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DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggx334

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Geophysical Journal International

Geophys. J. Int. (2017) 211, 919–941 doi: 10.1093/gji/ggx334

Advance Access publication 2017 August 2

GJI Seismology

Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany. E-mail: yujiang.xie@studium.uni-hamburg.de

Accepted 2017 August 1. Received 2017 June 7; in original form 2017 January 23

SUMMARY

Most 5-D interpolation and regularization techniques reconstruct the missing data in the

frequency domain by using mathematical transforms. An alternative type of interpolation

methods uses wave-front attributes, that is, quantities with a specific physical meaning like

the angle of emergence and wave-front curvatures. In these attributes structural information of

subsurface features like dip and strike of a reflector are included. These wave-front attributes

work on 5-D data space (e.g. common-midpoint coordinates in x and y, offset, azimuth and

time), leading to a 5-D interpolation technique. Since the process is based on stacking next

to the interpolation a pre-stack data enhancement is achieved, improving the signal-to-noise

ratio (S/N) of interpolated and recorded traces. The wave-front attributes are determined in

a data-driven fashion, for example, with the Common Reflection Surface (CRS method). As

one of the wave-front-attribute-based interpolation techniques, the 3-D partial CRS method

was proposed to enhance the quality of 3-D pre-stack data with low S/N. In the past work

on 3-D partial stacks, two potential problems were still unsolved. For high-quality wave-front

attributes, we suggest a global optimization strategy instead of the so far used pragmatic search

approach. In previous works, the interpolation of 3-D data was performed along a specific

azimuth which is acceptable for narrow azimuth acquisition but does not exploit the potential

of wide-, rich- or full-azimuth acquisitions. The conventional 3-D partial CRS method is

improved in this work and we call it as a wave-front-attribute-based 5-D interpolation (5-D

WABI) as the two problems mentioned above are addressed. Data examples demonstrate the

improved performance by the 5-D WABI method when compared with the conventional 3-D

partial CRS approach. A comparison of the rank-reduction-based 5-D seismic interpolation

technique with the proposed 5-D WABI method is given. The comparison reveals that there are

significant advantages for steep dipping events using the 5-D WABI method when compared

to the rank-reduction-based 5-D interpolation technique. Diffraction tails substantially benefit

from this improved performance of the partial CRS stacking approach while the CPU time is

comparable to the CPU time consumed by the rank-reduction-based method.

Key words: Body waves; Theoretical seismology; Wave propagation; Wave scattering and

diffraction.

Radon transform (e.g. Kabir & Verschuur 1995; Trad et al. 2009;

1 I N T RO D U C T I O N

Zhang & Lu 2014), Fourier transform (e.g. Liu & Sacchi 2004;

3-D pre-stack seismic data are recorded in the 5-D data space: Zwartjes & Sacchi 2007; Trad 2009; Curry 2010; Naghizadeh

four spatial dimensions and one temporal dimension [e.g. common- & Innanen 2011), and Curvelet transform (e.g. Naghizadeh &

midpoint (CMP) coordinates in x and y, offset, azimuth and time]. Sacchi 2010). With the sparse transforms, one can gradually at-

As some natural and anthropogenic factors, for example, field obsta- tenuate the artefacts and recover the missing data information in

cles, dead traces, and budgetary constraints, 3-D pre-stack seismic the sparse domain by iteratively thresholding the transformed do-

data may be irregularly and sparsely sampled during data acquisi- main of the incomplete seismic data (Chen et al. 2016b). The sec-

tion, which would affect the image quality of further applications. ond category of seismic interpolation methods is the prediction-

In order to resolve this problem, a simple and straightforward strat- filtering based interpolation methods (e.g. Spitz 1991; Naghizadeh

egy is to introduce interpolated traces into these data gaps. In the & Sacchi 2009; Liu & Fomel 2011), which interpolate high-

literature, there are about five categories of interpolation methods frequency aliased data using prediction-error filters derived from

reported. The first category is based on sparse transforms, such as low-frequency non-aliased data. This method works well with

C The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Royal Astronomical Society. 919

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920 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 1. The initial search apertures used in this work. (a) A given 3-D CRS gather consisting of several 3-D CMP gathers, where the black dots denote

locations of the 3-D CMP gathers. (b) A considered 3-D CMP gather and its corresponding 3-D partial CRS offset aperture (blue) in this 3-D CMP gather.

Note: the blue ellipse here is only a subset of whole 3-D partial CRS aperture in the offset direction. (c) The considered time slice at t0 . (d) A grid-based

full-azimuth regularization performed at t0 , where the black grid points are the trace location regularized along different azimuth directions. Here only the

positive offsets are shown, and the constant angle between the dashed lines is the azimuthal interval. More details see Fig. 3.

Figure 2. Calculating the t0, p and construct the 3-D partial CRS stacking operator for a sample A on trace k located at (m0, x , m0, y , offx, offy). (a) Calculating the

t0, p by a traveltime fitting process. For the sake of simplicity, only one direction (OF) is shown. The black curve is an observed seismic event at this direction.

In order to find t0, p , the traveltime operator (Eq. 2) is used. We start from the first ZO sample (see the top blue dashed curve), then the traveltime surface

(eq. 2) is moved downward until the condition satisfies: (t − t22 )2 ≤ fmin2 , where we assume t0, p = t11 . For better understanding, the traveltime difference

between t0, p and t11 shown in this figure is exaggerated. In practice, the difference between t0, p and t11 is very small. Usually, we can refine t0, p using the

simulated sample A if the wave-front attributes around t0, p are smooth. The coefficient fmin can be automatically calculated by the wave-front attributes of two

neighbouring ZO samples around t0, p . The right green line is a boundary of the offset aperture in the OF direction. (b) An intersection (red) of the 3-D partial

CRS traveltime surface with the vertical OF plane, where its top horizontal short line (blue) is the partial CRS aperture for sample A. Other parts of the 3-D

partial CRS traveltime surface at current CMP and its neighbouring CMPs are not shown here. The whole 3-D partial CRS traveltime surface is expressed as

eq. (3).

regularly sampled data. The third category of methods includes, for (e.g. Ronen 1987; Stolt 2002; Fomel 2003; Kaplan et al. 2010).

example, the Cadzow rank-reduction method (Trickett 2008; Trick- They generally assume that the subsurface velocity is known and

ett et al. 2010; Chen et al. 2016a,b), or called the multichannel singu- are computationally expensive solving the wave equation. The last

lar spectrum analysis (MSSA) method (e.g. Oropeza & Sacchi 2011; kind of interpolation methods is the wave-front-attribute-based in-

Huang et al. 2015). The rank-reduction-based interpolation meth- terpolation (WABI; e.g. Höcht et al. 2009; Baykulov & Gajew-

ods assume that missing traces and random noise increase the rank ski 2009, 2010; Xie & Gajewski 2016b; Xie 2017), which is a

of the constructed Hankel/Toeplitz matrices, and one can intuitively data-driven, velocity-independent interpolation technique extended

reduce the negative effects caused by the missing traces and random from, for example, the Common-Reflection-Surface (CRS) method

noise by applying rank-reduction operators (Chen et al. 2016a,b). (e.g. Jäger et al. 2001; Mann 2002; Höcht 2002; Müller 2003). This

They intuitively satisfy the local plane-wave assumption. The fourth kind of interpolation methods utilizes wave-front attributes derived

seismic interpolation methods is the wave-equation-based methods from moveout of events for several neighbouring CMP gathers.

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 921

Figure 3. Different azimuth-based regularization strategies. (a) An azimuth-fixed regularization (e.g. azimuth = 0). (b) Narrow azimuth regularization. (c)

Regularization of one trace k (offx, offy) on the azimuth direction of iaz∗δλ, where δλ is the azimuth interval in different directions, the sign ∗ indicates a

multiplication, and iaz is an index of different azimuth directions. (d) A wide- or full-azimuth regularization. For each azimuthal direction iaz∗δλ in the 3-D

CMP gather, we have hx = hy /tan(0 + iaz∗δλ) and hy = j∗δhy , where j = 0, 1, 2, ..., max(hy )/δhy , and δhy is the offset increment in the hy direction. The

azimuth interval δλ and offset increment δhy should be set by the user in different data. In the 3-D SEG case, we use δλ = 15∗π /180 and δhy = 30 m, which

need to be tested from the data, for example, several δλ and δhy are tried until the one with the best result is gotten. For the 3-D SEG data, the azimuth range

would be better set between [π /4 π /2], for example, azimuth λ = π /4, π /3, 5π /12, π /2. This is because the 3-D SEG data is not a real full-azimuth data.

We do the same calculation in the 3-D simple data but there the offset interval is set in the x direction, that is, δhx = 30 m.

The missing traces are predicted by the so-called partial stack. Gajewski 2010) was successfully applied to denoise and reconstruct

Examples are the partial CRS stacking methods (Baykulov & 3-D pre-stack seismic data with low S/N. However, two potential

Gajewski 2009, 2010), which can significantly increase the signal- problems need to be addressed in this method and are considered in

to-noise ratio (S/N) of every trace and fill the data gaps after this paper:

the interpolation. In this fashion a regularized 3-D data volume

(i) To obtain high-quality 3-D wave-front attributes their deter-

with improved S/N is generated. Since the wave-front attributes

mination should be performed with global optimization. The above-

are derived from moveout which contains information on reflector

mentioned publication adopted a pragmatic search strategy in sub-

dip, strike, and curvature, we consider this kind of interpolation

volumes of the data which may lead to a poor or insufficient fit of

techniques as physics-based interpolation methods to distinguish

the adapted traveltime surface to the full data volume. As any other

them from pure mathematics-based interpolation approaches. The

processing step using wavefield attributes also the 3-D partial CRS

WABI methods are performed within the first Fresnel zone and

benefits of high-quality attributes.

therefore they use traces in the interpolation process, which re-

(ii) The second problem considered in this work is the azimuth-

solve the same structural details. Since the wave-front attributes

based regularization for wide-, rich- or full-azimuth acquisition. In

are determined by kinematic features of the wave field, that is,

previous works the regularization was performed along a specific

moveout, aliasing issues are relaxed. Next to the CRS operator any

azimuth which does not exploit the potential of different azimuth

other operator utilizing wave-front attributes like i-CRS (Schwarz

acquisition.

et al. 2014), non-hyperbolic CRS (Fomel & Kazinnik 2013) or

multifocusing (Gelchinsky et al. 1999) can be used. These oper- An effective solution to resolve the first problem in the con-

ators determine wave-front attributes from pre-stack data equally ventional 3-D partial CRS method is to develop a global search

well (Walda et al. 2017). The 3-D partial CRS method (Baykulov & strategy which determines the wave-front attributes simultaneously

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922 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

(a) (b)

0 0.55 0

0.895

0.2 0.2

0.548

Semblance

Semblance

0.8945

0.4 0.4

CR

CR

0.546 0.894

0.6 0.6

0.8935

0.8 0.544 0.8

0.893

1 0.542 1 0.8925

0 1 2 0 1 2

F F

(c) (d)

0 0.324 0

0.0764

0.2 0.322 0.2

0.0762

Semblance

Semblance

0.4 0.32 0.4 0.076

CR

CR

0.6 0.318 0.6 0.0758

0.316

0.0754

1 0.314 1

0 1 2 0 1 2

F F

Figure 4. Parameter sensitivity analysis for the F and CR in the DE algorithm. (a), (b), (c) and (d) are corresponding to the four ZO samples mentioned

in Fig. 5. In these tests, the parameter F is set between [0 2] with 0.2 increasing interval, and CR is set between [0 1] with 0.1 increasing interval. After a

brute-force search, we use F = 1.2 and CR = 0.9.

(a) (b)

0.55 0.9

0.5

Semblance

Semblance

0.85

0.45

0.8

0.4

0.35 0.75

10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50

Number of iteration Number of iteration

(c) (d)

0.35 0.08

0.07

Semblance

Semblance

0.3

0.06

0.25

0.05

0.2 0.04

10 20 30 40 50 10 20 30 40 50

Number of iteration Number of iteration

Figure 5. Iteration tests of four zero-offset (ZO) samples picked from the 3D SEG data. (a) The first ZO sample is chosen from CMP 181934, sample 232.

(b) The second ZO sample is taken from CMP 182203, sample 108. (c) The third ZO sample is CMP 182125, sample 205. (d) The fourth ZO sample is CMP

182115, sample 550.

from the entire 5-D data space by assuming that the wave kinemat- algorithm (GA; Holland 1975). Both algorithms provide improved

ics are properly described by the 3-D CRS traveltime formula. We wave-front attributes when compared to the conventional pragmatic

recently introduced two well-known global optimization algorithms approach or the general Powell conjugate direction (PCD) algorithm

to simultaneously determine the 3-D CRS wave-front attributes (see (Powell 1964). We found that the differential evolution (DE; Storn

Xie & Gajewski 2016a,c). These are the particle swarm optimization & Price 1997) is the most stable algorithm to globally determine

(PSO; Kennedy & Eberhart 1995; Shi & Eberhart 1998) and genetic the 3-D CRS wave-front attributes when compared to the PSO, GA,

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 923

Computational costs [%] tested by the search algorithms, and then the set of wave-front

120

attributes that provides the highest semblance is kept as the best

100 fitting one. In order to calculate the maximum semblance for each

ZO sample, two types of methods are often applied in the CRS

80

domain. The first one is a brute-force search or called exhaustive

60 linear search that is used to find a target value within a list. It

sequentially tests each element of the list for the objective function

40

until all elements are searched. The brute-force search could be

20 stable and effective in a low-dimensional search, such as the 2-

D velocity analysis that only requires a velocity list to find the

0

DE Pragmatic approach best stacking velocity for each ZO sample. However, in a high-

dimensional search, for example, in the 3-D ZO CRS case, eight

Figure 6. Computational costs of the pragmatic approach and the DE algo-

wave-front attributes are required if the data are gotten from a

rithm, where DE is referenced as 100 per cent.

wide- or full azimuth acquisition. A simultaneous brute-force search

for the eight wave-front attributes is extremely expensive, where

we may have to test 1008 sets of wave-front attributes for each

and the conventional pragmatic approach. In this work, we use the ZO sample if 100 search intervals of each of the eight wave-front

DE algorithm as the global search method to replace the conven- attributes are considered. It will take about 2 months for one ZO

tional pragmatic approach. We call the improved 3-D partial CRS sample if a CPU with 2.5 GHz and 1 GB RAM is used. Usually,

interpolation method as a 5-D WABI technique, where the 3-D CRS there are about 105 to 108 ZO samples need to be processed in a

wave-front attributes are obtained by global optimization using the general 3-D seismic data set in the 3-D ZO CRS case, and such large

DE algorithm and the azimuth-based regularization is applied. number of ZO samples are practically impossible to implement in

After this introduction we briefly describe the 3-D CRS theory most computing platforms.

and the search strategy for wave-front attributes then we intro- To reduce the high computational costs in the 3-D ZO CRS case

duce our concept for regularization and interpolation of data with (see Müller 2003), the historical CRS parameter search method,

wide, rich or full azimuth. Data examples and comparisons with that is, the well-known, three-step-based pragmatic approach (Mann

the conventional 3-D partial CRS approach using the 3-D SEG salt et al. 1999) was introduced into the 3-D ZO CRS. It suggests to de-

model complement the paper. Finally we present a comparison of termine the eight wave-front attributes by three steps. In each step,

the proposed 5-D WABI method with a 5-D interpolation approach, only two or three of the eight wave-front attributes are determined si-

for example, based on the damped rank-reduction method (Chen multaneously by the brute-force search, which significantly reduces

et al. 2016b), using a simple 3-D synthetic data set of a diffraction the computational costs when compared to the simultaneous one-

event and the complex 3-D SEG data set. step brute-force search, that is, (1003 + 1002 + 1003 ) 1008 . The

1008 on the right-hand side means the number of all possible tested

wave-front attributes used in the simultaneous one-step brute-force

2 T H E O RY A N D M E T H O D S

search. On the left-hand side, the first and the last 1003 represent the

number of NIP and N wave-front attributes to be searched for the

2.1 3-D CRS theory and wave-front attribute search

three elements of matrices M and N, respectively. The 1002 indi-

The 3-D CRS traveltime formula can be derived from the cates the number of dips and azimuths for the two elements of vector

well-known two-point paraxial travetime approximations (e.g. wz . Alternative solution to reduce the high computational costs in

Červený 2001; Červený & Moser 2007; Moser & Červený 2007; a simultaneous search is to introduce a suitable global optimiza-

Bortfeld 1989; Hubral et al. 1992; Schleicher et al. 1993b). In 3-D tion algorithm, which is iteratively trying to find or move toward to

seismic systems, the CRS traveltime parameters are generally ex- the best solution of the objective function (e.g. Weise 2009), such

plained with physical meanings, for example, kinematic wavefield as the above DE algorithm that improves the candidate solution to

attributes or wave-front attributes. The classical 3-D zero-offset get close to the best solution of the semblance function by a mass

(ZO) CRS traveltime formula is based on the hyperbolic approx- of iterations. It could be cheaper than the conventional pragmatic

imation (e.g. Schleicher et al. 1993b; Jäger 1999; Müller 2003; approach when we apply 100 intervals for each of the eight wave-

Bergler 2004) or geometrical considerations (Höcht 2002). It reads front attributes, that is, 2000 (1003 + 1002 + 1003 ), where the

2000 here means that 40 agents and 50 iterations are applied in the

2

thyp = (t0 + wz · md )2 + mdT Nmd + hT Mh, (1)

DE algorithm. More importantly, the maximum semblance gotten

where the vector wz includes the near-surface velocity (v0 ), the dip from the DE algorithm is higher than the one obtained from the

(α) and azimuth (λ) of the reference ray. The midpoint parameter conventional pragmatic approach (see a detailed discussion below).

satisfies: md = m − m0 , where the vector m0 is the considered

3-D CMP position, and the m indicates any neighbouring CMP

location of the considered 3-D CMP. Half offset of a trace in the

2.2 5-D WABI method

considered 3-D CRS gather is given by h. The 2 × 2 symmetrical

matrices M and N are related to the curvatures of the normal- In this work, the 5-D WABI method is given as follows:

incidence-point (NIP) wave front and the normal (N) wave front, Firstly, we compute the midpoint locations m = (mx , my ) for each

respectively (Hubral 1983; Jäger 1999; Müller 2003; Bergler 2004). 3-D CMPn gather of the 3-D data. In each 3-D CMP gather, we have

The superscript T denotes the transpose of a matrix. m = ( i=1 mi )/n, where mi is the midpoint location of a shot s and

In general, the 3-D ZO CRS wave-front attributes are searched a receiver g, i indicates the shot-receiver pair, and n is the number

by using the semblance (Neidell & Taner 1971) as an objective of pairs in this 3-D CMP gather. For each receiver trace in this 3-D

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924 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 7. Semblance sections of inline 190 and crossline 300 of the 3-D semblance volume. (a) Inline 190 with pragmatic approach. (b) Inline 190 with

DE-based global optimization. (c) Semblance difference between (b) and (a), where about 88.7 per cent ZO samples have a positive semblance. (d) Crossline

300 with pragmatic approach. (e) Crossline 300 with DE-based global optimization. (f) Semblance difference between (e) and (d), where about 88.1 per cent

ZO samples have a positive semblance. The semblance difference is computed by using the semblance of DE minus the semblance of pragmatic approach.

CMP gather, we have mi = (g + s)/2 and hi = (g − s)/2, where (i) reading traces into the given 3-D CRS gather if all traces in

s = (sx , sy ), g = (gx , gy ), mi = (mi, x , mi, y ), and hi = (hi, x , hi, y ). the 3-D data satisfy: (mx − m0, x )2 /amx 2 + (my − m0, y )2 /amy 2 ≤ 1,

Secondly, the location of the given 3-D CRS gather is deter- where the denominator amx and amy are the midpoint aperture (see

mined by using a 3-D CMP gather located at m0 = (m0, x , m0, y ). Fig. 1a), and mx and my indicate any 3-D CMP position located

We often apply two steps to read traces into a given 3-D CRS within the red ellipse centred at the given 3-D CMP location, that

gather: is, the m0 = (m0, x , m0, y ). The number of 3-D CMP gathers used

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 925

Figure 8. Time slice 1.2 s of the 3-D semblance volume. (a) Semblance difference between (d) and (c), where about 89.7 per cent ZO samples have a positive

semblance. (b) Interpolation operators with low and high semblance. (c) Time slice of 1.2 s with pragmatic approach. (d) Time slice of 1.2 s with DE-based

global optimization. The semblance difference is computed by using the semblance of DE minus the semblance of pragmatic approach.

inator hx, i , hy, i are the offset aperture centred at t0 (see Fig. 1b).

The offset aperture at each ZO traveltime can be computed from

the pre-determined offset apertures: hx, 0 , hy, 0 , hx, n , and hy, n (see

Appendix). The elliptical aperture used in this work is not the only

way to select traces into a given 3-D CRS gather, but it is a good so-

lution preferable to a rectangular surface. This conclusion is based

on our tests performed for the open 3-D SEG C3WA data.

a given 3-D partial CRS gather. The given 3-D CRS gather is

already loaded into the computer memory. If traces within the

given 3-D CRS gather satisfy the relation (hi, x − offx)2 /px, i 2 +

(hi, y − offy)2 /py, i 2 ≤ 1, they are selected into the given 3-D par-

tial CRS gather centred at (offx, offy), where px, i and py, i are the

semi-major and semi-minor axes of the horizontal ellipse (blue) (see

Fig. 1b). Both the px, i and py, i are estimated by the pre-determined

apertures: a, b, c, and d (see Appendix A).

After this step we compute the ZO traveltime t0, p for the 3-D

partial CRS operator. For a sample A of trace k with h = (offx, offy),

Figure 9. Semblance of the four ZO samples mentioned in Fig. 5. The

global optimization here is based on the DE algorithm. the t0, p can be fitted with

2

t22 (o f f x, o f f y) = t11

2

+ hT Mh. (2)

in the given 3-D CRS gather depends on the midpoint aperture that (t − t22 )2 ≤ fmin2 , where t11 is the trial ZO traveltime, and t22 is the

can be estimated by the Fresnel zone (Hubral et al. 1993a) by means calculated hyperbolic traveltime (see Fig. 2a). A refinement of the

of the 3-D CRS wave-front attributes. t0, p by using Equation 2 at the sample A would be necessary if we

(ii) Selecting traces into the offset dimension if all traces obtained get the ZO wave-front attributes obtained from t0, p . The eight wave-

in step (i) satisfy: hi, x 2 /hx, i 2 + hi, y 2 /hy, i 2 ≤ 1, where the denom- front attributes at t0, p are read from the attribute files (a byproduct

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926 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 10. A 3-D CMP gather (CMP 181903) picked from the 3-D SEG data. (a) Raw 3-D CMP gather with low S/N. (b) Raw 3-D CMP gather with gaps.

(c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking. (d) Interpolation with 5-D WABI method. For the sake of simplicity, only the azimuth λ = π /2

is shown in this 3-D CMP gather after the 5-D interpolation and regularization.

of the DE algorithm) for each t0, p . Now we have all attributes to each 3-D CMP gather of the 3-D data, the trace locations are regu-

apply the 3-D partial CRS operator using larized by an azimuth-based regularization in the offset dimension

(see Figs 1 d and 3), where different azimuthal directions are con-

p = (t0, p + wz · md ) + md Nmd + h Mh.

2 2 T T

thyp, (3)

sidered. In practice, the 3-D partial CRS aperture and the azimuthal

Eq. (3) is a 5-D interpolation operator of the acquisition system intervals need to be tested from the 3-D data. We often perform a

as well as the wave-front attributes in the time domain. With this series of tests to find the optimized 3-D partial CRS apertures and

operator, the sample A is interpolated at t on trace k located at (m0, x , azimuthal intervals. Amplitude variation in the midpoint dimension

m0, y , offx, offy). The same process is performed for each sample can be estimated from the modulus of the geometrical spreading

of trace k, and for all other traces in the given 3-D CMP gather, as factor (e.g. Hubral at al. 1993b; Schleicher et al. 1993a). Shuey’s

well as for all other 3-D CMP gathers in the whole 3-D data. For approximation (Shuey 1985) can also be applied for an analysis of

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 927

Figure 11. A 3-D CMP gather (CMP 182113) picked from the 3-D SEG data. (a) Raw 3-D CMP gather with low S/N. (b) Raw 3-D CMP gather with gaps.

(c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking. (d) Interpolation with 5-D WABI method. For the sake of simplicity, only the azimuth λ = π /2

is shown in this 3-D CMP gather after the 5-D interpolation and regularization.

3-D CMP gather. The amplitude of the sample A is a summation of

all amplitudes along the 3-D partial CRS traveltime surface within 3.1 3-D SEG C3WA data and CRS midpoint

the 3-D partial CRS aperture, that is, an improvement of the S/N and offset apertures

ratio is obtained. Considering the AVO may be omitted since we

The 3-D SEG C3WA data is an open pre-stack seismic data built

stack/interpolate locally along the offset direction. However, AVO

by the SEG research committee. Some important parameters of the

analysis is necessary in the case of data with large gaps since in

data need to be pointed out. Each trace of the data has 625 samples

such case a large 3-D CRS aperture is applied to each trace of the

with a sampling interval of 8 ms. The maximum CDP fold is 17,

considered 3-D CMP gather.

and an effective offset is ranged from 40 to 2695 m. The midpoint

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928 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 12. Inline 190 of the first 3-D CO volume. (a) Raw CO section. (b) Raw CO section with gaps. (c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial CRS

stacking. (d) Interpolation with the 5-D WABI method.

distance between inlines is 40 m, twice the density of the crosslines, 3.2 Usage of the pragmatic approach and the DE

leading to double ZO traces in the inline section. An example of pre- algorithm

processing the SEG/EAGE data is given by (Xu et al. 2004). To see

Before we present a comparison of the conventional 3-D partial

the performance of the conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking and

CRS stacking and the 5-D WABI method, the 3-D CRS wave-

the 5-D WABI method in this work, some traces in the 3-D SEG data

front attributes require to be determined from the gapped SEG data

were randomly killed and some random Gaussian noise with an S/N

by means of the pragmatic approach and the DE algorithm. Re-

= 10 was added to the seismograms, that is, the RMS magnitude

lated to the pragmatic approach, one can reference Müller’s work

of the signal amplitude is 10 times the RMS magnitude of the

(Müller 2003). Here we briefly introduce how to use the DE algo-

random noise. Fig. 1(a) shows the midpoint aperture (red ellipse),

rithm in the 3-D CRS case. Four parameters need to be determined

being initially set to 200 m in both x- and y-direction, that is, amx

in the DE algorithm. The first two are the differential weight F and

= amy = 200 m. After the initial search, the midpoint aperture is

the crossover probability CR, a priori suggested values are given

estimated by the Fresnel zone (Hubral at al. 1993a), which in turn

by Pedersen (2010). However, we found that the F and CR may be

can be computed from the determined wave-front attributes. The

slightly different in different data sets. Fig. 4 shows a test of the F

offset aperture is set manually, for example, the observed seismic

and CR from the 3-D SEG data, which illustrates that the maximum

events in the offset dimension are totally included within the offset

semblance is stable as long as the F is large than 1. CR is not sensi-

aperture at the beginning, then some offset apertures are tried until

tive to the semblance function in Fig. 4 when F is larger than 1. In

the one with the possible best results is found. The criterion of the

this work, we use F = 1.2 and CR = 0.9. The last two parameters

best results is driven by the determined wave-front attributes as well

are the population size NP and the number of iterations IT, which

as the semblance. A detailed setting of the CRS offset apertures are

also need to be tested from the data. In our tests to the 3-D SEG

given in Appendix.

data, we found that a safe suggestion of the NP should be larger

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 929

Figure 13. Crossline 300 of the first 3-D CO volume. (a) Raw CO section. (b) Raw CO section with gaps. (c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial CRS

stacking. (d) Interpolation with the 5-D WABI method.

than 40, and the IT would be better larger than 50 (see a test out 3.4 Conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking and the 5-D

of ten shown in Fig. 5). In order to determine the F and CR in the WABI method

above, a very large IT and NP are used at the beginning (making

sure the results only sensitive to the F and CR), then the IT and NP 3.4.1 CMP gathers after interpolation

are tested with the determined F and CR.

The 5-D WABI technique presented in this work includes two as-

pects: (i) we interpolate a sample A with traveltime t on trace k

located at (m0, x , m0, y , offx, offy); (ii) the trace location relies on the

3.3 Semblance difference between the pragmatic approach azimuth-based regularization in each 3-D CMP gather (see Fig. 3).

and the DE algorithm To show the conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking and the 5-D

In our tests, we found that the DE algorithm is computationally WABI method performed on individual 3-D CMP gather, two 3-D

more efficient than the traditional pragmatic approach to determine CMPs were randomly taken from the 3-D SEG C3WA data. The first

the 3-D CRS wave-front attributes (see Fig. 6). To estimate the one is CMP 181903 (see Fig. 10, displayed in a 2-D section, that is,

semblance difference obtained from the pragmatic approach and all traces are sorted with increasing offsets). In this gather, seismic

the DE algorithm, three sections of the 3-D semblance volume events on the raw data are visible but unclear. Fig. 10(b) shows the

are shown. These are inline 190, crossline 300, and a time slice same data, where some traces were deleted to simulate data gaps.

at 1.2 s (Figs 7 and 8). The semblance difference of the three After determination of the 3-D CRS wave-front attributes obtained

sections indicates that, for close to 90 per cent of the ZO samples from the reduced 3-D data, the conventional 3-D partial CRS stack-

the semblance provided by the DE algorithm is higher than the one ing and the 5-D WABI method are applied separately. Fig. 10(c)

for the pragmatic approach. A detailed semblance comparison for displays the 3-D CMP gather processed by the conventional 3-D

four ZO samples of the 3-D semblance volume is given in Fig. 9. partial CRS stacking, where the reflection events are clearly visible

The semblance provided by the DE algorithm turns out to be higher. and continuous with less noise, compared to the input 3-D CMP

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930 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 14. Time slice 1.2 s of the first 3-D CO volume. (a) Raw data. (b) Raw data with gaps. (c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking.

(d) Interpolation with the 5-D WABI method.

gather (Fig. 10b). Fig. 10(d) shows the same 3-D CMP gather but bar with a minimum (blue) and a maximum (red) amplitude ranged

processed by the 5-D WABI method, which also displays improved from −0.6 to 0.6.

results compared to the input 3-D CMP gather. In this 3-D CMP Fig. 12 shows inline 190 of the first 3-D CO volume, where the

gather with CMP 181903, we do not see a big difference between image quality of the raw data is poor, and many deep reflection

the conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking and the 5-D WABI. The events and diffraction patterns are almost invisible (see Fig. 12a).

second example shows data for CMP 182113 of the 3-D SEG data, Fig. 12(b) displays the section with removed traces. We can see a

which is noisier and the seismic events are difficult to identify. Af- better continuity of horizons at different time levels and the S/N

ter processing with the conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking and is increased significantly after the conventional 3-D partial CRS

the 5-D WABI method the gaps are filled and the reflection events stacking and the 5-D WABI method were applied. Some differences

are clearly visible (see Figs 11c and d). However, the result of 5- between the conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking and the 5-D

D WABI displays an improved result. The semblance is used to WABI method are marked by red arrows (see Figs 12c and d). Fig. 13

confirm this visual observation. shows crossline 300 of the first 3-D CO volume, where most of the

seismic events of the raw data are difficult to identify except the top

horizontal layers (Fig. 13a). However, we observe many reflection

3.4.2 Common-offset (CO) sections after interpolation events and diffraction patterns after the conventional 3-D partial

In order to see the 5-D interpolation results on more 3-D CMP CRS stacking is applied. It can provide continuous seismic events

gathers simultaneously, two 3-D CO volumes are shown, of which at all time levels with a better S/N (see Fig. 13c). Even improved

each 3-D CMP gather contains one trace only, and all traces in each results are obtained when the 5-D WABI method is applied (see

3-D CO volume have the same half offset. The first 3-D CO volume Fig. 13d). It displays more continuous events than the conventional

is chosen from a constant half offset of h = (0 m, 100 m). The 3-D partial CRS. We note that the resolution of the crossline section

second 3-D CO volume is taken from a far constant half offset with is worse than that of the inline section. This is due to a sparse data

h = (0 m, 1000 m). In each of the two 3-D CO volumes, three acquisition along the crossline direction. Fig. 14 shows the time

sections comprising the salt body are considered. These are inline slice at 1.2 s of the first 3-D CO volume, where the structure of the

190, crossline 300, and a time slice at 1.2 s. In the Common-offset salt body is hardly visible both on the raw time slice and the time

(CO) sections after interpolation, all figures have the same colour slice where traces were deleted. However, a significantly improved

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 931

Figure 15. Inline 190 of the second 3-D CO volume. (a) Raw CO section. (b) Raw CO section with gaps. (c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial CRS

stacking. (d) Interpolation with the 5-D WABI method.

result is obtained by both, the conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking may be interpolated at a wrong (W) position, instead of the right

and the 5-D WABI method (see Figs 14c and d). Again, the latter (R) position (see Fig. 8b). Usually, one may use a local optimiza-

performs better leading to smoother images than the conventional tion algorithm to refine the DE-based wave-front attributes in these

3-D partial CRS for most of the ZO sample locations. low-semblance areas. However, this option failed in our tests, where

Results obtained from the second 3-D CO volume are signif- two local optimization algorithms, namely modified simulated an-

icantly improved with the 5-D WABI method when compared to nealing (MSA) and Nelder–Mead method were tested. We assume

the 5-D WABI method applied to the first 3-D CO volume. See that a local optimization may not guarantee to find or move forward

the corresponding inline 190 and crossline 300 of the second 3-D to the global best if the initial guess is too far away from the global

CO volume (Figs 15 and 16). Fig. 17 shows the time slice at 1.2 s, best. We conclude, that for most ZO samples, nearly 90 per cent in

where the 5-D WABI method provides a smoother image with less this case, the results obtained from the 5-D WABI are obtained in

noise, compared to the conventional 3-D partial CRS. In the central better quality using less computational time.

part of the time slice, the structure of the salt body imaged by the Using a wave-front-attribute-based interpolation operator and

5-D WABI method is better visible than the one obtained for the considering several events for the same ZO sample (conflicting

conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking. For about 90 per cent of the dips) may be cumbersome in the interpolation process if we have

ZO samples, the results obtained for the 5-D WABI method are complex data and large data gaps. This conclusion, however, is ap-

better than for the conventional 3-D partial CRS (as an example plicable to trace interpolation in general since the projected Fresnel

where this is not the case, see the right top corner of Figs 17c and zone set physical limits with respect to size of handleable data gaps.

d). For these cases these areas, the semblance calculated from the For some ZO samples, the number of seismic events at the con-

DE-based wave-front attributes is lower than the semblance for the sidered ZO sample can be counted and searched by the algorithm.

conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking (see Figs 8c and d). With In such case, a well-interpolated result can be obtained. However,

low-semblance traveltime interpolation operator, the data sample at some ZO samples with sparse data comprising large data gaps,

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932 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 16. Crossline 300 of the second 3-D CO volume. (a) Raw CO section. (b) Raw CO section with gaps. (c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial

CRS stacking. (d) Interpolation with the 5-D WABI method.

the 3-D hyperbolic or non-hyperbolic CRS traveltime operator may rank-reduction method (Chen et al. 2016b), which is worked quite

fail in the process of determining wave-front attributes which be- well for reflection data. The rank-reduction codes used in our work

long to different events. In this work, we consider only the dom- are modified from the open-source Matlab code package (Chen

inant event at each ZO sample. Obviously, events not considered et al. 2016a). The compared results are given in two 3-D data sets

are not interpolated and therefore missing after the interpolation discussed below.

process. The conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking has already

demonstrated good performance for reflection data (see Baykulov

& Gajewski 2009, 2010). This work has shown that the 5-D WABI 3.5.1 Model with three layers and a spherical diffractor

method provides reliable results for reflections and diffractions. We first use a simple 3-D model to generate pre-stack synthetic

Limited by the offset range of the 3-D SEG C3WA data, we use the seismic data which are close to the benchmark 3-D data used in

hyperbolic 3-D CRS operator in this work. many published interpolation works (e.g. Trad 2009; Oropeza &

Sacchi 2011; Chen et al. 2016a,b). In addition we consider a spher-

ical diffractor in the model since most recently published 5-D in-

3.5 The 5-D WABI and the rank-reduction-based 5-D

terpolation results mainly focus on data dominated by reflections

interpolation

(e.g. Trad 2009; Chopra & Marfurt 2013; Kreimer et al. 2013;

The proposed 5-D WABI method, as an extension of the conven- Gao et al. 2015; Ely et al. 2015; Chen et al. 2016b). Diffraction

tional 3-D partial CRS approach, has shown its potential to recon- is more and more gaining interest in both academic and industry

struct reflection and diffraction data. However, related to the 5-D applications since it images small-scale heterogeneities and struc-

interpolation, there are several other types of 5-D seismic interpo- tures, for example, fractures, pinch-outs, thin lenses etc. (e.g. Dell

lation approaches proposed recently. In order to check the potential & Gajewski 2011a,b; Rad et al. 2015). Preserving diffractions (i.e.

usage of the proposed 5-D WABI, we also compare it with the rank- fractures) in 5-D interpolation is a discussed topic and leaves space

reduction-based 5-D interpolation method, for example, the damped for discussions and investigations (Trad 2014).

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 933

Figure 17. Time slice 1.2 s of the second 3-D CO volume. (a) Raw data. (b) Raw data with gaps. (c) Interpolation with conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking.

(d) Interpolation with the 5-D WABI method.

3-D synthetic pre-stack seismic data has a CMP spacing of 12.5 m

in the x direction, and 25 m in the y direction. The maximum CMP

100

fold is 20, and the sampling interval is 4 ms. We add 20 per cent

random noise to the data, that is, the maximum RMS amplitude of

the signal is 5 times than that of the random noise. In the reduced

data set, 50 per cent traces is randomly removed. In the 3-D CRS

Computational costs [%]

80

wave-front attribute search, the midpoint aperture is 75 m in the x

direction and 50 m in the y direction. The 3-D CRS offset apertures

and 3-D partial CRS offset apertures are estimated as discussed in

60 Appendix.

In the following, we will compare the two interpolation meth-

ods with respect to computational efficiency and image quality for

40 reflections and diffractions. Fig. 18 shows the computational costs

between the two 5-D interpolation methods tested from the simple

3-D data, which indicates that the damped rank-reduction method

20 has about the same magnitude of computational costs compared

with the 5-D WABI method when we use the same computational

setting, for example, the number of CPUs. The comparison may be

slightly different with different implementations or different param-

0

eter setting, but it indicates that both methods could be comparable

Figure 18. Computational costs of the 5-D WABI method and the 5-D

in the computational costs. The parameter setting is crucial in the

damped rank-reduction method (5-D DRRM), where the 5-D WABI is ref- damped rank-reduction method which needs some testing for the

erenced as 100 per cent. We mention that the computational costs of the data under consideration. We use rank K = 3, which is a parameter

5-D WABI tested here include a global determination of the wave-front accounting for the reconstructed events. The damping factor N is

attributes. set to 2. The greater the N, the weaker is the damping, that is, we

may get higher S/N data with smaller N. The number of iterations

The simple 3-D model is separated by three layers with the veloc- for each frequency slice is set to 10. The minimum and maximum

ity of 1500, 1800 and 2000 m s−1 , respectively. A spherical diffractor frequency to reconstruct are between 0 and 200 Hz. These parame-

with a velocity of 4000 m s−1 and with a lateral extension of 100 m ters are obtained after some testing from the data. For this test, the

is buried in the bottom layer. In the forward modelling, a zero-phase

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934 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 19. Inline 10 of the 3-D CO volume (hx = 25 m, hy = 0 m). (a) Original data section. (b) Reduced section after adding 20 per cent random noise and

killing 50 per cent traces randomly. (c) Denoising and data reconstruction with the damped rank-reduction method. (d) Denoising and data reconstruction with

the 5-D WABI method.

Hankel matrix and the three block Hankel matrices being set close is the crossline 100 of the 3-D CO volume, where both interpo-

to square matrices. For a detailed discussion on parameters we refer lation methods are comparable when the crossline is taken at the

to Chen et al. (2016b). centre of the salt body, that is, closer to the spherical diffractor.

In order to show the 5-D interpolation results in 2-D planes, Fig. 21 displays the time slice at 1.66 s cutting through the second

we first extract a 3-D CO volume, for example, setting the con- reflector. Here the damped rank-reduction method shows a better

stant half offset h = (25 m, 0 m), from the 5-D interpolated vol- performance than the 5-D WABI to reconstruct the reflection. How-

ume, then the 3-D CO volume is cut into two sections (inline 10 ever, in the bottom part at time slice 2.4 s which cuts through

and crossline 100) and two time slices (1.66 and 2.4 s). The two the diffraction pattern, the 5-D WABI is considerably better in

time slices are used to show the reflection (1.66 s) and the bot- preserving the diffraction even when compared with the damped

tom diffraction (2.4 s). The colour bar of all figures shown be- rank-reduction method (see Fig. 22). For a more detailed investiga-

low means the amplitude after the interpolation. Fig. 19 shows tion of the damped rank-reduction method on diffraction-only data,

inline 10 of the 3-D CO volume. We note that the damped rank- the bottom part of the whole 3-D data is used. The comparison

reduction method displays reflections slightly stronger, while the is shown in Fig. 23. In this comparison we see that the damped

5-D WABI method is superior for diffractions. In the top part rank-reduction method can recover parts of the diffraction but still

with reflection-only data, the damped rank-reduction method re- fail to preserve the diffraction tails. If the frequency component

constructs the reflection to the boundary even if the reflection ter- of the random noise is close to that of the weak diffraction tails,

minates prior to the boundary (see the left-hand white arrows). we may have a challenge to predict or reconstruct the diffraction

In the bottom part of the data, the diffraction pattern is recov- tails in the frequency domain without a data enhancement facil-

ered quite well with the 5-D WABI method. The damped rank- ity which is included in the 5-D WABI procedure. Perhaps we

reduction method preserves only parts of the diffraction. Fig. 20 need to design adaptive sizes for the Hankel matrix and for the

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 935

(a) (b)

0 0

0.8 0.8

1 0.6 1 0.6

Time [s]

Time [s]

0.4 0.4

2 2

0.2 0.2

3 3

0 0

4 -0.2 4 -0.2

5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

Inline number Inline number

(c) (d)

0 0

0.8 0.8

1 0.6 1 0.6

Time [s]

Time [s]

0.4 0.4

2 2

0.2 0.2

3 3

0 0

4 -0.2 4 -0.2

5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

Inline number Inline number

Figure 20. Crossline 100 of the 3-D CO volume (hx = 25 m, hy = 0 m). (a) Original data. (b) Reduced section after adding 20 per cent random noise and

killing 50 per cent traces randomly. (c) Denoising and data reconstruction with the damped rank-reduction method. (d) Denoising and data reconstruction with

the 5-D WABI method.

three block Hankel matrices to account for the diffraction in the in preserving the diffraction patterns including the weak multiple

future. diffractions, compared to the damped rank-reduction method. Sim-

ilar conclusions are obtained for crossline 300 shown in Fig. 25. In

the time slice at 1.2 s shown in Fig. 26, the damped rank-reduction

3.5.2 Applications to the 3-D SEG C3WA data method performs well to reconstruct the strong reflections, but fails

to preserve the diffraction events caused by edgy structures, while

In this section, we apply the two 5-D interpolation methods to the the 5-D WABI keeps both, the reflection and the diffraction, which

open 3-D SEG data, with S/N = 5, and 50 per cent traces randomly are recovered very well when compared with the original data.

removed in the data. We use K = 15, N = 6, and 10 iterations in

the damped rank-reduction method. The minimum and maximum

reconstructed frequencies are set between 0 to 250 Hz. These pa-

4 C O N C LU S I O N S

rameters are also tested from the 3-D SEG data in which we get

almost the same result if the maximum reconstructed frequency We have extended the conventional 3-D partial CRS stacking ap-

is larger than 50 Hz. The 3-D CRS apertures and the 3-D partial proach for 5-D trace interpolation. The global optimization strat-

CRS apertures used here are set the same as in Section 3.4. Fig. 24 egy to determine wave-front attributes and the azimuthal interpo-

shows inline 190 of a 3-D volume that is extracted from the 5-D lation process better account for the potential of wide-, rich- and

interpolated result with a constant half offset of (0 m, 20 m). We full-azimuth data. The 5-D WABI method comprises next to the

note that the damped rank-reduction method is strong to reconstruct usual 5-D data space (e.g. CMP coordinates in x and y, offset, az-

the reflection events, but weak to preserve the diffraction events by imuth and time) the wave-front attributes which contain surface

the salt body in the middle of the model. The 5-D WABI is strong expressions of subsurface features. In the 5-D WABI method the

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936 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

(a) (b)

0.8 0.8

Inline number

0.4 0.4

100 100

0.2 0.2

150 0

150 0

-0.2 -0.2

5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

Crossline number Crossline number

(c) (d)

0.8 0.8

50 0.6 50 0.6

Inline number

Inline number

0.4 0.4

100 100

0.2 0.2

150 0

150 0

-0.2 -0.2

5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

Crossline number Crossline number

Figure 21. Time slice of 1.66 s of the 3-D CO volume (hx = 25 m, hy = 0 m). (a) Original data section. (b) Reduced section after adding 20 per cent

random noise and killing 50 per cent traces randomly. (c) Denoising and data reconstruction with the damped rank-reduction method. (d) Denoising and data

reconstruction with the 5-D WABI method.

wave-front attributes are determined by a 3-D CRS approach using tion of wave-front attributes which may be used for several other

global optimization. An algorithm based on differential evolution is processing purposes like velocity model building, time and depth

used for this purpose. The global optimization provides improved migration, diffraction separation and tomography, just to name a

wave-front attributes when compared to the conventional method few. The 5-D WABI provides a powerful alternative to other 5-D

using the pragmatic optimization strategy. The improvements are interpolation methods with improved handling of diffractions and

particularly visible at far offset traces. The comparison of the 5- relaxed aliasing issues. Next to the interpolation capability itself the

D WABI with a 5-D interpolation technique, for example, based process also provides a data enhancement facility.

on the damped rank-reduction-method, revealed a better perfor-

mance in the interpolation process for steeply dipping events like,

for example, diffraction tails. Because of this feature, diffractions

are much better preserved by the 5-D WABI than by the rank-

reduction-based interpolation. Since diffraction imaging is develop- AC K N OW L E D G E M E N T S

ing into a powerful add on to plain reflection processing, this feature

We thank the Applied Seismics Group in Hamburg for continuous

is substantial for all kind of processing steps utilizing diffractions.

discussion. We thank the sponsors of the Wave Inversion Technol-

Since the wave-front attributes are determined from kinematic prop-

ogy (WIT) Consortium for technical support and SEG for provid-

erties of the wavefield, namely moveout, aliasing issues are relaxed.

ing the data. Y. Xie would like to thank Ransheng Chen (China

The computational effort of the 5-D WABI approach is comparable

JK Institute of Engineering Investigation and Design) to discuss

to the CPU time consumed by the damped rank-reduction method

the DE algorithm in actual implementation and also thanks the

where the comparison includes the CPU time for the determina-

China Scholarship Council (CSC) for partially funding this work.

We are grateful to the editors and reviewers for their comments and

suggestions.

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 937

(a) (b)

0.1 0.1

50 0.05 50 0.05

Inline number

Inline number

100 0 100 0

-0.05 -0.05

150 150

-0.1 -0.1

5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

Crossline number Crossline number

(c) (d)

0.1 0.1

50 0.05 50 0.05

Inline number

Inline number

100 0 100 0

-0.05 -0.05

150 150

-0.1 -0.1

5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20

Crossline number Crossline number

Figure 22. Time slice of 2.4 s of the 3-D CO volume (hx = 25 m, hy = 0 m). (a) Original data section. (b) Reduced section after adding 20 per cent random noise

and killing 50 per cent traces randomly. (c) Denoising and data reconstruction with the damped rank-reduction method. (d) Denoising and data reconstruction

with 5-D WABI method.

(a) (b)

2 2

0.03 0.03

0.02 0.02

0.01 0.01

Time [s]

Time [s]

2.5 2.5

0 0

-0.01 -0.01

-0.02 -0.02

Crossline number Crossline number

(c) (d)

2 2

0.03 0.03

0.02 0.02

0.01 0.01

Time [s]

Time [s]

2.5 2.5

0 0

-0.01 -0.01

-0.02 -0.02

Crossline number Crossline number

Figure 23. 5-D interpolation results with the diffraction-only data, that is, the bottom part of the 3-D CO volume (hx = 25 m, hy = 0 m). The top two columns

are selected from the central part of the diffraction-only data, where (a) is gotten from the damped rank-reduction method and (b) is obtained from the 5-D

WABI method. The bottom two columns selected from the right-hand side of the diffraction-only data, where (c) is gotten from the damped rank-reduction

method and (d) is obtained by the 5-D WABI method.

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938 Y. Xie and D. Gajewski

Figure 24. Inline 190 of the 3-D SEG CO volume (hx = 0 m, hy = 20 m). (a) Original data section with 20 per cent random noise. (b) Reduced section with

50 per cent randomly deleted traces. (c) Denoising and data reconstruction with the damped rank-reduction method. (d) Denoising and data reconstruction with

5-D WABI method. The four subfigures have the same colour bar with a minimum (blue) and a maximum (red) amplitude ranged from −0.6 to 0.6.

(a) (b)

0 0

1 1

2 2

Time [s]

Time [s]

3 3

4 4

5 5

50 100 150 50 100 150

Inline number Inline number

(c) (d)

0 0

1 1

2 2

Time [s]

Time [s]

3 3

4 4

5 5

50 100 150 50 100 150

Inline number Inline number

Figure 25. Crossline 300 of the 3-D SEG CO volume (hx = 0 m, hy = 20 m). (a) Original data section with 20 per cent random noise. (b) Reduced section

with 50 per cent randomly deleted traces. (c) Denoising and data reconstruction with the damped rank-reduction method. (d) Denoising and data reconstruction

with 5-D WABI method. The four subfigures have the same colour bar with a minimum (blue) and a maximum (red) amplitude ranged from −0.6 to 0.6.

by Bibliothekssystem Universitaet Hamburg user

on 15 September 2017

5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 939

(a) (b)

50 50

100 100

150 150

Inline number

Inline number

200 200

250 250

300 300

350 350

Crossline number Crossline number

(c) (d)

50 50

100 100

150 150

Inline number

Inline number

200 200

250 250

300 300

350 350

Crossline number Crossline number

Figure 26. Time slice of 1.2 s of the 3-D SEG CO volume (hx = 0 m, hy = 20 m). (a) Original data section with 20 per cent random noise. (b) Reduced section

with 50 per cent randomly deleted traces. (c) Denoising and data reconstruction with the damped rank-reduction method. (d) Denoising and data reconstruction

with 5-D WABI method. The four subfigures have the same colour bar with a minimum (blue) and a maximum (red) amplitude ranged from −0.6 to 0.6.

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5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes 941

APPENDIX hy, n = 1350 m. In the simple 3-D data, we set hx, 0 = 800 m, hy, 0 =

50 m, hx, n = 1000 m, hy, n = 50 m. The 3-D SEG data has a small

A1 3-D CRS offset apertures half offset in the x direction, up to 140 m, and the simple 3-D data

has a small half offset in the y direction, up to 50 m.

Fig. 1(b) shows an offset aperture of the 3-D CRS stacking used

in this work. The parameters hx, 0 and hy, 0 are the semi-major and

semi-minor axes of the top ellipse, where a selection of the location

(cutting through a sample) and the size of the top ellipse depends A2 3-D partial CRS offset apertures

on the used data. In practice, the observed seismic events from the The 3-D partial CRS stacking apertures for the offset are determined

top to the bottom in the offset dimension are constrained within as:

the top and the bottom ellipses initially, then different candidate

apertures are probed until the one with the possible best perfor- px,i = b + i ∗ (d − b)/n, (A3)

mance is found. The location and size of the bottom ellipse is de-

fined in the same way. In this case, the semi-major and semi-minor p y,i = a + i ∗ (c − a)/n, (A4)

axes of any ellipse cutting through a sample on the ZO trace are where a, b, c and d are estimated by applying different possible

computed by

apertures and keeping the one with the best image quality. In the

h x,i = h x,0 + i ∗ (h x,n − h x,0 )/n, (A1) 3-D SEG data, we set a = c = 400 m, b = d = 100 m. So for all

samples, we have px, i = 100 m, py, i = 400 m. Similarly, we set

h y,i = h y,0 + i ∗ (h y,n − h y,0 )/n, (A2) a = c = 50 m, b = d = 500 m in the simple 3-D data case. One

may note that the offset apertures are used to cut the tested data

where hx, n and hy, n are the semi-major and semi-minor axes of the from the original data. The observed seismic events are included in

bottom ellipse, and n is the maximum number of ZO samples. In the apertures as long as the apertures are large than the maximum

the 3-D SEG data, we set hx, 0 = 140 m, hy, 0 = 800 m, hx, n = 140 m, length of the seismic events in the horizontal direction.

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