generators,switchboards,panels,breakersareinspectedand cleaned
asperPMS.

6. Coolers are cleaned regularly for improved performance and to maintain pressures &
temperatureswithin makers’ values.
HVAC System

1. Setthermostat to 27deg.C inthesummerand21 deg. C inthewinter.

2. Maintainadequate quantityofrefrigerantinthesystem forproperoperation.Anamountofliquid


refrigerant must bepresentinthecondenser.

3. Minimizeuseofthecoolingsystemduringsatisfactory ambientconditions(say between20-25


deg.C,lessthan70%RHandstay atportoranchorage),sinceefficiency ofcoolingatsuch
conditionsisgenerally low.

4. Ensurethecompressor load/unload control isalwaysin goodoperatingcondition.

5. EnsuretheAHUfilterand coolingand heatingelementsareregularlycleaned.

6. Maximizeairrecirculationasfaraspossible,toincreaseenergyefficiency.Ofcourse thereisan upperlimit


torecirculation tomaintainhealthyconditionsin theaccommodation.

7. Regularlycheckandadjust/ replaceAHUfandrive beltsandbearingsfor optimumoperation.

8. Ensure supplyduct insulation iskeptingoodcondition.

Lighting Loads

1. Turn off thelightsin your cabin when yougoforwork.

2. Turn off thelightsin usuallyunoccupiedspaces. Keep onlysafety lightson,ifrequired.

3. Switch offaccommodation external lightsduringdaylight

4. AvoidorderingorprocuringoldT12typetubefluorescentlamps(TFLs).OrderT8whichare
moreenergyefficientinstead.

5. Orderlampsand TFLsinparticulartakingintoaccountnotonly theelectricalpowerbutalsothe


luminousefficiency,i.e.theratioofluminous flux (lumens)toelectricalpowerconsumed(watt).
Forexample aWarmwhiteTFL is moreefficient(i.e.producingmorelumensperwatt)compared to a
Daylight TFL.

6. Establishapreventivelightingfixturecleaningprogramtomaintainspaceilluminancecloseto
the“asbuilt”levels.Yearly inspectionandcleaningoflightingfixturesintheaccommodation spaces
would besuggestedasastartinginspectioninterval.
Accommodation

1. Savewaterbyproperuse ofwashingmachines.

2. Collectwater from AccommodationAir Conditioningdrain.

3. Externalaccommodationdoors/windowstobekeptclosedwhileair-
conditionorheatingis working.

4. Switch offunnecessaryaccommodationfans.
5. Make properuseof galleyequipment (switch offhotplateswhen notinuse).

6. Eliminatefrequent openingofreeferrooms’ doors.

7.
Unnecessaryoperationofgalleyexhaustfantobeavoided.Itshouldbeusedwhencook
ing foods producesmoke(i.e.,whenfryingor grilling).

8. All PCsshould be turned-offwhen they arenot inuse.

Diesel GeneratorsandElectric Distribution System

1. Operateelectricloadshavingalsoenergyefficiency
inmind.Forexampleavoidusingthe fire pumpforfilling theswimmingpool
andrecirculation ofthewater. Use asmallerpump ifpossible.

2. Exercisesomeloadmanagementwhenpossiblewiththeaimto
minimizethenumberofrunning generatorsandmaximizing theloadfactor.

3. CarryoutgoodmaintenanceofD/Gssothat 1 unit maycarrytheelectricloadat sea.

4. Checkperformanceevery1 monthsto ensuregoodoperation.

5. Carryout engine'soverhaul as permaker’sinstructionsand PMS program.