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3G Coverage Improvement

Solution & Guideline

IWG Bouygues Telecom


19th of June 2009

Stéphane Le Mercier
WCDMA Radio Network Consultant
Radio Network Consulting

Ericsson ESF
Phone: +33 1 69 93 75 57
Mobile: +33 6 07 02 31 94
Mail: stephane.le.mercier@ericsson.com
Agenda
 Poor Radio Channel Coverage in 3G ?
 Stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps
 Conversational RAB for Multimode AMR Speech
 AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
 WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System
 IRAT Mobility Optimization
 Improved RACH Coverage
 Improved Downlink Coverage Feature
 CPICH Power tuning for 60W RU
 Modular High Gain Antenna
 Fixed broadband over HSPA
 WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range Feature
 Higher Order Sectorization
 Improve Rural Coverage
 Transmit Diversity Feature
 Coverage Improvement Strategies

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 2 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Poor Channel Coverage in 3G

Which are the weak channels ?

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 3 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Quel canal (RACH, AICH, FACH, SRB, HS-


HS-SCCH, etc.) et quel lien UL/DL en
Voix et Data R99/HSPA est le facteur limitant de notre couverture
couverture 3G actuelle ?

RACH investigation:
Under normal circumstances RACH is not the main limitation. With multiple
accesses (in the random access phase) the probability for RACH coverage is
equal or better than DCH coverage.
With more traffic on the state RACH/FACH, it is becoming more important
to have a better performance on the RACH channel.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 4 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Quel canal (RACH, AICH, FACH, SRB, HS-


HS-SCCH, etc.) et quel lien UL/DL en
Voix et Data R99/HSPA est le facteur limitant de notre couverture
couverture 3G actuelle ?

RACH investigation :

Improved RACH Coverage:


Feature identity: FAJ 121 1350

Dependencies:
This feature improves RACH coverage e.g. deep indoor or over large area.

This feature is recommended especially when using:


Improved downlink coverage FAJ 121 1047 (new from P5)
Stand Alone SRB 3.4 kbps, FAJ 121 1158 (new from P7)
Conversational RAB for multi mode AMR Speech, FAJ 121 985
(enhanced in P7)
There is no formal dependency it shall rather be viewed as guidance.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 5 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Quel canal (RACH, AICH, FACH, SRB, HS-


HS-SCCH, etc.) et quel lien UL/DL en
Voix et Data R99/HSPA est le facteur limitant de notre couverture
couverture 3G actuelle ?

SRB investigation:

UeRc SRB (instance for standalone RRC on DCH) can't enter in CM for IRAT
or IFHO.

Since the time spent on Stand-alone SRB is fairly short, we decided not
allowing IFHO or IRATHO/CC trigged by coverage from this state.

The typical scenario is that the short time spent on Stand-alone SRB occur
directly after RRC Connection establishment.

The need for a very quick handover to GSM just after the setup is small.

And also we typically don't spend time on Stand-alone SRB "at the end of
the call" since the signalling connection is typically released together with
release of the "last" RAB.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 6 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Quels résultats et retours d’expérience avez-vous sur le sujet ?

Reason for study:

In most UTRAN cells in Puerto Rico we see that accessibility is worse for
CS than PS.

This seems to be true for other markets as well.

CS Accessibility is currently the KPI with the lowest margin (closest to


yellow) in Puerto Rico.

The goal of this study is to understand why, and also explore methods for
improvement.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 7 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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RNC wide CS and PS Call Setup Success Rate

100.00

99.50
CS Call Success rate
99.00
PS Call Success rate
98.50

98.00
7

7
07
00

00

00

00
20
/2

/2

/2

/2
3/
20

27

10

17
4/
3/

3/

4/

4/
The graph below shows how CS Accessibility is always worse tan PS

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 8 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Accessibility – RRC and RAB

The call flow for a call setup contains two phases:

1- RRC setup, initial generic signaling connection


2- RAB setup, service specific radio bearer

The total accessibility or success rate, is simply the success rates for these
two phases multiplied:

Tot succ rate = RRC succ rate * RAB succ rate

When looking at the RRC and RAB success rates for CS and PS, we see that
the CS degradation happen in the RRC phase which is the first phase in the
call setup.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 9 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Accessibility – RRC Success Rate


The graph below shows how CS RRC success rate is always worse than PS.

RNC wide CS and PS RRC Setup Success Rate

100.00

99.50
CS RRC Success rate
99.00
PS RRC Success rate
98.50

98.00
7

7
07
00

00

00

00
20
/2

/2

/2

/2
3/
20

27

10

17
4/
3/

3/

4/

4/

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 10 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Speculations, CS versus PS RRC

Why do we see a difference in RRC success rate for CS and PS, when the
call flow is supposedly identical for this phase?

Can it be because of different behavior and RF conditions between CS and


PS Users ?

Mobile CS users versus stationary PS users making lots of short calls from
the same location ?

We need to understand if the setup failures are RF or non-RF related to


explain the difference !

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 11 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Quels résultats et retours d’expérience avez-vous sur le sujet ?

RRC Setup, Simplified call flow:

UE RNC

rrc Connection Request If the setup failure happens in this region the
failure is due to non-RF problems.

The RNC fails to send the Setup message


due to for example admission ctrl (blocking)
rrc Connection Reject or AAL2 problems between RNC and RBS
(T1 problems)

A Reject is sent upon failure


FACH
rrc Connection Setup
If the setup failure happens in this region the
failure is mainly due to RF problems.
SRB
rrc Connection Setup Complete Either the UE failed to receive the Setup
message or the RNC failed to receive the
Complete message.
rrc Connection Reject
Reject is sent if Complete is not received

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 12 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Troubleshooting method:

During admission control implementation, an RRC connection reject is sent


if no resources are available for allocation, or if the call should be
redirected to a different system or carrier.

After successful resource allocation, the RRC Connection Setup message–


which contains SRB information including the mapping details of dedicated
logical, transport, and physical channels–is sent on the Forward Access
Channel (FACH).

This RRC Connection Setup message contains a significant amount of


information, and it spans multiple frames while not yet operating in closed
loop power-controlled condition.

This makes it difficult for the UE to receive the message, especially if the
SCCPCH power allocation is not set to accommodate poor coverage.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 13 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Troubleshooting method:
There seem to be no counters in the RNC to determine if the RRC Setup
message was sent or not.

It was therefore necessary to use CTR logging to capture the message


flow and limit the analysis to just one single cell instead of the whole
network.

A perl script was written to classify each call attempt based on the RRC
messaging captured by CTR.

Cell PRSJU02317 was chosen for the analysis. Not too frequent T1
problems, well contained RF (no overshooting) and fairly high call volume
without blocking.

42766 calls were captured between April 10 and 19 2007.

An overview if the call types collected and their individual failure rate
(based on the CTR message analysis, not the regular counters) is shown on
next page.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 14 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Analysis results – Call Types:


The table below shows the amount of RRC requests and RRC failure rate
per call type.
CS and PS RRC failure rate difference confirmed also with this CTR layer
3 message based method.
Setup RRC RRC Fail
RRC Type Call Type example Requests Failures Rate
callRe-establishment ? 4 0 0.00
detach Power down reg 85 1 1.18
interRAT-CellReselection IRAT Cell Reselect 9998 75 0.75
originatingConversationalCall Voice Orig 4295 44 1.02
originatingHighPrioritySignalling Deactivate PDP context 620 2 0.32
originatingInteractiveCall PS Orig 10756 21 0.20
originatingLowPrioritySignalling SMS Orig 466 0 0.00
registration Location update 11439 97 0.85
terminatingBackgroundCall PS Term 1713 6 0.35
terminatingConversationalCall Voice Term 2673 14 0.52
terminatingHighPrioritySignalling SMS term via PS domain 13 0 0.00
terminatingLowPrioritySignalling SMS Term 704 5 0.71

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 15 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Analysis results – Failure Class:

Almost no calls failed in the non-RF region (characterized by a RRC


Connection Request followed by a Reject without RRC Connection Setup
message).

This was also confirmed looking at UE Exceptions where a majority were


“T_RRC_Est_1 expiry, Neither RRC Connection Setup Complete or NBAP
Radio Link Restore Indication received”

Focus should therefore be on the RF side, and the different RF


environments for CS and PS are examined.

The Ec/Io as reported by the UE in the RRC Connection Request message,


is used for this analysis.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 16 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Analysis – Ec/Io for all calls:


A general observation:
The many good Ec/Io values show that network is very lightly loaded.

Ec/Io for all call types


8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
4

-9

-6

-3

0
Ec/Io
-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 17 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Analysis – Ec/Io for all failures:


As expected the failures are more likely on the lower side of the Ec/Io
values.

30 E c /Io fo r a ll fa ilu re s , a ll c a ll ty p e s

25

20

15

10

0
E c / Io
4

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 18 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Analysis – Failures versus Ec/Io:


With the two histograms it is now easy to calculate the failure rate as a
function of Ec/Io.
RRC Failure rate versus Ec/Io
0.18

0.16

0.14

0.12

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0
-25 -20 -15 Ec/Io -10 -5 0

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 19 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Analysis results – Observations:


At Ec/Io = -14dB, the RRC failure rate is 5%.

Not admitting calls with worse than -14dB Ec/Io would improve the
accessibility.

Currently the qQualMin = -18dB network wide, but we are still seeing UEs
bringing up calls with worse Ec/Io than -18dB.

Possible explanation: The idle reselection between UTRAN and GSM is a


slow process with heavy filtering in the UE. Especially a moving UE is likely
to linger on UTRAN for a while below qQualMin before switching to GSM,
and call might be brought up with Ec/Io < -18dB.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 20 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Analysis – Ec/Io comparison CS/PS:


We have seen that RRC success rate is highly depending on the Ec/Io
reported at call setup.

One goal of this study is to find out why CS RRC success rate is lower than
for PS, and the next slides therefore compare the reported Ec/Io
between CS and PS calls.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 21 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Analysis – Ec/Io comparison CS/PS:


Reported Ec/Io for CS originated calls.

800 Ec/Io for CS originated calls


700
600
500
400
300
200 13% of calls in this region
100
0
Ec/Io
4

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 22 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

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Analysis – Ec/Io comparison CS/PS:


Reported Ec/Io for PS originated calls.

3000 Ec/Io for PS originated calls

2500

2000

1500

1000

500
5.6% of calls in this region
0
Ec/Io
4

-8

-6

-4

-2

0
-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 23 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Analysis – Ec/Io comparison CS/PS:


We see that CS calls are generally in worse Ec/Io conditions than PS calls.
Possible contributing factors are higher mobility for CS users, and PS
users (with laptop cards) being more selective when it comes to location.

The initial speculative explanations on page 9 seems to hold.

Ec/Io CDF CS PS
Percentage at -10dB or below 12.92% 5.65%
Percentage at -14dB or below 4.26% 0.87%
Percentage at -18dB or below 1.16% 0.19%

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 24 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Conclusion and summary:


The purpose of this study was to understand why CS accessibility in
general is worse than PS.

We have seen that RRC setup success rate is heavily dependant on Ec/Io
at call setup.

We have seen that CS has more call setups in worse RF conditions (Ec/Io)
than PS, resulting in more failures.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 25 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
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Improving the RRC success rate:


Keep on downtilting and cleaning up the RF containment - the best way to
improve Ec/Io in the network. Especially important as load increases
(increasing load degrades Ec/Io).

Run a trial increasing qQualMin to -14dB to prevent UEs in poor RF to camp


on UMTS.
Negative impact:
 Less calls on UMTS, more on GSM.

Run a trial increasing the power of the overhead channel FACH-1 that
carries the RRC Connection Setup message to the UE.

Negative impact:
 Slightly increased downlink transmit power resulting in less
downlink capacity.
 But effect will be small since the activity factor of FACH-1 is
low.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 26 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Quels résultats et retours d’expérience avez-vous sur le sujet ?

Improving this study:


Collect more data so that failure rate versus Ec/Io can be plotted
separately for CS and PS.

In CTR, log also Active Set Update message (ASU) so that every call can
be classified as stationary or mobile. Negative mobility impact on
accessibility ?

Get the UE exception for every single failure in the CTR call flows (using
tmsi and call reference) to get a picture of the non-dominant failures too.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 27 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Existent-
Existent-ils des moyens via paramé
paramétrage ou fonctionnel (y compris dans les
paliers futurs) pour amé
améliorer ce constat ?

Conversational RAB for Multimode AMR Speech


FAJ 121 985 - Enhanced in P7.1 (optional)

Dependencies to Other Features


FAJ 121 146 Conversational RAB for AMR Speech
Prerequisite to activate FAJ 121 985
Related feature
To get the same coverage for the Signalling Radio Bearer as for the low
rate speech, feature “Stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps” (FAJ 121 1158) should
be activated.

Restrictions and Limitations


Some RAB combinations are only available as Single-rate 12.2 RAB
combinations due to UE limitations

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 28 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps

New in P7.0

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 29 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps
Offer
 The
The Stand
Stand Alone
Alone Signaling
Signaling Radio
Radio Bearer
Bearer (SRB)
(SRB) 3.4
3.4 kbps
kbps feature
feature introduce
introduce the
the possibility
possibility to
to have
have aa
stand
stand alone
alone SRB
SRB with
with the
the rate
rate 3.4
3.4 kbps
kbps instead
instead of
of the
the default
default SRB
SRB rate
rate of
of 13.6
13.6 kbps.
kbps. SRB
SRB 3.4
3.4 kbps
kbps
requires less resources than SRB 13.6 kbps, which means the coverage can
requires less resources than SRB 13.6 kbps, which means the coverage can be improved. be improved.
 In
In particular,
particular, if
if SRB
SRB 3.4
3.4 kbps
kbps is
is combined
combined with
with using
using aa lower
lower rate
rate speech
speech codec
codec ofof AMR
AMR NBNB or
or AMR
AMR
WB,
WB, the
the coverage
coverage ofof the
the speech
speech service
service can
can be
be improved
improved

Scenario example Scope


 For
For operators
operators who
who wants
wants to
to improve
improve  Mainly
Mainly for
for rural
rural sites
sites where
where greater
greater
coverage
coverage on
on existing
existing and
and new
new sites.
sites. coverage
coverage is
is needed
needed
Particularly for sites in rural areas
Particularly for sites in rural areas

Benefits
Operator End-user
 Increased
Increased coverage
coverage for
for signaling
signaling (e.g.
(e.g. at
at  Improved
Improved service
service availability
availability in
in low
low coverage
coverage
call setup) corresponding to coverage
call setup) corresponding to coverage situations
situations
improvements
improvements using
using Conversational
Conversational RABRAB for
for  Improved
Improved call
call setup
setup success
success rate
rate
Multimode
Multimode AMR
AMR speech
speech
 Less
Less cost
cost to
to create
create coverage,
coverage, oror

 Increased
Increased revenue
revenue from
from calls
calls
otherwise
otherwise lost due to poor coverage,
lost due to poor coverage,
and
and
 Improved
Improved customer
customer uptake
uptake due
due to
to
better
better service
service offering
offering

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 30 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps
 P7.0 Feature Scope
– Introduction of a lower rate, 3.4 kbps, stand alone Signaling Radio
Bearer (SRB) will increase the coverage area of the cell compared
to when the 13.6 kbps standalone SRB is used.

 Feature Preparation
– Stand alone SRB 3.4 is mandatory for the UE

 Feature activation
– A license is required to activate stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps.
The license is on RNC level.
– The parameter standAloneSrbSelector needs to be set to SRB3.4

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 31 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps
 End-to-End Performance, SRB 3.4 compared to SRB 13.6
– Increase the connection establishment time by 1 – 1.5 s
– Increased Accessibility due to larger coverage area
– Decreased Retainability due to increased time on SRB (lower data
rate)

 Parameter and new/modified MO structure


– SRB 3.4 kbps or SRB 13.6 kbps is selected per cell

 New operator configurable parameter


UtranCell:: standAloneSrbSelector
 SRB 13.6 kbps is the default configuration

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 32 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Stand alone SRB 3.4 kbps
 Observability
– New PM Counters
 New Retainability counters for SRB
- pmNoNormalReleaseSrbOnly34
- pmNoSystemReleaseSrbOnly34
- pmNoNormalReleaseSrbOnly136
- pmNoSystemReleaseSrbOnly136

 New Erlang counters for SRB


- pmSumSrbOnly34
- pmSamplesSrbOnly34
- pmSumBestSrbOnly34
- pmSamplesBestSrbOnly34
- pmSumBestRrcOnlyEstablish
- pmSamplesBestRrcOnlyEstablish

 New Traffic volume counters for SRB


- pmDlTrafficVolumeSrb34
- pmUlTrafficVolumeSrb34
- pmDlTrafficVolumeSrb136
- pmUlTrafficVolumeSrb136
– KPI impact
 New Retainability KPI for standalone SRB introduced
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 33 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Conversational RAB
for
Multimode AMR Speech

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 34 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
Enhanced in P7 with multi rate radio bearer

 Improved coverage Variable due to coverage


– Rate reduction in uplink due to coverage AMR 4.75 – 12.2
– Improves link budget 2-3 dB
– Gives ~20% increased cell range
– Corresponds to ~40-50% area increase

Low load
AMR 12.2

 Increased capacity
– Increased voice capacity High load, also with data
– Also low rate AMR together with data AMR 4.75– 7.95

Both coverage and capacity improvements


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 35 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Extended call setup range
Using Stand Alone Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB) on 3.4 kbps
Cell Coverage area
SRB 3.4

4.75 kbps
AMR speech SRB 13.6
5.9 kbps
12.2 kbps AMR speech
AMR speech

Better service availability and further reach


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 36 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
 P6 Feature Scope:
– Solution for high speech capacity

– AMR Multimode Single-rate radio bearers


(12.2 / 7.95 / 5.9 / 4.75)
 Lower speech rate in high load situations to gain capacity.
 Lower speech quality for Higher capacity trade-off.
 Spreading Factor 256 can be used for 5.9/4.75

– AMR Rate Selection at call setup


 Load based RNC algorithm selects a single rate radio bearer.

– AMR Single-mode 12.2 Fall-back


 AMR Multimode Single-rate radio bearers
- Always fallback to AMR Single-mode 12.2 in case of
multi Radio Access Bearer (RAB) combinations

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 37 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
 P7.0 Feature Enhancement
– Improved (uplink) cell coverage for speech calls
 Introduction of AMR Multimode Multi-rate Radio Bearer
that enables Coverage Based Rate Selection controlled by
the UE.
– Introduction of AMR Multimode Multi-rate Radio Access Bearer
(RAB) Combinations giving better speech capacity when multi RABs
are used e.g. Speech + Data
 P7.1 Feature Enhancement Reason
– Enable AMR Multimode multi-rate for new UEs only (some old UEs
may not support this functionality even though it’s mandatory in
3GPP, these UEs will use 12.2 only)
 P7.1 Feature Enhancement
– Introduction of an operator parameter in order to only allow UEs of
a certain 3GPP release to use AMR Multimode multi-rate

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 38 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
Improve cell coverage (P7.0)

 AMR Multimode multi-rate radio bearer (12.2, 7.95, 5.9, 4.75)


– Spreading Factor 128 used for all rates

 Initial AMR Rate Selection at call setup


– Load based RNC algorithm selects maximum allowed Uplink (UL)
and Downlink (DL) speech rates for the call.

 Coverage Based Rate Selection


– UL speech rate is controlled by the UE

– UE continuously adapted the UL speech rate to achieve the best


speech quality and coverage tradeoff (based on used UL Power).

– The changes are handled by the peer nodes, UE and Speech


codec and are not visible in the Network (BS, RNC, CN).

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 39 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech

 Feature Preparation
– Core Network:
 Must use Iu User Plane version 1 (same as P6/P7.0 feature)
 Must support AMR Multimode Multi-Rate RAB (for multi-
rate option)
– UE:
 Support for AMR Multimode Multi-Rate RAB (for multi-
rate option)

 Feature activation
– A license is required to activate Conversational RAB for
Multimode AMR Speech. The license is on RNC level.
– The parameter amrNbSelector needs to be set to Multirate

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 40 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
Offer
 The
The feature
feature provides
provides aa conversational
conversational RAB
RAB (Radio
(Radio Access
Access Bearer)
Bearer) for
for multi
multi mode
mode AMR
AMR speech
speech with
with
the rates 12.2, 7.95, 5.9 and 4.75 kbps
the rates 12.2, 7.95, 5.9 and 4.75 kbps
 The
The multi
multi mode
mode AMR
AMR speech
speech RAB
RAB with
with multi
multi rate
rate radio
radio bearer
bearer is
is over
over the
the radio
radio interface
interface realized
realized so
so
that
that both
both the
the core
core network
network andand the
the mobile
mobile can
can instantaneously
instantaneously change
change toto any
any of
of the
the allowed
allowed rates
rates
 This
This allows
allows the
the mobile
mobile to
to autonomously
autonomously change
change to
to aa lower
lower speech
speech codec
codec rate
rate e.g.
e.g. due
due to
to uplink
uplink
coverage
coverage or
or capacity
capacity in
in the
the network
network
Scenario example Scope
 Operator
Operator offering
offering AMR
AMR speech
speech functionality
functionality  Being
Being an
an improvement
improvement to to the
the increased
increased
with an aim to improve network performance
with an aim to improve network performance speech
speech quality functionality with AMR,
quality functionality with AMR, this
this
and
and maximize
maximize revenue
revenue feature
feature should
should be
be implemented
implemented on on all
all nodes
nodes
where
where AMR
AMR isis enabled
enabled

Benefits
Operator End-user
 Coverage
Coverage increase
increase  Higher
Higher availability
availability of
of Service
Service due
due to
to
 Rate
Rate reduction
reduction in in uplink
uplink due
due toto increased
increased coverage
coverage and
and capacity
capacity
coverage
coverage  Better
Better indoor
indoor coverage
coverage
 Improves
Improves link
link budget
budget 2-3 2-3 dB
dB
 Gives
Gives ~20%
~20% increased
increased cellcell range
range
 Corresponds
Corresponds to ~40-50% area increase
to ~40-50% area increase
 Capacity
Capacity increase
increase
 Greater
Greater amount
amount of of subscribers
subscribers in in
parallel during busy hours
parallel during busy hours
 Low
Low rate
rate AMR
AMR together
together with
with data
data
 Increased voice capacity
Increased voice capacity

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 41 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Multimode AMR-NB
 RAB with several rates
– (12.2, 7.95, 5.9, 4.75 kbps)
 Selection of AMR rate at call setup
 Increased capacity by using lower rate speech codec
– Up to 70 % Busy Hour capacity increase with AMR 4.75 kbps
– Codec selection based on load
– Single rate radio bearer
 Reduces power consumption and interference
 Ericsson solution also optimize code usage
– Spreading Factor 256 used for 5.9 & 4.75 kbps, avoiding code limitation
– Increases capacity for HSDPA Typical Voice Traffic pattern

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Time of day

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 42 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


TrFO for WCDMA
 Benefit
– Increased voice quality (no extra transcoding)
– Transmission savings in Core Network
– Prerequisite for AMR-WB
 Description
– Transcoding is avoided and the AMR coding of speech done in the terminal is kept
through the network
– WCDMA RAN implement Iu signaling support and rate control needed.
BICC (OoBTC)
MSC MSC
Server Server

RANAP

GCP

RNC MGW MGW RNC


Iu Nb over ATM or IP Transport Iu
UE UE
TrFO Connection, AMR end-to-end

Bandwidth Bandwidth MGW Speech


on Iu on Nb resources Quality

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 43 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
 Introduction of AMR MM Multi-rate in RAB Combinations (P7.0)
– AMR Multimode multi-rate radio bearer can be used in Multi-RAB combinations
– Some restrictions on multi-RAB combinations exist due to UE limitations
– AMR Single-mode 12.2 Fall-back

UeRc RAB Combination 12.2 MM


2 Conv. CS speech AMR-NB + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK
9 Conv. CS speech AMR-NB + Interact. PS (0/0) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

10 Conv. CS speech AMR-NB + Interact. PS (64/64) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

12 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + SRB (3.4/3.4), pre-configured OK OK

19 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (64/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

20 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (384/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

24 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Stream. PS unkn. (16/128) + Interact. PS (8/8) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

27 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (64/64) + Interact. PS (64/64) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

36 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (64/128) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

37 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (128/64) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

38 Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (64/384) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

49 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Stream. PS (128/HS) + Interact. PS (8/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK NOK *)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 44 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
UeRc RAB Combination 12.2 MM

57 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (64/HS) + Interact. PS (64/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

58 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (128/HS) + Interact. PS (128/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

59 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (384/HS) + Interact. PS (384/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

60 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (128/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (64/HS) + Interact. PS (64/HS) +Interact. PS


61 OK OK
(64/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4)
Conv. Speech (12.2/12.2) + Stream. PS (16/HS) + Interact. PS (64/HS) + Interact. PS (64/HS)
64 OK NOK *)
+ (3.4/3.4) SRB
Conv. Speech (12.2/12.2) + Stream. PS (128/HS) + Interact. PS (64/HS) + Interact. PS (64/HS)
65 OK NOK *)
+ (3.4/3.4) SRB
Conv. CS speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (64/64) + Interact. PS (64/64) + Interact. PS
71 OK OK
(64/64) + SRB (3.4/3.4)

76 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (128/128) + Interact. PS (128/128) + SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

77 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Stream. PS (16/HS) + Interact. PS (8/HS)+ SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

78 Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Stream. PS (32/HS) + Interact. PS (8/HS)+ SRB (3.4/3.4) OK OK

Conv. CS Speech (12.2/12.2) + Interact. PS (16/HS) + SRB (3.4/3.4)


113 OK OK
(the RAB combination is introduced in P7.1)
*) This AMR MM combination is not used due to UE limitations regarding number of UL
TFC in the TFCS. In P7.0 are maximum 64UL TFC’s supported (Hard Coded)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 45 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
Parameters and new/modified MO structure
 AMR Multimode single-rate or multi-rate option is selected per cell (P7.0)
– New operator configurable parameter UtranCell:amrNbSelector (Default is
single-rate)

 Only allow UEs from a certain 3GPP release to use AMR NB multimode, the ”old” UEs
will get 12.2 (P7.1)
– P7.1: New operator configurable parameter
RabHandling:amrNbMmUeRelease (default is R99)

Multi-Vendor
 Iu UP Signalling towards core network updated (P7.0)
– According to 3GPP specification
– Similar behavior as for the existing feature with some changes
 All rates will be included in INITIALISATION
 The maximum allowed rate, decided by the load based algorithm in
the RNC, will be indicated in INITIALISATION
 At fallback to 12.2 all rates apart from 12.2 will be marked as
barred using the RATE CONTROL procedure

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 46 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
Observability:
 New PM Counters (P7.0)
– New Erlang counters for AMR MM
 pmSumAmrNbMmRabEstablish
 pmSamplesAmrNbMmRabEstablish
 pmSumBestAmrNbMmRabEstablish
 pmSamplesBestAmrNbMmRabEstablish
– New Traffic volume counters for AMR MM
 pmUlTrafficVolumeAmrNbMm
 pmDlTrafficVolumeAmrNbMm

 RES observability (P7.1)


– Two new RES services introduced
 AMRNBMM used for AMR NB MM multi-rate ”speech only” RABs
 AMRNBMM_ALL used for all other RAB combinations containing
AMR NB MM multi-rate

 GPEH (P7.0)
– Parameter updated to include speech configuration
 EVENT_PARAM_SOURCE_CONNECTION_PROPERTIES
 EVENT_PARAM_TARGET_CONNECTION_PROPERTIES
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 47 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech

 Observability
– KPI impact (AMR MM Multi-rate VS. Single-rate)

 Improved Retainability in speech coverage limited cells


- UE will decrease the UL speech rate to gain coverage.

 Decreased Accessibility in speech capacity limited cells


- SF256 can not be used in DL for the two lowest
rates

 The system utilization KPI for the total number of speech


users in a cell will be updated to include the new counters
for AMR MM Multi-rate

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 48 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conversational RAB for multimode AMR Speech
 Dependencies to Other Features
– FAJ 121 146 Conversational RAB for AMR Speech
 Prerequisite to activate FAJ 121 985
– Related feature
 To get the same coverage for the Signalling Radio Bearer
as for the low rate speech, feature “Stand alone SRB 3.4
kbps” (FAJ 121 1158) should be activated.

 Restrictions and Limitations


– Some RAB combinations are only available as Single-rate 12.2 RAB
combinations due to UE limitations

 References
– CPI Connection handling, 4/1553-HSD 101 02/7

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 49 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75
Traffic Capacity

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 50 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Introduction
 In order to give an idea of how the speech traffic capacity varies
with Mpole utilization, and how aggressive the designer can dimension
the network capacity, graphs with Mpole1 utilization range of 50% to
100% with 5% step were generated;

 The results presented in this document is for AMR Narrow Band only.
There is no Eb/No values defined for AMR Wide Band.

 DTX gain for AMR NB with rates lower than 12.2 kbps is under
investigation. In this exercise the AMR 12.2kbps DTX gain value was
used for 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 kbps.

1 : Mpole is the theoretical maximum number of simultaneous users that a cell can support according to service type.
 The values presented in this document are based on typical cell planning values for the Ericsson’s WCDMA P5 Radio Access
Network. Many of the values are based on best estimates and due to ongoing development the values may change with time.
This means that the values presented in this guideline may not be seen as guaranteed product performance, the presented
values are best guess average values intended for cell planning purposes.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 51 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Assumptions
 AMR rates
– 12.2kbps;
– 7.95kbps;
– 5.90kbps;
– 4.75kbps;
 RF
– Environment
 Dense Urban (DU);
 Urban (U);
 Suburban (SU);
 Rural (RA);
– Channel Model
 Typical Urban 3km/h (TU3);
 Typical Urban 50km/h (TU50);
 Rural 50km/h (RA50);
 RF Environment x Channel Model
– Dense Urban – TU3;
– Urban – TU3; M service1 M service2
MpoleUtilization = + + ..
– Suburban – TU50; M poleservice1 M poleservice 2
– Rural – RA50.

 Mpole Utilization range


– 50% to 100% with 5% step
– Max recommended Mpole utilization of 85% in the Down-link;
– Max recommended Mpole utilization of 70% in the Up-link;
 GOS (Grade of Service)
– 2%

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 52 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph DL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

DL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


TU 3 & Dense Urban

160.0

140.0

120.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 53 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph UL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

UL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


TU 3 & Dense Urban

160.0

140.0

120.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 54 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph DL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

DL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


TU 3 & Urban

160.0

140.0

120.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 55 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph UL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

UL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


TU 3 & Urban

160.0

140.0

120.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 56 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph DL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

DL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


TU 50 & Suburban

80.0

70.0

60.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 57 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph UL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

UL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


TU 50 & Suburban

80.0

70.0

60.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 58 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph DL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

DL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


RA 50 & Rural

80.0

70.0

60.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 59 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


AMR 12.2, 7.95, 5.90 and 4.75 Traffic Capacity
Graph UL Traffic Capacity x Mpole Capacity utilization

UL Mpole utilization (Erlangs)


RA 50 & Rural

80.0

70.0

60.0
Erlangs per cell carrier

50.0

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100%
Pole Capacity Utilization

Erl_AMR4.75 Erl_AMR5.90 Erl_AMR7.95 Erl_AMR12.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 60 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System

Idle & Connected Mode

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 61 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Defining Coverage
General:
 There are three types of coverage threshold:
– Idle mode coverage: describes the minimum signal level where the
terminal can detect and decode the signal from the RBS.

– Active mode coverage: describes the minimum signal level where


service can be maintained at a given quality criterion.

– Access coverage: describes the minimum signal level where the


terminal can set up a call.

 These coverage thresholds should ideally be equal in order to ensure that


a call can be set up (access coverage) and maintained (active mode
coverage) at a given quality.

 However, in most cases they are not equal. Normally, a call can be held at
a lower signal level than what is allowed to set up a call.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 62 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Defining Coverage
Access coverage:
 The access coverage is determined by the ability for the UE to connect to the
system. The random access channel (RACH), stand alone signaling radio bearer
Standalone SRB), and paging channel (PCH) must be good enough for successful
access.
 There is also a precondition that the UE has to be in idle mode, the serving cell
must have signal level and quality above qRxLevMin and qQualMin.
 It is the access success rate that defines if there is access coverage or not. With
default parameter settings access can be made successfully above −115 dBm CPICH
RSCP (assuming 30 dBm CPICH at the system reference point, 21 dBm UE power
and 2 dB system noise figure).
 In the downlink, the PCH power setting should be 0.4 dB below the CPICH power in
order to provide adequate paging performance. This ensures that the quality of the
paging channels matches the CPICH performance.

Access Idle mode


Active mode

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 63 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System

Idle Mode Behaviour

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 64 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Idle mode behaviour (CR U2G and G2U)
 If the Reselection from UMTS to GSM is triggered too early, this might
force the UE to leave the 3G network for GSM even if the WCDMA
coverage is sufficient enough to provide 3G services. This leads the end
user to stay unnecessary time in a technology that is limiting his
opportunities.

 On the other hand, leaving UMTS too late can increase the risk to stay
in a network that is not able to handle end user expectations anymore
(Call set-ups could be blocked/dropped).

 The GSM to UMTS cell reselection settings should be consistent with


the U2G settings in order to support the best usage of both
technologies.

 Since the main strategy is to maintain an end-user as long as possible


into the 3G network, it’s advisable to set the CR parameters with a gap
of at least 2 dB between themselves.

 If the value for the 3G network is set at e.g. –14dB to leave towards
GSM a suitable value to return should be –12dB Ec/No.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 65 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Idle mode behaviour (CR U2G and G2U)
 For Ericsson RAN, a UMTS cell can have up to 32 GSM cells defined as
neighbors.

 However it is recommended to keep the GSM neighbor list to an


optimum number as the time it takes for a UE to find a candidate GSM
cell generally increases with longer neighbor lists.

 Keeping the neighbor list short would generally lead to less time in
compressed mode and better retainability.

 If the UMTS coverage falls quickly, the probability of quickly finding a


suitable GSM candidate cell will increase, if there are fewer GSM cells
to measure on.

 The following strategy for the creation of GSM neighbor lists for UMTS
cells depends on the overlay configuration and utilizes existing neighbor
lists on the GERAN network where possible.

 Planning tools can be used to run validation checks on neighbor lists


created through this procedure.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 66 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


GSM Neighbours planning and UE performances

 The length of GSM neighbour list can impact on UE measurement time,


 The delay can vary for different UE models
 The number of GSM proposals can be different UE_Type1
UE_Type2
UE_Type3
UE_Type4

Average Measurement Time Average number of proposed GSM Cells

7.0 3.0

6.0 2.5

5.0
2.0

# GSM Proposals
4.0
time (s)

1.5
3.0
1.0
2.0

0.5
1.0
Increasing the number of GSM relations Increasing the number of GSM relations
0.0 0.0
3 GSM Rel 8 GSM Rel 13 GSM Rel 18 GSM Rel 22 GSM Rel 27 GSM Rel 3 GSM Rel 8 GSM Rel 13 GSM Rel 18 GSM Rel 22 GSM Rel 27 GSM Rel
Test Case Test Case

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 67 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


UMTS to GSM 1:1
Overlay with matched azimuths
 This scenario refers to the case where the UMTS site is co-located with the GSM
site, and the UMTS cell azimuths are within +/- 15 degrees of the GSM azimuths.
– In addition, the UMTS antennas are required to have a horizontal beam width of 65
or 90 degrees.
 The recommended size of the GSM neighbor list for this configuration is 11
neighbors, with 8 neighbors generated from the following procedure and 3
neighbors reserved for any missing GSM cells found after validation checks.
Procedure to generate GSM neighbors
 Identify the corresponding sector of the co-located GSM site for the UMTS cell.
Add this GSM cell to the top of the neighbor list with highest priority.
 Add the other sectors of the co-located GSM site to this list starting with
priority 2.
 Using the 2G network statistics, order the remaining 2G neighbors of the GSM
cell as per number of handover attempts. Choose the top 5 neighbors and add
them to the bottom of the above created list.
 Validate the list using visual checks or planning tools to make sure none of the
obvious neighbors are missing.
 Make sure that all required in-building GSM cells are included, otherwise add them
as necessary.
 Extend the neighbor list beyond 11, only if necessary to accommodate any missing
2G neighbors found after validation checks.
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 68 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
UMTS to GSM 1:1
Overlay with mis-matched azimuths
 This scenario refers to the case where the UMTS site is co-located with the GSM
site, but the UMTS sector azimuths are more than +/- 15 degrees different from
the GSM azimuths. This solution can also be used for co-located sites with
matched azimuths (within +/- 15 degrees of GSM), but with narrow horizontal
beam widths (less than 65 degrees).
 The recommended size of the GSM neighbor list for this configuration is 14
neighbors with 11 neighbors generated from the following procedure and 3
neighbors reserved for any missing GSM cells found after validation checks.
Procedure to generate GSM neighbors
 Add all sectors of the co-located GSM site to the top of the 3G -> 2G neighbor
list with the highest priorities.
 Identify the two closest co-located GSM sectors for the UMTS cell.
 Using GSM statistics, order the combined 2G neighbor list of these 2 GSM
sectors as per number of handover attempts. Choose the top 8 neighbors and add
them to the bottom of the above created list with the next highest priorities.
 Validate the list using visual checks or planning tools to make sure none of the
obvious neighbors are missing.
 Make sure that all required in-building GSM cells are included, otherwise add them
as necessary.
 Extend the number of neighbors beyond 14, only if necessary to accommodate any
missing 2G neighbors found after validation checks.
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 69 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
UMTS site without overlay
 This scenario refers to a new UMTS site without a co-located GSM site.
 In this case the GSM neighbors will have to be created using planning
tools.
 The recommended size of the GSM neighbor list for this scenario is 11
neighbors.
 The neighbor list size should be extended beyond 11, only if required, to
accommodate missing 2G neighbors after validation checks.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 70 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System

IRAT Cell Reselection

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 71 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection in (GSM R12)
Overall description of thresholds

WCDMA RBS

GSM only area

GSM coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 72 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection in (GSM R12)
Overall description of thresholds

Ec/No>qQualMin

RSCP>qRxLevMin +P

WCDMA RBS

GSM only area

GSM coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 73 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection in (GSM R12)
Overall description of thresholds

Ec/No>qQualMin
WCDMA suitable area
RSCP>qRxLevMin +P

WCDMA
Service
WCDMA RBS
WCDMA unacceptable area
because of low RSCP
WCDMA unacceptable area
because of low Ec/No

GSM only area

GSM coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 74 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection in (GSM R12)
Overall description of thresholds

Ec/No>qQualMin
WCDMA suitable area
RSCP>qRxLevMin +P

WCDMA Service

WCDMA RBS
WCDMA unacceptable area
Ec/No=qQualMin+sRATsearch
because of low RSCP
WCDMA unacceptable area
because of low Ec/No

RSCP>qRxLevmin+sHcs GSM only area

GSM coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 75 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection in (GSM R12)
Overall description of thresholds

Ec/No>qQualMin
WCDMA suitable area
RSCP>qRxLevMin +P WCDMA->GSM normal
reselection area

RSCP+qHyst1 = GSM_RSSI-
qOffset1

WCDMA
Service
WCDMA RBS
WCDMA unacceptable area
Ec/No=qQualMin+sRATsearch
because of low RSCP
WCDMA unacceptable area
because of low Ec/No

RSCP>qRxLevmin+sHcs GSM only area

GSM coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 76 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection in (GSM R12)
Overall description of thresholds

Ec/No>qQualMin
WCDMA suitable area
RSCP>qRxLevMin +P WCDMA->GSM normal
reselection area

RSCP+qHyst1 = GSM_RSSI-
qOffset1 GSM->WCDMA
WCDMA entering area
Ec/No>FDDQMIN
RSCP>FDDRSCPMIN
Service
RSCP>GSM_RLA +FDDQOFF
WCDMA RBS
WCDMA unacceptable area
Ec/No=qQualMin+sRATsearch
because of low RSCP
WCDMA unacceptable area
because of low Ec/No

RSCP>qRxLevmin+sHcs GSM only area

GSM coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 77 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection
New parameter: sHcs
The decision about when GSM measurements are performed is made using
the sRatSearch parameter in relation to Squal (= CPICH Ec/No – qQualmin)
and the sHcsRat parameter in relation to Srxlev (CPICH RSCP – qRxLevMin
- PComp):
– If the Squal value is greater than the value for sRatSearch and the
Srxlev value is greater than the value for sHcsRat, the UE does not need
to perform measurements on GSM cells.
– If the Squal value is less than or equal to the sRatSearch value and/or
the Srxlev value is less than or equal to the sHcsRat value, the UE
performs measurements on GSM cells.

The new sHcs is equivalent to sRATsearch but it is related to RSCP


instead of Ec/No

NOTE:
Only
OnlyUEs
UEssupporting
supporting3GPP
3GPPCR CR130
130ononTS
TS25.304
25.304are
areable
ableto
tobase
basethe
thestart
startof
ofGSM
GSM
measurements
measurements on both CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP (using both sRatSearchand
on both CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP (using both sRatSearch and
sHcsRat). Other UEs will only use the CPICH Ec/N0 condition (Squal <= sRatSearch)
sHcsRat). Other UEs will only use the CPICH Ec/N0 condition (Squal <= sRatSearch)
to
todecide
decidewhen
whento
tostart
startmeasurements
measurementsof ofGSM
GSMneighbors.
neighbors.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 78 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection
sHcs tuning purposes:
 The introduction of this new parameter could allow the reduction of the
current value of sRATsearch by also reducing useless IRAT cell
reselections from UMTS to GSM due to load increase.

 It provides an extra check on the coverage quality that can make safer
camping on the cell without using too strict criteria based on Ec/No.

 Is it possible to limit idle cell coverage (UEs camping in a cell) by a


pathloss criteria. This can be useful to reduce coverage of border cells
and avoid IRAT HO start soon after a call is established

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 79 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection
IRAT Cell Reselection GSMUMTS:
 COEXUMTS is the parameter to activate the IRAT Cell Reselection
 COEXUMTS=0IRAT Cell Reselection and IRAT HO are disabled (no SysInfo sent)
 COEXUMTS=1IRAT Cell Reselection and IRAT HO are enabled
 COEXUMTS=2IRAT Cell Reselection and IRAT HO are enabled with combined
measurements

When COEXUMTS =1 the UEs will evaluate UTRAN cells according to cell reselection
criteria (1) and (2):
– CPICH RSCP > RLA(s+n) + FDDQOFF (1)

– CPICH Ec/No > FDDQMIN (2)

Recommendations:
• FDDQMIN > qQualMin + sRatSearch

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 80 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection
New GSM parameter : FDDRSCPMIN
IRAT Cell Reselection GSM  UMTS:
 COEXUMTS is the parameter to activate the IRAT Cell Reselection
 COEXUMTS = 0 IRAT Cell Reselection and IRAT HO are disabled (no SysInfo sent)
 COEXUMTS = 1 IRAT Cell Reselection and IRAT HO are enabled
 COEXUMTS = 2 IRAT Cell Reselection and IRAT HO are enabled with combined
measurements
 When COEXUMTS =2 the Multi-RAT mobiles that support RSCP evaluation before
triggering a cell reselection to WCDMA, will evaluate UTRAN cells according to cell
reselection criteria (1), (2) and (3 below):
– CPICH RSCP > RLA(s+n) + FDDQOFF (1)
– CPICH Ec/No > FDDQMIN - FDDQMINOFF (2)
and
– CPICH RSCP > FDDRSCPMIN (3)
Recommendations:
– FDDQMIN – FDDQMINOFF > qQualMin + sRatSearc
– FDDRSCPMIN > qRxLevMin + ∆

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 81 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Cell Reselection
FDDRSCPMIN tuning purposes:

The main advantage of FDDRSCPMIN it to improve stability of IRAT


Cell Reselection by preventing ping pong effect due to low RSCP
levels in WCDMA:
– When the reselection from G to U is only based on Ec/No the RSCP level in
the target UMTS cell could be too close to the minimum allowed value
(qRxLevMin) and the UE can be very soon forced to go back to GSM again.
This is particularly true in indoor environment in case of poor UMTS
coverage.

– By using FDDRSCPMIN an additional check on the RSCP level of the target


UMTS cell is done in advance and a margin could be set respect to the
minimum value allowed in the target cell to avoid to move to UMTS in case of
critical coverage.

This parameter could have impact on traffic distribution between


UMTS and GSM

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 82 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition - analysis

RSCP+qHyst>GSM_RSSI-qOffset1sn

Ec/No>qQualMin (-18)

Ec/No>qQualMin+sRatSearch (-14)
Ec/No>FDDMIN (-10)

RSCP>qRxLevMin+P (-115/-112)

Start measuring GSM


UMTS Cell

TS
M
U e e
e l g
abl Id ra The real Ping-Pong is due to the
St ve
Co absence of hysteresis, users at
the border of the Ping-Pong
Transition to UMTS
areas might continuously
Transition to GSM reselect the two networks
where signalling is generated at
every reselection
GSM Coverage
Ping-Pong Areas

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 83 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition - analysis

 Ping-Pong areas might very well be located at the edge of UMTS coverage
 Release 5 phones should support RSCPMIN parameter.
 They will reselect UMTS only if:
– Ec/No>FDDMIN and RSCP>RSCPMIN.
Ping-Pong area
 Putting RSCPMIN > qRxLevMin+P will remove ping pong areas,
but some phones seem not to support this parameter yet.

Ec/No = FDDMIN

RSCP = qRxLevMin+P
Extended UMTS
Coverage (Ec/No) Hysteresis
GSM Coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 84 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition - analysis

 Changing Neighbouring Strategy will create hysteresis

 To prevent un-necessary
Ping-Pong area
3G-2G reselection and
handover the neighbour
Ec/No = FDDMIN relation between the 3G
cell and the co-sited GSM
RSCP = qRxLevMin+P
1800 might be removed
Extended UMTS
Coverage (Ec/No) Hysteresis
GSM Coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 85 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition - analysis

 Still a co-sited GSM 900 could be a reason for Ping-Pong Areas


 Starting UMTS
Ping-Pong area measurements only
when GSM is good will
Ec/No = FDDMIN create hysteresis and
RSCP = qRxLevMin+P prevent Ping-Pong
Start
Measuring
UMTS
Extended UMTS Hysteresis
Coverage (Ec/No)

GSM 900
GSM
1800

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 86 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition - analysis

 QSI could also be used for UMTS only sites where it is not possible to
remove the 2G->3G neighbour relation
 Starting UMTS measurements
only when GSM is below a certain
threshold will create hysteresis
Hysteresis and prevent Ping-Pong
RSCP = qRxLevMin+P
Ec/No = FDDMIN
Extended UMTS
Coverage (Ec/No)

Ping-Pong area

Start GSM
Measuring
UMTS

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 87 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition change proposal - Option1
 Summary:
– Border and Core UMTS Sites:
 Keep all 3G->2G relations but remove the co-sited 3G->2G relation to
avoid useless reselections or handover
 Do not remove 3G->2G co-sited relations where 3G is outdoor only and
2G is indoor only or vice versa or where the 2G is 900!
 Remove all un-necessary 2G->3G relations: keep only the 2G->3G
relation with the co-sited if any or all 2G->3G relations with close
neighbouring sites (face-to-face) if no co-sited is available
 For the co-sited GSM activate the QSI parameter to enable
Hysteresis
– Use qOffset1sn=15 dB for all 2G neighbours
– Use qHyst2=2 dB instead of 4 dB (reduces the risk that late reselections
trigger measurements on 2G)
– QSI Activation Strategy:
 If 2G Indoor and 3G Outdoor or vice-versa: QSI=3 (GSM<-86 to
measure UMTS)
 If both Indoor or both Outdoor: QSI=10 (GSM>-70 to measure
UMTS)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 88 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition change proposal - Option1

GSM 1800

QSI enabled
GSM 900
QSI enabled

QSI enabled

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 89 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition change proposal - Option1

QSI enabled

Mix Cases

GSM 900

QSI enabled
QSI enabled

GSM 1800
QSI enabled

QSI enabled

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 90 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition change proposal
 Summary:
– Border UMTS Sites (as in Option1):
 Keep all 3G->2G relations but remove the co-sited 3G->2G
relation to avoid useless reselections or handover
- Do not remove 3G->2G co-sited relations where 3G is
outdoor only and 2G is indoor only or vice versa or
where the 2G is 900!
 Remove all un-necessary 2G->3G relations: keep only the 2G-
>3G relation with close neighbouring sites (face-to-face) if no
co-sited is available
 For the remaining co-sited GSM activate the QSI parameter
to enable Hysteresis
– Use qOffset1sn=15 dB for all 2G neighbours (as in Option1)
– Use qHyst2=2 dB instead of 4 dB (as in Option1)
– QSI Activation Strategy (as in Option1):
 If 2G Indoor and 3G Outdoor or vice-versa: QSI=3 (GSM<-
86 to measure UMTS)
 If both Indoor or both Outdoor: QSI=10 (GSM>-70 to
measure UMTS)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 91 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition change proposal
 Summary:
– Core UMTS Sites (different from Option1):
 Remove all 3G->2G relations
- Do not remove 3G->2G co-sited relations where 3G is
outdoor only and 2G is indoor only or vice versa or
where the 2G is 900!
 Remove all un-necessary 2G->3G relations: keep only the 2G-
>3G relation with the co-sited if any or all 2G->3G relations
with close neighbouring sites (face-to-face) if no co-sited is
available
 If the co-sited GSM is a 900 activate the QSI parameter
to enable Hysteresis
– Use qOffset1sn=15 dB for all 2G neighbours (as in Option1)
– Use qHyst2=2 dB instead of 4 dB (as in Option1)
– QSI Activation Strategy (as in Option1):
 If 2G Indoor and 3G Outdoor or vice-versa: QSI=3 (GSM<-
86 to measure UMTS)
 If both Indoor or both Outdoor: QSI=10 (GSM>-70 to
measure UMTS)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 92 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT CR Forward (3G->2G ) vs Backward (2G->3G)
Transition change proposal
 In addition to each of the two previous option the parameter SHcsRat should be used to start
measuring GSM also when RSCP get closer to the limit (sHcsRat=4 as a starting point)

RSCP+qHyst>GSM_RSSI-qOffset1 Only UEs supporting 3GPP CR 130 on


Ec/No>qQualMin (-18)
TS 25.304 are able to use both
Ec/No>qQualMin+sRatSearch (-14)
sRatSearch and sHcsRat). Other
UEs will only use the CPICH Ec/N0
RSCP>qRxLevMin+P (-115/-112)

RSCP>qRxLevMin+sHcsRat (-111/-
108)

Start
Start
Measuring
measuringUMTS
GSM

RSSI>QSI => RSCP>QSI for the


UMTS Cell

TS cosited
M
U e e
e l g
abl Id ra
St ve
Co
Transition to UMTS
Hysteresis

Transition to GSM

Ec/No>FDDMIN (-10)
GSM Coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 93 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System

Which Strategy in Connected Mode ?

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 94 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Background - IRAT Handover Strategy
 IRAT based on RSCP or Ec/No or UeTx Power
Ec/No: Typically Polluted or high traffic area
RSCP: Typically Indoor or Coverage Border area RSSI
(Interference)

RSSI RSCP (Signal)


Better Ec/No but Good RSCP everywhere
(Interference) poor RSCP Thermal but bad Ec/No
Noise

RSCP
(Signal)
Thermal
Noise

UeTx Power: Typically high Ul Interference

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 95 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Background to IRAT HO/CC
 The purpose of IRAT handover functionality is to let a user who cannot
access the 3G network or retain its service in the 3G network handover
or reselect to a 2G backbone network instead.

 Whether or not the users can access/retain the connection to the 3G


network will be dependent on the required and available power in uplink
and downlink.

 The required power will in among other things be dependent on the


pathloss and interference situation in up and downlink. One way of
estimating the pathloss is the received signal code power (RSCP) of the
CPICH.

 However the CPICH RSCP does not take any interference (pilot pollution)
into consideration. The Ec/No of the CPICH is a measurement that takes
both the pathloss and the interference situation into consideration.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 96 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Background to IRAT HO/CC

RSCP: Typically Indoor or Coverage Border area  The CPICH Received Signal Code Power (CPICH RSCP)
is dependent on the CPICH transmitted code power,
the pathloss.

 Since the transmitted power on the CPICH is constant


RSSI
Better Ec/No but the CPICH RSCP will primarily be affected by the
(Interference) poor RSCP pathloss.

 Hence a decrease in the CPICH RSCP will mean that the


RSCP pathloss in both up and downlink has increased.
(Signal)
Thermal  The CPICH Ec/No is defined as the energy per chip
Noise divided by the total in-band interference. Theoretically
it is defined as the CPICH RSCP divided by the RSSI
(received signal strength indicator).

CPICH Ec/No = CPICH RSCP / RSSI

 Both the CPICH RSCP and the CPICH Ec/No will


increase with a decrease in the pathloss. However the
Ec/No is both proportional to the pathloss and
inversely proportional to the RSSI.

 Thus, the relation between CPICH Ec/No and pathloss


is not linear as in the RSCP case.

 Particularly at the cell border in cases where there is


mainly one dominant server the behaviour of the CPICH
Ec/No is not completely straightforward.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 97 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Background to IRAT HO/CC
 None of the previously discussed measurements does directly cater for the uplink
coverage and interference criteria required for the dedicated channel to retain the
connection.

 However if the uplink and downlink are relatively balanced from a required and
available power point of view, one could use the CPICH RSCP to represent the uplink
as well as downlink pathloss.

 When letting the CPICH RSCP represent the maximum tolerable pathloss for the
dedicated channel in both up and downlink one has to take into consideration a few
issues.

 The mapping will be dependent on whether or not a ASC (TMA) is used, the UE Tx
power class, the downlink maximum code power for the dedicated channel, the CPICH
Tx power etc.

 The mapping of the CPICH Ec/No to the up and downlink interference situation is
slightly more complicated. Since the load situation might be different in the up and
downlink the CPICH Ec/No has no direct correlation with the uplink interference
situation.

 However in most cases one could suspect that the downlink load level could be higher
than the uplink load level due to the asymmetric PS radio bearers and the higher
power consumption in the downlink due to soft handover.
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 98 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System

RSCP Strategy

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 99 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


U2G using CPICH RSCP

 The CPICH RSCP is a more stable triggering quantity in areas with low
interference and low signal strength than CPICH Ec/No.

 When driving out of coverage in such environment the RSCP triggering


quantity can make sure that the handover is made at a relatively low
pathloss regardless of interference situation.

 This reduces the probability of the UE remaining in the 3G network at a


high pathloss to high for the UE to access the network.

 However, if the interference situation increases it might not be the


pathloss that sets the limit for the accessibility to the network but the
interference.

 The pathloss where the UE loses its coverage will depend on the link
budgets for the required service.

 This will in turn be dependent on e.g. availability of ASC (TMA) in the


uplink and UE Tx power capability.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 100 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


U2G using CPICH RSCP
 The drawback with using the CPICH RSCP as measurement quantity is its
insensitivity to load in both up and downlink. The received power on the pilot
channel will always be the same regardless of load situation in either up or
downlink.

 If the load situation increases the UE Tx power and downlink code power
will increase necessarily to keep the connection.

 Another drawback with the use of CPICH RSCP as a measurement quantity


for the U2G handover and cell change is that CPICH Ec/No has to be used
for the G2U handover and cell reselection.

 If RSCP is used for the U2G triggering there is a potential for ping-pong
effects between 3G and 2G. The ping-pong effects might not be such a big
problem for the voice service since the end user experience is fairly similar
in both networks.

 Hence the MRSL threshold can be set to a very high value or the QSC
parameter could be set so that the UE never attempt to perform the G2U
handover. The drawback of doing this is that the user does not have the
opportunity to access the multi-bearer service while in 2G.
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 101 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System

Ec/No Strategy

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 102 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


U2G using CPICH Ec/No
 When using CPICH Ec/No as measurement quantity an increase in
downlink interference will be reflected on the value.

 Although an increase in uplink interference will not be reflected on the


CPICH Ec/No value, it can be assumed that there is a correlation
between the uplink and downlink interference levels and rather more
interference in the downlink.

 The problematic location type for the CPICH Ec/No measurement


quantity is the environment where the moving out of coverage (in terms
of pathloss) when the interference level is low.

 In such environments the CPICH Ec/No remains relatively good until the
thermal noise becomes the dominant part of the RSSI.

 At that point the CPICH Ec/No start to degrade quicker to finally drop
heavily when the CPICH RSCP is below the sensitivity of the receiver.

 At those levels the UE might be transmitting near its maximum Tx power


and the connection is not very reliable.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 103 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


U2G using CPICH Ec/No
 Whether or not the IRAT handover is successful at such a location is
dependent on how fast the quality is degrading, it might very well be so
that a slow moving UE manage to handover to GSM whereas a fast moving
UE fails due to that the connection drops before the end of the message
flow.

 If choosing CPICH Ec/No as the measurement quantity for the


triggering it is easy to achieve a balance and hence avoid ping-pong
handovers between 3G and 2G since Ec/No is used both ways.

 Due to some mobile limitations, ping-pong will occur even when using
CPICH Ec/No in case a high value (such as –11 dB) is used for the event
3a triggering.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 104 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


G2U Handover (Ec/No and RSCP)

 If CPICH Ec/No is used for the handover triggering the parameter MRSL
which controls the G2U handover should be set to a value approximately 1
dB higher than the value used for the event 2f triggering.

 This is to avoid ping-pong behaviour, which will increase the risk for
dropped calls during a later handover attempt.

 If on the other hand CPICH RSCP is used for the triggering it is


recommended to either set the parameter QSC to never perform any
measurements (15).

 In this case the UE will remain in the 2G network until the call is
terminated and the idle mode parameters evaluates on which cell the UE
should camp.

 The drawback with staying with a voice call in 2G as opposed to 3G


network is the lack of opportunity to use the multi-bearer service (Voice
+PS).

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 105 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Size of neighbour list
 When defining the neighbour lists one has to take into account, the list
should be as short as possible to increase the chance of a successful
handover and the cell coverage might change with the increase of load.

 However one has to keep in mind that CPICH Ec/No is used as


measurement quantity for both idle mode and G2U active mode, although
it might be of less importance to always reselect to the strongest cell in
idle mode.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 106 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Connection Quality Monitoring

CPICH Ec/No
CPICH Ec/No measurement takes under control the signal to
interference ratio.

CPICH Rx Power
CPICH Ec/No =
Total Rx Power
(i.e. power from the own cell and from external cells including noise)

CPICH Ec/No is strongly affected by:


• Network load (mainly by own cell transmitted power)
• Radio environment (pilot pollution)
• CPICH power settings and downlink power capability

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 107 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Network Load Impact on Ec/No
Load in the serving cell

Ec/No dependant mainly from serving cell


load and partially from other sectors of the
same RBS

CELL LOAD
Ec/No mainly dependant
Ec/No

from other cells and/or


thermal noise

BORDER CELL or HIGH


BIG IMPACT: ALMOST ALL
PATHLOSS USERS ARE
USERS ARE AFFECTED BY
LIGHTLY AFFECTED BY LOAD
LOAD INCREASE IN THE
IN THE SERVING CELL
SERVING CELL
Pathloss from the own cell

In a loaded network the main interferer is the RBS itself !


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 108 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Network Load Impact on Ec/No
Ec/No decreasing at
borders (other cells
interference or
thermal noise limit)
Ec/No

maximum
and

Load
uniform Ec/No
Time variations are
expected due to load

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 109 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Network Load Impact on Ec/No
Ec/No vs RSCP (load effect in the serving cell)

0.0
case:
case:the
theother
othertwo
twosectors
sectors CPICH
CPICHPower
Power==31
31dBm
dBm
are considered -10dB Default common channel
-2.0 are considered -10dB Default common channel
pathloss
pathlossshielded
shielded MaxTxPowerDl
MaxTxPowerDl==41 41dBm
dBm
-4.0 Unloaded Cell
Unloaded RBS (3 sectors)
-6.0 RBS Load (25%+25%+25%)
RBS Load (50%+25%+25%)
Ec/No [dB]

-8.0 RBS Load (75%+25%+25%)


RBS Load (100%+25%+25%)
-10.0
serving Co-sited
-12.0 cell cells

-14.0

-16.0

-18.0
-62 -67 -72 -77 -82 -87 -92 -97 -102 -107 -112 -117 -122
RSCP [dBm]
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 110 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Network Load Impact on Ec/No
Ec/No vs RSCP (load effect in the serving and neighbour cells)
Ec/No vs RSCP (load effect in the serving and neighbour cell)

0.0
SHO region is CPICH
A CPICHPower
Power==27
27dBm
-2.0 not affected by
LOAD
B Default common
dBm
channel
Default common channel
load LOADISIS MaxTxPowerDl
-4.0 LOAD
LOAD MEDIUM
MEDIUM MaxTxPowerDl==40 40dBm
dBm
INCREASES and
INCREASES and
-6.0 STEADY
STEADY Cell A: 25%, Cell B:25%
-8.0 Cell A: 50%, Cell B:25%
Cell A: 75%, Cell B:25%
Ec/No [dB]

-10.0 Cell A: 100%, Cell B:25%

-12.0 ONLY BORDER AREA


IS AFFECTED IN CELL
-14.0 B. THE Ec/No SLOPE
ALL USERS IN CELL “A” IS INCREASING
-16.0 ARE AFFECTED: Ec/No
BECOMES ALMOST FLAT
IN THE WHOLE CELL
-18.0 (e.g. same value from the
antenna location up to
-20.0 SHO border)

-22.0
28 23 18 13 8 3 -2 -7 -12 -17 -22 -27 -32
Pathloss Difference [dB]

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 111 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Network Load Impact on Ec/No
CPICH RSCP vs Ec/No distribution

Result from measurements on Simulated load applied


unloaded network (a load between 10% and 30% is
randomly distributed among the cells)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 112 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Network Load Impact on Ec/No
It is easy to state the maximum Ec/No available in a loaded cell, that is the
Ec/No in the location where the serving cell is the dominant signal (e.g. near the
antenna, in the main propagation lobe, where other cells and thermal noise are
negligible).

In other words no user in the cell will measure a Ec/No value greater than :
Ec/No Max = CPICH Power [dBm] – Total Tx Cell Power [dBm]

Assuming the load as:


Total Tx Cell Power (watt)
Load =
Maximum output cell power (watt)

Load [dB] =Total Tx Cell Power [dBm] -MaxTxPowerDl/10

We can calculate the maximum Ec/No in the cell according the load:

Ec/No Max =primaryCpichpower/10 – Load [dB] – MaxTxPowerDl/10

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 113 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Connection Quality Monitoring
CPICH RSCP:
 CPICH RSCP measurement takes under control the pathloss of the
connection. High pathloss makes weak both DL and UL connections and
increases the probability to sudden loose the radio link synchronization.

 It is more affected by fading compared with Ec/No especially if the load in


the cell is high.

 It is not affected by cells load. Thermal Noise power (≈ -102 dBm) is a key
reference for RSCP level
RSCP

RSCP = CPICH Power - Pathloss

Pathloss from the own cell


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 114 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Connection Quality Monitoring
CPICH RSCP
 Large variation of RSCP values
are expected due to pathloss
variations (indoor/outdoor and
building shadowing).
 Using RSCP thresholds could
have big impact on indoor traffic
 In built up areas as mobile
transits away from line of sight
 Around a corner there is a rapid
drop in signal level as the dominant
mode transits from line of sight
street canyon to diffraction over
and around buildings

Pathloss from the own cell

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 115 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Connection Quality Monitoring
UE Tx Power
UE Tx Power measurement takes under control the uplink quality and
the uplink interference (load).

• It is affected directly by pathloss and noise rise (UL RSSI)

• The region where the value reaches the maximum is the UL coverage
cell border

MaxTxPowerUL
d ed
UL NOISE RISE
loa
ded
Ue Tx Power

o a
unl

CELL SHRINKING

UL coverage border

Pathloss from the own cell

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 116 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


HSDPA interaction
The main interaction with HSDPA is related with the high load of cells in terms of
transmitted RF power.
The effect is a strong reduction of Ec/No in the HSDPA cell and at the border of
surrounding cells as was shown in the previous slides.
The actual Ec/No reduction can be evaluated by this KPI :

Ec/No Max = primaryCpichpower/10 – Load [dB] – MaxTxPowerDl/10

HSDPA maximize this term

All IRAT thresholds based on absolute values of Ec/No (event 2d, event 3a and idle
mode thresholds) have to be considered in case of HSDPA activation.

 If the IRAT Ec/No thresholds are too high then the activation of HSDPA could
promote the CM start and the IRAT HO/CC execution of too many users in the
network.

 On the other hand IRAT thresholds too low could be less effective to keep an
optimal retainability: to tune hsPowerMargin and cell based thresholds could be a
possible strategy to avoid any problem.
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 117 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
High Power Amplifiers interaction

At the same way as HSDPA, especially if introduced together in the same cell,
the impact of High Power Amplifiers could lead potentially to a very strong
Ec/No reduction:

Ec/No Max =primaryCpichpower/10 – Load [dB] – MaxTxPowerDl/10

Power amplifiers maximize this term

To reduce the impact also CPICH power must be adjusted even this could lead
to reduce a little bit the capacity gain of such cells.

A well tuned IRAT mobility could improve the performance of High Power
Amplifiers by taking under control the pathloss of the users and the UL
interference in case of very large cells.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 118 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conclusion:
U2G using CPICH Ec/No
 When using CPICH Ec/No as measurement quantity an increase in downlink
interference will be reflected on the value.

 Although an increase in uplink interference will not be reflected on the


CPICH Ec/No value, it can be assumed that there is a correlation between
the uplink and downlink interference levels and rather more interference in
the downlink.

 The problematic location type for the CPICH Ec/No measurement quantity is
the environment where the moving out of coverage (in terms of pathloss)
when the interference level is low.

 In such environments the CPICH Ec/No remains relatively good until the
thermal noise becomes the dominant part of the RSSI.

 At that point the CPICH Ec/No start to degrade quicker to finally drop
heavily when the CPICH RSCP is below the sensitivity of the receiver.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 119 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conclusions:
U2G using CPICH Ec/No
 At those levels the UE might be transmitting near its maximum Tx power and
the connection is not very reliable.

 Whether or not the IRAT handover is successful at such a location is


dependent on how fast the quality is degrading, it might very well be so that
a slow moving UE manage to handover to GSM whereas a fast moving UE fails
due to that the connection drops before the end of the message flow.

 If choosing CPICH Ec/No as the measurement quantity for the triggering it


is easy to achieve a balance and hence avoid ping-pong handovers between 3G
and 2G since Ec/No is used both ways.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 120 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Pensez-
Pensez-vous qu'un paramé
paramétrage spé
spécifique à chaque environnement (dense ou non)
est né
nécessaire ?

U2G triggering: RSCP or Ec/No:


The choice between the CPICH RSCP triggering criteria and the CPICH Ec/No
criteria is about deciding what kind of pros and cons are most important for the
network.
However at certain locations one of the measurement quantities performs
better than the other and vice versa.
To be able to safely let users handover to the 2G network when the quality is
degraded due to an increased interference situation the CPICH Ec/No has to be
used as a measurement quantity.
However to have relatively safe handovers when moving out of coverage in a low
load situation, a high value of Ec/No has to be used. A CPICH Ec/No of –11dB
for the event 3a leads to secure Handovers to the 2G network.
The biggest drawback with this value is the reduced 3G coverage since the user
will leave the 3G network for the 2G network at levels where the connection can
be remained with good quality if the signal strength is sufficient.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 121 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Pensez-
Pensez-vous qu'un paramé
paramétrage spé
spécifique à chaque environnement (dense ou non)
est né
nécessaire ?

U2G triggering: RSCP or Ec/No:


The table below sums the pros and cons with the two different measurement
quantities assuming the threshold for event 3a set for the RSCP case and
the Ec/No case.

CPICH Ec/No Triggering CPICH RSCP triggering


Ensures that users experiencing
Stable at low and medium interference
high interference are handed over
scenarios
to 2G.
Pros Balance the U2G and G2U cell
change with the More time in 3G at medium
parameter (avoid ping-pong).
High threshold needed for stable Does not ensure that users experiencing
handovers when going out of high interference are handed over to 2G.
coverage. High Rise buildings, future load)

Cons Ec/No used for G2U for PS (and CS)


Reduced coverage in high signal potential ping pong problems.
strength - medium
areas. Slightly reduced coverage in low
signalstrength - low interference

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 122 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Pensez-
Pensez-vous qu'un paramé
paramétrage spé
spécifique à chaque environnement (dense ou non)
est né
nécessaire ?

Ericsson recommendations:
In order to ensure a high quality in the network at all locations Ericsson
initial recommendation for the IRAT parameter setting is to use the CPICH
Ec/No measurement quantity for the triggering as a long-term solution.
It’s also possible to use as an intermediate solution the RSCP measurement
quantity in isolated and low interfered areas.
This indication is given because the RSCP measurement quantity in not really
affected by interference problems due to UL or DL load, and because
actually the network is not fully loaded.
The biggest drawback that can be seen using this strategy is that after a
certain amount of load in the network, the entire parameter settings initially
“tuned” on the RSCP basis, need then to be reviewed on a CPICH EC/No
level.
The recommended values are set as to ensure a high probability of
successful U2G handovers both when moving out of coverage in coverage
limited scenario and when experiencing a high level of interference.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 123 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Pensez-
Pensez-vous qu'un paramé
paramétrage spé
spécifique à chaque environnement (dense ou non)
est né
nécessaire ?

The strategies used when the UE is in connected mode are:


Strategy when in WCDMA connected mode
Strategy “WCDMA as far as possible”

Strategies when in GSM connected mode


Strategy “Handover when WCDMA quality is fulfilled”
Strategy “Terminate the call in GSM”
Co-sited WCDMA hoType = GSM_pref
Co-sited WCDMA hoType = None
Stand alone GSM

B1
C3
C2
A1

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 124 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Pensez-
Pensez-vous qu'un paramé
paramétrage spé
spécifique à chaque environnement (dense ou non)
est né
nécessaire ?

Compressed Mode Triggers:

The cells will have “hoType” set to NONE, this will reduce the time on CPM
drastically.

For the other cells (where hoType is not set to NONE), the intention is to
keep on using 2 sets of values;

usedFreqThresh2dRscp/usedFreqThresh2dEcno
-112 / -15 (for core areas)
-106 / -12 (for border areas)

These values are subject to modification during tuning phase per cell basis
to further reduce CM time if necessary

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 125 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Pensez-
Pensez-vous qu'un paramé
paramétrage spé
spécifique à chaque environnement (dense ou non)
est né
nécessaire ?

Different IRAT handover thresholds for CS and PS:

CPICH
CS Ec/No or RSCP PS
e2f stop CPM Offset
voice relative
Offset e2f voice e2f stop CPM
relative PS
e2d
e2d start CPM
voice Offset
relative
e2d voice e2d start CPM
Offset PS
relative
e2d
e2b / e3a initiate IFHO / IRAT
voice
Offset
relative
e2b / e3a e2b / e3a Initiate IFHO /
voice IRAT
PS

Different IRAT handover thresholds for CS and PS


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 126 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Planning strategy for fall back of services to GSM

Optimize coverage and performance User throughput vs distance to cell edge

2100, 5 codes, GRAKE 2100, 10 codes, GRAKE2


900, 5 codes, GRAKE 900, 10 codes, GRAKE2

 Too early IRAT triggering inefficient use 8000  Triggering to GSM at -102 dBm at max rate
of HSPA resources 7000
 45% of cell range, 20% of coverage area

- Plan for higher threshold in early deployments 6000

phase, when fewer 3G sites than 2G  Triggering to GSM at -110 dBm

Throughput (kbps)
5000  75% of cell range, 56% of coverage area

- Separate CS and PS thresholds, i.e. Turn off 4000

IRATHO for PS (HSPA) 3000

 Speech distribution based on load sharing 2000

i.e. Focus on Directed Retry and load based 1000

handover 0
-95.0 -97.0 -99.0 -101.0 -103.0 -105.0 -107.0 -109.0 -111.0 -113.0 -115.0
WCDMA 2100 RSCP (dBm)

 Turn off IRATHO when WCDMA deployment


has reached homogenuous coverage.
Too early triggering significantly reduce HSPA
Use IRATHO in border areas.
coverage, e.g. more than a 50% reduction
- Monitor network KPIs before and after switch off

Proper fallback settings - Crucial for coverage and performance


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 127 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Questions
Sur un ré
réseau 3G mature, quels sont les impacts/risques (sur la performance
performance par exemple)
de retarder, voire de maintenir le trafic sur la 3G (et non le basculer
basculer sur la 2G) en indoor ou
outdoor ? Avez-
Avez-vous des retours d'expé
d'expérience sur cet item ?

For the idle mode is “WCDMA biased” with respect taken to minimize
unnecessary ping-pong Location Area and Routing Area updates.

For connected mode in WCDMA is to keep the call when set-up in WCDMA
connected mode as long as the quality or signal level is above a certain level.

UTRAN
Conected mode Idle mode GSM

GSM_preferred None None None None None GSM_preferred

GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 128 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Sur un ré
réseau 3G mature, quels sont les impacts/risques (sur la performance
performance par exemple)
de retarder, voire de maintenir le trafic sur la 3G (et non le basculer
basculer sur la 2G) en indoor ou
outdoor ? Avez-
Avez-vous des retours d'expé
d'expérience sur cet item ?
EUL/Speech Ue Output power distribution
Ue power measurments in commercial NW (No GSM as fall back)

UeTxPower distribution RNC105 24 hours

100

90

80

70

60
Percentage

EUL
50
speech

40

30

98% of the Speech users have a UE Tx power of 12 – 16 dBm.


20
With typical max UE Tx power of 23 dBm, there is a
10
headroom of 7 – 11 dB until these UEs loose coverage. This
headroom can be used for additional EUL traffic
0
-50 to <-20

-20 to <-16

-16 to <-12

-12 to <-8

-8 to <-4

-4 to <0

0 to <4

4 to <8

8 to <12

12 to <16

16 to <20

20 to <24

24 to <28
power interval

98% of the terminals use 7 - 11 dB lower power than maximum


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 129 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
EUL/Speech Ue Output power distribution
Ue power measurments in commercial networks (GSM as fall back)

URBAN Voice and Data Urban Voice / Urban EUL


UE power distribution
- WCDMA Co-sited on GSM Grid 100% 99%
99%

- Measurments in 749 Cells 90%

80%
- Calling time 21 000 h

CDF
70%
- 99% of CS Voice calls < + 6 dBm
60%

- 99% of PS EUL calls <+14 dBm 50%


PS Data
Speech
40%
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
UE power

Operator Europe (W-MRR)

Ue power utilisation far from stretched WCDMA coverage

99% of the terminals use 9 - 17 dB lower power than maximum


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 130 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA Ue Output power distribution
Terminal output power measurments in commercial networks

Urban Voice / Rural Voice


RURAL/URBAN Voice
UE power distribution
99%
- WCDMA Co-sited on GSM Grid 100%

90%
- Rural measurments in 61 Cells
80%

- Calling time 352 h

CDF
70%

- 99% of CS Voice calls < + 6 dBm 60%


Voice,
Rural
50%
Voice,
urban
40%
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
UE power

Operator Europe (W-MRR)

Ue power utilisation far from stretched WCDMA coverage

99% of the terminals use 17 dB lower power than maximum


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 131 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Questions
Sur un ré
réseau 3G mature, quels sont les impacts/risques (sur la performance
performance par exemple)
de retarder, voire de maintenir le trafic sur la 3G (et non le basculer
basculer sur la 2G) en indoor ou
outdoor ? Avez-
Avez-vous des retours d'expé
d'expérience sur cet item ?

Planning strategy for fall back of services to GSM


RAB Est.
Idle mode RRC Conn. Est. (voice only) Cell_DCH Cell_FACH

SOHO
Cell W2100

Load Based IF HO

Load based HO To GSM


Directed Retry to GSM

IFHO
IFLD
IFLS

Cell Re-Selection
Cell Re-Selection

Service Based HO

IRAT HO/CC
Packet HO

Load based HO
SOHO W900

GSM

Available now P7 FP Coming releases

Use Speech Distribution and Load Based HO Strategy to Unload


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 132 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Questions
Sur un ré
réseau 3G mature, quels sont les impacts/risques (sur la performance
performance par exemple)
de retarder, voire de maintenir le trafic sur la 3G (et non le basculer
basculer sur la 2G) en indoor ou
outdoor ? Avez-
Avez-vous des retours d'expé
d'expérience sur cet item ?

Planning strategy for fall back of services to GSM


U s e r th r o u g h p u t v s d is ta n c e to c e ll e dge

2 1 0 0 , 5 co d e s, G R AKE 2 1 0 0 , 1 0 co d e s, G R AKE2
9 0 0 , 5 co d e s, G R AKE 9 0 0 , 1 0 co d e s, G R AKE2

8000
 Triggering to GSM at -102 dBm at max rate
7000  45% of cell range, 20% of coverage area

6000
 Triggering to GSM at -110 dBm
Throughput (kbps)

5000  75% of cell range, 56% of coverage area

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
- 9 5 .0 - 9 7 .0 - 9 9 .0 - 1 0 1 .0 - 1 0 3 .0 - 1 0 5 .0 - 1 0 7 .0 - 1 0 9 .0 - 1 1 1 .0 - 1 1 3 .0 - 1 1 5 .0
W C D M A 2 1 0 0 R S C P (d B m )

Too early triggering significantly reduce HSPA coverage, e.g. more than a 50% reduction
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 133 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA-GSM Mobility Inter-System

IRAT Mobility Optimization

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 134 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Mobility Optimization
IRAT Handover parameters
Filter coefficients
- filterCoefficient2
- filterCoeff6 Filter coefficient effect
- utranFilterCoefficient3
25
- gsmFilterCoefficient3
- Range: 0-19
20

Before the UE evaluates the

measurements
triggering condition a filter is 15
No filter
applied on the measurements FC=2

sequence. 10
FC=4

The filtering is performed according 5


to the following formula:
0
Fn = (1–a) Fn-1 + a Mn time

(recursive filter)
k = filter coefficient  a = 1/2k
• The effect of filtering is to smooth the measurement trend, to limit peaks, and to
delay rapid variations.

• The higher the filter coefficient the stronger the filter impact
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 135 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
IRAT Mobility Optimization
IRAT Handover parameters
Weighting factors
usedFreqW2d, usedFreqW2f, utranW3a

 When the UE evaluates the quality of the used frequency (QUTRAN) for events 2 and 3 (both in case
of RSCP and Ec/No) it is possible to consider the contribution of all cells in the Active Set (not only
the best cell), i.e. in case of SHO it could be pessimistic to monitor the best cell only, since the
connection is supported by three radio links.

 The weighing factors are introduced to evaluate the overall quality of connection giving more or less
weight to the other cells in the AS.

 NA 
QUTRAN = W ⋅10 ⋅ Log  ∑ M i  + (1 − W ) ⋅10 ⋅ LogM Best ,
 i =1 

 Mi is the measurement result (RSCP[mW] or Ec/No[ratio]) of cell i in the active set

 W range is from 0 to 2 (step = 0.1)

 W=0 makes the QUTRAN matching with the quality of the best cell in the AS

 In case of W>0 the more big the W value, the more weight to the sum of all cells in the AS.
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 136 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
IRAT Mobility Optimization
IRAT Handover parameters
CPICH RSCP

Weighting factors -60


-65
-70
Example of effect of W W=0

dBm
-75 W=1
parameter -80 W=2
-85
The simulation is based on -90
TI drive test measurements
CPICH Ec/No
0

-5
W=1 in this example
W=0
compensate the Ec/No dB -10
W=1
decreasing in SHO regions W=2
-15

-20
W=2 seems to give an
excessive compensation! AS Size
3

0
Time

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 137 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Mobility Optimization
Service differentiated IRAT
 Different IRAT handover thresholds for CS and PS
CPICH
CS Ec/No or RSCP PS
e2f stop CPM
Offset
voice
relative
Offset e2f voice e2f stop CPM
relative PS
e2d
e2d start CPM
voice Offset
relative
e2d voice e2d start CPM
Offset PS
relative
e2d
e2b / e3a initiate IFHO / IRAT
voice Offset
relative
e2b / e3a
e2b / e3a Initiate IFHO / IRAT
voice
PS

Different IRAT handover thresholds for CS and PS


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 138 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
IRAT Mobility Optimization
Issues and tips
Which thresholds shall be used to define “poor coverage”?
-5 -80

1 sec
-7
-85

-9
UE measurement time -90 RSCP
Ec/No

RSCP
-11
Ec/No
-95
-13
Reporting HOCmd -5 -80
Very fast -100 1 sec
-15 coverage -7
Start GSM Meas
reduction!!! -85

-17 -105 -9
Time
UE measurement time -90
-11

Ec/No

RSCP
Start GSM Meas
-13 Reporting -95
HOCmd

-15

-100
-17 dangerous
level reached!
-19 -105
Time

UE could suffer a very poor signal quality before HO execution !


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 139 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
IRAT Mobility Optimization
Issues and tips
Which thresholds shall be used to define a “poor coverage” status?

Average Ec/No bottom level before IRAT Handover


IRAT Execution Meas. Activation Event Reporting
TC0 TC1 TC2 TC3 TC4 TC5 TC6 TC7
-8
Event 2d

-10 RSCP thresholds


Event 3a (-95 dBm)
-12
Ec/No [dB]

-14

-16 average

-18
- stdDev Indoor tests
-20
Test Cases

Levels reached in each test are in average about 2 dB below the Event Reporting threshold value !
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 140 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
IRAT Mobility Optimization
Issues and tips
GSM Neighbours planning and UE performances
• The length of GSM neighbour list can impact on UE measurement time,
• The delay can vary for different UE models
• The number of GSM proposals can be different
Average Measurement Time Average number of proposed GSM Cells

7.0 3.0

6.0 2.5

5.0
2.0

# GSM Proposals
4.0
time (s)

1.5
3.0

1.0
2.0

1.0 0.5
Increasing the number of GSM relations Increasing the number of GSM relations
0.0 0.0
3 GSM Rel 8 GSM Rel 13 GSM Rel 18 GSM Rel 22 GSM Rel 27 GSM Rel 3 GSM Rel 8 GSM Rel 13 GSM Rel 18 GSM Rel 22 GSM Rel 27 GSM Rel
Test Case Test Case

UE_Type1
UE_Type2
UE_Type3
UE_Type4

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 141 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Mobility Optimization
Issues and tips

 GSM Neighbours are crucial for a good performance:


– Missing neighbours reduce or cancel the benefit of IRAT HO
– Too many neighbours can cause problems because the time
requested to measure all the GSM carriers (UE model
depending)
– To reduce ping-pong effect in idle mode some GSM relations
should be not reciprocal and/or having different offset
according the location

x x
x x x x UMTS Inner Cell
x x
x x
x UMTS Border Cell
x x
x x
x
x GSM cell
x
x x
x 3G planned coverage
x x
x x
x x x x x GSM cell without GU
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 142 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
IRAT Mobility Optimization
Issues and tips
 IRAT HO can improve retainability:
– As rule of thumb: the higher the IRAT HO thresholds the
better should be Drop Call Rate

 However the effect on retainability should be monitored also


be Minutes per Drop indicator since a side effect of IRAT HO
is to reduce the call Mean Holding Time on WCDMA and some
time this reduction can reduce DCR without any real benefit on
user perception.

 A possible criteria could be to evaluate DCR on both WCDMA


and GSM and avoid to increase IRAT HO thresholds in case
DCR on WCDMA is equal or better than GSM.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 143 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


IRAT Mobility Optimization
Issues and tips

 IRAT CR can improve accessibility (and partially


retainability):
– As rule of thumb: the higher the IRAT CR thresholds
the better should be accessibility

 However a side effect of high CR thresholds is to


create ping-pong effect between 2G and 3G. The
result could be a worst accessibility due to missing
paging because of registration procedures delay and
high load in the CN nodes for the high number of
LAU or RAU

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 144 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Improved RACH Coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 145 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Improved RACH Coverage
Feature effects P7FP
 General
– When the feature is activated, the coverage of RACH increases
 Feature preparation
– No
 Feature activation
– The feature is activated/deactivated per cell by the operator
 End-to-end performance
– Coverage of RACH increases up to 3 dB
 Parameters
– Operator configurable parameter (RNC)
 Rach:increasedRachCoverageEnabled
 New/modified MO structure
– No
 Observability
– No new GPEH events, PM counters, KPIs
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 146 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Improved RACH Coverage
Prior to initiating a Random Access attempt, the UE receives:
 The preamble spreading code for this cell
 The available random access signatures
 The available spreading factors for the message part
 The message length (10 ms or 20 ms)
 Initial preamble transmit power
 Power ramping factor
 The AICH transmission timing parameter
 The power offset DPp-m between preamble and the message part
 Transport Format parameters

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 147 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Pouvez-
Pouvez-vous svp nous pré
préciser le fonctionnement de la feature « Improved
RACH Coverage » (FAJ 121 1350) en P7-P7-FP ?

The coverage of RACH is limited by the coverage of the RACH preamble.


The RACH capacity depends on the number of preamble signatures that are
available, therefore, there is a trade-off between capacity and coverage
when determining how many signatures that can be blocked and how much
the preamble threshold can be lowered (approx 3dB).

When the RACH channel is enabled, the RNC notifies the RBS which
preamble signatures are available, the preamble scrambling code number
and what the level of the preamble threshold should be.

In System Information Block type 5 and 5bis, the available preamble


signatures and the preamble scrambling code number are broadcast to the
UEs.

In the design base the available preamble signatures, the preamble


scrambling code number and the preamble threshold are specified by
parameters: the first two are operator configurable and the third one is a
system constant.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 148 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Pourriez-
Pourriez-vous nous donner le principe de cette optimisation ?

The algorithm works in this way:

A table stored in the RNC, indicates which preamble signatures that shall be
blocked depending on which primary scrambling code is used and how many
preamble signatures are allowed to be blocked in a cell.

Since the capacity is affected when preamble signatures are blocked, there is
a limit for how many preamble signatures are allowed to be blocked in a cell,
this number is controlled by maxBlockedPreambSignaturesis that is a system
constant specified per RNC and the maximum number of blocked signatures
shall be set to 2, 3, or 4.

How many dB the preamble threshold shall be reduced depends on how many
preamble signatures are blocked and the primary scrambling code being used.

Even the preamble threshold is a system constant specified per RNC:


preambleThresholdIncrRachCov. The benefits of the feature are: the
coverage of RACH increases by up to 3 dB (due to a lowered preamble
threshold) and faster, and more robust, access from Cell_FACH to Cell_DCH.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 149 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Estimez-
Estimez-vous que le RACH est l’é
l’éllément limitant de la couverture ?

Under normal circumstances RACH is not the main limitation.

With multiple accesses (in the random access phase) the probability for
RACH coverage is equal or better than DCH coverage.

With more traffic on the state RACH/FACH, it is becoming more important


to have a better performance on the RACH channel.

Also with the deployment of 4 way diversity the balance will shift a little
bit where DCH channel will become slightly better than the RACH channel.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 150 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Quels ré
résultats avez-
avez-vous sur le sujet ?
Quelles marges entre les canaux ?

We have seen improved access probability by adjusting the random access


parameters as described in the CPI.

An equivalent of ~2 dB coverage improvement.

This was the case for large cells which are predominantly noise limited.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 151 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Quels sont vos recommandations (et pourquoi) sur l’l’envoi des pré
préambules sur
RACH, ré
réception AICH et puissance du premier RRC Connection Request sur RACH?

RACH improvements
6 dB above max allowed UE power
(maxTXpwrUL) UE jumps out of ramping cycle

UeMaxPower

PowerOffetP0
Message

maxTxPowerUl ( in the UtranCell


PreambleRetransMax object) is the maximum allowed
transmission power when the UE
accesses the system on RACH
(broadcasted in SIB 3).

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 152 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions

Quels sont vos recommandations (et pourquoi) sur l’l’envoi des pré
préambules sur
RACH, ré
réception AICH et puissance du premier RRC Connection Request sur RACH?

The terminal aborts the ramping if the calculated UE power (P_PRACH) is 6


dB above the maxTxPowerUL.
In order to ensure maximum number of preambles at maxTxPowerUL the
power ramp step powerOffsetP0 should be low.
Reducing powerOffsetP0 from 3 to 1 dB enables the UE to transmit more
preambles at maximum UE power. With 1 dB power steps the UE will send 6
preambles at maximum power compared to 2 with 3 dB power steps.
The potential drawback with this setting is that the call set up time is
slightly increased, since smaller power increase steps are taken. There is a
trade off between call set up time, delay when in CELL_FACH state and
coverage. Each preamble takes in the order of 5 ms. With an ideal initial
power setting, the added delay in call set up will be 10 ms in the worst case.
With a smaller power ramp step, the number of preambles must be increased
to ensure that maximum power is reached.
For this reason maxPreambleRetransMax is set to 32

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 153 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Questions
Par exemple, sur le nombre de prépréambules et de cycles, votre recommandation
semble être 32. Le gain est-
est-il purement statistique ou sur la couverture ?
Ce gain a-
a-t-il été observé
observé ?

This is achieved by setting the parameter powerOffsetP0 to 1 dB,


preambleRetransMax to 32, and maxPreambleCycle to 32.
These settings ensure that the UE transmits the maximum number of
preambles before aborting the attempt, thus ensuring maximum detection
probability in the RBS.
Tests have shown that the coverage improvement with this setting is in the
order of 1 to 3 dB.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 154 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Cost Efficient Coverage Solution

 Large cell range


 Uplink and downlink equally important
 Re-use of existing sites

Competition Ericsson
Radio 2100 6-sector 900 MHz
MHGA
Extended
Range

Cost Efficient Coverage Solutions


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 155 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Advanced Coverage Solutions
 AMR speech lower rates
– 12.2, 7.95, 5.9 and 4.75 kbps codec rates
– Can be used to extend coverage

 High power 60W RU and RRU


 DL coverage improvement down to -119 dBm
for network selection
– Extended in-building coverage
– Extended footprint at network fringe

 Improved RACH Coverage


– Make good RACH channel coverage in
stretched coverage scenarios

 MHGA – Multiple High Gain Antennas


 Use of Mobile Broadband Routers w. external antennas
 Extended range up to 200 km.
– Costal areas and flat land
– Ferries, oil rigs, remote islands

Cost-efficient ways to extend network coverage


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 156 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Coverage Enhancements SW Features

 DL coverage improvement (-119 dBm network selection vs. -115)


– Extended in-building coverage
– Extended footprint at network fringe
– Reduced roaming to 2G
– Applies to 3GPP Rel 5 terminals and beyond
 Improved RACH coverage
– Used during connection setup
– Used for low rate or intermittent data
– Optimized RACH detection algorithm, improving RACH coverage
 Stand Alone SRB 3.4 kbps
 AMR speech lower rates
– 12.2, 7.95, 5.9 and 4.75 kbps codec rates
– Can be used to extend coverage
– Can be used to increase capacity during high load

Cost-efficient ways to extend network coverage


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 157 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Improved Downlink Coverage
Improved Downlink Coverage:
 Starting from P5 WRAN, UEs are allowed to access the network at
-119 dBm as compared to -115 dBm (P4) with the optional feature
“Improved downlink coverage”.

 This feature allows the maximum DL path loss to be increased,


which can therefore allow for a higher cell range (better
accessibility and improved indoor coverage).

 Note that the network parameter qRxLevmin should be changed to


-119 dBm in order for this feature to work.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 158 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Parameter settings for a noise limited scenario
 Most networks deployed today have a parameter setting that is based on an
interference limited scenario where thermal noise has a minor impact on the
planned power settings. In a rural scenario or in cases where deep indoor
coverage is desired then different settings are needed to ensure maximum
coverage.
 In a case where thermal noise is the main interference contributor it is
important that a call can be set up and maintained even in an unloaded case.
The CPICH power needs to match against an unloaded uplink and call access
should also work in this scenario.
 The power of the PCPICH can be balanced towards the uplink through the
following relation:

 The minimum power on the CPICH channel in order to match the dedicated
mode for uplink is calculated using the C/I values, a system noise figure Nf of
2 dB and feeder loss Lfeeder

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 159 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Parameter settings for a noise limited scenario

 The table below shows that in order for the CPICH to match Speech 12.2 with
1% BLER and a UE power of 21 dBm, the power required is 35.5 dBm (~3.5W).
If 24 dBm terminals are assumed 38.5 dBm (~7.1 W) is required on the CPICH.

CPICH power at top of cabinet to match thermal noise limited service


during off peak hour- System noise figure=2 dB, feeder loss=3 dB

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 160 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Parameter settings for a noise limited scenario
 If it is desired to be able to set up calls at higher BLER more power is needed
on CPICH power. The figure shows an example of received RSCP from the
pilot, uplink BLER and downlink BLER in a thermal noise limited scenario. In this
example it can be observed that BLER starts to degrade when RSCP is around
−115 dBm.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 161 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Coverage

Relations between max TCH power per service


and maximum coverage area

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 162 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


UL-DL TCH Coverage
Maximum Pathloss in UL

Lpmax = f(PUE, SUL, BIUL, losses, gains, margins)


 PUE – max mobile output power SUL
 SUL – UL RBS receiver sensitivity Lpmax
 BIUL – UL noise rise
 Losses – feeders, building penetration
 Gains – Antennas, TMA PUE
 Margins – Log normal fading margin

Maximum Pathloss in DL
Lpmax = f(PTCH , SUE ,BIDL, losses, gains, margins)
PTCH
 PTCH – max allocated DL TCH power per RAB
 SUE – DL mobile receiver sensitivity Lpmax SUE
 BIDL – DL noise rise
 Losses – feeders, building penetration
 Gains – Antennas
 Margins – Log normal fading margin

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 163 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


UL sensitivity
SUL = Nth +10log(Rchip)+ NF - 10 log(Rchip/Rinfo) + Eb/No + LF

-108 dBm
High UL coverage - SUL need to be as “negative” as possible

 Improve NF in RBS – TMA


 Sensitivity better for lower Rinfo – processing gain
 Lower requirement on Eb/N0 – antenna UL diversity
 Reduce feeder losses - TMA

DL sensitivity
SUE = Nth +10log(Rchip)+ NF - 10 log(Rchip/Rinfo) + Eb/N0

SUE, CPICH = Nth + 10log(Rchip) +NF + Ec/N0

High DL coverage - SUE need to be as “negative” as possible


 Improve NF in UE
 Sensitivity better for lower Rinfo – processing gain
 Lower requirement on Eb/N0 – SHO gain, antenna DL diversity?
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 164 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
What about Eb/No ? BLER % (Transport block error rate)

Determined by
modulation scheme
 In WCDMA – Eb/No a target for R99 RABs and system
implementation
– Target corresponds to quality RAB specific

– Quality Target per R99 RAB BLER target RAB1

– Supported by Power Control BLER target RAB2

 HSDPA – Rate controlled, no Eb/No targets Eb/N0

Eb/N0 target RAB1 Eb/N0 target RAB2


 Higher BLER target improves coverage for PS data
– When the BLER target is increased, the Eb/N0 requirement for the RB is lowered,
thus improving the sensitivity for the RB.

 Higher BLER target improves capacity for PS data


– When the BLER target is increased, the Eb/N0 requirement for the RB is lowered,
thus improving the capacity.

 The throughput will be lower with higher BLER target


– The throughput will depend very much on the average transferred file size. The
throughput will be degraded more with small file sizes due to TCP slow start
mechanism.
– For large file sizes the average throughput is roughly:
Max_data_rate*(1-BLER)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 165 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Service coverage
 Acceptable BLER defines necessary quality per service – BLER target
 BLER target corresponds to a Eb/N0 per service (receiver architecture)
 Each service is transmitted with a certain power level – PTCH, power
controlled
 Max PTCH power & Sensitivity of terminal determines coverage area per
service
 Max Transmitted power and minimum detectable signal = > max allowed
pathloss

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 166 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Service coverage

 PCPICH = Pilot power


 PTCH = Maximum Traffic channel power
 Eb/N0 = minimum traffic channel quality requirement
 Ec/N0 = minimum acceptable quality requirement (spread) = γ (TCH or CCH)

”Protection
ratio”
Ptch γ tch Eqn. 2
=
Pvoice
Pilot
γ voice
Pilot
(linear)

 Eqn. 2 will give same coverage area for pilot and traffic channel
 Usually PTCH is set lower than required from Eqn. 2
 Trade off – coverage and capacity

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 167 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Service coverage
 P_CPICH = 33 dBm

 P_TCH = Maximum Traffic channel power = X

 Eb/No = minum traffic channel quality requirement = 7 dB (384 kbps DL)

 (Ec/No)_CPICH = -16 dB = γCPICH min

 (Ec/No)_TCH = - 3 dB
– X = P_TCH = 33 -3 + 16 = 46 dBm ! (for one 384 kbps user)

 Must decrease power per 384 kbps user = > service area smaller than pilot coverage

 Decreased power per 384 kbps user = > higher capacity (not only one user)

 Assume we instead set Max P_TCH power to 39 dBm for 384 kbps (not 46 dBm)

 γTCH- γPILOT = P_TCHset – P_PILOT + ∆coverage

- 3 + 16 = 39 – 33 + ∆coverage = > ∆coverage = 7 dB

i.e. 384 kbps coverage where Ec/No pilot > - 9 dB

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 168 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Service coverage
 Same coverage range for CPICH and PS 384 kbps

P_CPICH = 33 dBm
P_TCH = 46 dBm
Ec/N0_TCH = - 3 dB (target) PS 384 kbps

(Ec/N0)_CPICH = -16 dB = γ_CPICH (min) CPICH

 Smaller coverage range for PS 384 kbps


P_CPICH = 33 dBm
P_TCH = 39 dBm
(Ec/N0)_TCH = - 3 dB (target) PS 384 kbps

7 dB lower coverage

(Ec/N0)_CPICH = -16 dB = γ_CPICH (min) CPICH

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 169 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Improve Coverage

Channel Switching

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 170 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Channel Switching
Main Purpose
Dynamically change the physical resources allocated to a UE, by switching UE’s
to the most suitable transport channel based
 On traffic volume (throughput- UL & DL),
 Radio resources availability,
 Radio conditions and mobility.

Applies only to packet traffic on the interactive RAB (Interactive and


Background QOS classes >> no guaranteed bit rates and no packet delay
requirements).

Channel switching function works both on a Single RAB and on a Multi RAB
combination.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 171 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Channel Switching
CELL_DCH to CELL_DCH Coverage-Triggered Downswitch
The Channel Switching evaluation is based on two criteria :
 User activity
 Measured in terms of either channel throughput or RLC buffer load.

 Coverage condition
 Measured in terms of downlink code power.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 172 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Power tuning for 60W RU
Elisa Case Study

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 173 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Trading Coverage for Capacity
 Limit coverage for high rate users
– By reducing Dlmaxpower for PS384,
users will use lower bitrates to a
higher extent
 Reducing output power of CCH
– Decreased coverage,
– Changed SHO areas,
– Increased capacity,
– Reduced offered traffic

 Reducing CCH
– Reduce power for all CCH (ie
primaryCPICHpower)
 7% gain
– Reduce CPICH only

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 174 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Introduction
 The purpose of CpichPower tuning is to optimize Common Control Channels’
power for RBSs with 60W RUs. Currently fixed CpichPower setting (33dBm) is
used in the entire network, disregard of RBS power class (20W, 40W or 60W).
 The problem with current setting is very drastic Pilot Ec/No degradation when
HSDPA session is started in a cell of higher class RBS (e.g. 60W). This is
causing huge cell shrinkage.
 Viimsi was selected for tests (PYYNSIW, PRINGIW, LUBJAW,
RANDVEREW). All cells were put into RESERVED state to prevent ordinary
users from using this cluster.
 Test methodology is as follows:
– Old CpichPower (33 dBm):
– 1st test: Measurements are done with scanner + 1 UE in Speech mode.
– 2nd test: Measurements are done with scanner + 1 UE in Speech mode
+ 1 UE with continuous HSDPA download.
– New CpichPower (36 dBm):
– 1st test: Measurements are done with scanner + 1 UE in Speech mode.
– 2nd test: Measurements are done with scanner + 1 UE in Speech mode
+ 1 UE with continuous HSDPA download.
 Test results are analyzed in order to assess how cell shrinkage is affected and
also to see if HSDPA performance is affected by increase of Common Control
Channels’ “share” in power budget (HSDPA will have less power available in this
case).
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 175 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Main CPICH coverage indicators with
33dBm and 36dBm CpichPower
Unloaded System (no HSDPA download)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 176 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH RSCP with 33dBm CpichPower (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 177 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH RSCP with 33dBm CpichPower (scanner)

Scanned Best CPICH RSCP


Carrier number(s): 10787

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average -80.6


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min -105.3
-115 - -105 0.0 0.0 Max -40.5
-105 - -95 6.2 6.2 Threshold ( >= -95.0 ) 94.0%
-95 - -85 37.2 31.0 Elapsed time 135min 50s
-85 - -75 72.8 35.6
-75 - -65 91.5 18.7
-65 - -55 98.3 6.8
-55 - -45 99.8 1.5
-45 - ... 100.0 0.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 178 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH RSCP with 36dBm CpichPower (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 179 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH RSCP with 36dBm CpichPower (scanner)

Scanned Best CPICH RSCP


Carrier number(s): 10787

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average -77.2


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min -102.3
-115 - -105 0.0 0.0 Max -41.3
-105 - -95 1.7 1.7 Threshold ( >= -95.0 ) 98.5%
-95 - -85 25.9 24.3 Elapsed time 142min 7s
-85 - -75 63.6 37.7
-75 - -65 83.6 20.0
-65 - -55 97.3 13.7
-55 - -45 99.8 2.5
-45 - ... 100.0 0.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 180 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 33dBm CpichPower (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 181 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 33dBm CpichPower (scanner)

Scanned Best CPICH Ec/No


Carrier number(s): 10787

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average -5.5


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min -15.4
-26 - -24 0.0 0.0 Max -1.6
-24 - -22 0.0 0.0 Threshold ( >= -12.0 ) 99.3%
-22 - -20 0.0 0.0 Elapsed time 135min 50s
-20 - -18 0.0 0.0
-18 - -16 0.0 0.0
-16 - -14 0.1 0.1
-14 - -12 0.8 0.7
-12 - -10 3.4 2.5
-10 - -8 13.4 10.0
-8 - -6 37.1 23.7
-6 - -4 72.6 35.4
-4 - -2 99.9 27.3
-2 - 0 100.0 0.1

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 182 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 36dBm CpichPower (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 183 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 36dBm CpichPower (scanner)

Scanned Best CPICH Ec/No


Carrier number(s): 10787

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average -5.2


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min -14.9
-26 - -24 0.0 0.0 Max -1.7
-24 - -22 0.0 0.0 Threshold ( >= -12.0 ) 99.7%
-22 - -20 0.0 0.0 Elapsed time 142min 7s
-20 - -18 0.0 0.0
-18 - -16 0.0 0.0
-16 - -14 0.0 0.0
-14 - -12 0.3 0.2
-12 - -10 1.7 1.5
-10 - -8 11.1 9.4
-8 - -6 33.1 22.0
-6 - -4 67.7 34.6
-4 - -2 100.0 32.3
-2 - 0 100.0 0.0

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 184 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Pilot Pollution with 33dBm CpichPower
Unloaded system (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 185 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Pilot Pollution with 36dBm CpichPower
Unloaded system (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 186 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Comments on results
 CPICH RSCP has increased ~3.4 dB
– (which is expected with 3 dB CpichPower increase).
 On the other hand CPICH Ec/No is almost not affected (0.3
dB change).
– This is also as expected.
 Pilot pollution situation is not affected.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 187 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Cell Shrinkage (Ec/No degradation)
with 33dBm and 36dBm CpichPower

Loaded System (with HSDPA download)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 188 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 33dBm CpichPower
With HSDPA download (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 189 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 33dBm CpichPower
With HSDPA download (scanner)

Scanned Best CPICH Ec/No


Carrier number(s): 10787

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average -10.1


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min -20.0
-26 - -24 0.0 0.0 Max -1.0
-24 - -22 0.0 0.0 Threshold ( >= -12.0 ) 67.0%
-22 - -20 0.0 0.0 Elapsed time 127min 57s
-20 - -18 0.1 0.1
-18 - -16 1.0 0.9
-16 - -14 8.3 7.3
-14 - -12 34.7 26.4
-12 - -10 57.8 23.1
-10 - -8 72.4 14.7
-8 - -6 87.4 15.0
-6 - -4 96.0 8.6
-4 - -2 100.0 4.0
-2 - 0 100.0 0.0

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 190 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 36dBm CpichPower
With HSDPA download (scanner)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 191 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


CPICH Ec/No with 36dBm CpichPower
With HSDPA download (scanner)

Scanned Best CPICH Ec/No


Carrier number(s): 10787

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average -8.6


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min -19.2
-26 - -24 0.0 0.0 Max -2.0
-24 - -22 0.0 0.0 Threshold ( >= -12.0 ) 93.7%
-22 - -20 0.0 0.0 Elapsed time 150min 40s
-20 - -18 0.0 0.0
-18 - -16 0.2 0.2
-16 - -14 1.2 1.1
-14 - -12 6.7 5.5
-12 - -10 27.0 20.3
-10 - -8 66.1 39.1
-8 - -6 86.7 20.6
-6 - -4 96.5 9.8
-4 - -2 100.0 3.5
-2 - 0 100.0 0.0

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 192 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Serving system 33dBm CpichPower
Nokia 6121

Service availability ratio 100.0%

Elapsed Time (min) in Each System

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 193 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Serving system 36dBm CpichPower
Nokia 6121

Service availability ratio 100.0%

Elapsed Time (min) in Each System

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 194 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Comments on results
 Average CPICH Ec/No degradation with 36 dBm CpichPower is less
compared to 33 dBm CpichPower:
 -5.5 dB -> -10.1 dB with 33 dBm CpichPower

 -5.2 dB -> -8.6 dB with 36 dBm CpichPower

 CPICH Ec/No distribution with 33 dBm CpichPower is:


 Ec/No > -10 dB: 30%

 Ec/No > -14 dB: 65%

 CPICH Ec/No distribution with 36 dBm CpichPower is:


 Ec/No > -10 dB: 42.3%

 Ec/No > -14 dB: 91.8%

 As a result availability of 3G network has also increased for speech and


idle users.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 195 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Affect of CpichPower increase
on data service
Loaded System (with HSDPA download)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 196 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Application throughput with 33dBm CpichPower
(Nokia 6121)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 197 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Application throughput with 33dBm CpichPower
(Nokia 6121)

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average 1 036.1


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min 0
... - 0 3.6 3.6 Max 2 812.5
0 - 100 7.8 4.2 Threshold ( >= 400.0 ) 85.6%
100 - 200 10.0 2.2 Elapsed time 122min 21s
200 - 300 12.1 2.2
300 - 400 14.4 2.3
400 - 500 17.2 2.7
500 - 600 20.7 3.5
600 - 700 25.0 4.3
700 - 800 29.7 4.7
800 - 900 36.2 6.5
900 - 1000 43.5 7.3
1000 - 1100 51.8 8.3
1100 - 1200 60.9 9.1
1200 - 1300 69.7 8.8
1300 - 1400 77.2 7.6
1400 - 1500 83.0 5.8
1500 - 1600 86.9 3.9
1600 - 1700 90.3 3.4
1700 - 1800 92.5 2.2
1800 - 1900 94.7 2.1
1900 - 2000 96.0 1.3
2000 - ... 100.0 4.0

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 198 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Application throughput with 36dBm CpichPower
(Nokia 6121)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 199 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Application throughput with 36dBm CpichPower
(Nokia 6121)

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average 924.5


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min 0
... - 0 3.7 3.7 Max 2 694.5
0 - 100 7.4 3.7 Threshold ( >= 400.0 ) 83.7%
100 - 200 9.0 1.6 Elapsed time 141min 58s
200 - 300 12.3 3.3
300 - 400 16.3 4.0
400 - 500 21.5 5.3
500 - 600 27.6 6.0
600 - 700 32.9 5.3
700 - 800 39.2 6.3
800 - 900 46.8 7.6
900 - 1000 53.7 7.0
1000 - 1100 63.1 9.4
1100 - 1200 72.1 9.0
1200 - 1300 79.1 6.9
1300 - 1400 84.8 5.7
1400 - 1500 88.9 4.1
1500 - 1600 91.5 2.6
1600 - 1700 93.8 2.3
1700 - 1800 95.5 1.8
1800 - 1900 96.8 1.3
1900 - 2000 97.4 0.6
2000 - ... 100.0 2.6

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 200 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Application throughput with 36dBm CpichPower
(N95)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 201 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Application throughput with 36dBm CpichPower
(N95)

Bin Cumulation (%) Density (%) Average 1 033.6


x-y <= y > x and <= y Min 0
... - 0 3.4 3.4 Max 3 224.2
0 - 100 6.0 2.7 Threshold ( >= 400.0 ) 85.9%
100 - 200 8.0 1.9 Elapsed time 159min 23s
200 - 300 11.1 3.1
300 - 400 14.1 3.0
400 - 500 18.2 4.1
500 - 600 23.6 5.3
600 - 700 28.8 5.2
700 - 800 35.6 6.8
800 - 900 43.4 7.8
900 - 1000 50.8 7.4
1000 - 1100 59.6 8.8
1100 - 1200 68.9 9.3
1200 - 1300 75.2 6.3
1300 - 1400 80.9 5.7
1400 - 1500 85.1 4.2
1500 - 1600 87.5 2.4
1600 - 1700 89.4 1.9
1700 - 1800 90.8 1.4
1800 - 1900 91.7 0.9
1900 - 2000 92.5 0.7
2000 - ... 100.0 7.5

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 202 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Conclusions
 Test results show that changing CpichPower from 33 dBm to 36
dBm on 60 W RBSs has positive impact on main coverage
indicators.
– In case of having RBSs of same power class in the entire area.
 CPICH Ec/No degradation (cell shrinkage) in high load situation is
much less with 36 dBm CpichPower -> 3G availability area is larger.
 No or very little affect on Application Throughput using HSDPA.
 New power settings can be implemented in the network.
– But “mix” of different RBS power classes has to be reviewed in the
network in order to have less impact on existing Pilot Pollution
situation.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 203 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Modular High Gain Antenna

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 204 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


High gain antennas for Macro cells

HGA 2.1GHz

 High Gain Antenna (20-21 dBi)


– 3 dB higher then ‘typical’
 Increased coverage in rural areas
– in both UL& DL

Coverage gain 2 – 3 dB
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 205 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
High gain antennas for Macro cells
 Macro cell antennas have gains that vary between 15.2 dBi and 20.7 dBi.
– Using antennas with higher gains improves the coverage, both for uplink
and downlink.
 There is however a tradeoff between antenna gains and vertical beam
widths, i.e. higher gain means smaller beam width.
– Smaller beam width decreases the coverage in some parts of the cell,
especially near the base station.
 Another disadvantage is that the alignment of the antennas becomes more
cumbersome and the sensitivity to wind increases.
 To avoid the negative effect of small
vertical beam width and large antennas
a modular high gain antenna can be
used.
 This enables antenna gain above 20 dBi
but without the negative nullfilling
effects and sensitivity to wind.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 206 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Modular High Gain Antenna (MHGA)

MHGA 2.1GHz

 High Gain Antenna (20.5 - 23 dBi)


 Increased coverage in rural areas
– in both UL& DL

Coverage gain 2.5 - 5 dB


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 207 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Modular High Gain Antenna (MHGA)

 Improves link budget by 2.5 –4.1 dB.


– UL/DL-balanced for increased coverage

 Improves link budget by increasing antenna area and thereby


antenna gain
– Maintains sufficient “below-horizon”-coverage by null filling

 Consists of vertically arranged array of selected standard panel


antennas
– Low band and high band versions (GSM 800/900 and GSM
1800/1900/WCDMA)

 Modular mechanics
– Easy logistics, shorter packages

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 208 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Modular High Gain Antenna (MHGA)

 MHGA uses a vertical array of 2-3 specially selected


conventional antenna panels
– The antenna panels are connected together by a specially
developed feed network to function as one antenna
– Null filling is applied to maintain sufficient ”below-horizon”-
coverage.
– Adjustable mechanical downtilt

 Well defined mounting frame and kit


– Ensures mechanical alignment and simplifies assembly at site
without mechanical adjustments.
– Flexible tower clamps.
– The MHGA includes all mounting material, cabling and antenna
panels required.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 209 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Modular High Gain Antenna (MHGA)

 MHGA Benefits
– Increased coverage up to 60%

Example of increased coverage over flat ground in GSM 900

Increased coverage up to 60%


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 210 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Modular High Gain Antenna (MHGA)
An effective way to increase range with maintained quality
 Through higher antenna gain, the coverage area is increased without active
amplification such as boosters making it an economic OPEX saving solution.
 Gives a symmetric increase of the link budget, uplink and downlink get the same
increase in gain.
 The modular concept with well defined mechanics, without requirements for
adjustments, ensures high installation quality

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 211 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Fixed broadband over HSPA

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 212 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Fixed broadband over HSPA
Mobile Broadband Router with external antenna
 Ideal for providing cost-effective
broadband services to users outside urban
areas.
 Provides several connectivity options to the
user, wired or wireless.
 Enables the possibility of simultaneous
HSDPA data access for multiple users
 Place the antenna favourable
– window facing site
 Possible to use directive antennas

Up to 3 times the reach of a mobile handset


using different antenna options

Bridging the digital divide with HSPA Mobile Broadband Router


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 213 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Fixed Wireless Broadband Opportunity
Mobile Broadband Router with external antenna
 HSPA Carrier Only
 20W Carriers
 Minimum HS Throughput at coverage threshold 2Mbps

HSPA Dongle HSPA Mobile Broadband Router

Coverage Threshold -92dBm Coverage Threshold -100dBm


Service Availability 45% Cluster Service Availability 95.78% Cluster

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 214 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 215 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range
 This feature require good propagation conditions such as open or flat
areas as well as over sea transmission. High effective antenna height
(masts placed on hills) can further improve the propagation conditions.

Extended Range feature


3dB points (blue lines)

200km

 Needed above 80 km 160km


150km

100km

 Up to 200 km
50km (144.75938,-36.51694)
MT BURRUMBOOT_CDMA

HORSHAM_CDMA
(141.83222,-36.75167)
MT ARAPILES _CDMA

 Terminal independant Bacchus Marsh Airfield


(144.4231,-37.7313)

Up to 200 km
METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 216 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range
 “FAJ 121 1030, Extended Range up to 80 km” and “FAJ 121 1036,
Extended Range up to 200 km” are 2 features introduced since
RAN P5.
 These features can be applied when the propagation delay is the
limiting factor and not the link budget (signal attenuation).
 The features provide the possibility to increase the cell range,
from the default value of 35 km up to 200 km (as shown in the
figure below) and support all frequencies available in P6 RAN
 The increase in cell range up to 80 km does not require additional
hardware from a functional perspective, provided that RAX R2 is
used.
 For cell ranges above 80 km, hardware dimensioning is required
for RACH, i.e. one RAX R2 board per cell-carrier is needed.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 217 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range
 Site solutions, features and parameter tuning shall be considered in order
to improve the link budget, hence achieving maximal coverage:
– Output power from the RBS 3000
– Feeder loss
– High gain antennas and sectorization
– Improved Downlink Coverage, FAJ 121 1047
– Multimode-AMR (improved coverage with low rate CODEC), FAJ 121 985
– Parameter tuning, e.g. Cpich power, AICH and RACH parameters
(preambleRetransMax, maxPreambleCycle and powerOffsetP0)
 HSDPA/EUL is also supported with these features. HSDPA testing had
been successfully performed at the cell border for extended cells.
 The feature is enabled when the MOM parameter CellRange is set to a
value exceeding 35 km.
 When performing network design and prediction with extended cell range,
it is important to use an accurately tuned propagation model to see the
coverage extending beyond 35km.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 218 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range
 Extended range removes timing limitations in the system
 The feature requires good propagation conditions such as open or
flat areas as well as over sea transmission.
 Site solutions like high gain antennas, high antenna towers,
features and parameter tuning must be considered in order to get
maximal coverage.

A 40m mast on a 200m hill A 100 km view

Australia: 1.9 Million km2, 98% pop. coverage


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 219 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range
200 km cell range - Australia, November 2006
 Measured in field
– 2.3 Mbps DL, 384 kbps UL at 200 km range
– Voice call held until 286 km (AMR 7.95)
– Soft HO verified
 Launched October 6th, 2006
- Extended range in more than 1000 cells
Mast: 40m  Extended Range is frequency independent
– 850 MHz
Hill: 350m
– 40/60W RBS output power, 6dB higher pilot
– UE access allowed down to -119 dBm, 4dB gain
– Best in class RBS sensitivity
– 80/200 km extended range feature

3dB points (blue lines)

200km

160km
150km

100km

50km (144.75938,-36.51694)
MT BURRUMBOOT_CDMA

HORSHAM_CDMA
(141.83222,-36.75167)
MT ARAPILES _CDMA

Bacchus Marsh Airfield


(144.4231,-37.7313)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 220 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range
HSDPA 7.2 Mbps & Extended Range

Iperf UDP Kbits/sec vs Distance from Mt Burrumboot in km

kbit/s
7000

6000

5000
Iperf UDP Kbits/sec

4000

3000

2000

1000
Typical speed: 4.5 Mbps
90% probability: >2.5 Mbps
0
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
km

Drive testing in Australia, December 2006


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 221 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA/HSPA - Extended Range
2.1/1.7 GHz examples

 Coverage expansion
– Fixed Wireless Broadband
– Roaming fee reductions
– Site Reduction
1.1 Mbps HSDPA @ 80 Km
 Roaming revenues Multiple Voice & Video Calls
-105 dBm at 72
km

3 Mbps @ 74 km, NLOS


14 dBi terminal panel antenna
96m

Higher Speed – Longer Range


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 222 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
WCDMA 900Mhz Coverage and capacity
 Radio planning W900 vs. W2100
– Link budget ~6dB better
 900 MHz frequency gain +8.2dB
 Assume same antenna size: 900 MHz antenna plus
feeder loss -2dB
 Σ ~ 6dB better link budget in WCDMA 900

 Radio planning W900 vs. G900


– Link budget ~6dB better
 Better output power and receiver sensitivity

 Capacity & Coverage planning


– Co-siting for higher capacity and bitrates
– Infrastructure reduction strategy

50% fewer sites with WCDMA 900


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 223 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
Higher Order Sectorization

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 224 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Higher Order Sectorization
 The H.O.S. concept is built on creation of independent cells with separate identity
and broadcasted control signals, e.g. PCPICH.
 From a radio network management perspective this type of cell deployment is
transparent and is handled as any regular 3-cell deployment.

Higher Order Sectorisation concept schematically illustrated. On the same


site, a migration from 3 to 6 cells take place.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 225 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Higher Order Sectorization
 The extent of the site installation is of course increased compared to a 3-cell site
and the amount of equipment must support the selected number of cells.
 See the figure a schematic illustration of potential site installation requirement
differences between 3- and 6-cells site deployments.

Schematic illustrations on an example of Higher Order Sectorisation site installation


requirements. On the same site migrate from 3 to 6 cells.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 226 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Higher Order Sectorization

Key results
 Extensive simulations showed that a capacity increase of 1.8x can be
achieved for doubling the number of sectors (3⇒6 & 6⇒12).
– This was shown for a hexagonal cell layout
– Confirmed in real network environment (Stuttgart)
 Three planning tool investigations showed no significant impacts on:
– Pilot pollution
– Increased SHO
– Increased neighbour cell lists
 Requirements arising from the practical and legal deployment
constraints were identified.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 227 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Improve Rural Coverage

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 228 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Rural WCDMA site
 The rural WCDMA site Coverage and capacity in a WCDMA network are determined
by the total link budget.
 This, in turn, is dependent on factors such as frequency band, output power, mast
height, the types of terminals used in the network, and special technical features,
such as four-way receive diversity or six-sector antenna configurations.
Site reduction strategies:
 By reusing existing GSM sites, operators can reduce costs and the time it takes to
roll out rural 3G coverage. A comparison of link budgets for GSM900 and
WCDMA2100 with standard antennas shows a link budget deficit of between 1dB
and 3dB for WCDMA2100 and a surplus of up to 6dB for WCDMA850.
 Several methods can be employed to combat the deficit on the WCDMA2100 side;
for example, by:
– Increasing the height of antennas;
– Improving receive sensitivity at the base station;
– Deploying six-sector instead of traditional three-sector antenna
configuration;
– Using high-gain antennas.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 229 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


The rural WCDMA site
Tower height
 Tall antenna towers are costly and might be perceived as having a negative
esthetic impact.
 However, in extreme rural areas, such as desert environments and
emerging markets, tall, low-cost, guyed towers can be used to efficiently
reduce site costs and significantly improve coverage.
Receive sensitivity
 Operators can improve uplink receive sensitivity by employing four-way
receive diversity techniques to combine signals from four antennas.
 Being a broad-spectrum technology, WCDMA already has a built-in
element of diversity gain. Therefore, the gain from four-way receive
diversity is quite modest or only up to about 2.5dB.
 This is unlike GSM, where the gain from four-way receive diversity is as
much as 4.5dB.
 In extreme rural areas, this technique has thus been used very
successfully for deploying GSM coverage.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 230 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


The rural WCDMA site
 For deployments of rural WCDMA, however, four-way receive
diversity has a number of drawbacks that make it less suitable,
especially where capacity is also required.
 One major drawback is the cost of additional radio base station (RBS)
equipment, feeders and antennas.
 In addition, it only offers improvement in the uplink, whereas in most
cases, an equal improvement is required in the downlink.
 What rural WCDMA sites really need is a cost-effective way of
improving the link budget for both the uplink and downlink without
affecting the site configuration or its esthetic profile.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 231 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


The rural WCDMA site
Six-sector antenna configurations:
 At present, most cellular site antenna configurations rely on three directional
antennas with 120 degree separation.
 In semi-rural or suburban areas that combine large cells with high-capacity
utilization, even higher gain can be achieved from six antenna sectors separated by
only 60 degrees.
 The additional 3dB gain from the smaller lobe antennas translates into a 40%
increase in coverage.
 This, in turn, translates into a potential 30% reduction in number of sites.

40% increase in coverage with Higher Order Sectorization !


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 232 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19
The rural WCDMA site
Modular high-gain antennas:
 A modular high-gain antenna (MHGA) consists of a vertically arranged array of
two or three standard antenna panels connected by a special feed network
that enables the array to function as one antenna.
 An MHGA has the same excellent performance as a standard antenna but with
significantly higher gain.
 By introducing MHGAs into the network, operators can improve the link budget
and increase coverage by up to 60%.
 These antennas are therefore ideal for providing coverage in rural areas, over
flat ground or seas, and along highways.
 MHGAs improve the link budget from 2.5dB to 4.1dB in both the uplink and
downlink. Also, by using null-filling techniques they can maintain sufficient
coverage below the horizon.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 233 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


The rural WCDMA site
Lower frequency bands
 In some markets, lower frequency bands are being made available for WCDMA,
which also improves the link budget.

 For example, the link budget of WCDMA850 or 900 is about 6dB better than
that of GSM900.

With this gain, operators can:


– Improve coverage for urban indoor users;
and
– Minimize the number of sites needed to provide coverage to rural areas.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 234 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 235 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature scope (1/3)

 Transmit diversity improves the performance in the


downlink.

 The information bits transmitted from the two


antennas are coded differently which gives a
diversity gain upon reception in the UE.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 236 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature scope (2/3)

 TX Diversity Open Loop - STTD


– STTD is applied to all channels except synch channels

b3 b2 b1 b0 TX-A

b3 b2 b1 b0

b1* b0 b3 b2* TX-B

STTD = Space Time Transmit Diversity

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 237 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature scope (3/3)

 TX Diversity Open Loop - TSTD


– TSTD is applied to the synch channels

P-SCH TX on TX off TX on TX-A


S-SCH

P-SCH TX off TX off TX-B


TX on
S-SCH

Slot 14 ..... Slot 1 Slot 0

TSTD = Time Switched Transmit Diversity

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 238 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature effects (1/5)

 General
– Once the feature is activated, TX diversity will be
applied to all channels in the cell.
 DL control channels
 R99 dedicated channels
 HS-DSCH

– Impact on all UEs in the cell

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 239 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature effects (2/5)

 Feature preparation
– HW Requirements
 RBS has to be equipped with 2 TX branches

 RBSs supporting TX diversity


- RBS4b Macro: RBS 3106, RBS 3206
- RBS2/3 Macro: RBS 3101, RBS 3202
- RBS 6000: RBS 6201, RBS 6102

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 240 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature effects (3/5)

 Feature activation
– The feature is activated/deactivated per cell by the
operator
 Parameter UtranCell:transmissionScheme

 End-to-end performance
– Increased coverage/capacity

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 241 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature effects (4/5)

 Parameters
– Operator configurable parameters (RNC)
 Configuration of the transmission technique in
UTRAN cells
- UtranCell:transmissionScheme

 Configuration of the transmission technique in


external UTRAN cells
- ExternalUtranCell:transmissionScheme

– Operator configurable parameter (RBS)


 Configuration of number of TX branches
- Carrier:numberOfTxBranches

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 242 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

P7.1 Feature effects (5/5)

 New/modified MO structure
– No

 Multi-vendor
– TX diversity is supported over Iur

 Observability
– No new GPEH events, PM counters, KPIs

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 243 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Transmit Diversity

Dependency to other features


– No

Restrictions and limitations


– At IRAT handover from GSM to UTRAN, the RL will
always be set up without TX diversity.
– An active set can have RLs with and without TX
diversity. Rel-99 UEs may apply TX diversity on all RLs
even if TX diversity is not activated on all of them. This
may reduce the performance.

References
– CPI Connection Handling, 4/1553-HSD 101 02/7

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 244 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Coverage Improvement Strategies

TDC Project

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 245 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Background

 Ericsson has signed a “Site Saving Warranty” with


TDC, to rollout WCDMA with 18% less sites than
first estimated
 In order to achieve this 18%, Ericsson must identify
parameters, features and equipment that can
extend coverage of current sites.
– The choice of improvement strategy will be selected by
the radio planner depending on the specific area and
site

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 246 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Current Improvement List

 Prioritised by impact vs performance gain


Item Heading Im pact Level Change in Link budget Availability
1 Increase CPICH/DCH Low - Parameter change + DL up to 5dB Now
2 narrow beamwidth antenna Low - antenna type change + DL/UL up to 4dB Now
3 higher gain 65deg antenna Low - antenna type change + DL/UL up to 4dB Now
4 Modular High Gain Antennas Medium - additional antenna + DL/UL up to 7dB Now
5 Ericsson ASC Low - TMA type change + UL up to 0.6dB Now
6 Changing Feeder Types Medium - feeder change compensate #1 Now
7 Higher Power Amp Medium - PA change compensate #1 Now
8 2-way TX diversity High - additional PA (cost) + DL up to 2.4dB P7
9 4-way RX diversity Medium - additional antenna + UL up to 3.5dB P8
10 Multimode AMR Low - feature addition 1.5dB voice improvement Now
11 Antenna Height Increase High - approvals/structure change improved DL/UL Now
12 Antenna Beamforming High - additional PA (cost) improved DL P7 FP
13 Extended Range Low - feature addition improve DL/UL 35-80km Now

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 247 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Review Checklist
 For each stretch, review surrounding sites
– Note current antenna, feeder length/type, TMA type
 Apply changes to surrounding sectors impacting road
1. Antenna type change (items 2-4)
2. TMA change (item 5)
3. CPICH/DCH increase (item 1, compensate with 6,7)
4. Add second antenna (item 8,9)
5. Antenna height increase, if possible (item 11)
 Record changes which resulting in a site saving and put configuration
back to original.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 248 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


1. Increase CPICH & DCH power
 Description:
– Increase CPICH/DCH power for more DL.
– Can affect capacity unless upgrade MCPA

 Impacts:
– Improves DL coverage by power increased (up to 5dB)
 Good for areas that are DL limited.
 See QVoice UETxpower measurements
– Low impact: parameter change

 Recommendation:
MaxPower W CPICH W CPICH dBm @ rack CPICH dBm @ ref pt
20 2 33.0 30.0
30 3 34.8 31.8
60 6 37.8 34.8

 Further study:
– See more info in [1]
– Drive tests to prove theory

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 249 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


2. Narrow beamwidth antennas
 Description:
– Narrowband antenna has higher gain for directional coverage
 Ideal for rail, road

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved UL/DL coverage through higher gain (up to 21.2dBi)
– Impact: low – antenna swap out.

 Recommendation:
Ericsson P/N Kathrein P/N Height(mm) Freq Pol HBW@21 Gain@21 Tilt
KRE 101 1977/1 742 351 1304 1710-2170 X 33 20.7 MET0-8
KRE 101 1911/1 742 218 1306 1710-2170 X 44 19.6 MET0-8
KRE 101 1912/1 742 219 1946 1710-2170 X 44 21.2 MET0-6

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 250 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


3. Higher gain 65BW antennas
 Description:
– Change out current antennas with higher gain antennas.
– review vertical beam width and length on case by case

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved UL/DL coverage through higher gain (up to 21.1dBi)
– Impact: low – antenna swap out.

 Recommendation:

Ericsson P/N Kathrein P/N Height(mm) Freq Pol HBW@21 Gain@21 Tilt Comments
KRE 101 1985/1 742215 1302 1710-2170 X 65 18 MET0-10
KRE 101 1906/1 742213 1942 1710-2170 X 63 19.5 MET0-6
KRE 101 2050/1 800 10439 2172 1710-2170 X 60 21.1 FET0
KRE 101 1930/1 742 265 1916 824-960+1710-2180 XX 63 18.3 MET0-6
KRE 101 1920/1 742 235 1959 824-960+1710-2180 XX 63 19.5 MET0-6
824-960+1710-
KRE 101 1931/1 742 272 2628 1880+1920-2170 XXX 65 18 MET0-6
KRE 101 2013/1 800 10271 2472 1710-2170 X 60 19.3 MET0-6 TriSector Pipe

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 251 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


4. Modular High Gain Antennas
 Description:
– Cascade 2 or more antennas vertically to create higher gain.

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved UL/DL coverage through higher gain (up to 23dBi)
– Impact: low – antenna swap out.

 Recommendation:

Ericsson P/N Kathrein P/N Height(mm) Freq Pol HBW@21 Gain@21 Tilt Comments
FAB 620 7026 4800 1710-2170 X 65 23 FET0 VBW 1.7deg

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 252 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


5. Ericsson ASC

 Description:
– Change out current TMAs with Ericsson ASCs.

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved UL noise figure
– Impact: low – TMA swap out.

 Recommendation:
Ericsson P/N Name Freq Gain NF Comments
KRY 112 42/4 ASC 2100 27-33 (0.1) 1.2 NF: Max 1.8 dB
KRY 112 46/2 Standard D-TMA 2100 29.5 1.2

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 253 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


6. Lower Loss Feeders
 Description:
– Change out current feeders with maximum width low loss
feeders

 Impact on link budget:


– Compensate cell capacity for CPICH/DCH increase through
lower losses
– Impact: low – Feeder swap out.

 Recommendation:
Attenuation (dB/m)
FEEDER LIST
2100 MHz
HELIAX® Low Density Foam Coaxial Cable, corrugated
1/2" LDF4-50A 0.10961
copper, 1/2 in, black PE jacket
HELIAX® Andrew Virtual Air™ Coaxial Cable, corrugated
7/8" AVA5-50 0.05678
copper, 7/8 in, black PE jacket
HELIAX® Low Density Foam Coaxial Cable, corrugated
1-1/4" LDF6-50 0.04342
copper, 1-1/4 in, black PE jacket
HELIAX® Andrew Virtual Air™ Coaxial Cable, corrugated
1-5/8" AVA7-50 0.03457
copper, 1-5/8 in, black PE jacket

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 254 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


7. Higher Power Amplifier
 Description:
– Increase power output allowing more coverage on
common/dedicated channels

 Impact on link budget:


– Improvement seen with CPICH/DCH power increase
– Impact: medium – PA swap out

 Recommendation:
– 60W currently available

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 255 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


8. 2-way TX Diversity
 Description:
– Add second TX path to improve DL (Sue and C/I) at cell edge

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved DL coverage (up to 2.4dB)
– Impact: medium – additional PA in RBS

 Recommendation:
– Available in P7, Q1 2009 (see [1])

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 256 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


9. 4-way RX Diversity
 Description:
– Add second cross polar antenna to improve receive sensitivity

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved UL coverage (up to 3.5dB)
– Impact: high – additional antenna and rx path

 Recommendation:
– Available in Ericsson Release P8 (end 2009)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 257 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


10. Multimode AMR - scratched
 Description:
– Improve Voice Coverage by using different AMR codecs

 Impact on link budget:


– Improve InCar cell radius coverage by 11% (1.5dB)
– Impact: low – software upgrade

 Recommendation:
– Only improvement in voice coverage, not SL3

Link Budgets InCar (RA120)

UL DL
speech speech Optimal
CS64 PS64 EUL128
5.9k 12.2k CPICH
UL Lp max indoor (Unloaded) 148,5 147,0 145,2 145,5 149,4
UL Lp max indoor (70% User load) 145,5 144,0 142,2 142,5 146,4 142,2

Cell Radius (Okumura-Hata) (Km) 2,19 Km 1,98 Km 1,76 Km 1,80 Km 2,32 Km 1,76 Km

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 258 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


11. Antenna Height Increase
 Description:
– Raising antenna height improves coverage

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved UL/DL coverage (use TCPU prediction)
– Impact: high – approvals and possible structure change

 Recommendation: 14
Height vs Range

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Height
Range(km) Site-Site Dist(km)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 259 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


12. Antenna Beamforming
 Description:
– Add second TX path to improve DL at cell edge

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved DL coverage at cell edge
– Impact: medium – additional PA in RBS

 Recommendation:
– Available in P7 FP (mid-2009)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 260 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


13. Extended Range - scratched
 Description:
– increase coverage above 35km.

 Impact on link budget:


– Improved coverage if site high enough to propagate
– Impact: low – software upgrade

 Recommendation:
– Not suitable in Denmark
 Ground height needs to be greater than 500m
 (find reference doc)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 261 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Find Faulty Antenna (P7FP)

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 262 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Find Faulty Antenna
The feature is new in P7.1
 P7.1 Feature Scope
– This feature (FFAX-W) is an expert tool in OSS that evaluates if there
are faults in the antenna installation. Faults are determined by
measuring the SIR difference per branch for all connected calls.
 P7.1 Feature Effects
– General – will identify faulty antenna solutions
– Feature preparation
 No preparation needed
– Feature activation
 OSS application is needed
– Observability
 One new counter is introduced
 Dependencies to other features
– No dependency
 Restrictions and limitations
– Hard coded values in the OSS expert needs to be evaluated before GA
is taken. This needs to be done in a network with real traffic.

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 263 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Innovative Tower Tube

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 264 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Ericsson Innovative Tower Tube

RBS installed bottom and left to top

Inside Top

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 265 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


Ericsson Innovative Tower Tube
Benefit

 Quickly and easily deployed


thanks module concrete
construction
 Any shape ,style, height ,color
 All equipment inside , less
footprint than traditional tower
 No active cooling
 Less steel ,less power
consumption, more environment
respect
 High security for all equipment,
indoor equipment cab be used
 Antenna protected by
weatherproof enclosure

METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 266 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19


METSTLR Ericsson Confidential 267 3G Coverage Improvement 2009-06-19