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Future Grid Design and Operation for high

Penetration with Renewable Energies

Gerd Becker
Munich University of Applied Sciences

Possible Future Generation Structure


† In 2010 (electricity)
„ 605 TWh Gross energy
„ 83 % Conventional energy
„ 17 % Renewable energy
† In 2050 (electricity)
„ 700 TWh Gross energy
„ 100 % Renewable energy
† 45 % Wind offshore
† 13 % Wind onshore
† 16 % Photovoltaics Szenario 2.1.b
† 5 % Biomass/Biogas
† 4 % Hydro

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Actual Load Curve 2013 in Germany

Solar and Wind covering peaks!

Load flow in 110 kV/20 kV Substation (High PV Penetration)

Lower Bavaria

15 min average values and 24 h average values 2009 (blue, light blue) und 2010 (yellow, red)

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Impacts of RE on the Grid and Countermeasures (1)
† Fluctuating generation of energy
„ Generation management
„ Smart grids
„ Storage technologies necessary
„ Self consumption
† Rise of voltage in LV (0,4 kV) and MV (20 kV) grid
„ Inverters feed in reactive power
„ Adjustable transformers
„ Grid expansion
† Energy is fed from LV (0,4 kV) to MV (20 kV) and from MV
(20 kV) to HV (110 kV)
„ Grid expansion

Impacts of RE on the Grid and Countermeasures (2)


† Behavior in the case of a fault, a RE systems may not
disconnect
„ Low voltage ride through
† Stability of the grid
„ Reduction of real power depending on the frequency (surplus power, grid
fault)
„ Rotating mass property
„ Capability for black start of generation units
† Location of generation changes
„ Improved grid structure, new components, new lines

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Future LV and MV Grid Structure

Power station

400 kV
Special case:
110kV
No load flow in
MV and HV grid 20/10kV certain
components
0,4kV

Households
„Intelligent“ grid infrastructure
with overlay IT Æ Smart Grid
Both directions of load flow are possible
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Voltage Rise

Cable

Consumer with PV

Medium U
voltage grid
Voltage rise
ULV Lenght
Voltage drop

† Red line: consumer needs power Æ voltage drop


† Green line: energy generated Æ rise in voltage
† Blue line: PV system (inverter) feeds in reactive power Æ limited rise
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Self Consumption

† Appropriate tariffs
† Peak shaving e.g. at 70 % (STC power) by using a battery
1000
1000

800 800
In battery
600
Load
600

400 400

200 PV generation 200 PV generation

0 0
00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00

Storage Technologies

… Technologies:
„ Stationary batteries
„ Accumulators (Cars)
„ Pumped storage power stations
„ Power to Gas
„ Compressed air storage
Ex: IBC SolStore 6.8 Pb
† Question: Centralized or decentralized? Capacity 6,8 kWh
Lead acid
DOD = 50 %
Lifetime 10 years

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Grid services

Low voltage ride through


Frequency dependent reduction of real power
Feed reactive power into the grid

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Measures for improved grid integration ‐ PV

Measure + grid capacity Remark


Feed in reactive power 20 % to max. 100 % Limited costs
Expansion of grid >100 % Costly
Generation management 20 % to 40 % Reduces yield
Adjustable transformers 10 % to 30 % Costly
Self consumption Depending on
Peak shaving using battery percentage Very costly

*Values depending on grid structure

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Future Grid Operation
† The future LV and MV grid includes an information network
„ The electricity price will change in 15‐minute intervals
„ Smart grids permit the individual operation of appliances
(Washing machines, dishwashers, freezers, air condition,
electrically heated hot water .
„ Smart grids have to be operated and controlled.
† Unit commitment (operation power stations) becomes more
sophisticated
„ Renewable generation units will be switched off some times, as
there is surplus energy
„ Operation of the storage technology is an important task
† The future grid has more HV, MV and LV lines
„ Fluctuating generation and consumption Æfluctuating load flows
„ Monitoring (temperature) of lines

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Summary
… There are many impacts of RE on the grid
† Fluctuating generation of energy
† Rise of voltage in LV and MV grid
† Behavior in the case of a fault
† Stability of the grid
† Location of generation changes
† Energy is fed back into the MV and HV grid

… Measures
… Feed in reactive power
… Expansion of the grid
… Generation management
… Adjustable transformers
… Self consumption and peak shaving
… However
… Conventional (gas fired) power stations needed for reserve and stability (rotating masses)

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