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4 Aufrufe7 SeitenDescribe the capacity of geothermal well.

Jun 09, 2018

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Describe the capacity of geothermal well.

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4 Aufrufe

Describe the capacity of geothermal well.

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Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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SGP-TR-183

TEMPERATURE – A PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE

GeothermEx, Inc.

Richmond, California USA

e-mail: mw@geothermex.com

ABSTRACT net power capacity from such a well might be; only

actual drilling and testing of the well can confirm its

This paper investigates the practical range of net

net power capacity. On the other hand, below a

power capacity available from conventional and

temperature of 250°C, certain practical

enhanced geothermal wells as a function of

generalizations about a well’s maximum net power

temperature and productivity index. For a

capacity are possible, as shown in this paper.

temperature range of 100°C to 190°C, which is the

operating temperature limit of presently available A well can be pumped unless the fluid temperature is

downhole pumps, wells are typically pumped and higher than 190°C (the present limit of operating

power is usually generated in a binary-cycle plant, temperature for commercial downhole pumps, both

and in rare cases in a flash-cycle or hybrid-cycle line-shaft and electrical submersibles). Above a

plant. In this temperature range, the net MW temperature of 190°C, a well must be self-flowed.

capacity of a well has an upper limit of about 7.3 Based on the data from several thousand geothermal

MW, irrespective of how high the well’s productivity wells worldwide, it is seen that reservoirs with

index is. This capacity limit cannot be improved temperatures lower than 190°C contain single-phase

unless technology can be improved to allow setting water; that is, there is no steam saturation in the

pumps deeper in the well than the current limit of reservoir. In fact, steam saturation in the reservoir is

457m (1,500 feet) and pumping at a higher rate than extremely rare below a temperature of about 220°C.

the present limit of about 160 ℓ/s (2,500 gallons per Above 220°C, the presence of saturation becomes

minute). For resource temperatures greater than more likely as temperature increases. A well hotter

190°C, wells must be self-flowed, and power is than 220°C cannot be pumped, even if there were no

generated from such wells in a flash-cycle or hybrid- limit to the operating temperature of a pump, because

cycle plant. In the temperature range of 190°C to the presence of gas or steam in the reservoir fluid

nearly 220°C a self-flowing well’s net power would cause cavitation in the pump. Therefore, we

capacity (irrespective of its productivity index) is less have conducted this analysis for three separate

than the maximum of 7.3 MW for a pumped well. regimes of reservoir temperature:

Above 220°C, the net power capacity of a well • 100°C (which is the practical lower limit of

increases rapidly with increasing temperature and temperature for commercial power

productivity index, and there is no practical upper generation) to 190°C;

limit. The maximum net power capacity available • 190°C to 220°C; and

from an EGS well depends on reservoir depth and

local temperature gradient; the optimum depth being • 220°C to 250°C.

increasingly shallow for higher temperature In addition, we present certain generalizations about

gradients. The trend of decrease in the optimum the net generation capacity and optimum drilling

depth with temperature gradient applies whether this depth of a well in an Enhanced Geothermal System

optimum is defined in terms of the maximum net (EGS).

MW capacity of a well or the minimum drilling cost

per net MW capacity. Table 1 summarizes the various possible

combinations of well flow mechanisms (pumping or

INTRODUCTION self-flowing) and power cycles (binary, flash or

hybrid). Each of the combinations shown in Table 1

Above a temperature level of 250°C, the net power has been put into practice somewhere in the U.S.

capacity available from a geothermal well is a However, for the purpose of this study, we assume

function of the well’s productivity index, reservoir the most common combinations of well flow

temperature and reservoir steam saturation. There is mechanism and power cycle seen today: pumped

no reasonable way to generalize what the maximum wells with binary-cycle power generation for the

temperature range of 100°C to 190°C; and self- However, experience with electric submersible

flowing wells with flash-cycle or hybrid-cycle power pumps to date have not been satisfactory. We have

generation above 190°C. For EGS wells, we have assumed a maximum pump setting depth of 457 m so

considered a vertical temperature gradient of that either line-shaft or electric submersible pumps

50°C/km to 200°C/km, which is the most likely range can be used. From the value of the productivity

for potential EGS sites in the U.S. index (PI) of a well and maximum allowable pressure

drawdown, one can calculate the maximum available

Table 1. Various Well Flow Mechanisms and

production rate (W) using:

Power Cycle Alternatives in Use

Power Generation Pumped Self-Flowing W = (PI) · (∆p) (3)

Cycle Well Well Where ∆p = pi – p (4)

Binary x

Single-Stage Flash x In equation (4), pi is initial static pressure in the

reservoir and p is flowing bottom hole pressure at the

Multi-Stage Flash x x

well, which will decline with time if the well is

Hybrid x x

produced at a constant rate W. It should be noted

Steam Turbine x

that ∆p is more commonly defined as ( p - p) , where

METHODOLOGY p is the average static reservoir pressure. Therefore,

for a well flowing at a constant rate, p (and

In a pumped well, the water level must lie above the consequently PI) declines with time. This decline

pump intake to avoid pump cavitation. For any given trend in PI is a function of the hydraulic properties

pump setting depth, the maximum available pressure and boundary conditions of the reservoir, and

drawdown (∆p) in a pumped well without the risk of interference effects between wells (if more than one

cavitation can be estimated from: well is active). For such estimation, it is customary

∆p = pi–(h-hp)G– psat–pgas–psuc–pfr– psm (1) to utilize the so-called “Line-Source Solution” of the

partial differential equation describing transient

Where pi = initial static reservoir pressure, pressure behavior in a porous medium filled with a

h = depth to production zone, single-phase liquid (Earlougher, 1977). This solution

hp = pump setting depth, gives the production rate (W) from a single well in an

infinite system as:

G = hydrostatic pressure gradient at

2 π(kh)ρ ( ∆p ) (5)

production temperature, W =

µ pD

psat = fluid saturation pressure at production

temperature, where k = reservoir permeability,

pgas = gas partial pressure, h = net reservoir thickness,

psuc = net positive suction head required by the kh = reservoir flow capacity,

pump, ρ = fluid density,

pfr = pressure loss due to friction in well µ = fluid viscosity, and

between h and hp, and pD= a dimensionless variable that is a

psm = additional safety margin to ensure function of time.

cavitation does not occur at pump

intake. In equation (5), pD is given by:

1 ⎛−r ⎞

2

can be calculated as follows: 2 ⎝ 4 tD ⎠

fρ v 2 where tD =dimensionless time

p = fr (h − h ) p

(2)

( kh ) t

2 gcd

=

(φ c t h ) µ rw

2

Where f = Moody friction factor,

V = fluid velocity in the well, φ cth = reservoir storage capacity,

ρ = fluid density, ct = total compressibility of rock and fluid,

d = internal diameter of the wellbore, and φ = reservoir porosity,

gc= gravitational unit conversion factor. rD = dimensionless radius

The maximum available pressure drawdown can be = r/rw,

calculated from equations (1) and (2). The pump can r = distance between the “line source” and

be set as deep as 457 m (1,500 feet) if a line shaft the point at which the pressure is being

pump is used, but if an electric submersible pump is considered (equal to wellbore radius if

used, it can (in theory) be set considerably deeper.

flowing wellbore pressure is being The power required for pumping must be subtracted

considered), from the gross power available from the pumped

rw = wellbore radius, and well. The power required by a pump operating at the

maximum allowable drawdown condition is given

t = time.

by:

In equation (6), Ei represents the Exponential

Pumping power = (W·H/Ep + hp·L)/Em (12)

Integral, defined by

∞ Where H =total delivered head,

e− u

Ei (− x ) = − ∫ du (7)

x

u L = shaft horsepower loss per unit length,

Equation (5) is true if the wellbore skin factor is zero, Ep = pump efficiency, and

that is, if the wellbore flow efficiency is 100%, the Em = motor efficiency.

well being neither damaged nor stimulated. If the

In equation (12), H is given by:

skin factor is positive (that is, the wellbore is

damaged), for the same flow rate W, there will be an H = (pd – psat – pgas – psm)/G + hp (13)

additional pressure drop given by:

Where pd = pump discharge pressure.

Wµ (8)

∆ p skin = ⋅s

2π (kh )ρ 14

Productivity Index (l/s/bar) = 10

Temperature ( °C ) = 185

well (that is, the wellbore flow efficiency is greater

than 100%), because such wells intersect open 8

fractures. 6

Gross capacity

Net capacity

2

kilowatt power capacity, or kilowatt capacity 0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

available from a given fluid supply rate, from: Pump Setting Depth (m)

Electrical energy per kg of fluid = e · Wmax (9) Figure 1. Net MW capacity of a pumped well as a

function of pump setting depth.

Where e = utilization efficiency of the power plant,

and Figure 1 shows an example of calculated initial gross

and net power capacities of a 3,800 m deep well, with

Wmax = maximum thermodynamically available a productivity index of 10 ℓ/s/bar, as a function of

work per kg of fluid. pump setting depth. Table 2 presents the various

Wmax in equation (9) is derived from the First and parameters we have used in this exercise.

Second Laws of Thermodynamics: Table 2. Parameters used for Analysis of Pumped

dq = cpdT and (10) Flow

Productivity Index: Variable

dWmax = dq(1-To/T) (11)

Reservoir Temperature: Depends on depth

Where cp = specific heat of water, Static Reservoir Pressure: Hydrostatic

T =resource temperature (absolute), and Gas partial pressure: 0

To = rejection temperature (absolute). Pump suction pressure: 3.75 bar

For calculation of power capacity, To can be assumed Pressure safety margin: 0.68 bar

to be the average ambient temperature (assumed to be Relative roughness: 0.018 cm

15°C or 288°K). For modern water-cooled binary Casing diameter: 9-5/8 inches

power plants, a value of 0.45 can be assumed for Pump discharge pressure: 7.2 bar (g)

utilization efficiency. From the above equations, the Pump efficiency: 0.75

fluid requirement per MW (gross) generation, not Motor efficiency: 0.95

counting the parasitic load of production and

Power loss per unit length of

injection pumps and power plant auxiliaries, can be pump shaft (assuming electric 0

estimated. The next step in this analysis is to submersible pump):

estimate the fluid production capacity of the pumped

Rejection temperature: 21° C

wells, from which the parasitic power needed for

pumping and the net power capacity at the wellhead Utilization factor: 0.45

could then be calculated. Parasitic load factor above ground 0.20

We have also considered self-flowing wells tapping a also seen that the flow capacity (that is, permeability-

reservoir at a temperature of 190°C or more. This thickness product) of a commercial well generally

flow behavior analysis has been conducted by lies in the range of 1 to 100 Darcy-meter (D-m) and

numerical wellbore simulation based on the estimated geothermal wells typically display a small, negative

PI of the well; Table 3 summarizes the important skin factor. To decide on the appropriate range of PI

assumptions. to be used in this study, we calculated the PI for these

estimated ranges of flow capacity (usually denoted as

Table 3. Parameters used for Analysis of Self-

“kh” in the literature) and a skin factor range of 0 to

Flowing Wells

-1.

Productivity index: Variable Figure 3 shows the calculated PI versus time for

Well depth: Variable various flow capacity and skin factors values

Well casing diameter below the considered. Based on Figure 3, we chose 2 to 30

9-5/8 inches ℓ/s/bar as the broadest realistic range of PI for

pump:

Well casing diameter above the commercial wells producing from a 100°C to 250°C

13 3/8 inches reservoir.

pump intake:

40

Reservoir temperature: Variable

Static reservoir pressure: Hydrostatic 35

Relative roughness of casing wall: 0.018 cm 25

kh=100 D.m, S= -1

kh=100 D.m, S= 0

Steam separation pressure: 4.46 bar (g) 20

kh=70 D.m, S= -1

Steam requirement per MW

2.27 kg/s kh=70 D.m, S= 0

generation: 15

kh=50 D.m, S= -1

kh=50 D.m, S= 0

10

Numerical wellbore simulation allows the estimation kh=30 D.m, S= -1

kh=30 D.m, S= 0

kh=10 D.m, S= -1

kh=10 D.m, S= 0

kh=1 D.m, S= -1

kh=1 D.m, S= 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

and acceleration pressure gradients, wellbore heat Time (year)

loss, phase change, steam separator pressure and Figure 3. Calculated Productivity Index vs. Time

steam required by the power plant per MW. Figure 2

is an example of the calculated “deliverability curve”

PUMPED WELLS

of a 2,743m (9,000 foot) deep self-flowing well for a

range of productivity index values. Figure 1 shows an example of the calculated gross

25

and net power capacities versus pump-setting depth

for a pumped well with a PI of 10 ℓ/s/bar and

20

producing from a 185°C reservoir. The vertical

Wellhead Pressure (bar-a)

15

curves in Figure 1 represents the parasitic power

consumed. This figure shows that with increased

pump setting depth, the gross and net capacities

10

increase slowly, but the parasitic load increases

PI =6

PI = 2 l/s/bar

PI = 3.3 l/s/bar l/s/bar

PI = 10 l/s/bar

PI = 30 l/s/bar

rapidly. Given the practical limit of 457m (1,500

5

feet) in pump-setting depth today, this well has net

generation capacity of 6.3 MW.

0

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

Flowrate (tons/hr)

Figure 4 presents the calculated net power capacity of

Figure 2. Flowing wellhead pressure versus flow a pumped well versus temperature for a range of PI

rate at 244°C. values. This figure shows that for any PI value, net

power capacity of the well increases monotonically

Figure 2 presents the simulated wellhead pressure as with temperature until it reaches a maximum at a

a function of the total flow rate; using the assumption temperature level of 190°C to 200°C, depending on

in Table 3, the net MW capacity for each PI can be the well’s PI. After reaching this maximum, the net

calculated from their respective deliverability curves. capacity of the well declines with increasing

temperature. This decline in net capacity with

RESULTS

temperature reflects the decline in the maximum

Data from commercial geothermal wells show a wide available drawdown, which, in turn, is caused by the

range in PI, from about 1 ℓ/s/bar for marginally sub- increasing vapor pressure with temperature.

commercial wells to as high as 40 ℓ/s/bar for

Figure 4 shows that little gain in net well capacity

exceptionally prolific wells; a good production well

can be achieved by raising the operating temperature

typically shows a PI on the order of 10 ℓ/s/bar. It is

limit of commercial pumps beyond 190°C. On the

other hand, Figure 1 indicates that increasing the (Table 3). Similar calculations were conducted for

maximum possible pump-setting depth beyond 457m various temperature and PI values.

and the maximum possible pumping rate beyond 160

l/s (2,500 gallons per minute) will increase the net Figure 6 presents the calculated net power capacity

power capacity available from a well. Figure 4 versus temperature of a self-flowing well for various

shows that irrespective of how high the PI is, a PI values. This figure shows that unlike the pumped

pumped well today cannot deliver significantly more wells, there is no upper limit in net MW capacity of a

than about 7.3 MW(net). self-flowing well, which is a nearly linear function of

9 temperature, the slope of this linear trend increasing

8

Productivity

Index (l/s/bar) slightly with increasing PI.

16

26

7 24

22

20 PI = 30 l/s/bar

18

16

14

6 14

Net MW Capacity

12

PI = 10 l/s/bar

10

5 12

8 PI = 6 l/s/bar

4

6 10

PI = 3.3 l/s/bar

Net MW

3

4

8 PI = 2 l/s/bar

3.3

2

2 6

4

0

100 120 140 160 180 200 220

2

Temperature (°C)

190 200 210 220 230 240 250

Figure 5 presents the same results in terms of the net Self-flowing Wells (flash-cycle power

power capacity versus PI for various temperatures. generation).

This figure shows that for any temperature level, the Figure 7 is a composite of the results for pumped and

net capacity is very sensitive to PI when PI is low; for self-flowing wells. This figure shows that between

prolific wells, the net capacity is not too sensitive to 190°C and 220°C, a self-flowing well has less power

PI. Furthermore, Figure 5 confirms that for all PI capacity than the maximum net capacity of a pumped

values, the net capacity peaks in the 190°C to 200°C well with the same PI.

range. 15

Upper Limit PI = 30 l/s/bar

Temperature of

8

Pumps

PI = 10 l/s/bar

190° C 200° C

180° C 210° C 12

PI = 6 l/s/bar

Pumped Self-Flowing

170° C

PI = 3.3 l/s/bar

6 160°

C

Net MW Capacity

9

150° C

Net MW Capacity

Productivity PI = 2 l/s/bar

Index (l/s/bar) 30

140° C

130°

4 6 10

120° C 6

110° C 3.3

3

2 2

100° C

0

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260

0 Temperature (°C)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

Figure 5. Net MW Capacity versus Productivity Temperature.

Index of a Pumped Well (457m Pump-

Setting Depth).

If a net power capacity higher than 7.3 MW is

SELF-FLOWING WELLS sought, the reservoir temperature must be greater

than about 220°C; for exceptionally prolific wells,

Figure 2 presents the calculated “deliverability this “break point” may be as low as 210°C. In other

curves” of a self-flowing well with a range of PI words, if the reservoir temperature is less than 220°C,

values producing from a 244°C reservoir. This figure the maximum available net power capacity of a

shows the wellhead pressure versus total production geothermal well is 7.3 MW whether the well is

rate (steam plus water) from the well. From this pumped or self-flowed and irrespective of how high

figure, we can estimate the net MW capacity of the its PI is. The only way this barrier in net capacity can

well for various PI values given an assumed be breached is by increasing the maximum pumping

separation pressure and steam requirement per MW rate possible from a pump and making it practically

feasible to deepen pump setting beyond 457m (1,500 EGS well versus its depth and for a range of

feet). However, for self-flowing wells, there appears temperature gradients.

to be no way to increase the net capacity beyond 7.3 $7

East Mesa

MW unless reservoir temperature is greater than

Geysers

$6 Heber

about 220°C. Medicine Lake

Salton Sea Producers

$5 Salton Sea Injectors

Azores

Drilling Cost

Guatemala

$4

Curve Fit

reservoir is created by hydraulic stimulation of low

permeability rock. Unlike hydrothermal projects, $2

where the reservoir already exists at a certain depth, $1 Curve fit excluding Salton Sea producers

an EGS project allows significant flexibility in y = 0.019069 X2 + 210 X + 240,785

R2 = 0.558

choosing the depth range within which to create a $0

0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000

reservoir, provided that the depth range has suitable Depth (feet)

geologic formations and appropriate in situ stress Figure 9. Correlation of drilling cost vs. well depth.

conditions. Since temperature increases with depth

and there is flexibility as to depth, the question arises: Figure 10 shows that for any temperature gradient,

should the wells for an EGS project be the deepest drilling cost per net MW well capacity goes through a

possible, or is there a practically optimum depth? minimum at a certain depth, which would be the most

This issue is considered below. optimum depth for a commercial EGS project,

assuming that appropriate in situ stress conditions

The temperature versus depth at an EGS site is and suitable rock formations will be present at that

dictated by the local vertical temperature gradient, depth.

which ranges from 50°C/Km to 200°C/Km at

1200000

potential EGS sites in the U.S. Assuming pumped

wells, we have calculated the maximum net power

Minimum Drilling Cost ($) per MW Capacity

Temperature

1000000

Gradient

capacity versus depth for various temperature

gradient values; Figure 8 presents the results. 800000

50°C / km

8

60°C / km

600000

7 75°C / km

Gradient = Gradient = Gradient = 400000

200°C / km 150°C / km 100°C / km Gradient = Gradient = Gradient =

75°C / km 60°C / km 50°C / km 100°C / km

Maximum MW Capacity

6

200000 150°C / km

200°C / km

5

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500

Depth (m)

4

3 capacity versus depth.

2

Figure 11 presents the optimum depth for an EGS

400 900 1400 1900 2400 2900 3400 3900

project versus the local temperature gradient; one plot

Depth (m)

in this figure considers the maximum net MW

Figure 8. Maximum net MW capacity of a pumped capacity of a well as the optimization criterion, and

well versus depth. the other plot considers the minimum drilling cost per

This figure shows that for any temperature gradient, net MW as the optimization criterion.

the maximum net capacity increases nearly linearly 4000

Optimum Depth (m)

Minimum Drilling Cost

observations from Figure 8. 1500

per Net MW

500

well depth (GeothermEx, 2004); this correlation is

also similar to that of MIT (2006). From Figures 9 0

50 75 100 125 150 175 200

and 10, we have estimated the trend in the minimum Temperature Gradient (°C / km)

drilling cost per net MW capacity achievable from an Figure 11. Optimum drilling depth of an EGS

Project.

It should be noted that Figure 11 is based on pumped

5. Whether a well is pumped or self-flowed, and

wells. However, the results apply equally for self-

whatever its PI is, the maximum net capacity of a

flowing wells up to a reservoir temperature of nearly

geothermal well cannot exceed 7.3 MW up to a

220°C, because the maximum net power from a self-

temperature level of at least 215°C.

flowing well does not exceed that of a pumped well

of the same PI for temperatures less than about 220°C 6. There is no obvious limit to the net power

(Figure 7). capacity of a geothermal well producing from a

reservoir above 220°C; reservoir temperature and

CONCLUSIONS reservoir steam saturation along with the well’s PI

are the determining factors.

1. The net power available from a pumped

geothermal well reaches a maximum of 7.3 MW REFERENCES

at a temperature level of 190° to 200°C.

Earlougher, R.C. (1977). Advances In Well Test

2. The maximum operating temperature of

Analysis. SPE Monograph Volume 5.

commercial geothermal pumps today is 190°C;

any improvement in operating temperature limit GeothermEx, Inc., (2004). New Geothermal Site

of pumps will not increase net power capacity. Identification and Qualification. Report prepared for

the California Energy Commission Public Interest

3. If it becomes practical for pumps to be set deeper

Energy Research Program, Consultant Report P500-

and have higher pumping rates than feasible now,

04-051, April 2004.

the maximum net capacity would be higher.

MIT, (2006). The Future of Geothermal Energy-

4. Over the temperature range of 190°C to 220°C,

Impact of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) on

wells need to be self-flowed; between 190°C to

the United States in the 21st Century. An assessment

nearly 220°C, a self-flowing well will not exceed

by an MIT-led interdisciplinary panel. Massachusetts

the maximum net capacity of 7.3 MW available

Institute of Technology, 2006.

from a pumped well.

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