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Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Peels Extract as Alternative Pen Ink

A Research Paper Presented to the


Faculty of the Senior High School Department

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


of Senior High School Program

Submitted by:

Lianne Mican M. Lloren

October 16, 2017

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The researcher would like to take this opportunity to express her sincerest

gratitude and deep regard to all people behind the success of this research paper. First and

foremost, the researcher wants to thank Almighty God for bestowing her with knowledge

and motivation to come up with this research topic and actually pursue it. To her dearest

parents, thank you for the support financially and morally. The researcher will also be

forever indebted to her Practical Research adviser, Mrs. Kristine C. Sinfuego, along with

the efforts of other teachers in St. Lorenzo School of Polomolok, Inc. Their exemplary

guidance, valuable feedbacks, and constant encouragement throughout the making of this

research paper were of immense help and are very much appreciated.

ii
DEDICATION

The researcher want to dedicate this study to the following:

First to her family, who were always there through thick and thin.

To Mrs. Kristine C. Sinfuego for molding the researcher’s potential and also for the

guidance that was intensely needed in this study.

To St. Lorenzo School of Polomolok, Inc. for creating and enriching the knowledge of

every student in order to attain the maximum fulfillment of the students to become an

effective unit as an individual.

iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ________________________________________________ ii
DEDICATION _________________________________________________________ iii
Abstract _______________________________________________________________ vi
The Problem and Its Setting _______________________________________________ 1
Introduction __________________________________________________________ 1
Hypothesis: __________________________________________________________ 2
Definition of Terms ____________________________________________________ 2
Methodology ___________________________________________________________ 5
Materials and ingredients: _______________________________________________ 6
Procedures: __________________________________________________________ 7
I. Preparation: ____________________________________________________ 7
II. Extraction: _____________________________________________________ 7
III. Addition of Preservatives ________________________________________ 7
IV. Refilling _____________________________________________________ 8
Performance Test: _____________________________________________________ 8
Locale of the Study ___________________________________________________ 14
Instrumentation ______________________________________________________ 14
Statistical Analysis ___________________________________________________ 14
Analysis of Variance __________________________________________________ 15
CHAPTER V _________________________________________________________ 22
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION ___________________ 22
Summary ___________________________________________________________ 22
Conclusion__________________________________________________________ 22
Recommendations ____________________________________________________ 22
Bibliography __________________________________________________________ 23
APPENDIX A _________________________________________________________ 24
APPENDIX B _________________________________________________________ 25
APPENDIX C _________________________________________________________ 26

iv
List of Figures:

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework ___________________________________________ 5


Figure 2 Treatment Levels _________________________ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Figure 3 Preparation of other materials _____________________________________ 8
Figure 4 Peeling off eggplant peels _________________________________________ 8
Figure 5 Eggplant peels extraction using a juicer ______________________________ 9
Figure 6 Collected extract ________________________________________________ 9
Figure 7 Filtration _____________________________________________________ 10
Figure 8 Addition of purified water ________________________________________ 11
Figure 9 Stirring _______________________________________________________ 11
Figure 10 Addition of alcohol _____________________________________________ 11
Figure 11 Addition of salt ________________________________________________ 13
Figure 12 Addition of vinegar ____________________________________________ 13
Figure 13 Refilling _____________________________________________________ 14

List of Tables

Table 1 Ink's Performance Assessment ............................................................................. 18


Table 2 Part 1 Analysis of Variants .................................................................................. 19
Table 3 Pen Ink's Longevity .............................................................................................. 20
Table 4 Ink's Longevity ANOVA ....................................................................................... 20

v
Abstract

Eggplant peels were extracted to create pen inks and was evaluated through

respondents’ performance assessment and measuring its longevity. Results from this

research revealed that eggplant peels extract as pen ink has extremely low performance

rate and only lasted less than a day. Therefore, pen inks out of eggplant peels is not

possible as pen ink substitute.

vi
Chapter I

The Problem and Its Setting

Introduction

Pen is considered a necessity especially among students. However, commercial

pen inks contain propyl alcohol and toluene. Single or repeated exposures to toluene can

affect the nervous system of a person exposed to it and can also make the air toxic.

Propyl alcohol, on the other hand, causes skin and respiratory tract irritation. (Material

Safety Data Sheet, 2010, p. 1)

Commercial pen inks pose a threat to people exposed to it and to the environment.

Meanwhile, earlier civilizations used natural dyes such as saffron and turmeric. Fruits

such as pomegranate were also used by medieval British.

Solanum melongena, commonly known as eggplant, is a species of nightshade

vegetable with purple peels containing anthocyanin as its dominant pigment. Specifically,

it is rich in nasunin which is a purple anthocyanin. This study aims to prove the

possibility of eggplant peels extract as pen ink and its durability basing on its longevity.

The researcher extracted anthocyanin pigments from eggplant peelings. The

researcher let nine Grade Twelve (STEM strand) students to try the pen ink for seven

days. This was conducted within the premises of St. Lorenzo School of Polomolok, Inc.

The researcher conducted performance test to assess the ink’s longevity. This was

conducted in the researcher’s house located at Block 1 Manatad Village, Polomolok,

South Cotabato.

1
If this study will be successful one, there would be a significant increase in

eggplant demands rendering the eggplant growers in Polomolok, South Cotabato more

income. The researcher will also be benefited by spending lesser amount of money in

buying pens.

Hypothesis:

H1: There is a significant difference between treatments 1, 2, and 3 towards creating

alternative pen inks out of eggplant peels extract.

H0: There is no significant difference between treatments 1, 2, and 3 towards creating

alternative pen inks out of eggplant peels extract.

Definition of Terms

Anthocyanin- any of various soluble glycoside pigments producing blue to red coloring

in flowers and plants (Merriam-Webster, 2017)

Nasunin- an anthocyanin isolated as purple colored crystals (Reference.md, 2012)

Pigment- any of a group of compounds that are intensely colored and are used

to color other materials. (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016)

2
Chapter II: Review of Related Literature

This chapter presents the review of related literature that includes vital

information that supports the current study.

Ballpoint pen, the felt-tip marker, and the fiber-tip pen have led to inks containing

solutions of dyes in water or organic solvents such as propylene glycol, propyl alcohol,

toluene or glyco-ethers. Other ingredients like resins, preservatives and wetting agents

are also added. (Kunjappu, 2014, p. 1)

Propyl alcohol is a clear liquid with an alcohol-like odor. Its vapors may cause

drowsiness and dizziness. Propyl alcohol may also cause skin and respiratory tract

irritation. (Scientific, 2010, p. 1)On the other hand, toluene is a clear, colorless liquid

with a distinctive smell. It is produced in the process of making gasoline and other fuels

from crude oil and in making coke from coal. A serious health concern is that toluene

may have an effect on your nervous system. (Sciences, 2015, pp. 2-3)

Throughout history, ink has been made in many different colored juices and

extracts of plants and animals as well as synthetic materials. Earlier civilizations used

natural dyes such as saffron and turmeric. Fruits such as pomegranate were also used by

medieval British. (Sharma, 2014, p. 1)

The natural colorant area can be subdivided into anthocyanins, betalains,

chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, and polyphenols. All involve different groups of

chemical compounds which may be used directly as colorants, or may be chemically

modified to produce different hues or increased stability. (Francis & Markakis, 2009, pp.

1-2)

3
Anthocyanins are generally accepted as the largest and most important group of

water-soluble pigments in nature. The word anthocyanin derived from two Greek words:

anthos, which means flower, and kyanos, which means dark blue, reveals its important

characteristic as a natural colorant. Anthocyanins are accumulated in cell vacuoles and

are responsible for diverse pigmentation from orange to red, purple and blue in flowers,

fruits and vegetables. (Horbowicz, Kosson, Grzesiuk, & Debski, 2008) Anthocyanins are

very soluble in polar solvents, being easily extracted with water, methanol and ethanol.

(Lima, Corrêa, Saczk, Martins, & Castilho, 2008, p. 878) Moreover, anthocyanin is a

color pigment that gives many fruits and berries a blue, red or dark purple hue and is

found in a wide assortment of healthy foods. Several foods that contain anthocyanins are

eggplant, bananas, and pomegranates. (Godiyal, 2013)

Jung, et.al extracted physiological components from the different parts of

eggplant and eggplant peel showed high amounts of anthocyanin. (Jung, JukBae, Jo, Jo,

& Lee, 2011)

Nasunin is an anthocyanin, a purple pigment, belonging to the family of

flavonoids, which together with other anthocyanins imparts to the eggplant its

characteristic color.Nasunin could be used as colorant in textile, food, pharmaceutical,

and cosmetic fields. It is present in very few foods and eggplants are the natural source

that contains significantly more. This phytonutrient is concentrated in the peel. (European

Scientific Journal, 2014)Furthermore, the main natural source of nasunin is the skin of

eggplants. It is the substance that provides the dark pigment in the fruit of the eggplant.

No other common food sources contain significant amounts of this powerful

phytonutrient. (Natural Sources of Nasunin, 2010)

4
Chapter III

Methodology

Restatement of the Problem

This study aims to prove the possibility of creating pen ink out of eggplant peels

extract and also to measure its longevity.

Research Methodology

This chapter presents the methods of research and procedure used in conducting

this study. It includes the materials, methods, and treatments. The researcher made use of

the experimental design. The experimental units of this research were the chosen

participants of this study. There were nine experimental units and three treatment levels

yielding three replications per treatment.

Conceptual Framework:

EGGPLANT PREPARING
INPUT

OUTPUT
PROCESS

PEELS EXTRACTING PEN WITH


PURIFIED ADDITION OF EGGPLANT
WATER PRESERVATIVES PEELS EXTRACT
ETHANOL AS ITS INK
REFILLING
VINEGAR
SALT
OLEIC ACID

Figure 1 Conceptual Framework

5
TREATMENT LEVELS EXPERIMENTAL UNITS

TREATMENT 1 (1 mL of eggplant peels

extract, 5 mL of purified water, 5 mL of

ethanol, a teaspoon of vinegar, and a

teaspoon of salt)

TREATMENT 2 (3 mL of eggplant peels

extract, 5 mL of purified water, 5 mL of

ethanol, a teaspoon of vinegar, and a

teaspoon of salt)

TREATMENT 3 (5 mL of eggplant peels

extract, 5 mL of purified water, 5 mL of

ethanol, a teaspoon of vinegar, and a

teaspoon of salt)

Figure 2 Treatment Levels

Materials and ingredients:

 50 grams of eggplant peels

 15 mL of purified water

 15 mL of ethanol

 3 teaspoons of vinegar

 3 teaspoons of salt

 10 mL of oleic acid

 strainer

6
 Juicer

 Funnel

 Two pieces of 100 mL beaker or any container that can hold liquid

 Filter paper

 Twelve pieces of empty pen ink cartridges

 Syringe

 Stirring rod or any material capable of stirring

Procedures:

I. Preparation:

1. Eggplants, purified water, ethanol, vinegar, and syringe were bought from

the market. The oleic acid was purchased online.

2. Twelve empty pen ink cartridges were collected.

3. Other materials needed were prepared

4. Eggplants were peeled off and measured about 50 grams of it.

II. Extraction:

1. The juice was extracted from eggplant peels using a juicer.

2. The juice extracted from eggplant peels was transferred into a container.

3. It was filtered using a funnel.

4. Purified water was added to the collected extract.

5. It was thoroughly stirred for 30 minutes.

6. Ethanol was added into the mixture.

7. It was stirred again thoroughly for 30 minutes.

III. Addition of Preservatives

7
- Vinegar and salt were added into the mixture, and then was stirred thoroughly

for 10 minutes.

IV. Refilling

- Empty pen ink cartridges were refilled with the created ink using a syringe.

After pouring the ink inside the cartridge, oleic acid was added as stopper

fluid to avoid leakage.

Performance Test:

1. The researcher used the created pen ink every day until it does not write anymore.

2. The researcher recorded the number of days it lasted to determine its longevity.

3. The researcher then referred to the rubrics for its numeric equivalent.

Research Documentation:

I. Preparation of Materials

Figure 4 Peeling off eggplant peels

8
II. Extraction

Figure 5 Eggplant peels extraction using a juicer

9
Figure 6 Collected extract
Figure 7 Filtration

10
Figure 8 Addition of purified water

Figure 9 Stirring

Figure 10 Addition of alcohol

11
12
II. Addition of Preservatives

Figure 11 Addition of salt

Figure 12 Addition of vinegar

13
III. Refilling

Figure 13 Refilling

Locale of the Study

The study was done in St. Lorenzo School of Polomolok,Inc. and at the

researcher’s house located at Block 1 Manatad Village, Polomolok, South Cotabato.

Instrumentation

The instruments that were used in this research are the pen inks that were created

out of eggplant peels. The sampling technique used was convenience sampling.

Questionnaires and observation based on rubrics were also used for data gathering.

Statistical Analysis

Respondents’ Assessment

14
Treatments Student 1 Student 2 Student 3

T1

T2

T3

Ink’s Longevity

Treatments Pen Ink 1 Pen Ink 2 Pen Ink 3 Average

T1

T2

T3

Analysis of Variance

Respondents’ Assessment

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std.
Deviati Std. Lower Upper
N Mean on Error Bound Bound Minimum Maximum

Treatment 1

15
Treatment 2

Treatment 3

Total .

ANOVA ( Analysis of Variants)

Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.

Between Groups

Within Groups .

Total

Ink’s Longevity

Std. 95% Confidence


Std.
N Mean Error Interval for Mean Minimum Maximum
Deviati

16
on Lower Upper
Bound Bound

Treatment 1

Treatment 2

Treatment 3

Total .

ANOVA ( Analysis of Variants)

Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.

Between Groups

Within Groups .

Total

CHAPTER IV

17
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION, AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter presents and interprets the data gathered in tabular form. This aims to create

pen ink extracted from eggplant peels.

The pens were tested through St. Lorenzo School of Polomolok,Inc. STEM-12

students’ participation and researcher’s observation basing on its durability through light

exposure, reaction to temperature, and its longevity. Results obtained in the following

experiments are shown below.

Table 1 Ink's Performance Assessment

Treatments Student 1 Student 2 Student 3

T1 Extremely low Extremely low Extremely low

T2 Extremely low Low Extremely low F

rom
T3 Extremely low Extremely low Low
the

table, it can be observed that all respondents in the Treatment 1 level find the ink’s

performance extremely low while in Treatment 2 level, 2 out of 3 respondents find the

ink’s performance extremely low and one of them find its performance low. The results

in Treatment 3 level is the same with Treatment 2 level. Looking at the table, the

researcher can conclude that no treatment levels showed possibility that eggplant peels

can be used as pen ink.

18
Ink’s Performance Assessment

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean

Std. Std. Lower Upper


N Mean Deviation Error Bound Bound Minimum Maximum

Treatment 1 3 1.0000 .00000 .00000 1.0000 1.0000 1.00 1.00

Treatment 2 3 1.3333 .57735 .33333 -.1009 2.7676 1.00 2.00

Treatment 3 3 1.3333 .57735 .33333 -.1009 2.7676 1.00 2.00

Total 9 1.2222 .44096 .14699 .8833 1.5612 1.00 2.00


Table 2 Part 1 Analysis of Variants

ANOVA

Performance

Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.

Between .222 2 .111 .500 .630


Groups

Within Groups 1.333 6 .222

Total 1.556 8

It can be observed that the significance value is 0.630 (i.e., p = .630), which is above

0.05. and, this implies that there is a statistically no significant difference in the

performance of pen ink created between the different treatment levels. Therefore, the

researcher accepts the null hypothesis and rejects the alternative hypothesis.

19
Table 3 Pen Ink's Longevity

Treatments Replication Replication Replication Total Average

1 2 3

1 1 1 1 3 1

2 1 2 1 4 1.33

3 1 1 2 4 1.33

Legend: 1- less than a day

2- one day

3- two to six days

4- one week

5- more than a week

From the table above, it can be observed that all pens in Treatment 1 level lasted less than

a day while 2 out of 3 pens in Treatment 2 levels lasted less than a day. Treatment 3 level

have the same result with Treatment 2 level. Looking at the table, each treatment level’s

average is almost equal to 1 and its corresponding description in the rubrics is less than a

day. The researcher can conclude that the pen inks created are not durable enough basing

on its longevity.

Table 4 Ink's Longevity ANOVA

Std. 95% Confidence


Std.
N Mean Error Interval for Mean Minimum Maximum
Deviati

20
on Lower Upper
Bound Bound

Treatment 1 3 1.0000 .57735 .33333 .2324 3.1009 1.00 2.00

Treatment 2 3 1.3333 .00000 .00000 1.0000 1.0000 1.00 1.00

Treatment 3 3 1.3333 .00000 .00000 1.0000 1.0000 1.00 1.00

Total 9 1.2222 .44096 .14089. .8833 1.5612 1.00 2.00

ANOVA ( Analysis of Variants)

Sum of Mean
Squares df Square F Sig.

Between Groups .989 2 .444 4 0.079

Within Groups 0.567 6 .111

Total 1.556 8

It can be observed that the significance value is 0.079 (i.e., p = .079), which is

above 0.05. and, this implies that there is a statistically no significant difference in the

pen ink’s longevity between the different treatment levels. Therefore, the researcher

accepts the null hypothesis and rejects the alternative hypothesis.

21
CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary

Based on the analysis of the results of this study, the researcher arrived at the

following summary:

 Pen inks made out of eggplant peels have extremely low performance rate. Thus,
it is not possible to create quality pen inks out of eggplant peels extract.

 The ink’s longevity did not last a day. Therefore, it is not durable enough to be
used as pen ink.

Conclusion

Basing on the results gathered, the ink created is of extremely low performance

rate and its longevity did not last a day. Therefore, the researcher concludes that eggplant

peels extract is not possible and effective to be used as pen ink.

Recommendations

 Researches on eggplant peels extract is recommended since it has the potential to

be used as ink but not as pen ink.

 Discovering another way of extraction to fully extract eggplant peels’ anthocyanin

pigments.

22
Bibliography
European Scientific Journal. (2014). 1-2.

Francis, F., & Markakis, P. C. (2009). Food Colorants: Anthocyanins. Michigan:


Michigan State University.

Godiyal, S. (2013). NaturalNews. anthocyanin foods you should be eating, 1-2.

Horbowicz, Kosson, Grzesiuk, & Debski. (2008). Anthocyanins of Fruits and Vegetables
- Their Occurrence, Analysis and Role in Human Nutrition. Vegetable Crops
Research Bulletin.

Jung, E.-j., JukBae, M., Jo, E.-K., Jo, Y.-H., & Lee, K. (2011). Journal of Medicinal
Plants Research. In E.-j. Jung. Chang-won, Korea: Department of Food Science
and Biotechnology.

Kunjappu, J. T. (2014). Ink Chemistry. New York: Royal Society of Chemistry.

Lima, A., Corrêa, A., Saczk, A., Martins, M., & Castilho, R. (2008). Anthocyanins,
Pigment Stability and Antioxidant activity in Jabuticaba. Antlanta, Georgia:
Callix Publishing.

Merriam-Webster. (2017). Merriam-Webster, Inc.

Natural Sources of Nasunin. (2010). Ferry Works Press.

Reference.md. (2012).

Sciences, D. o. (2015). Toxicological Profile for Toluene. Antlanta: Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry.

Scientific, T. F. (2010). Material Safety Data Sheet. Fair Lawn: Fisher Scientific.

Sharma, N. (2014). Analysis of Blue Fountain Pen Inks. Saharanpur: Scholar's Research
Library.

The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica. (2016). pigment. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.

23
APPENDIX A

QUESTIONNAIRE

DOCUMENTATION

24
APPENDIX B

Getting the average of pen’s longevity


( Σ xi) ( Σ xi) ( Σ xi)
x= x= x=
𝒏 𝒏 𝒏

𝟏+𝟏+𝟏 𝟏+𝟐+𝟏 𝟏+𝟏+𝟐


= = =
𝟑 𝟑 𝟑

=3 =1.33 =1.33

25
APPENDIX C
CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Lianne Mican M. Lloren

Address: Block 1 Manatad Village,

Polomolok, South Cotabato

Contact Number: 09064241378

Email: lmlloren11@gmail.com

Date of birth: February 27,2000

Place of birth: Tatalon, Quezon City

Marital Status: Single

Education

Elementary- June 2006 – 2012

Polomolok Central Elementary School

Pioneer Avenue, Polomolok, South Cotabato

High School- June 2012 - Present

St. Lorenzo School of Polomolok, Inc.

Purok San Agustin, Polomolok, South Cotabato

Organizations and Seminars Attended

Red Cross Youth Member April 2013- present

26
Basic Ropemanship Training January 2017

DRRM Fire and Earthquake Seminar September 2017

Reproductive Health Seminar October 2017

27