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Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with

Reservoir Bottom Absorption E ect

December 23, 2017

https://www.masterbuilder.co.in/seismic-analysis-concrete-gravity-dam-reservoir-foundation-interaction-reservoir-bottom-absorption-effect/ 1/10

4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

The dynamic analysis of a concrete gravity dam is a reasonably complex problem. The response of

a dam subjected to dynamic loading is a combined effect of the interaction among dam, reservoir

and foundation systems and reservoir bottom absorption. Dam–foundation and dam–reservoir

interactions are two important aspects in the dynamic analysis of dams. The first one can be

considered by simplified or rigorous methods. More realistic results may be obtained by using

rigorous methods, which require finite element or boundary element modeling of foundation

domain and result in increasing computation time and computer storage requirement.

The present study deals with seismic analysis of Koyna dam considering the effect of dam-

foundation interaction and dam-reservoir interaction with reservoir bottom absorption effect.

EAGD software has been used to numerically evaluate the response of a two-dimensional dam-

water-foundation system to earthquake ground motion. Through a comprehensive investigation it

was shown that the effects of dam-water-foundation interaction and reservoir bottom absorption

has a profound influence on the response of concrete gravity dams to horizontal and vertical

ground motion. The water impounded in the reservoir is idealized as a fluid domain of constant

depth and infinite length in the upstream direction, and the dissipation of hydrodynamic pressure

waves in the reservoir bottom materials is modeled approximately by a boundary condition that

partially absorbs incident hydrodynamic pressure waves. A parametric study has been carried out

for dam-water interaction effect on dam response with different reservoir depths and Dam-

foundation interaction effect on the results of dam response with different damping values.

Results from non-linear analysis of the dam show high tensile stresses in the heel as well as in the

change of slope at downstream of the dam. The damping characteristics contribute a significant

influence on the dynamic response of dam foundation system. Wave reflection coefficients play an

https://www.masterbuilder.co.in/seismic-analysis-concrete-gravity-dam-reservoir-foundation-interaction-reservoir-bottom-absorption-effect/ 2/10

4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

important role in seismic analysis, the maximum displacement increases because of added

damping and time period increases because of refraction of hydrodynamic pressure waves.

Key words:

foundation interaction, Reservoir bottom absorption

effect, Reservoir depth, Effect of damping, Finite

element analysis.

Introduction:

been growing during the recent years, partly

because the population at risk in locations

downstream of major dams continues to expand and

also because it is increasingly evident that the

seismic design concepts in use at the time most existing dams were built were inadequate. The

distress of a concrete dam is affected by several parameters such as the compressibility of the

impounded water, the various dynamic interactions which can be incorporated in the general term

dam-reservoir-foundation interaction, the possible existence of a sedimentary material at the

bottom of the reservoir and the selection of an appropriate upstream boundary condition to

represent the infinite extent of the reservoir in the upstream direction. The impact of these factors

has been investigated in the present study of numerical analysis for the evaluation of the seismic

distress and response of concrete dam and their interaction with the retained water and the

foundation.

system to earthquake ground motion. The method is the general response history analysis (RHA)

procedure presented by Fenves and Chopra for determining the earthquake response of concrete

gravity dams including the effects of dam-water-foundation interaction and reservoir bottom

absorption is outlined. The analysis procedure is based on the substructure method, wherein the

dam, water and foundation region are modeled as three different substructures of the complete

system.

The present study aims at the seismic responses of realistic gravity dam, i.e., Koyna dam due to

earthquakes including dam-foundation interaction, reservoir-dam interaction and reservoir bottom

absorption effect. In particular, the earthquake response of idealized concrete gravity dam is

computed using both horizontal and vertical components of the recorded Taft (California) ground

motion, with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.18g in the horizontal component. Since this is

the only record used in the analysis, the response results obtained are not meant to be general,

and they mainly depend on the characteristics of this particular excitation. The Taft ground

motion, however, is a typical moderate earthquake, particularly in the short-period range of its

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4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

spectrum, which is the main range of interest in the analysis of concrete gravity dams. Both dam-

reservoir and dam-foundation rock interactions were considered in the analysis.

Dam-foundation modeling

The dam monolith is idealized as an assemblage of planar, four node non conforming finite

elements. The finite element is obtained by dividing the dam cross section into quadrilateral

elements connected at nodal points. Elements in the shape of parallelograms with an aspect ratio

near the unity give the most accurate results. The elastic properties of the materials in the dam

can be defined independently for each finite element. Energy dissipation in the dam and concrete

is represented by constant hysteretic damping factor ?_s. A viscous damping ratio ?, the same for

all the natural vibration modes of the dam on rigid foundation rock with empty reservoir,

corresponds to a constant hysteretic damping factor of ?_s= 2?. Forced vibration field tests on

dams indicate that the viscous damping ratio is in the range of 1 to 3 percentage, fairly

independent of the vibration mode number. A constant hysteretic damping factor of ?_s= 0.1,

which corresponds to a 5 percent viscous damping ratio in all vibration modes of the dam, is

reasonable value for the much larger motion and higher stresses expected in a dam during strong

earthquake ground motion.

https://www.masterbuilder.co.in/seismic-analysis-concrete-gravity-dam-reservoir-foundation-interaction-reservoir-bottom-absorption-effect/ 4/10

4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

Dam-reservoir modeling

The water impounded in the reservoir is idealized as a fluid domain of constant depth and infinite

length in the upstream direction. The elevation of the free- surface is the only parameter specified

for the impounded water. The computer program uses the following properties for the impounded

water: the velocity of pressure waves C=1438.656 m/sec and unit weight of water 9.81 kN/m^3.

The reservoir bottom is assumed to be horizontal.

The absorptiveness of the reservoir bottom materials is characterized by the wave reflection

coefficient a, which is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the reflected hydrodynamic pressure

wave to the amplitude of vertically propagating pressure wave incident on the reservoir bottom. A

wave reflection coefficient of unity indicates that pressure waves are reflected from reservoir

bottom without attenuation; a wave reflection coefficient of zero indicates that vertically

propagating pressure waves are fully absorbed into the reservoir bottom materials without

reflection. The materials at the bottom of the reservoir determine the value of the wave reflection

coefficient a according to the following equation [Fenves and Chopra,1987]a = (1-k)/(1+k) where

k= C/?_r C_r, C is the velocity of pressure waves and ? is the density of water , C_r= v(E_r )/v(?

_r ), and E_ris the young’s modulus of elasticity and ?_r is the density of the reservoir bottom

materials.

The dam is analyzed considering the horizontal and vertical components of the ground motion

recorded at Taft Lincoln School Tunnel during the Kern County, California earthquake of July 21st

1952; both components are shown in Figure 1.

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4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

The cross section and finite element discretization of the problem are presented in Figures 2 and 3

respectively. Numerical data of the dam is shown in Table 1.

The results of the computer analyses consist of the time histories of horizontal and vertical

displacements at selected nodal points. The maximum horizontal displacement at the crest of the

dam and maximum principal stresses at four critical locations like heel, toe, crest and change of

slope at downstream side of the dam monolith are summarized for the dam supported on flexible

foundation rock. The excitation for the dam-reservoir-foundation system is defined by both

horizontal and vertical components of free- field ground motion in the plane of monolith of the

dam transverse to the dam axis. Results obtained from the analysis are compared with the

permissible tensile(+) and compressive stresses(-) of the Koyna dam.

Seismic analysis has been carried out to understand the effect of reservoir depth on stress

distribution of Koyna dam considering different values of reservoir depth ratios H/H_s(H is

reservoir depth and H_s is maximum height of the reservoir) of 0.55, 0.60, 0.80, 0.95. The

horizontal displacement response of crest along with its time period with variation in reservoir

depth is shown in Table 2. From Table 2, it is observed that the maximum crest displacement and

time period at its occurrence has significant change when H/H_s is greater than 0.80. The

maximum crest displacement increases with increase in reservoir depth.

Fig. 4 shows that maximum horizontal crest response histories of dam with variation in reservoir

depth. From Fig. 4 it is observed that the horizontal displacement response increase after H/H_s

= 0.80 because increase in water depth increases the hydrodynamic pressure which increases the

crest displacement and decreases the time period of dam.

The maximum and minimum principal stresses at specified locations of Koyna dam for variation in

reservoir depth due to combined ground motion is shown in Table 3. From Table 2 it is observed

that the maximum tensile and compressive stresses in the monolith can be seen at change of

slope at the downstream side of dam for H/H_s = 0.95. The maximum tensile stress(5.68 MPa)

exceeds the permissible tensile strength of used concrete by approximately 2 times. The

maximum compressive stress is 6.567 MPa which is less than the permissible compressive

strength of concrete. So it is safe in compression.

The maximum and minimum principal stress variation along the base of the dam is shown in the

Figs. 5 and 6. From these figures it is observed that the heel is subjected to maximum tensile

stress when H/H_s=0.95 and a maximum compressive stress when H/H_s=0.60. The maximum

principal stresses vary from tension at heel to compression at toe. The minimum principal stresses

https://www.masterbuilder.co.in/seismic-analysis-concrete-gravity-dam-reservoir-foundation-interaction-reservoir-bottom-absorption-effect/ 6/10

4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

de-crease from heel to toe. This is because of increase in water depth increases the

hydrodynamic pressure which increases tensile stresses at heel. Fig. 7 shows the first three mode

shapes of Koyna dam for varying reservoir depth due combined ground motion.

Effect of hysteretic damping factor is studied for seismic analysis of Koyna dam. Damping factors

are taken for study are as follows 0.10 (5%), 0.12 (6%), 0.16 (8%), 0.2 (10%). Generally 0.1 is

taken as damping ratio since 5% of viscous damping ratio is considered for foundation and

concrete. The displacement response of horizontal crest of dam along with its time period with

variation in damping factors is shown in Table 4. From Table 4 it is observed that maximum crest

displacement decreases with increasing in damping factors and there is no significant change in

time period.

Fig. 8 shows the maximum horizontal crest displacement response histories of Koyna dam for

variation in damping factors due to combined ground motion. From these figures, It is observed

that maximum crest displacement decreases with increase in damping factors and there is no

significant change in time period.

The maximum and minimum principal stresses at specified locations of Koyna dam for variation in

damping factors due to combined ground motion is shown in Table 5. From Table 5 it is observed

that the maximum tensile and compressive stresses develop at change of slope on downstream

side of the dam for N_f= 0.10. The maximum tensile stress(5.43 MPa) exceeds the permissible

tensile strength of concrete by approximately 2 times. The maximum compressive stress

observed is 6.49 MPa which is less than the permissible compressive strength of concrete.

The maximum and minimum principal stress variation along the base of the dam is as shown in

the Figs. 9 and 10. From these figures it is observed that the tensile and compressive stresses

decrease from heel to toe. Because of increasing in damping restricts the movement of dam

which reduces tension at heel. Fig.11 shows the first three mode shapes of Koyna dam for 5%

damping factor due to combined ground motion.

Effect of reservoir bottom absorption is studied by varying a (wave reflection coefficient) from 0 to

1. Where a = 0 represent complete absorption of earthquake and wave pressure by reservoir

bottom sediments and a = 1 means complete reflection of earthquake and wave pressure by

reservoir bottom sediments. Other values of a like 0.50, 0.70 are also studied for this effect. The

displacement response of horizontal crest of dam along with its time period with variation in wave

reflection coefficient values is shown in Table 6. From Table 6, it is observed that when a

increases from 0 to 1 leads to decrease in reservoir bottom absorption capacity effect which leads

to increase in maximum crest displacement and time period.

https://www.masterbuilder.co.in/seismic-analysis-concrete-gravity-dam-reservoir-foundation-interaction-reservoir-bottom-absorption-effect/ 7/10

4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

Fig. 12 shows the maximum horizontal crest displacement response histories of Koyna dam for

variation in wave reflection coefficients. From these figures, it is observed that as reservoir

bottom becomes more reflective (i.e. as a values increases) the maximum displacement

increases because of added damping due to reservoir bottom absorption and its time period

increases because of increasing refraction of hydrodynamic pressure waves into the reservoir

bottom material and propagation of pressure waves upstream through the impounded water.

The maximum and minimum principal stresses at specified locations of Koyna dam for variation in

wave reflection coefficients due to both horizontal and vertical components of Taft ground motion

is shown in Table 7. From Table 7 it is observed that the maximum tensile and compressive

stresses develop at a = 1 at downstream side where change of slope occurs. The maximum

tensile stress (5.43 MPa) exceeds the permissible tensile strength of concrete by approximately 2

times. The maximum compressive stress observed is 6.491 MPa which is less than the permissible

compressive strength of concrete.

The maximum and minimum principal stress variation along the base of the dam is shown in the

Figs. 13 and 14. From these figures it is observed that the tensile stresses reduce from heel to

toe. Maximum principal stresses increase from a = 0 to 1. The minimum principal stresses

increase from heel to toe. This is due to reservoir bottom absorption which reduces the added

hydrodynamic effect.

Conclusions:

Based on these response results, it is observed that the earthquake response of dams is increased

by dam-water interaction and decreased by reservoir bottom absorption with the magnitude of

these effects depending on the flexibility of the foundation rock and on the component of ground

motion.

Effect of reservoir depth is studied and it is observed that maximum tensile stress occurs at

downstream side of the dam where there is change of slope which is approximately 2 times the

tensile strength. But it is safe in compression

The damping characteristics contribute a significant influence on the dynamic response of dam

foundation system. From the comparison of displacement response of dam and time period for

varying damping factors it is observed that, there is no significant change in the time periods but

response is higher for decreasing damping factors which shows that as damping ratio decreases,

response of dam is increased. Maximum tensile stress exceeds by approximately 2 times the

permissible tensile strength at change of slope on downstream side. But it is safe in compression.

Wave reflection coefficients play an important role in seismic analysis the maximum displacement

increases because of added damping and time period increases because of refraction of

hydrodynamic pressure waves. Maximum tensile stress is more than tensile strength by

https://www.masterbuilder.co.in/seismic-analysis-concrete-gravity-dam-reservoir-foundation-interaction-reservoir-bottom-absorption-effect/ 8/10

4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

approximately 2 times. But it is safe in compression. So the Koyna dam is safe in compression for

the all the cases studied.

Results from non-linear analysis of the dam show high tensile stresses in the heel as well as in the

change of slope at downstream of the dam. Thus the tensile stresses can cause cracking at these

zones.

References:

Anil K. Chopra (1978) “Earthquake resistant design of concrete gravity dams,” Journal of

the Structural Division, Vol. 104, pp. 953-971.

Anil K. Chopra & Gupta (1982) “Hydrodynamic and Foundation Interaction Effect in

Frequency Response Functions for Concrete Gravity Dams,” Earthquake Engg. , Structure Div.,

Vol 10, pp. 89-105.

Anil K. Chopra, Gregory Fenves (1987) “Simplified Earthquake Analysis of Concrete Gravity

Dams,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.113, ISSN 0733-9445, August.

Brijesh singh and Pankaj Agarwal (2009) “Seismic Response Of High Concrete Gravity

Dam Including Dam-Reservoir- Foundation Interaction Effect,” Journal of South Asia Disaster

Studies, Vol. 2, December.

Fenves, G. and A. K. Chopra (1984) “Earthquake analysis of concrete gravity dams including

reservoir bottom absorption and dam-water-foundation rock interaction,” Earthquake

Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp.663-680.

Fenves, G. and A. K. Chopra (1984) “EAGD-84: A computer program for earthquake

response analysis of concrete gravity dams,” Earthquake Engineering Research Center,

University of California, Berkeley, Report No. UCB/EERC-84/11.

Fenves, G. and A. K. Chopra (1983) “Effects of reservoir bottom absorption on earthquake

response of concrete gravity dams,” Earthquake Engineering and tructural Dynamics, Vol. 11,

No. 6, pp. 809-829.

Fenves, G. and A. K. Chopra (1987) “Simplified earthquake analysis of concrete

gravity dams: Separate hydrodynamic and foundation interaction effects,” Journal of

Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 111, No. 6,pp.783-806.

MATLAB, version (2012), The Math Works Inc., software.

Rajib Sarkar and L. Stempniewski (2007) “Influence of reservoir and foundation on

the nonlinear dynamic response of concrete gravity dams”, Journal of Earthquake

Technology, Vol. 44, pp377-389, June.

Dr. T. V. Praveen

Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering

Andhra University, College of Engineering (A)

Visakhapatnam

Birhane G. Hagos

Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering

Andhra University, College of Engineering (A)

Visakhapatnam

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering

Andhra University, College of Engineering (A)

Visakhapatnam

https://www.masterbuilder.co.in/seismic-analysis-concrete-gravity-dam-reservoir-foundation-interaction-reservoir-bottom-absorption-effect/ 9/10

4/10/2018 Seismic Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction with Reservoir Bottom Absorption Effect

D. Priyanka

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering

MVJ College of Engineering

Bangalore

© Copyright 2016 The Masterbuilder or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved

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