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technische universität

dortmund

ITG FG5.2.1 Workshop:


"Smart Grid" oder "Energie-Informationsnetze und Systeme“
Bremen, den 18.02.2011

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering:


System Architecture and Performance Evaluation

Christian Müller, Sebastian Subik, Andreas Wolff und Christian Wietfeld


TU Dortmund, Communication Networks Institute (CNI)
Dortmund, Deutschland
Email: {christian5.mueller, sebastian.subik, andreas.wolff, christian.wietfeld}@tu-dortmund.de

Fakultät für Elektro- und Informationstechnik,


Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian Wietfeld
IEEE SmartGridComm 2010 Beitrag in Kooperation mit Landis+Gyr:
Lichtensteiger, B., Bjelajac, B., Müller, C. and Wietfeld, C., "RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: System Architecture and Performance"
First IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm 2010), Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, IEEE, pages: 379 -384, Oct 2010.
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Agenda

 Motivation and Problem Statement


 RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering
 Scalability Analysis

 Simulation Framework
 Network Model
 System Modules

 Performance Evaluation
 Models and Parameters
 Scenario 1: Small-scale scenario
 Scenario 2: Large-scale scenario

 Conclusion and Outlook


RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 2
Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering


Neighbourhood RF Mesh Network Router RF Mesh Network
System Parameter:
 900 MHz RF Mesh
 9,6 kbit/s per channel
 Slotted Aloha channel
access
 Geo-based routing
algorithm (Greedy
Forwarding)
 Max. number of hops: 40

Collectors Network

Household with Electric Smart Meter


IP based backhaul

Router

Collector

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 3


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Scalability Analysis
 The System Design
Framework targets:
 Rapid system design by early-
stage evaluation
 Performance evaluation of
large-scale scenarios
 Real-world scenario generation
using geographic positions with
strong real-world adaption
 Topology optimization (number
of meters per router/collector)
 Performance evaluation / stress
testing

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 4


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Network Architecture Model


Meter Traffic Meter
Generator

Channel
Shared

Control
Meter Traffic Meter
Generator

Meter Traffic Meter


Generator

Channel
Collector

Shared

Control
Router Node

Channel
Shared

Control
(Sink)
Meter Traffic Meter
Generator
Router

Meter Traffic Meter


Generator Router
Channel
Shared

Control

Meter Traffic Meter


Generator

Meter Traffic Meter


Generator

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 5


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Key characteristics of simulation model

 Meters, Routers, Collectors are positioned according to real-life geographical


data
 Traffic generator: each meter produces randomly 1 packet every 4h, 1h, 1/4h,
1/8h, 1/16h, …
 Current RF Mesh Protocol Model includes
 Channel access via Slotted ALOHA
 Packet errors due to data packet collisions
 Back-off in case of data collisions
 Geographical routing protocol with preference of Routers
 Upside potential not part of current model: piggy-backing, higher data rate for routers, 4
parallel channels for collectors

 Current Channel model with adaptive transmission range up to 150m.

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 6


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

System Design Framework


Simulation System
Playground Dynamic
(NW/SE) Modules

Positions Scenario
GeoDatabase
(Lat./Lon.) Core Simulation Model Library

Geo-Position Dynamic
(Lat./Lon.) Scenario Router
Geo Database No
meterin
g data
traffic
generati
on

Meter

Collector
Real World
Scenario
No
metering
data traffic
generation

Sink

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 7


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Key statistical data derived from simulations


 Packet success rate of received packets per node:
Example: 1 packet within 4 hours, 24 h simulation time
 0 packet received at collector within 24 h  0% success rate
 1-5 packets received within 24 h 16% - 83% success rate
 6 packets received  100% success rate
 Overall Ratio of successful nodes vs. number of all nodes
 In case one packet was received in 24 h, the node is counted to be
successful, despite some packets might be lost
 Overall Ratio of successfully received packets vs. number of sent
packets

Additional statistics:
 Number of dropped packets at a specific node  indicates bottlenecks
 Number of number of hops per packet per node  indicates, how many
hops a packets travels from a node to the collector

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 8


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Simulation Scenarios & Parameters

 Scenario 1: Small-scale scenario


 350 meters, one collector, 5 routers
 Simulation duration 24 h
 1 packet every 4h, 1h, 1/4h, 1/8h, 1/16h
 Used for validation purposes to confirm proper functionality of
geographical routing

 Scenario 2: Full-scale scenario


 17.181 meters plus collectors & routers according to geo data
 Simulation duration 24 h
 Used to derive statistics for complete scenario

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 9


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Small-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 1 hour
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes = 100%


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets: 100%

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 10


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Small-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 15 minutes
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes ≈ 100 %


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets ≈ 98 %

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 11


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Small-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 7,5 minutes
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes ≈ 78,5 %


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets ≈ 48 %

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 12


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Small-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 3,75 minutes
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Route to
collector
overloaded

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes ≈ 70,2 %


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets ≈ 25 %

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 13


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Large-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 1 hour
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes = 99,1 %


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets = 99,9 %

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 14


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Large-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 15 minutes
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes ≈ 59,8 %


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets ≈ 48 %

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 15


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Large-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 7,5 minutes
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes ≈ 37,2 %


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets ≈ 32 %

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 16


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Large-scale Scenario Increased traffic load


for validation purposes
1 packet per node every 3,75 minutes
Geographical distribution of packet successful rate of nodes:

0 % packets received
<25 % packets received
<50 % packets received
<75 % packets received
<100 % packets received
100 % packets received

Overall ratio: Successfull nodes vs. failed nodes ≈ 20,1 %


Overall ratio: Successfully received packets vs. sent packets ≈ 18 %

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 17


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Results for Large-scale Scenario


Geographical distribution of number of hops per node:

9 to 12 hops
1 to 3 hops to
7 to 8 hops
collector 5 to 6 hops
3 to 4 hops
1 to 2 hops

9 to 12 hops
to collector

Average number of hops : 3.7

17181 nodes
Traffic: 1 packet per node per 4 hours
Max. Meter Range: 150 m (+ adaptive range extension)
Max. Router Range: 2000 m

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 18


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Reachability Analysis and Collision Detection


Received Packets Collisions
Without Routers
With Routers

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 19


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Conclusion

 Simulations have confirmed, that with the given traffic of 1 packet per 4 hours, the
system performs well (99,99% success rate)
 Precondition: all nodes are properly meshed  connectivity gaps caused by
geography need to be closed with routers/range extensions
 Data collisions occur, but do not lead to significant failures
 Detection of Point of Failure in advance to the field deployment
 Optimisation of location-based topology problems

Outlook
 BMWi E-Energy Project „E-DeMa“:
 Geobased evaluation of ICT topologies with different technologies
 Traffic load and protocol optimization

 DFG Forschergruppe „Neue Schutz- und Leitsysteme für Energiesysteme“:


 Hybrid simulator for ICT and energy components

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 20


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Double Family House


Outlook

Infrastructure-
components

Multi Family House


Single Familiy House

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 21


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation
technische universität Lehrstuhl für Kommunikationsnetze
dortmund Prof. Dr.-Ing. C. Wietfeld

Vielen Dank für die Aufmerksamkeit!

Kontakt:
Christian Müller
TU Dortmund, Communication Networks Institute (CNI)
Otto-Hahn-Str. 6, 44227 Dortmund
Tel: +49 (0) 231-755-6140
Email: christian5.mueller@tu-dortmund.de

RF Mesh Systems for Smart Metering: Folie 22


Christian Müller
System Architecture and Performance Evaluation