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§ In the following questions (1 — 60), a R : Uric add crystals in the joint cavity and ossifi­
statement of assertion (1) Is followed cation of articular cartilage lead to this.
by a statement of reason (R) 5. A : The earliest organisms that appeared on the
Earth were non-green and presumably anaerobes.
If both Assertion and Reason are true and R : The first autotrophic organisms were the
the reason ic the correct explanation of the chemoautotrophs that never released oxygen.
assertion, then mark 1 .
6 . A : Escherichia co/i, Shige/la sp. and Salmonella sp.
If both Assertion and Reason are true but the are all responsible for dianhoeal diseases.
reason is not the correct explanation of the R : Dehydration is common to all types of diar­
assertion, then mark 2 . rhoea! diseases and adequate supply of fluids and
If Assertion is true statement but Reason is electro lytes should be ensured.
false, then mark 3. 7. A : Deforestation is one main factor contributing to
If both Assertion and Reason are false state­ global warming
ments, then mark 4. R : Besides CO 2, two other gases methane and
1. A : A person who has received a cut and is bleeding CFCs are also included under green house gases.
needs to be given anti-tetanus treatment. 8 . A : LSD and marijuana are clinically used as anal­
R : Anti-tetanus injection provides immunity by gesics
producing antibodies for tetanus R : Both these drugs suppress brain function
2. A : Cancer cells are virtually immortal until the 9. A : An organism with lethal mutation may not even
body in which they reside dies. develop beyond the zygote stage
R : Cancer is caused by damage to genes regulat­ R : All types of gene mutations are lethal
ing the cell division cycle 10. A : Our body secretes adrenaline in intense cold
3. A : A network of food chains existing together in an R : Adrenaline raises metabolic rate
ecosystem is known as a food web. 11. A : In collateral vascular bundles, phloem is situ­
R : An animal like kite cannot be a part of a food ated towards inner side
web.
R : In monocot stem, cambium is present.
4. A : Inflammation of a skeletal joint may immobilize 12. A : In angiosperms the conduction of water is
the movements of the joint more efficient because their xyiem has vessels
R : Conduction of water by vessel elements is an R : The third ionization energy of Mn is larger than
active process with energy supplied by xyiem pa­ that of Cr
renchyma rich in mitochondria 25 A : K2O 2O 7 is used as a primary standard in volu­
13. A : Ralytene chromosomes have a high amount of metric analysis
DNA R : It has a good solubility in water
R : Fblytene chromosomes are formed by repeated 26. A Silicones are hydrophobic in nature
replication of chromosomal DNA without separa­ R : Si - O - Si linkages are moisture sensitive
tion of chromatids 27. A : According to transition state theory, for the for­
14. A : UV radiation causes photo dissociation of mation of an activated complex, one of the vibra­
ozone into Oj and O. thus causing damage to the tional degrees of freedom is converted into a
stratospheric ozone layer. translational degree of freedom
R : Ozone hole is resulting in global warming and R : Energy of the activated complex is higher than
climate change the energy or reactant molecules
15. A : The concentration of methane in the atmos­ 28. A : Water in liquid state is more stable than ice at
phere has more than doubled in the last 250 room temperature
years. R : Water in liquid from has higher entropy than
R : Wetlands and rice fields are the major sources ice.
of methane 29. A : St>2 S3 is not soluble in yellow ammonium sul­
16. A : In tropical rain forests, O-Horizon and A-Hori- phide
zon of soil profile are shallow and nutrient-poor.
R : The common ion effect due to Sz" ions re­
R . Excessive growth of micro-organisms in the soil duces the solubility of Sb2 S3
depletes its organic content.
30. A : Graphite is an example of tetragonal crystal
17. A : Gram-negative bacteria do not retain the stain
system
when washed with alcohol
R : For a tetragonal system
R : The outer face of the outer membrane of
Gram-negative bactena contains lipopolysaccha- a = b * c , a = 3 = 90°, y = 120°
rides, a part of which is integrated into the mem­ 31. A : For the Daniel cell Zn|Zn2*| |Cu2*|Cu with
brane lipids. E^, * 1 . 1 V, the application of opposite potential
18 A : Under conditions of high intensity and limited greater than 1.1 V results into flow of electron from
CO2 supply, photo respiration has a useful role in cathode to anode
protecting the plants from photo-oxidative damage. R : Zn is deposited at anode and Cu is dissolved at
R : If enough CO2 is not available to utilize light cathode
energy for carboxylation to proceed, the excess en­ 32. A : Fe3* can be used for coagulation of AS2S3 sol
ergy may not cause damage to plants R : Fe3* reacts with AS2S3 to give F e ^
19. A : Photo synthetically C4 plants are less efficient 33. A : If red blood cells were removed from the body
than C3 plants and placed in pure water, pressure inside the cells
R : The operation of G, pathway requires the in­ increases
volvement of only bundle-sheath cells R : The concentration of salt content in the cells in­
20. A : Eukaryotic cells have the ability to adopt a va­ creases
riety of shapes and carry out directed movements 34. A : Change in colour of acidic solution of potas­
R : There are three principal types of protein fila­ sium dichromate by breath is used to test drunk
ments^ microfilaments, microtubules and interme­ drivers.
diate filaments, which constitute the cytoskeleton. R : Change in colour is due to the complication of
21. A : In the iodometric titration starch is used as an alcohol with potassium dichromate
indicator 35 A : Anilinium chloride is more acidic than ammo­
R : Starch is polysaccharide nium chloride
22. A : Molecular nitrogen is less reactive than mo­ R : Anilinium ion is resonance-stabilized
lecular oxygen 36. A : Diastereoisomers have different physical prop­
R : The bond length of N 2 is shorter than that of erties
oxygen R : They are non-supenmposable mirror images
23. A : (Co(N 0 2)3 (N H ^ ] does not show optical 37. A : The presence of nitro group facilitates nudeo-
philic substitution reactions in aryl halides
isomerism
R : The intermediate carbanion is stabilized due to
R : It has a plane of symmetry.
the presence of nitro group
24. A : E°for M n ^M n 2* is more positive than
38 A : 1. 3-Butadiene is the monomer for natural rub­
ber
R : Natural rubber is formed through anionic addi­ 51. A : A man in a closed cabin falling freely does not
tion polymerization experience gravity
39. A : Addition of HBr on 2-butene gives two iso­ R : Inertial and gravitational mass have Equiva­
meric products . . lence
R . : Addition of HBr on 2-butene follows Mark- 52. A : The photoelectrons produced.by a monochro­
ovnikovrule . matic light beam incident on a metal surface, have
40. A : The water pouch of instant cold pack for treat­ a spread in their kinetic energies
ing athletic injuries breaks wheh squeezed and R : The work function of the metal varies as a
NH 4NO 3 dissolves lowering the temperature function of depth from the surface
R : Addition of non-volatile solute into solvent re­ 53. A : The Camot cycle is useful In understanding the
sults into depression of freezing point of the sol­ performance of heat engines
vent. R : The Carnot cycle provides a way of determin­
41. A : Electromagnetic waves with frequencies ing the maximum possible efficiency achievable
smaller than the critical frequency o f ionosphere with reservoirs o f given temperatures
cannot be used for communication using sky wave 54. A : A p-n junction with reverse bias can be used as
propagation a photo-diode to measure light intensity
R •: The refractive index of the ionosphere be­ R ; In a reverse bias condition the current is small
comes very high for frequencies higher than the but it Is more sensitive to changes in incident light
critical frequency intensity.
42. A : The binding energy per nucleon, for nuclei 55. A : Perspiration from human body helps in cooling
with atomic mass number A > 100, decreases with the body
A R : A thin layer of water on the skin enhances its
R : The nuclear forces are weak for heavier nuclei emissivity
43. A : In common base configuration, the current 56. A . When a glass o f hot milk is placed in a room
gain of the transistor is less than unity and allowed to cool, its entropy decreases
R : The collector terminal is reverse biased for am­ R : Allowing hot object to cool does not violate the
plification second law of thermodynamics
44. A : In an isolated System the entropy increases 57. A : Cobalt-60 is useful in cancer therapy
R : The processes in an isolated system are adi­ R : Cobalt-60 is a source of y-radiations capable of
abatic killing cancerous cells.
45. A : Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a useful 58. A : A thin stainless steel needle .can lay floating on
diagnostic tool for producing images of various a still water surface.
parts of human body. R : Any object floats when the buoyancy force bal­
R : Protons of various tissues of the human body ances the weight of the object
play a role in MRI
59. A : An emf E is induced in a closed loop where
46. A : A judo fighter in order to throw his opponent —
>
on to the mat tries to initially bend his opponent magnetic flux is varied. The' induced E is not a
and them rotate him around his hip conservative field
R : As the mass o f the opponent is brought closer R : The line integral E • 31 around the closed
to the fighter’s hip, the force required to* throw the loop is non-zero
opponent is reduced 60. A : In optical fibre, the diameter o f the core is kept
47. A : The root mean square and most probable small
speeds of the molecules in a gas are the same R : This smaller diameter o f the core ensures that
R : The Maxwell distribution for the speed of the fibre should have incident angle more than the
molecules in a gas is symmetrical critical angle required for total internal reflection
48. A : Use of ball bearings between two moving parts 61. The pair in which boih species have same
of a machine is a common practice magnetic moment (spin only value) is :
R : Ball bearings reduce vibrations and provide
(1) [Cr(H 20 )6]2\ [C o C f/ -
good stability.
49. A : Standard optical diffraction gratings can not be (2) [Cr(H 20 ) 6] 2M F e (H 2 0 )6]2+
used for discriminating between different X-ray
(3) [ M n ^ t ^ ] 2*, [C t{H20 ) ^
wavelengths
R : The grating spacing is not of the order of X-ray (4) [C 0 C/4]2', [Fe(H 20 )6]2+
wavelengths 62. The pair in which both species have iron is :
50. A : Diamagnetic materials can exhibit magnetism (1) Nitrogenase, cytochromes
R : Diamagnetic materials have permanent mag­
(2) Carboxypeptidase, Haemoalobin
netic dipole moment
(3) Haemocyanin, nitrogenase 72. In [Ag(CN)j]". the number of x bonds is :
(4) Haemoglobin, cytochromes (1 )2 (2 )3 (3 )4 (4 )6
63. B o m Is used as cleaning agent because on 73. The compound molecular in nature in gae
dissolving in water It gives : phase but ionic in solid state ie :
(1) Alkaline solution ( 1 )PC/S (2 ) cc/< (3 )P C /3 (4 )P oa3
(2) Acidic solution (3) Bleaching solution 74. Which two of die following salts are used
(4) Colloidal solution for preparing iodized salt ?
64. The incorrect statement among the follow­ (I) K lO j (ii) Kl (Ul) l 2 (Iv) HI :
ing i s : ( 1 ) (i) and (ii) . (2 ) (I) and (Hi)
(1 ) Q o is an allotropic form of carbon
(3) (ii) and (iv) (4) (iii) and (iv)
(2 ) O 3 is an aDotropic form of oxygen 75. The compound used in enrichment of ura*
(3) Sg is only allotropic form of sulphur nium for nuclear power plant Is :
(4) Red phosphorus is more stable in air than white (1 )U 30 8 (2) UF6
phosphorus (3) U02(N0a)2 (4) UCJ«
65. The pair whose both species are used in 76. The de Broglie wavelength associated with
anti acid medicinal preparations is : a ball of mass 1 kg having kinetic energy 0.5
(1) NaHCGj and Mg(0 H>2 J is :
(2 ) NajCOa and CaCHCO^ (1) 6.626 x 10‘ 34 m (2) 13 20 x 10’ 34 m
(3) Ca(HC 03>2 and Mg(OH)z (3) 10.38 x 1 0 - 21 m (4) 6 626 x 1 0 * 34 A
(4) Ca(0 H >2 and NaHCCb 77. Dominance of strong repulsive forces
6 6 . The colour imparted by Co(ll) compounds
among the molecules of the gas (Z ■ com­
pressibility factor):
to glass is :
(1) Green (2) Deep -Blue (1) Depends on Z and indicated by Z = 1
(3) Yellow (4) Red (2) Depends on Z and indicated by Z > 1
67. The ligands in anti cancer drug cisplatin (3) Depends on Z and indicated by Z < 1
are: (4) Is independent of Z
(1) NH3. Cl (2) NH3, H2O 78. 40 ml of 0.1 M ammonia solution is mixed
with 20 ml of 0.1 M HCI. What Is the PH of
(3) a . H20 (4) NO, a the mixture ? (pk^ of ammonia solution to
6 8 . The number of possible Isomers of an octa­
4.74)
hedral complex [Co<CI0 4)2 (N H j),]' is :
(1) 4.74 (2) 2.26
(1)1 (2 )2 (3 )3 (4 )4 (3) 9.26 (4) 5.00
69. Given below, catalyst and corresponding 79. For a spontaneous process the correct
process/reaction are matched. The mismatch statement is :
Is :
(1) Entropy of the system always increases
(1) (RhC/tPPh^J: Hydrogenation
(2) Free energy of the system always increases
(2) TtCJ« + Ai(C 2 Hs)3 : Fblymerization (3) Total entropy change is always negative
(3) V20 5 : Haber-Bosch process (4) Total entropy change is always positive
(4) Nickel: Hydrogenation 80. The Ca‘ * and F are located in CaFj crystal,
70. Among the following, the species having respectively at face centred cubic lattice
square planar geometry for central atom are points and in
(i) XeF4 (B) SF, (B ) (NIC<J*- (Iv) [PdCy2' (1) Tetrahedral voids(2) Half of tetrahedralvoids
( 1 ) (i) and (iv) (2 ) (i) and (ii) (3) Octahedral voids(4) Half of octahedralvoids
(3) (ii) and (iii) (4) (iii) and (iv) 81. The charge required for the reduction of 1
71. Tincture of iodine is : mol of MnO« to M n0 2 is :
(1) Aqueous solution of I2 (1) 1F (2) 3 F (3) 5 F (4 )6 F
(2) Solution of (2 in aqueous K1 82. For the reaction
(3) Alcoholic solution of I2 2 N s0 5 ------ ► 4 N O , ♦ O ,

(4) Aqueous solution of KI rate of reaction is :


89. Among the following which one can have a
u>5 5 [N2O5) (2)2 ^ [Nz 05] meso form ?
(1) CH 3CH(OH)CH(C/)C 2 H5 .
(3) (NO,]. (4) 4 ^ [NO,]
(2) CH 3CH(OH)CH(OH)CH 3
83. For a phase change (3) C2H5CH(OH)CH(OH)CH 3
jfc' (4) HOCHjChUCOCHa
H jO (I) 0 Clbar H ,0 (« ) 90. Which of the following sequence of reac­
(1) A G = 0 • (2) A S = 0 tions (reagents) can be used for the conver­
sion of C*H 5 C H ,C H 3 in to CtHsCH - C H , ?
(3) A H = 0 (4) A U = 0
(1)S0C/ 2 ;H 20
84. A 5% solution (by mass) of cane sugar in
water has freezing point of 271 K and freez­ (2) S O ^ ; ale KOH
ing point of pure water ia 273.15 K. The (3) C/2'h v ; H20
freezing point of a 5 % solution (by mass) of
(4) SO0 2 ; ale. KOH
glucose in water is
(1) 271 K (2) 273.15 K 91. Isopropyl benzene on air oxidation in the
presence of dilute acid gives :
(3) 269.07 K (4) 277.23 K
85. The energy gaps (E,) between valence band
• (1) QHsCOOH
M id conduction band for diamond, silicon (2) Q H 5COCH 3
and germanium are in the order (3) Q H 5CHO
( 1 ) Eg (diamond) > Eg (silicon) > Eg (germa- (4) Q H 5 OH
nium) 92. Nitrobenzene on treatment with zinc dust
(2 ) Eg (diamond) < Eg (silicon) < Eg (germa- and aqueous ammonium chloride gives :
nium) (1) Q H5 N * N - Q H 5
(3) Eg (diamond) = Eg (silicon) = Eg (germa- (2) C6H5NH 2
nium)
O JQ H sN O
(4) Eg (diamond) > Eg (germanium) > Eg (sili-
(4) Q H5 NHOH
con)
8 6 . The enthalpy change (AH) for the reaction, 93. The major product obtained on the mono-
bromination (with Br, /FeBr^) of the follow­
Nj(g) + 3 H2 (g) -► 2 NH ,(g) is - 92.38 kJ at
ing compound A is
298 K. The internal energy change AU at 298
OCH 3
K is
(1 )-9 2 38 kJ (2 )-8 7 42 W
(3)-97.34 W (4) - 89 9 kJ
87. The products formed when an aqueous solu­
tion of NaBr is electrolyzed in a cell having
inert electrodes are : OCHc.
(1) Na and Br2 (2) Na and O2
(3) Hj. Brz and NaOH
(4) H2 and O2
8 8 . Among the following L-series is
CO2H COgH
OCH3 OCH3
(1) H2N (2) HOHgC Br.
— l— H
(3> J J L (4)
NH2
B r^ C H 3
CHgOH
(3) H (4) H;*! | H 94. The following sequence of reactions on A
gives
COgH
CH2CONH2 (3) CH 3 - CH - CH2
1.Brg|NaOH I 1
•COOCH3 2.He------
--- at “
o — ch 2
(4) CH3 - CH - CH2 - CH2OH
I

a
OH
101. In refraction, light waves are bent on pass­
(2)
0 ^
ing from one medium to the second medium,
because, in the second medium.
(1) The frequency is different
(2) The coefficient of elasticity is different
(4) (3) The speed is different
0 /

(4) The amplitude is smaller


o 102. Two spheres of same size, one of mass 2
Kg and another of mass 4 Kg, are dropped si­
95. Thymine is :
multaneously from the top of Qutab Mlnar
(1 )5 - Methyluradl (2 )4 - Methyluracil (height = 72 m). When they are 1 m above
(3) 3 - Methyluradl (4) 1 - Methyluradl the ground, the two spheres have the same:
96. Lysine is least soluble in water in the pH (1) Momentum (2) Kinetic energy
range : (3) Fbtential energy (4) Acceleration
(1 )3 to 4 (2).5 to 6 103. The moment of inertia of a rod about an
(3) 6 to 7 (4) 8 to 9 axis through its centre and perpendicular to
97. Methyl - a - D - glucoside and methyl - 0 -
it is ^ M L2 (where M is the mass and L, the
D - Glucoside are :
(1) Epimers (2) Anomers length of the rod). The rod Is bent In the mid­
(3) Enantiomers dle so that the two halts make an angle of
60°. The moment of inertia of the bent rod
(4) Conformational diastereomers
about the same axis would be :
98. Which of the following compounds has the
highest boiling point ? {2>^ML2
(1) CH3 CHj CH2 O (2) CH 3 CH2 CHj CH2 O *
ML
(3) CH3 CH (CH 3) Ch^ O (3>^ML2 (4)
8V3
(4) (CH 3)3C a
104. A boat at anchor is rocked by waves whose
99. The correct increasing order of the reactiv­ crests are 100 m apart and velocity is 25 m/
ity of halides for SN1 reaction Is : sec. The boat bounces up once in every
( 1 ) CH3 - CH2 - X < (CH 3)2 CH - X < ( 1 ) 2500 s (2) 75 s
CH2 = CH - CH2 - X < PhCH2 - X (3) 4 s (4) 0.25 s
(2) (CH-^CH - X < CH 3 - CH 2 - X < 105. By sucking through a straw, a student can
reduce the pressure in his lungs to 750 mm
CH2 = CH - CH2 X < PhCHz - X
of Hg (density 13.6 gm/ cm5). Using the
(3) PhCHj - X < (CH 3)2CH - X < CH3 - CH2 - X straw, he can drink water from a glass upto s
< CH 2 = C H -C H 2 - X maximum depth of :
(4) CH2 = C H -C H 2 - X < Ph - CH 2 - X < (1) 10 cm (2) 75 cm
(C H ^C H - X < CH 3 - CH2 - X (3) 136 cm (4) 1.36 cm
106. TWo parallel large thin metal sheets have
100. The major product formed in the following
equal surface charged densities
reaction :
(o = 26.4 x 10' 1 1 C /m2) of opposite signs.
CH 3 C H (C / )C H ,-C H ,O H ^ KOW> is : The electric field between these sheets is :
(1) 1.5 N/C (2) 1 . 5 x 10-1 0 N/C
(1 )C H 3CH = C H -C H 2 o h (3) 3 N/C (4) 3 x 10- 10 N/C
(2)C H 2 = C H -C H 2 -C H 2OH 107. The magnetic moment has dimensions o f:
(1) {L, A] (2H L 2 A1
(3) (L T - 1 A? (4) [L2 T 1 A] 114. A stone thrown into still water creates a
108. A wire mesh consisting off very small circular wave pattern moving radially out*
squares is viewed at a distance off 8 cm wards. If r is the distance measured from the
through a magnifying converging lens of focal centre of the pattern, the amplitude of the
length 10 cm. kept close to the eye. The mag­ wave varies as :
nification produced by the lens is : (l)r ',/2 (2) r"1
(1) 5 (2) 8 (3) r*3 (4) r' 3 2
(3)10 (4)20 115. For Inelastic collision between two spheri­
109. Hard X-rays for the study of fractures in cal rigid bodies :
bones should have a minimum wavelength of (1) The total kinetic energy is conserved
10~M m. The accelerating voltage for elec­ (2) The total potential energy is conserved
trons in X-ray machine should be (3) The linear momentum is not conserved
(!) < 124 2 kV (4) The linear momentum is conserved
(2) > 124.2 kV 116. When a p-n diode is reverse biased, then :
(3) Between 60 kV and 70 kV (1) No current flows
(4) = 100 kV (2) The depletion region is increased
110. In photoelectric effect, the electrons are (3) The depletion region is reduced
ejected from metals if the incident light has
a certain minimum : (4) The height erf the potential barrier is reduced
(1) Wavelength (2) Frequency 117. The operation of a nuclear reactor is said
toe be critical, if the multiplication factor
(3) Amplitude (4) Angie of incidence
(k) has a value
111. A lens is made of flint glass (refractive in­
(1) 1 (2) 1.5
dex - 1.5). When the lens is immersed in a
liquid of refractive index 1.25, the focal (3)2.1 (4)2.5
length : 118. Which of the following diagrams represent
the variation of electric field vector with time
( 1 ) increases by a factor of 1.25
for a circularly polarized light ?
(2) increases by a factor of 2.5
(3) increases by a factor of 1.2 ( 1) 2
( )
(4) decreases by a factor of 1 2
112. The voltage of clouds is 4 x 10* volt with £ IE}
respect to ground. In a lightening strike last­
ing 100 m sec, charge of 4 coulombs is deliv­
Q
ered to the ground. The power of lightening
strike is :
(1) 160 MW (2) 80 MW
(3) 20 MW (4) 500 KW (3)
1IS. Five capacitors, each of capacitance value
C are connected as shown in the figure. The IFI
ratio of capacitance between P and R, and
the capacitance between P and Q Is :
P
119. The circuit given below representes which
of logic operations :

Output
Input
♦-
! 1 ) AND (2) NOT (3) OR (4) NOR
120. A person used force (F). shown in figure to
move a load with constant velocity on given
surface
(3) 2 : 3 (4) 1 : 1
F

0
(1) A is + ve and B - ve and |A| > |B|
<----------- L (2) A is - ve and B + ve ; |A| = |B|
Identify die correct surface profile (3) Both are +ve but A > B
(4) Both are - ve but A > B
125. Circular loop of a
wire and a long / ? \w n
straight wire carry
currents lc and 1 « >
respectively as v T t y 1

shown in figure. As­ H


suming that these
are placed in the
same plane, the
121. Three objects coloured black, gray and magnetic fields will
white can withstand hostile conditions upto be zero at the centre Strak^it
2800*C. These objects are thrown into a fur­ of the loop when the
nace where each of them attains a tempera­ separation A i s :
ture of 2000*C . Which object will glow „ R
brightest ?
( 1 ) the white object (2 ) the black object
lcn (2)h
126. If a street light of mass M is suspended
(3) all glow with equal brightness
from the end of a uniform rod of length L in
(4) gray object different possible patterns as shown in figure
122. Itao balloons are filled, one with pure He
gas and the other by air, respectively. If the
pressure and temperature of these balloons
are same then the number of molecules per
unit volume is :
(1) More in the He filled balloon
(2) Same in both balloons
(3) More in air filled balloon
(4) In the ratio of 1 : 4
123. Flash light equipped with a new set of bat­ (1) Pattern A is more sturdy
teries, products bright white light. As the
batteries wear o u t : (2) Pattern B is more sturdy
(1) The light intensity gets reduced with no change (3) Pattern C is more sturdy
in its colour (4) All will have same sturdiness
(2) Light colour changes first to yellow and then 127. ^*U .has 92 protons and 238 nucleons. It
red with no change in intensity decays by emitting an Alpha particle and be­
(3) It stops working suddenly while giving white comes :
237*
light ■ (l)ifu (2 )^ T h (3 )g H j (4 )£ 'N p
(4) Colour changes to red and also intensity gets 128. The fossil bone has a 14 C : **C ratio,
reduced
124. The spatial distribution of the electric field which is of that in a living animal bone.
due to two charges (A, B) is shown in figure.
Which one of the following statements is cor­ If the half-life time of 14C is 5730 years, thea
rect the age of the fossil bone is :
(1) 11460 years (2) 17190 years
(3) 22920 years (4) 45840 years (3) Decreases
129. Which one of the following Is a possible (4) May either increase or decrease depending on
nuclear reaction : the process used
( 1 ) 5°B + ^ H e ^3N + }H 135. A bimetallic strip consists of metals X and
Y. It is mounted rigidly at the base as shown.
(2) nNa + \H ^Ne + The metal X has a higher coefficient of ex­
(3) IfN p ----- %?Pu + p- + v- pansion compared to that for metal Y. When
the bimetallic strip is placed in a cold bath :
(4 )ilN + {H -► + p- + v
ISO. When guitar string is sounded with a
440 Hz tuning fork, a beat frequency of 5 Hz
is heard. If the experiment is repeated with a
tuning fork of 437 Hz, the beat frequency is 8
Hz. The string frequency (Hz) is :
(1)445 (2)435 (3)429 (4)448
131. A metallic ring is dropped down, keeping
its plane perpendicular to a constant and
horizontal magnetic field. The ring enters the L
region of magnetic field at t = 0 and com­ (1) It will bend towards the right
pletely emerges out at t=T sec. The current (2) It will bend towards the left
in the ring varies as :
(3) It will not bend but shrink
(4) It will neither bend nor shrink
(1) 136. For a wave propagating in a medium, iden­
tify the property that is independent of the
others :
(1) Velocity (2) Wavelength
(3) Frequency
(2) (4) All these depend on each other
137. A leaf which contains only green pigments,
is illuminated by a laser light of wavelength
0.6328 |im. It wound appear to be :
(3) (1) Brown (2) Black
(3) Red (4) Green
138. A Bght emitting <Sode (LED) has a voltage
dnop of 2 volt aaoes it andpanes a current
of 10 mA. Whan it operates wtfi a 6 volt b it
(4) toy fuough a hujfag m U o r R The vahie
of R I s :
132. If Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays carry same (1) 40 kft (2) 4kO
momentum, which has the longest wave­ (3) 200 n (4) 400 ft
length : 139. The minimum potential difference between
(1) Alpha rays (2) Beta rays die base and emitter required to switch a sili­
(3) Gamma rays con transistor ‘O N ’ is approximately :
(4) None, all have some wavelength (1) 1 V (2) 3 V (3) 5 V (4) 4.2 V
133. An amplifier has a voltage gain A« = 1000, 140. Given below is the circuit diagram of an
The voltage gain in dB is : AM demodulator
(1) 30 dB (2) 60 dB
(3) 3 dB (4) 20 dB
134. When you make ice cubes, the entropy of
AM signal
water:
(■1) Does not change
(2) Increases
For good demodulation of AM signal of car­ 149. X-rays were discovered by :
rier frequency f, the value of RC should be : (1) Wilhelm K. Roentgen
(1 )R C = M . (2) RC < 1 /f ■ (2) H. Kissinger
(3 )R C ^ l/ f (4 )R C > > M (3) Sir C. V Raman (4) Meghnad Saha
141. The term ‘CPR ’ often used in first nid 150. Which one of the following literary titles is
stands for : correctly matched with its author ?
(1) Clinic for Pulmonary Rehabilitation (1) Ramayana - Tulsidas
(2) Chemical Prevention of Rhinitis (2) Mahabharat - Vedvyas
(3) Chemo-prophylaxis response- (3) Kumarsambhav - Ravidas
(4) Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (4) Shakuntala - Bhushan
142. Alzheimer's Disease affects : 151. A very much publicized treatment method
(1) Childhood (2) Adolescent 4‘DOTS'* Is being adopted for the cure of :
(3) Young people . (4) Elderly people (1) Dimentia (2) Tetanus (3) Tuberculosis
143. Central Council for Research in Yoga and (4) Sexually transmitted disease
Naturopathy (C C R YN ) is an organization that 152. Which of the following Indian cricket
funds research in the given field in our coun­ player after India-Pakistan OD1 (one-day In­
try. It is located in : ternational) at Abudhabi became no. 1 ODI
(1) New Delhi (2) Rishikesh batsman in the ICC (International Cricket
(3) Bangalore (4) Hyderabad Club) ranking:
144. The vaccination for which one of the fol­ (1) Rahul Dravid (2) Yuvraj
lowing diseases is not covered in the immu­ (3) Sachin Tendulkar (4) M. S. Dhoni
nization schedule so far ? 153. The Jungle in Rudyard Kipplling’s Jungle
(1) Tuberculosis (2) Diphtheria book, describes which part of Indian forest ?
(3) Measles (4) Pneumonia (1) Central Indian forest near Satpura range
145. Which one of the following is true and is (2) Uttranchal thick forest
not a misconception ? (3) Himalayan forest in Himachal
(1) Cutting the top of a bitter cucumber and rub­ (4) Niligiri Jungles
bing it with the corresponding surface removes 154. Sardar Sarovar Dam is built on the river
bitterness
(1) Jhelam (2) Narmada
(2) Ftearl is produced from a drop of rain water fall­
(3) Tapti (4) Vyas
ing into the oyster in Swati Nakshatra
155. One ream of paper equals to :
(3) While dreaming during sleep at night the eyes
move rapidly (1) 100 - 110 sheets (2) 256 sheets
(4) Peahen gets conceived from the tears the drop (3) 480 : 500 sheets (4) 1000 sheets
from the peacock’s eye and she drinks them. 156. Which of the following honour is given by
146. A drug called reserplne was discovered by: U N E SC O ?
<1) Jal Vakil (2) Raul Ehrlish (1) The Kalinga prize (2) Magasay Award
(3) Pulitzer Prize
(3) Hansen (4) Alexander Wood
147. Biometry refers to : (4) Order of the Golden Ark Award
157. 'Body line’ in cricket refers to
{1} Identification o f humans by scanning face and
fingerprints (1) Bowling that hits the/body
(2) Measurement of mechanical displacement in (2) The line of body close to Wicket line
humans (3) The white line on ground within which the
(3) A method of lie detection player stands
(4) Body length relationships across the evolution­ (4) The line of moving ball
ary scale 158. ‘Hindu view of life* is written by :
148. Which one of the following is one of the (1) S. Radhakrishnan (2) R. K Narayan
two days when the sun rises exactly in the (3) V. D. Savarkar (4) John Ruskin
east ?
159. Lagoon refers to :
(!) 14th January (2) 215* March (1) A full moon
(3) 21rt June (4) 23ri December
(2) The sea breaking into the land and then sepa­ 165. Examine the diagram of
rated by sand dunes the two cell types A and B
(3) A spot in a desert made fertile by presence of given below and select the
water correct option :
(4) Horse shoe shaped coral reef. (1) Cell A is the rod cell found
160. Ecology deals with : evenly all over retina
(1) The earth and planets (2) Cell A is the cone cell more
concentrated in the fovea
(2) The relationship between organism and their
centralis
environments
(3) Cell B is concerned with
(3) The life under the sea
colour vision in bright light
(4) Economical growth of poor people
(4) Cell A is sensitive to low light intensities
161. Given below is a table comparing the ef­
166. Which one of the following pairs of fea­
fects of sympathetic and parasympathetic tures is a good example of polygenic inheri­
nervous system for four features (1-4). Which
tance ?
(1) Human height and skin colour
Feature Sympathetic Parasympathetic
NervousSystem NervousSystem (2) ABO blood group in humans and flower colour
Salivary
of Mirabiiis jalapa
1. Stimulates secretion Inhibits secretion
(3) Hair pigment of mouse and tongue rolling in
glands
Pupil of humans
2. Dilate Constricts
the eye (4) Human eye colour and sickle cell anaemia
3. Heart rate Decreases Increases 167. Mating of an organism to a double reces­
Intestinal sive in order to determine whether it is ho­
4. Stimulates Inhibits
peristalsis mozygous or heterozygotis for a character
162. Which one of the following animals is cor­ under consideration is called :
rectly matched with its one characteristic (1) Reciprocal cross (2) Test cross
amd the taxon (3) bihybrid cross (4) Back cross
Animal Characteristic Taxon 168. In which one of the following sets of three
Ventral nerve items each belong to the category men­
1. Millipede Arachnida
cord tioned against them :
2. Duckbill platypus Oviparous Mammalia (1) Lysine, glysine, thiamine - Amino acids
I 3. Silver fish
Pectoral and
Pelvic fins
Chordata (2) Myosin, oxytocin and gastrin - Hormones
(3) Rennin, helicase and hyaluronidase - Enzymes
1163.
4* Sea anemone Triploblastic
All mammals without any exception are
Cnidaria
(4) Optic nerve, oculomotor, vagus - Sensory
nerves
characterized by :
169. A cricket player is fast chasing a ball in
( 1 ) Viviparity and biconcave red blood cells
the field. Which one of the following groups,
(2) Extra-abdominal testes and a four chambered of bones are directly contributing in this
heart movement ?
(3) Heterodont teeth and 12 pairs of cranial nerves (1) Femur, malleus, tibia, metatarsals
(4) A muscular diaphragm and milk producing (2) Pelvis,ulna, patella, tarsals
glands
(3) Sternum, femur, tibia, fibula
164. Which one of the following pairs of the
(4) Tarsals, femur, metatarsals, tibia
kind of cells and their secretion is correctly
matched? 170. Given : a highly simplified representation
of the human sex chromosomes from a
(1) Oxyr.tic cells - a secretion with pH between
karyotype :
2.0 and 3.0
The genes a and b could
(2) Alpha cells of Islets of Langerhans secretion that
be o f:
decreases blood sugar level i ,

(1 ) colour blindness and


(3) Kupfer cells - a digestive enzyme that hydro­
body height
lyses nucleic acids
(2 ) attached ear lobe and
(4) Sebaceous glands - a secretion that evaporates
Rhesus blood group
for cooling
(3) haemophilia and red-green colour blindness (3) goigi bodies and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(4) Phenylketonuria and haemophilia (4) plastids and inherited via male gamete
171. A lizard-like member of Reptllia Is sitting 176. The type of epithelial cells which line the
on a tree with its tail coiled around a twig. inner surface of fallopian tubes, bronchioles
This animal could be : and small bronchi are known as :
(1) Hemidactylus showing sexual dimorphism ( 1 ) squamous epithelium (2 ) columnar epithelium
(2 ) Varanus showing mimicry (3) ciliated epithelium (4) cubical epithelium
(3) Garden lizard (calotes) showing camouflage 177. Tadpoles of frog can be made to grow as
(4) ChamoeJeon showing protecting colouration giant sized tadpoles, If they are :
172. The figure given below shows three veloc­ ( 1 ) administered antithyroid substance like thiourea
ity substrate concentration curves for an en­ (2 ) administered large amounts of thyroxine
zyme reaction. What do the curves a, b, and (3) reared on a diet rich in egg yolk
c depict respectively
(4) reared on a diet rich in both egg yolk and glu­
cose
178. When children play bare footed in pools of
dirty water and flood water, they may suffer
from diseases like :
(1) Leptospirosis and bilharzia
(2) Malaria, amoebic dysentery and leptospirosis
(3) Bilharzia, infective hepatitis and diarrhoea
(4) Guinea worm infection,elephantiasis and
amoebic dysentery
( 1 ) a - normal enzyme reaction,
179. Which one of the following Is an environ­
b - competitive inhibition,
ment related disorder with the correct main
c - non-competitive inhibition cause ?
(2 ) a - enzyme with an allosteric modulator added, ( 1 ) Black lung disease (pneumoconiosis) found
b - normal enzyme activity, mainly in workers in stone quarries and crush­
c - competitive inhibition. ers
(3) a - enzyme with an allosteric stimulator, (2) Blue baby disease (methaemogiobinaemia) due
b - competitive inhibitor added, to heavy use of nitrogenous fertilizers in the
c - normal enzyme reaction. area
(4) a - normal enzyme reaction, (3) Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma found mainly in
workers involved in manufacture of neem
b - non-competitive inhibitor added,
based pesticides
c - allosteric inhibitor added.
(4) Skin cancer mainly in people exposed to ben­
173. Pollution from animal excreta and organic zene and methane
waste from kitchen can be most profitably
180. The figure below shows an angiogram of
minimized b y :
the coronary blood vessel, Which one of the
( 1 ) storing them in underground storage tanks following statements correctly describes,
(2 ) using them for producing biogas what is being done ?
(3) verrrucuhune
(4) using them directly as biofertilizers
174. A person who shows unpredictable moods,
outbursts of emotion, quarrelsome behaviour
and conflicts with others is suffering from :
(1) Borderline personality disorder (BPD)
(2) Mood disorder (3) Addictive disorder
(4) Schizophrenia
175. Genes present in the cytoplasm of eu­
karyotic cells are found la : (1) It is coronary artery which has a cancerous
( 1 ) mitochondria and inherited via egg cytoplasm growth that is being removed
(2 ) lysosomes and peroxisomes
(3) Cytokinins {4) Ethylene
193. What is common between chloroplasts.
chrom op lasts and leucop lasts ?
(1) Presence of pigments
(2) possession of thylakoids and grana
{3} Storage of starch, proteins and lipids
(4) Ability to multiply by a fission-like process
194. Plants of which on* of the following
groups of genera are pollinated by the same
agency:
(1) Tridcum, Cocos, Magnifera
(2) Ficus, Kigelia, Casuarino
(3J Safofa, Morus, Euphorbia
(4) Bombox, Butea, Bauhinio
195. The Montreal Protocol refers to :
(1) Rarsistent Organic FtaUutants
(2) Global wanning and dimate change
(3) Substances that deplete the ozone layer
{4) Biosafety of Genetically Modified Organisms
196. Keystone species deserve protection be­
cause these :
(1) are capable of surviving in harsh environ*
mental conditions
(2) indicate presence of certain minerals in the sot)
(3) have become rare due to over exploitation
(4) play an important role in supporting other spe­
cies
197. In India, we find mangoes with different
flavours colours, fibre content* sugar content
and even shelf-life. The large variation is on
account o f :
(1) Species diversity
{2} Induced mutations
{3} Genetic diversity
(4) Hybridization
198. During protein synthesis in an organism,
at one point the process comes to a halt. Se­
lect the group of the th ru codons from the
following, from which any one of the three
could bring about this h alt:
(1) UUU, UCC, UAU
(2) UUC, UUA, UAC
(3) UAG, UGA, UAA
(4) UUG, UCA, UCG
199. Biosphere Reserves differ from National
Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries because in
the former :
{1) Human beings are not allowed to entei
(2) Ffeopie are an integral part of the system
(3) Plants are paid greater attention than the ani­
mals
(4) Living organisms are brought form all over the
world and preserved for posterity
200. Somaclonal variation is seen in ;
(1) Tissue culture grown plants
(2) Apomicts (3) Fblyploids
(4) Vegetative*, P ^ > ^ , ^ xam race .com
Answers with Explanations
1. (3) Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a serious but 2. (1) Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders charac­
preventable disease that affects the body's muscles terized by uncontrolled division of cells and the
and nerves. It typically arises from a skin wound ability of these cells to invade other tissues, either
that becomes contaminated by a bacterium called by direct growth into adjacent tissue through inva­
Clostridium tetani, which is often found in soil. sion or by implantation into distant sites by metas­
Once the bacteria are in the body, they produce a tasis. Metastasis is defined as the stage in which
neurotoxin (a protein that acts as a poison to the cancer cells are transported through the blood­
body’s nervous system) known as tetanospasmin stream or symphatic system. Cancer may affect
. that causes muscle spasms. The toxin first affects people at all ages, but risk tends to increase with
nerves controlling the muscles near the wound. It age, due to the fact that DNA damage becomes
can also travel to other parts of the body through more apparent in aging. All these characteristics
the bloodstream and lymph system. As it circulates make the cancer importal until the body in which
more widely, the toxin interferes with the normal they resides dies.
activity of nerves throughout the body, leading to 3. (3) Food chains follow a single path as animals find
generalized muscle spasms. Without treatment, food, [tot example : Grass (is eaten by a) GRASS­
tetanus can be fatal. HOPPER (which is eaten by) a FROG {which is
Anti tetanus injection or antitoxin or Equine an- eaten by a) SNAKE (which is eaten by a) HAWK
titetanus is purified concentrated liquid serum Food webs show how plants and animals are con­
(ATS, tetanus antitoxin, TAT) is a protein fraction nected to help them all survive. For Example
isolated from blood of horses hyperimmunized with TREES produce acorns which act as food for many
tetanus anatoxin or toxin. MICE and INSECTS. Because there are many
MICE, the WEASELS, SNAKES AND RACOONS,
www.exam race, com
have food. The inserts in the a c o rn s also attracts The greenhouse gases selectively transmit the in­
BIRDS, SKUNKS, AND OPOSSUMS. With fared waves, trapping some and aBowing some to
SKUNKS, OPPOSUMS, WEASELS and MICE pass through into space. The greenhouse gases ab­
around, HAWKS, KITES. FOXES, and OWLS can sorb these waves and reemits the waves down­
find food. They all the corrected. ward. causing the lower atmosphere to warm.
Thus a network of food chains existing together in Methane stays in the atmosphere for only 10
an ecosystem is known as a food web. years, but traps 2 0 times more heat than carbon di­
In the food web kite occupies a specific position oxide. Fluorocarbons is a general term for any
because being a carnivorous bird it controls the group of synthetic organic compounds that contain
population of lower carnivores and herbivores fluorine and carbon. Many of these compounds,
such as chlorofluorocarbons(CFC’s), can be easily
4. (1) In tissue culture, somatic embryos or embryoids
are non-zygotic embryo like structure that develop converted from gas to liquid or liquid to gas. Be­
in uitro cultures from somatic cells of any type of cause of these properties, CFC’s can be used in
tissue, but it is easier to raise them from culture of aerosol cans, refrigerators, and air conditioners.
immature embryos. Studies in the 1970’s showed that when CFC?s are
5. (2) It was generally accepted that the first organisms emitted into the atmosphere, they break down
were heterotrophic (taking food from outside) and molecules in the Earth’s ozone layer (World
fed off a rich piebiotic "soup." Primitive earth was Book). Since then, the use of CFC?s has signifi­
devoid of oxygen so, only those organisms that cantly decreased and they are banned from pro­
were able to survive within anaerobic conditions duction in the United States.
developed. Then after chemo-autotrophs devel­ The substitute for CFC's are hydrofluorocarbons
oped that used inorganic sources such as H2S, (HFC’s). HFC’s do not harm or breakdown the
NH3, CH4 as the principle sources of energy ozone molecule, but they do trap heat in the at­
6 . (2) Diarrhoeal disease is an important cause of mor­ mosphere. making it a greenhouse gas, aiding in
bidity and mortality in developing countries, espe­ global warming. HFC’s are used in air condition­
cially among children. In a study of 720 faecal ers and refrigerators. The way to reduce emissions
samples from acute diarrhoeal patients various of this gas is to be sure that in both devices the
bacterial pathogens were isolated. An account is coolant is recycled and all leaks are properly fixed
given of their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Many of Also, before throwing the appliances away, be
the E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella strains were sure to recover the coolant in each.
found to be multidrug resistant. This resistance was 8 . (4) Hallucinogens are natural and synthetic (synthe­
transferable and plasmid mediated A few of the E. sized) substances that, when ingested (taken into
coli strains isolated from healthy controls also the body), significantly alter one's state of con­
showed multidrug resistance. Dehydration is com­ sciousness. Hallucinogenic compounds often cause
mon to all types of diarrhoeal diseases In cases of people to see (or think they see) random colors,
acute diarrhoea it would be wise to drink more flu­ patterns, events, and objects that do not exist. Peo­
ids (3-4 litres a day), preferably containing sugar ple sometimes have a a different perception of time
and salts. Ready-mixed rehydration sachets (eg and space, hold imaginary conversations, believe
ORS.Dioralyte, Rehidrat) can be bought from the they hear music and experience smells, tastes, and
pharmacist and added to drinking water other sensations that are not real. So hullucinogens
7 (2) Global warming is the increase of average world can never be used as analgesics.
temperatures as a result of what is known as the Marijuana and hashish, two substances derived
greenhouse effect. Certain gases in the atmosphere from the hemp plant (Cannabis satioa), are also
act like glass in a greenhouse, allowing sunlight considered natural hallucinogens, although their
through to heat the earth's surface but trapping the potency (power) is very low when compared to
heat as it radiates back into space. As the green­
others Marijuana (also called grass, pot, tea, weed,
house gases build up in the atmosphere the Earth
or reefer), a green herb from the flower of the
gets hotter. One of the main greenhouse gases is
hemp plant, is considered a mud hallucinogen.
carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). As trees grow they take in
LSD. which is chemically derived from ergot, a
CO2 from the air. When the wood dies the CO2 is
parasitic fungus (a fungus that lives in or on a host,
returned to the air. Forest clearance and wood
deriving benefits from the host while injuring it)
burning (such as happens in tropical rain forests) is
that grows on rye and other grains.
increasing the latter half of the process, adding to
the CO2 in the atmosphere. Deforestation is now 9. (3) Lethal mutation: genetic mutation that kills cells:
a genetic mutation with an effect so serious that it
out of control. Most people assume that globat
warming is caused by burning oil and gas But in often results in the death of the organism con­
cerned. It is a mutant trait that leads to a pheno­
fact between 25 and 30 percent of the greenhouse
type incapable of effective reproduction. All types
gases released into the atmosphere each year - 1 6
of gene mutations cannot be lethal as most of the
billion tonnes - is caused by deforestation.
mutation are ment for survival and adaptation. That's one of the most frustrating things about
Even mutation that is lethal under one condition global warming - its insidious ability to make other
but not lethal under another condition. environmental problems worse. For example, in
10. (1) The Production of T3 and T4 are regulated by addition to having direct effects such as melting po­
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), released by lar ice caps and increasing heat waves, global
the pituitary gbnd. TSH Production is increased warming also exacerbates seemingly unrelated en­
when T3 and T4 levels are too low. The thyroid vironmental problems like air pollution, species ex­
hormones are released throughout the body to di­ tinction and holes in the ozone layer.
rect the bodies metabolism. They stimulate all cells 15. (1) Public concern about global warming mostly
within the body to work at a better metabolic rate. focuses on carbon dioxide, the most prevalent
Without these hormones the bodies cells would not greenhouse gas. Methane (CH 4 ), the major compo­
be able to regulate the speed at which they per­
nent of natural gas, is second in importance as a
formed chemical actions. Their release will be in­
greenhouse gas. Methane concentration in the at­
creased under certain situations such as cold
mosphere has more than doubled during the last
temperatures when a higher metabolism is needed
200 years. Its current atmospheric concentration of
to generate heat.
1.7 ppm by volume, up from 0.7 ppm in preindus­
11. (4) In collateral vascular bundles, xylem is situated trial times, is much lower than the 345 ppm of
towards inner side and phloem towards outer side carbon dioxide, up from 275 ppm. But one mole­
and both are found on same radii. In monocot cule of methane traps approximately 30 times as
stem vascular bundle are closed, i.e., cambium is much heat as does carbon dioxide.
absent.
Methane is produced as the terminal step of the
12. (3) In Angjosperms, vessel elements in secondary anaerobic breakdown of organic matter in wetland
xylem are present for efficient and rapid conduc­
rice soils. Methane is exclusively produced by
tion of water and this conduction is a passive proc­
methanogenic bacteria that can metabolize only in
ess.
the strict absence of free oxygen and at redox po­
13. (1) To increase cell volume, some specialised cells
tentials of less than -150 mV (which is a property
undergo repeated rounds of DNA replication with­
of wetland rice soil)
out cell division (endomitosis), forming a giant
polytene chromosome. Fblytene chromosomes 16. (3) At the top is the A horizon, or topsoil, in which
form when multiple rounds of replication produce humus—unincorporated, often partially decom­
chromatids that remain synapsed together in a posed plant residue—is mixed with mineral parti­
haploid number of chromosomes. They have char­ cles. Technically, humus actually constitutes
acteristic light and dark banding patterns which can something called the O or organic horizon, the top­
be used to identify chromosomal rearragements most layer. Examples of humus would be leaves
and deletions. Chromosome puffs are diffuse un­ piled on a forest floor, pine straw that covers a
coiled regions of the polytene chromosome that are bare-dirt area in a yard, or grass residue that has
sites of RNA transcription. A Balbiani ring is a large fallen between the blades of grass on a lawn. In
chromosome puff. In addition to increasing the vol­ each case, the passage of time will make the plant
ume of the cells nuclei and causing cell expansion, materials one with the soil. Owing to its high or­
polytene cells may also have a metabolic advan­ ganic content, the soil of the A-horizon may be
tage as multiple copies of genes permits a high black, or at least much darker than the soil below
level of gene expression. Fblytene chromosomes it. In wetlands of tropical rain forests, the topsoil is
were originally observed in the larval salivary shallow and nutrient poor because numerous mi­
glands of Drosophila melalanogaster, but are croorganisms occurring in them quickly break
known to occur in secretory tissues of other dip- down any litter and the nutrients are recycled im­
teran insects such as Malphighian tubules of Chlro- mediately to the plants.
nomus and Sdara. They may also occur in protists, 17. (1) The Gram stain is used to distinguish between
plants, mammals, or in cells from other insects. gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which
14. (4) Two forms of oxygen are found in the strato­ have distinct and consistent differences in their cel
sphere. Molecular oxygen (O j). which is made up walls. Gram-positive cells may become gram nega­
of two atoms of oxygen (0 ), and ozone (O 3) which, tive through mechanical damage, conversion to
as you can see from its chemical formula, is made protoplasts, or aging, in which autolytic enzymes
up of three oxygen atoms. Ozone is formed when attack the walls.
intensive ultra-violet radiation from the Sun breaks In the Gram stain, the cells are first heat fixed and
down O j into two oxygen atoms. These highly re­ then stained with a basic dye, crystal violet, whtck
active oxygen atoms can then react with more O2 is taken up in similar amounts by all bacteria. Tht
to form O3 . slides are then treated with an Ij-KI mixture (mor­
Global wanning and dimate changes are mainly dant) to fix the stain, washed briefly with 95% alco­
due to green house gases. Ozone holes created hol (destained), and finally counterstained with «
continue to grow because of global warming. paler dye of different color (safranin). Gram-posi­
tive organisms retain the initial violet stain, while assertion. Starch is used in todometric titration as
gram-negative organisms are decolorized by the or­ an indicator because starch gives blue colour with
ganic solvent and hence show the pink counter­ free iodine. This blue colour disappears when free
stain. The difference between gram-positive and iodine is completely changed to iodide ion.
gram-negative bacteria lies in the ability of the cell 22. (1) As the bond onder (B.O) increases bond length
wall of the organism to retain the crystal violet. decreases and vice versa.
18. (3) PLANTS absorb light for photosynthesis but as B. O of N 2 = ^
light can itself be dangerous to plants, they need to
protect themselves against -.ts damaging effects. (No. of bonding electron - No. of antibonding
Photorespiration is a light induced oxidation of electron)
photosynthetic intermediate with the help of oxy­
gen. Photorespiration is stimulated by (i) low COj *2 (6-0) -3
concentration (ii) high light intensity (iii) high 0 2
concentration (iv) high temperature (v) aging of B O o f0 2 = j
leaf
(Source Internet) Photorespiration results from the (No. of bonding - No. of antibonding electron)
oxygenase reaction catalysed by ribulose-1,5- - i (6-2) = 2
bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. In this reac­
tion glycollate-2 -phosphate is produced and B O of N 2 is 3 and B.O of 0 2 is 2, therefore, bond
subsequently metabolized in the photorespiratory length of N 2 is less than 0 2 •
pathway to form the Calvin cycle intermediate 23. (1) Optical isomerism only can be shown by the
glycerate-3-phosphate. During this metabolic proc­ compound which are dis-symmetrical or assym-
ess, CO2 and NH 3 are produced and ATP and re­ metrical. The compound (CO (N O ^ (NHa)^ is
ducing equivalents are consumed, thus making symmetrica] because it has plane of symmetry
photorespiration a wasteful process. However, pre­ therefore, it will not show optical isomerism.
cisely because of this inefficiency, photorespiration
24. (2) Down the series E° value becomes more nega­
could serve as an energy sink preventing the over-
tive. In the electrochemical series chromium pre­
reduction of the photosynthetic electron transport
sent below Mn, that is why Mn has more positive
chain and photoinhibition, especially under stress
E° value than chromium.
conditions that lead to reduced rates of photosyn­
Third ionisation potential of Mn is larger tan third
thetic CO; assimilation. Furthermore, photorespira­
IP of Cr because the electronic configuration of
tion provides metabolites for other metabolic
processes, e.g. glycine for the synthesis of glu­ Mn2* is 3d5 4s° and Ci** is 3d4 4s° Mn2* has half
tathione, which is also involved in stress protection. filled 3d6 configuration which is more stable than
In this review, we desenbe the use of photorespira­ 3d4 (less than half filled) configuration of Cr2*
tory mutants to study the control and regulation of therefore, it is difficult to remove the next electron
photorespiratory pathways. In addition, we discuss (3rd electron) from Mn2* (3d5 configuration) as
the possible role of photorespiration under stress compare to 3d4 of Cr** hence, third IP of Mn is
conditions, such as drought, high salt concentra­
more than third IP of Cr.
tions and high light intensities encountered by al­
25. (3) It is true that K2 Cr2 O 7 (potassium dichromate)
pine plants.
is used as a primary standard in volumetric analysis
19. (4) Photosynthetically C4 plants are more efficient
because it is not hydroscopic in nature and there­
than C3 plants because these have Kranz anatomy fore. it does not gain weight by absorbing moisture
(connetive undifferentiated mesophyll around vas­ which leads to purity in state and hence can be
cular bundles with chloroplast containing bundle measured accurately. But K2 Cr2 0 7 is less soluble
sheaths). Bundle sheeth chloroplasts are larger in water.
agranal and without PS-II activity and perform CC 3
26. (3) Silicons are polymeric organosilicon derivatives
cycle. (Kahrin cycle) containing Si - O - Si links. Silicons are inert and
20. (1) Eukaryotic ells have the ability to adopt a vari­ strongly water repellent. The tendency for such in­
ety of shapes and cany out directed movements ertness towards acid, bases, alkalis and water repel­
because they have a network of protein fibres that lent is due to the presence of larger (bulky) organic
support the shape of the cell and keep intact the groups which surrounds the silicone chain.
organelles of the cell. This cytoskeleton (network of 27. (1) According to transition state theory, for the for­
protein fibres) are made up of actin filaments (mi- mation of an activated complex one of the vibra­
crotubulents-stress fibres), microtubules and inter­ tional degrees of freedom is converted in to a
mediate filaments. transitional degree of freedom It is because the en­
21. (2) Both the assertion and reason are inde­ ergy of activated complex is higher than the energy
pendently true but the reason does not satisfies the of reactant molecules
28. ( 1 ) At room temperature, fusion of ice is a sponta­ JtCr.CS'hLSO,
neous process, because the process again proceeds CH3C H 2 -O H ------------------- ► CHjCHO
in that direction where randomness increases. Liq­ (ahyl*J“ ho'> (ORANGECOLOUR)
uid state (water) is more random (i. e , larger en­
tropy) than solid state (ice) Hence, the melting of K.C r.O ,/^
ice into water is spontaneous process [01 - CH3COOH
29. (4) The assertion is wrong because Sfc>2 S3 is sol­ (ORANGE COLOUR) (A°-C “Ck)>
uble in yeflow ammonium sulphide. Here K2O 2O 7 ads as oxidising agent in the pres­
Sb2 S3 + 3 (N H ,)2S ------- » 2 (N H tbSbSa ence of H2SO4 . J^Cr^Oj oxidises CFfoCHjOH
and itself get reduced. The reduced part becomes
C r^S O ^, chromic sulphate which is green in col­
our
K2Cr20 T + 4 H 2S 0 4 ------ ►K*S04 + Cr2 (S 0 &
(Onogi) (pm)
+ 4 HjO + 3 [O]

35. (3) It is true that anilinium chloride is more acidic


than ammonium chloride. But anilinium ion is less
resonance stabtised than aniline, because anilinium
ion does not contain lone pair of electrons, there­
fore resonance is not possible.
Stronger add has weaker conjugate base and vice
The above figure shown sheet like hexagonal struc­
versa, on the basts if above fad, anilinium ion is
ture of graphite in which each carbon atom is sp2 stronger add because aniline is weaker conjugate
hybridized, fo r tetragonal system a* b* c, base.
a = p = Y = 90°. But for a hexagonal system
a = b * c , a * p - 90°, y =* 120°. QHjNHa ----►QHjNHa + H*
Anttnauin ion
31. (2) Both the statements are true independently but (Stronger Add) (W«akcr conjugate base)
reason does not satisfies the assertion. The oppo­
36. (3) Diastereomers - Stereoisomers which are not
site potential if larger than ceil potential than the di­
mirror images of each other are called diastereom-
rection of flow of current will be reversed and it will
ers. These compounds have different physical
reverse the cell reaction also, it means where oxida­
property.
tion was.vice versa. Now zinc ion are converted to
zinc (s) (reduction) at one electrode and Cu is con­ 37. (1) Both the statement is correct and reason ex­
plains the assertion. The nudeophilic substitution
verted in to Cu2* ion (oxidation).
can occur when strong electron-withdrawing
Zn2* (aq) + Cu (s) ------ ►Cu2* (aq) + Zn (s) groups are ortho or para to halogen atom.
32. (3) It is true that Fe3* ion can be used for coagula­ a OH.
tion of AS2S3 sols. It is due to the fact that when dif­
ferent or oppositely charged sols are mixed
together in nearly equal proportions both the sob
may be precipitated totally or partly. When AS2 S3 The mechanism that operates in these reactions is
(negatively charged) is added to Fe(OH )3 (posi­ an addition - elimination mechanism involving the
tively charged) sob, both the sols get precipitated formation of a carbamon with delocalised electrons
simultaneously if such addition of sols are volumet- called a Meisenheimer comp/ex.
rically equal or nearly equal. QJS „O H OH
33. (3) Due to osmosis pure water will enter into the
blood cells, which led to increase in internal pres­
sure therefore cell swells. If we see the concentra­
tion of salt in the blood cell, it will decrease after
osmosis. NOj
34. (3) Ethyl alcohol is volatile and comes out with the Cartanton
(Mnwnhcimer Compiot)
Breath of drunker. When these small vapour of
ethyl alcohol is treated with or get contact with Carbanion is stabilized by electron • withdrawing
acidic K2 Cr2 O7 solution, the colour of the solu­ groups ( - NO 2) in the positions ortho and para to
tion changes from orange to green. the halogen atom
The reaction involved in above alcohol drunk test
is
oh a OH a oh a oh a 45. (1) The phenomenon of nuclear magnetic reso­
nance is used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging,
thus both assertion and reason are correct.
46. (1) The judo fighter initially has to try to bend his
V - V opponent and then rotate him around his hip be­
. N+ N+ cause, then the opponents moment of inertia
N\ - would be reduced and due to the any torque given
$■* v t/ t by a fprce would be resisted but nof the torque by
Especially stable rotation.
(-ve charges a n both an cmygsn atom) 47. (4) The root mean square and the most probable
38. (4) 1, 3-Butadiene is not a monomer of natural speeds are given by v ^ ■ V
rubber but it is isoprene i. 2-m*thyl-l, 5-butadi­
ene. h is a general rule that unsaturated monomer
when polymerises it gives poly addition product. ^propebebii *
Such addition in the case of natural rubber is
through cationic addition polymerization. The reac­ and the maxweflian distribution of velocity it given
tion involved in cationic additioh is by which is not symmetrical.
CH3
M m Wo)
n CHz - C - CH = CHz - -—
CH3
1
CH2-C = CH-CH2>-n
39.(4)
H6r
CH,-CH = CH-CH3 ■+CH3- CH - CHj - CHj 48. (3) The ball bearing is used to reduce the friction
2 -Duura * 49. (1) Gratings produced diffraction patterns and they
Br cannot distinguish different wavelengths as their
2- Bromobutane
spacing is not of the same order.
Above reaction gives only one product i. e., 2-bro-
5 a (4)
mobutene
51. (2) A man inside a freely falling lift M b with zero
40. (1) Addition of non volatile solute in to any volatile relative acceleration
solvent reduces the vapour pressure. Such reduce The reason is correct but is not a correct explana­
in vapour pressure will be in equilibrium with solid
tion
phase at lower pressure and hence at a lower tem­
perature Such addition of non-volatile solute in to 52. (3) The reason is wrong as the work function is de­
solvent results in to depression of freezing point of pendent only on the photoelectric metal.
the solvent. 53. (1) 54.(1)
41. (3) For a wave to propagate in sky, it has to satisfy 55. (3) As the don loses water due to perspiration, it
the principle of sky wave propagation. According enhances its emissivity.
to the principle, if the frequencies of the waves are 56. (2) The reason is not the correct explanations
less than the critical frequency then the waves 57. (1) 58. (2) 59.(1) 6 a (1)
would be reflected back since the ionosphere has 61. (2 ) ii s » Vn (n + 2 )
refractive index less than free space. Thus the as­ where m s - spin only magnetic moment
sertion is wrong. The statement given in reason is
n = number of unpaired electrons
correct but it is not true for the assertion
42. (2) For heavy nuclei (A>100), the binding energy If number of unpaired electrons are same ^s will be
per nuclear decreases due to coulomb repulsion same. In Ci2* and Fe2* the number of unpaired
between the protons inside the nucleus electron is 4 therefore ps is same. Co2* has 3 un­
43. (3) The assertion is true because the common base paired electrons and Mn2+ has 5 unpaired elec­
configuration of npn transistor is used for voltage trons.
amplification with the current amplification being
62. (4) Haemoglobin (Haem - ion; gfobin * gfobda*
very small. protein) contain iron as central atom in prohpyrin
The reason is incomplete and is thus wrong be­ ring. Cytochromes are widely distributed respira­
cause the collector is reverse biased for voltage am­ tory catalyst concentrated in electron transport
plification which has not been mentioned. chain of living cells. Cytochromes are haemoprote-
44. (2) The entropy of an isolated system increases in ins differing in prophyrin groups. K also contains
accordance with the second law of thermodynam­ iron in its prophyrin ring.
ics. -
63. (1) N &2 B4 0 7 (Borax) when dissolves in water and
gives its alkaline solution. Because of this reason
borax is used as water softening and cleansing
agent
Naz B4 Oy + 2 H20 ---- ►2 NaOH + H3BO3
Strong bMM Waafc tad

Sodium hydroxide deans and softens the water.


64. (3) Sulfur (Sulphur) exist in several aUotropic forms
i. e., a , p and y sulphur. All the three forms con­
tains Puckered Sg ring wtth crown conformations.
But Engel's sulphur (e - sulphur) contains Sg rings.
Some other form of sulphur (aliotropes) have been 69. (3) In Haber • Bosch process ammonia gas is pre­
synthesized are pared by reacting H j and N2 in the presence of
S7 , S9 , Sjo . $u 1 S y , Sig and S20 finely divided iron (catalyst) and molybdenum
(promoter).
65. (1) Sodium bicarbonate and magnesium hydroxide
are used to prepare antacid or anti add medical 70. (1) XeF4 involves sp3 d2 hybridisation and its
preparations. shape square planar instead of octahedral due to
NaHC0 3 + H Q ---- > NaCf + ^ 0 + 0 0 2 presence of two lone pair of electron of Xe atom.
Here two lone pair of electron will occupies the po­
Mg(OH)2 + 2 H a ------ ►MgC/2 + 2 H 20 lar position (according to VSEPR theory)
Both the compounds reacts with H Q and neutral­
izes the adds and increase the pH of stomach.

6 6 . (2) The gjass is an amorphous substance which is


dear (watery) solid. It can some time be coloured
after mixing transition dement (especially its ions).
On mixing Co2* ion in the glass gives deep blue
colour.

67. (1) The central atom in dsplatin is Pt and the li­


gands are Q and NH3 . The IURAC name of ds­ SF4 molecule involved sp3 d hybridisation and due
platin is cis-diammine dichloroplatinum (II). to presence of one lone pair of electron the dis­
0\ a torted geometry of see-saw like structure instead of
trigonal bipyramidal.
Pt

NH3
/ \ NH3
It is used as anticancer drug. The structure of ds­
platin is

6 a (3) [C o ^ O ^ (NH 3 )2 )-
(NiCJ4]2' ion involved sp3 hybridisation as foBows
3d 4s
r ox
XX XX XX
m 0
sp hybridisation
Due to sp3 hybridisation its shape is tetrahedral,
[pd C/*}2" ion involved d sp2 hybridisation as fol­
lows
4d 5s 79. (4) Total change in entropy,

0 xx XX = AS«yrt«n+ ^•unoundngi
For spontaneous process
=> ASw^-i > 0
must be positive.

dsp hybridisation
=> Total entropy change is always positive if proc­
Due to the d sp2 hybridization |pd C l4 ion shows ess is spontaneous.
square planar geometry. 80. (1) The Ca2* ions are arranged in ccp arrange­
71. (2) Tincture iodine is a solution of Ij in aqueous Kl. ment. In this arrangement Ca2* ions are present at
all comers and at the centres of each face of the
72. (3) [Ag (C ■ N ^ ]' has 4 n bond which is dear
O cube. The fluoride ion (F“) occupy all the tetrahe­
dral site. There are two tetrahedral sites per atom in
from the diagram. *
a closed packed lattice. This means that there are
( N » C - A g - C » N J " ion. two tetrahedral sites every Ca2* ion. Since F“ ions
* * occupy all the tetrahedral sites, there will be two P
73. ( 1 ) The compound phosphorus pentachkxide ions. Thus the formula of the compound is CaFz.
(PQS) behaves as molecule in gaseous phase. In 81.(2)M nO ; + 2 HjO + 3 e -----► M n O ^ O H "
solid state it acts as ionic solid as It is dear from the above equation that for the re-
IPO,]* {pcy- duction of one mole of MnOi ion to MnOj 3 elec­
Cmxxuc Antonie
tron is required . It is because the oxidation state of
74. (1) Fbtassium iodate and potassium iodide salts are
Mn in MnO< ion is -I- 7 and the oxidation state of
used to prepare iodide salt when its traces are
mixed with large amount of NaQ Mn in MnO^ is + 4.
73. ( 1 ) U3 Ob is the compound used in enrichment of 82. (3) For the reaction
Uranium for power plant. These U3 Og contains x, A + x2 B ---- ►y, C + % D
Uranium - 235 Rate expression for the above reaction is
__1_ dJAj _ _ ± d j B ! a l d [C ] .
76. (1) K. E = jmV*
Xt dt Xg dt yt dt
(where m > maw, V = velocity) 1 d [D }
0.5 = | x l x V * . & dt
Now, for the reaction
=> V= 1m/s 2 N 2 0 5 ---- ►4 NO2 + Oj
de Brogjie wavelength. Rate expression is
h _ 6.626 x IQ-34 Js 1 d [N 2 Q&] 1 d [NO,] dlO *]
mV 1 Kg x 1 ms' 1 ^2 dt " 44 dt dt
J l- 6.626 x l O ^ m 83. (1) For the reaction
77. (2) If the compressibility factor is Z then dominance HaO(/) H2O (s)
of strong repulsive force depends on Z > 1. For a phase change A G * 0
If Z < 1 it is due to attractive force. Because A G° « R T In K
78. (3) 40 ml of 0.1 M NH 3 solution = 40 x 0.1
(A G °- standard free energy change, K=equilib­
=» 4 milli equivalent ammonia solution rium constant]
20 ml of 0.1 M H O = 20x0.1 If a substance is in equilibrium between two phases
=> 2 milli equivalent of HQ at constant temperature and pressure the free en­
For the reaction ergy change is zero.
NH4OH + H O ------►NHjCi + H20
Initially 4 2 0 A T( x W x m
84. (3) For water K* ■
After reaction 4 - 2 0 2 1000 x<o
= 2 (Where W=weight of water. co=wt. of cane sugar,
m=molecular wt. of cane sugar)

K , - 2 1 5 . ! ! 0 0 1 342. 14.7
1000 x 5
=* pOH = 4.74 + log 1 = 4.74 For 5% Q Hu 0 6
pH = 14-4.74 = 9.26
K, x 1000 x o>' 90. (2)
AT,
W x m'
,ci
(vU>e*e 0) ' « wt of C^H^Ofe, m' = molecular wt. of CH2 CH3 SO^
C* Hj2 0 6) (§ r ‘CH3
14.7x 1000x5 QiHsCHgCHa
ATl— iooTiao 408 ,C H -C H 2
Now, freezing point of Q H 12 0 6 solution KOH ale.
-2 7 3 - 4.08 = 269.07 K & *
85. (1) The order of energy gap is CeHsCH-CHg
ESttteMOMi) > ^S(akcon) > ^illp iinlw)
As the energy gap (Eg) increases conductivity de-
91.(4)
CH 3
86. (2) The change in enthalpy
AH - AU + An R T CH 3 - C —H CHa—j —Q-{-OH
(where An « no. of gaseous product - no. of gase­
ous molecule)
- 92.38 x 1000 =>AU - 2 x 8.314 x 298
itopropyl benzene
air * <$
Cumene hydraperatkfc
(Reactant is more in number than product so nega­ (Cumtni)
tive sign is there) OH
A U » - 87424 J = - 87.424 k J O I
87. (3) For the electrolysis of the salt If H jO /H +
CH3 - C - C H 3 + dduUaod
NaBr ^ Na* + Br’
Phenol
HjO H* + OH-
At cathode, 2 H * + 2 e‘ - > H 2 t 92.(4)
At anode, 2 Br" - 2 e ' -* Br2 t
In solution, Na* + O H ' -+ NaOH ,H
NOg "•OH
. (3) According lo com rule, L-serine is
NHg + Zn + H2 O + ZnO

NUrobm m e Phmnyi hydrtxyiorrdne

98. (2) It two o and p - directing group is attached to


H- ■COOH an aromatic ring the directing power of attached
group is in the order of
O' > -NHj > -NRj > -OH > -O-CH 3 >
- NHAc > - CHS> X
CHjOH
L - Serine OCH 3
2-amino-3-hydroxypropanotc add.
It the priority groups i.e.. -N H j, - COOH, So, monobromination of wifl be
- CHjOH, - H are arranged dockwise it is said to CH 3
be a L-form . OCH3 OCH 3
89. (2)
and
V 3
HO— C — H
*
(U)
0)
HO— C— H
I Compound (I) wiO be preferred of less steric effed
CH3
9 i.(3 ) a
100. (4) CH3CH - CH2 - CHa - OH >
OH
l
CH3- CH - CHj - CHj - OH
(M ^ot product
In this reaction halogen atom is replaced by - OH
group (nudeophile).

101. (3) Light bends since the speed of light is different


• in different media.
102. (4) The acceleration due to gravity is independent
of the mass
103. (2) The moment of inertia of the rod about its
1 2
centre and perpendicular to its axis is — ML and
ML
the moment of inertia about one end
3 '
so the moment of inertia about 0 is
O

Thymine. (A nitrogenous base in nucleic acid.


96. (4) Lysin is an aminoackd, it is soluble in law pH or
in aadk: medium but it is less soluble in isoelectric
pH i. e., basic pH or high pH. M M VZf ML*
97. (2) Methyl - a - D - glucoside and methyl - (3 - ” 2 3 * 2 3 * 12
D-glucoside are anomers because they differs only 104 (3) Given k » 100 m, v * 25 m 'sec
at C -1 . .. , 25 m 'sec 1 _t
H OCH3 then the frequency = — -----a —sec

\/
C---------
°V 100 m
So the time of bounce =* 4 sec
4

105. (3) The atm a spheric pressure = 760 mm of Hg


I I The pressure in the lungs = 750 mm of Hg
(CHOHb (CHOH )3 so the difference in pressure » 1 0 mm
» 1 cm of Hg
C H ------
and the density = 13.6 g /on 3
I I
CH2 OH CH2OH so we have 1 x 13.6 x g s / x l x g
Methyl-a-D-glucoside p
Methyl- -D-gkiaxide so I ■ 13.6 cm
96. (2) Boiling point increases if size of alkyl group in­ Thus water can be drawn from a depth of 13.6 cm.
crease and boiling point decreases if branching in­ 106. (3) The surface charge densities on the sheets are
creases. given by a = 26.4 x 10"12 c'tn 2 so the electric field
So the order of boiling point. between the sheets is
CH,-CH, - CH, - CH, -C i > C H ,-C H ,-C H ,-C / ^ 264000^ c
E 6 o ’ 8.85 x 10-12 3N C
> CH AK CH ^H zC/ > (CHjfeC a
107. (2) The dimension of magnetic moment is [L2 A]
99. ( 1 ) The increasing order of reactivity of halides for
108. (1) Given u » - 8 cm, f - 10 cm
£ * 1 reaction is
1 1 1
so using — - •
CH, -CHz - x < (CHO jCH - X v u f

< C H ^ C H -C H z -X < PhCHj - X. we get 1 ,1 i


V u f

zl _L -10 + 8 -2
8 + 10 80 * 80
so v = - 40 cm 116. (2) When a p-n diode is reverse biased, then the
hence the magnification produced by the lens is depletion region of the p-n diode is increased
v -4 0 c 117. (1) When the multiplication factor has a value less
m * - = — — «5 than 1 , then the operation of the nuclear reactor is
u -8
said to be critical
109. (2) Given Km = 1011 m. lia (2 )
hC 1.242 x 10-6 119. (1) The output = product of inputs
120. (3) To move a load with constant velocity, first the
50 v"“ * J C — W * - force is used to overcome the stastk friction and
so VIT^X= 1242 kV
then the body keeps on moving with constant ve­
Which is the accelerating voltage. ■ locity even when the force has been decreased.
110. (2) The electrons are ejected if the incident light 121. (2) The black object will glow the brightest
has certain minimum frequency 122. (2) It it is assumed the balloons have same vol­
111. (2) Given a *, * 1.5 ume, so using PV = nRT, and given is R T are
then the focal length of lens by T same, so ri’ is also same

i , 1V(± n 123. (4) As the battery wears out the filament shows
red colour though if there is no significant change
I ( r , - R, in voltage, colour remains the same but its intensity
decreases.
y=05 * (i) 124. (1) The lines of forces move out from a positive
R. ffej charge and go into a negative charge.
when the lens is immersed in a liquid of refraction 125. (1) The magnetic field due to a circular loop at its
index 1.25, then Mo 2u Ir
centre is B' * ------- — and that due to a straight
— 4x K
J » - 0.25
R, R*J
line at the centre of the loop is B" «
soP - 2.5f • kn
112. (1) The voltage on the douds = 4 x 106 volts so • B = B' - B" = 0
Time of strike « 100 m sec so H = IcR ''* Ic
Charge delivered * 4 coulomb 126. (1) The moment of the tension about the is maxi­
mum in A and it counter balances the moment of
„ t, . . * Worit done
So the power lightening = — —------- mg acting from the centre of the rod.
1ime 127. (2) The emission of an a partide is followed by
4 x (4 x 106 - 0)
(i) Decrease in mass number - 238 - 4 » 234
10 0 x 10 ° (ii) Decrease in atomic number « 9 2 - 2 * 90
16x106
S o ^ T h is emitted.

113. (3) Between P and R, a series combination of two 1 2 & (3) Given the amount of C 14 remaining is - d
capacitances in parallel with a series combination
of three capaatance. Thus equivalent capacitance origin after 5730 years. So the have th of origi­
between P and R is
^ C C 5C
nal value, it takes
^ ' 3 * 2~T
Similarly between P and Q, a parallel combination
=> 4 x 5730 ■ 22920 years.
of one capaatance with a series combination of
129. (3) By conservation of mass number and charg*
four capaatance
no. nNo and }H is the right answer.
tk r pq = rC + -
C 5 C
Thus C = — 130. (1) For beats of 5 Hz, 440 Hz tuning fork is used
for beats of 8 Hz, 432 Hz tuning fork is used
- C f* 4 2
so 445 Hz is the correct small.
50 Cpq * 6 ' 3 131. (2) (i) When the ring enters the magnetic fiekl
114. (1) For a circular wave, the amplitude of the wave the emf is induced and current flows in one direc
varies as A « r~ 1 * tion
115. (4) In the inelastic collision between two spherical (ii) When the ring is inside the filled, there is nc
rigid bodies, the linear momentum is conserved change in flux.
but not the kinetic energy (iii) When the ring gas out, the current is in oppo
site direction to that in (i)
132. (4) For a and p, the wavelength will be de Bro­ notes the vaccine's acellular pertussis components,
glie wavelength and for y waves, the wavelength distinguishing it from whole-cell, inactivated DTP
would be that of electromagnetic waves. (aka DTwP) vaccine. The acellular vaccine uses an­
133. (2) The voltage gain in dB = 20 log 10 A* tigenic fragments of the pertussis pathogen to in­
duce immunity
= 20 log,o ( 10 0 0 ) = 2 0 x 3 = 60 B
MMR/Measles Vaccine is given for protection
134. (3) When water is converted to ice, entropy de­
against measles, the typical fever with rash of child­
creases.
hood
135. (2) In cold bath, length of x decreases more, so it 145. (1) It is an old wives’ tale. Really. Try it with
moves towards left. 1 0 0 cucumbers and not on another 1 0 0 if you don’t
136 (3) For a wave propagating in a medium the fre­ believe me. Some cucumbers can be bitter, especially
quency is independent at the ends, and you might want to cut off the ends
137. (2) If an object reflects the colour of light incident because of this. In particular, cut off the blossom end
on it, it Will appear with that colour but 'f object ab­ of fresh cucumbers, as the blossoms contain enzymes
sorbs the colour of light, it will appear to be black.
that are bitter and others that cause excessive soften­
Since, the given wavelength does not belong to
ing of pickles.
green, so it will be absorbed by the leaf and hence,
it will appear to be black. You can draw out the bitterness in the rest of the cu­
13& The voltage across its ends = 2 v cumber by slicing, salting, and draining it before add­
ing to a salad. This works on the principle of osmosis.
so the pet. drop across R = 6 - 2 = 4v
The principle of bitterness spontaneously leaving the
Current flowing - 10 mA cucumber because you nibbed the end... well, it does
So R ------ — s = 4 0 0 0 no harm, so do it if you want.
10 x 1 0 *3 146.(1) Rustom Jal Vakil returned to India in 1938 af­
139. (1) The potential difference between base and ter earning his medical degree from the University
emitter is IV of London and focused on the treatment of heart
ailments at a time when cardiology was not a dis­
140. (4) For the demodulation to be good, RC > > y. tinct subspecialty in India. In 1949, after years of
scrupulous collation and analysts of data, he pub­
141. (d) CPR : cardiopulmonary resuscitation, a com­ lished a watershed paper on the antihypertensive
bination of rescue breathing (mouth-to-mouth re­ . properties of Rauwolfia serpentina and effected a
suscitation) and chest compressions. If a child isn’t paradigm shift in the management of hypertension.
breathing or circulating blood adequately, CPR can Rauwotfia was the world’s 1st successful blood-
restore circulation of oxygen-rich blood to the pressure-lowering agent, and its acceptance en­
brain. Without oxygen, permanent brain damage couraged research scientists to pursue the
or death can occur in less than 8 minutes. development of other hypotensive drugs. Reser-
142. (4) Alzheimer's (AHLZ-high-merz) disease is a pine was isolated in 1952 from the dried root of
progressive brain disorder that gradually destroys a Rauwolfia serpentina (Indian snakeroot), and intro­
person’s memory and ability to learn, reason, make duced in 1954, two years after chlorpromazine. Re
judgments, communicate and carry out daily activi­ serpine almost irreversibly blocks the uptake (and
ties. It is common in elderly people storage) of noradrenaline and dopamine into sy­
143. (1) The Govt, of India after having recognized the naptic vesicles by inhibiting the Vesicular
need for systematic Research and Development of Monoamine Transporters (VMAT).
Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha Raul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 - August 20, 1915)
and Homoeopathy in the country, established the was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel
“Central Council for Research in Ayurveda, Yoga Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He is noted for his
& Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopa­ work in hematology, immunology, and chemother­
thy" In 1969 as an autonomous organization under apy. Ehrlich predicted autoimmunity and called it
the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 61-65,
"horror autotoxicus”. He coined the term "chemo­
Institutional Area, Janakpuri, Phankha Road, New
therapy" The idea of a "magic bullef is also his,
Delhi-110058
and he is credited with the first empirical observa­
144. (4) The term pneumonia refers to any infection of
tion of the blood-brain barrier.
the lung. The “pneumonia vaccine" is given to pre­
vent one specific type of pneumonia-the pneumo­ 147. (2) Biometry or biometrics is simply defined as
nia caused by the Pneumococcus (Streptococcus automatically recognizing a person using distin­
pneumoniae) bacterium. Vaccination for pneumo­ guishing traits. Biometric identification uses some
nia is not covered in the immunization schedule so unique physiological or behavioural characteristic,
far in India. not shared by any other individual, to positively
identify an individual.
DTaP is an acronym for the combined diphtheria,
tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. The "a" de­
• 148. (2) Each day after the winter solstice, which oc­ Lugcsoon
, ,4 1 n ,n

curs on December 21st, the Sun's path becomes a Small Intestine Motility reduced
Increased
little higher in the southern sky. The Sun also be­ Secretions and
gins to rise closer to the east and set closer to the Large Intestine Motility reduced motility Increased
west until we reach the day when it rises exactly
Decreased urine Increased urine
east and sets exactly west. This day is called the Kidney
secretion secretion
equinox. In the spring we have the Spring Equinox
about March 21st. There is also a Fall Equinox on Increased
September 21st conversion of
Liver
glycogen to
149. (1) In late 1895, a German physicist, W.C- Roent­ glucose
gen while working with a cathode ray tube in his
laboratory discovered X-rays. Norepinephrine
Adrenal meduBa and epinephrine
150.(2) secreted
151.(3) Directly Observed Therapy Shortcourse Wall contracted
W al relaxed
(DOTS) is ttie internationally-recommended TB Bladder
control strategy and is composed of five distinct Sphincter dosed Sphincter relaxed
elements: political commitment; microscopy serv­ It should be noted that the autonomic nervous sys­
ices; drug supplies; surveillance and monitoring tem is always working. It is NOT only active during
systems and use of highly efficacious regimens; and 'fight or flight" or "rest and digest" situations. Rather,
direct observation of treatment. the autonomic nervous system ads to maintain nor­
152. (4) 158. (1) 154. (2) 155. (3) 156.(1) 157. mal internal functions and works with the somatic
a
( 1 ) 15a ( 1 ) 159. (2) 16 (2) nervous system.
161. (2) The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the 162.. (2) T h e D uckbill P la ty p u ' are mammals be­
part of the nervous system of the higher life forms cause the females produce milk and nurse their
that is not consciously controlled. It is commonly young; however they are different as the Duckbill
divided into two usually antagonistic subsystems: platypus, strangely lays eggs. This makes the Duck­
the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous sys­ bill Platypus one of only three Monotremata that
tem, and involves the homeostasis of organs and walk this earth. Originating from the word
physiological functions. monotreme, which means a “single whole or open­
A third and less commonly considered part of the ing”, Monotremata are mammals that b y eggs. The
autonomic nervous system is the enteric nervous Duckbill platypus is a mammal that lays eggs.
system, which controls the digestive organs, arid is, (1) Despite their name (which means "thousand
for the most part, independent of central nervous legs ), millipedes do not have 1,0 0 0 legs • they
system (CNS) input. have from 47 to 197 paiis of legs, depending
In general, the parasympathetic nervous system is on the species. Millipedes .are invertebrates;
involved with digestion and energy conservation, they have a hard exoskeleton and many
while the sympathetic nervous system is involved jointed legs. The nervous system comprises a
with energy expenditure and the Tight or flight' re­ three-part brain, with a nerve cord running the
sponse. body's length, with bundles of coordination
Here is a summary of some of the effects of sympa­ neives. Classification: Kingdom Animalia (ani­
thetic and parasympathetic stimulation. Notice that mals), Phylum Arthropoda (jointed legs and an
effects are generally in opposition to each other. exotkeleton), Superclass Myriapoda ("many-
The A iito w k Nervotte Syetem footed" with a 2 -segmented body - millipedes,
centipedes, etc.), Class Diplopoda (millipedes).
Strectare Syai pathetic P a ra y a pathetic
About 7,500 species of millipedes have been
S tiaalatioa StiaietaHoe
described.
Iris (eye muscle) Pupil dilation Pupil constriction
(3) Leptsma saccharine
Saliva production Saliva production
Salivary Glands * Phylum: Arthropoda
reduced increased
Class: Insecta
Oral/Nasal Mucus production Mucus production
Mucosa reduced increased Order Thysanura
Heart rate and Family: Lepismatidae
Heart rate and
Heart force increased force decreased Genus: Lepisma
Bronchial m usde Bronchial mueck Species: L saccharina
Lung relaxed contracted Lepisma saccharina (commonly caled the fish-
Gastric juke moth, urban silverftsh or just the silverfish) is a
Stomach FVristaisa reduced secreted; motility small, wingless insect. Its common name de­
increased rives from the animal’s silvery grey colour,
while the scientific name indicates the silver-
fish's diet of carbohydrates such as sugar or phragm separates thoracic and abdominal cavi­
starches. It belongs to the basal insect order ties.
Thysanura, and the species is estimated to 9. Excretory system of metanephric kidneys and
have existed for 300 million years. ureters that usually open into a bladder.
(4) Sea anemone ara Diplobiastic: having a body 10. Brain highly developed; 12 pairs of cranial
made of two cdhilar layers only (as opposed to nerves.
the majority of animals which are triptoblastic), 11. Strictly endothermk homeotherms.
the exterior ectoderm and the interior endo-
12. Cloaca present only in monotrcmes (egg-laying
derm. These two layers arc separated by the
mammals, such as duck-billed platypus).
largely non-cellular jeUy-Iike mesogloea.
Classification : Kingdom Animalia (animate). 13. Separate sexes; specialized reproductive and
Phylum Coelenterata (corals, jellyfish, sea copulatory organs.
anemones, hydrcrids), Class Anthozoa meaning 14. Internal fertilization; egg develops in a uterus
"flower-like animals” (corals and sea anemo­ * with placental attachment (except in monotre-
nes), Order Acttniaria mes); fetal membranes (amnion, chorion, aHan-
.63,. (4 ) muscular diaphragm and milk producing tots), sex determination by heterogametic
glands. males (females are isogametic).
( 1 ) monotrcmes are oviparous 15. Young are nourished by milk from mammary
(2) Elephants are one of the exceptions to the rule glands.
that mammals have extra-abdominal testes; so 164. (1) Parietal calls (also cafled oxyntic cels) are
are whales and perhaps other marine mam­ cells located in the stomach epithelium.
mals. Parietal cells contain an extensive secretory net­
(3) AD mammals except the monotrcmes, the eden­ work (called canaliculi) from which the HQ is
tates, the pangolins, and the cetaceans have up secreted by active transport into the stomach.
The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPhse
to four distinct types of teeth, with a maximum
number for each. Thase are the indsor (cut­ (H*/K* ATPase) is unique to the parietal ceBs
ting), the canine, the premotar, and the motor and transports the H * against a concentration
fg r in d ^ M a m n ^ that have dttinrftypra of gradient o f about 3 miiion to 1.
>teeth are heterodont; others are homodont. - (2) Alpha cels ara located In the islets of Langer-
M outh with diphyodont teeth (milk, o r decidu­ hans in the pancreas; they produce the hor­
ous, teeth replaced by a permanent set of mone glucagon, which causes an increase in
teeth); teeth in most spp. are heterodont (teeth the blood sugar level.
with various structures and functions; lower jaw (3) Kupffer cefls are macrophages that are attached
a single enlarged bone (dentary). to the luminal surface or inserted in the endo­
G saeral C h a ra cteristics o f M am m als thelial lining of hepatic sinusoids. In this site,
Kupffer cells play a key role in host defense by
1. Body covered with hair, but reduced in some
removing foreign, toxic and infective Sub­
spp.. stances from the portal blood and by releasing
2. Integument with sweat, scent, sebaceous, and beneficial mediators.
mammary glands. (4) The sebaceous glands are holocrine glands
3. Skeletal features indude: found in the skin of mammals. They secrete an
a. skull with oily substance called sebum (Latin, meaning fat
I. bony palate or ta llo w ) that is made of fat (lipids) and the
II. middle ear with three ossicles (malleus, in­ debris of dead fat-produdng cefls. These glands
cus, and stapes) exist in humans throughout the skin except in
b. Seven cervical vertebrae the palms of the hands and soles of the feet
c. Fused pelvic bones. Sebum acts to protect and waterproof hair and
5. Movable eyelids and fleshy external ears skin, and keep them from becoming dry, brittle,
6 . Four limbs (reduced or absent in some spp.) and cracked It can also inhibit the pewth of
adapted for many forms of locomotion. microorganisms on skin.
7. Circulatory system of 4-chambered heart, non- 165. (2) There are two types o fphotoreceptors in the
nudeated RBC’s, and biconcave RBC’s. human retina, rods and cones.
Rods are responsible for vision at tow light levels
8 . Respiratory system of lungs with alveoli, and
(scotoptc vision). They do not mediate color vision,
voice box (larynx); a secondary bony palate
and have a low spatial acuity.
separates air and food passages; muscular dia­
Coses are active at higher light levels (photopic vi­
sion), are capable of color vision and are responsi-
bie for high spatial acuity. The central fovea is (1) Lysine is an essential amino acid, which means
populated exclusively by cones. There are 3 types that it is essentia] to human health but cannot
of cones which we will refer to as the short-wave- be manufactured by the body. For this reason,
length sensitive cones, the middle-wavelength sen­ lysine must be obtained from food.
sitive cones and the long-wave length sensitive Glycine is a non-essential, neutral, genetically
cones or S-cone, M-cones, and L-cones for short. coded amino acid. It is the only protein-form­
The tight levels where both are operational are ing amino acid without a center of chirality
called mesopk Thiamine is one of the B vitamins, a group of
166. ( 1 ). Polygenic Inheritance is a pattern respon­ water-soluble vitamins that participate in many
sible for many features that seem simple on the of the chemical reactions in the body.
surface. Many traits such as height, shape, weight, (2) M yocin is one of the major proteins of musde
color, and metabolic rate are governed by the cu­ Myosin can slide along filaments of actin, gen­
mulative effects of many genes. Fbiygenic traits are erating force as it does so and using ATP as its
not expressed as absolute or discrete characters, as motive energy source
was the case with Mendel's pea plant traits. In­
Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the pitui­
stead, polygenic traits are recognizable by their ex­
tary gland that stimulates contractions of the
pression as a gradation of small differences (a
continuous variation). uterus during labor and release of milk during
breast-feeding.
167. (2) A teet croee determines whether a particular
characteristic of a plant or animal is homozygous Gastrin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by
dominant (pure bred) or heterozygous dominant the mucous lining of the stomach; induces the
(hybrid) secretion of gastric juice
When you look at someone with a dominant trait, (4) Sensory nerve is a nerve that passes impulses
you can’t tell whether they are homozygous or het­ from receptors toward or to the central nervous
erozygous. For instance, if someone has brown system. Optic nerve is the largest sensory nerve
eyes, they could be BB or Bb Mendel always of the eye; carries impulses for sight from the
started his crosses with a purebred (homozygous) P retina to the brain
generation. How did he know his dominant parent Oculomotor is a motor nerve and b the third
was homozygous? He developed what is known as of twelve paired cranial nerves, ft controls most
a test cross. He took a recessive (in our case blue of the eye movements (cranical nerves IV and
eyes, or bb) and mated it with a pea plant showing VI also do some), constriction of the pupil, and
the dominant trait. If in the F} generation the off­ holding the eyelid open
spring were all dominant, then the dominant par­ Vague is a mixed nerve that supplies the phar­
ent was probably BB. If there were any recessives ynx and larynx and lungs and heart and
in the Fj, then the dominant parent had to be Bb. esophagus and stomach and most of the ab­
168. (3) Rennin is a coagulating enzyme occurring in dominal viscera
the gastric juice of the calf, forming the active prin­ 169. (4) Human leg bonne : trochanter, femur, pa­
ciple of rennet and able to curdle milk. tella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals & phalanges.
Helicase is an enzyme that is capable of unwind­ 170. (3) Haemophilia : A disease in which the block
ing the double helix structure of DNA. fails to dot. The most common form, primarily d
feeling males, is caused by a mutation in a gem
Hyaluronidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the
coding for a clotting protein (factor VIII) inherited
breakdown erf hyaluronic acid in the body, thereby
as an X-bnked recessive phenotype. Rad green col­
increasing tissue permeability to fluids. Also called
our blindness is also a sex linked recessive daeaw
spreading factor. (recessive gene on X chromosome).
By catalyzing the hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid, a
171. (4) Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) an
major constituent of the interstitial barrier, squamates that belong to one of the best known
hyaluronidase lowers the viscosity of hyaluronic families. They are known for their ability to changi
acid, thereby increasing tissue permeability It is, their color, their elongated sticky tongue, and for
therefore, used in medicine in conjunction with their eyes which can be moved independently d
other drugs in order to speed their dispersion and each other. The name "chameleon* means "earf
delivery. The most common application is in oph­ lion" and is derived from the Greek words "chama
thalmic surgery, in which it is used in combination (on the ground, on the earth) and Teon" (bon).
. with local anesthetics. It also increases the absorp­ 172. (1) Enzymes are catalysts. Most are proteins. Er
tion rate of parenteral fluids given by hypodermo- zymes bind temporarily, to one or more of the ten
dysis, and is an adjunct in subcutaneous tants of the reaction they catalyze. In doing so, the
urography for improving resorption of radiopaque lower the amount of activation energy needed an
agents. thus speed up the reaction. In the (pven grapl
curve a shouws normal enzyme reaction, curve I
shows competitive inhibition and curve c shows These tadpoles cease development at an early hin-
non-competitive inhibition. dlimb stage, but continue to grow and develop into
173. (2) Best way to make use of biodegradable pollut­ grossly deformed giants. Giant tadpoles lack thy­
ants is to use them for producing biogas roid glands, and differ in morphology and behav­
174. (1) Borderline personality disorder - It is a iour from normal larvae. They are negatively
type of psychological disorders in which person is buoyant, typically with small and partially solidified
emotionally unstable. They have little sense of self lungs, and have greatly enlarged fat bodies. Giant
since they fed empty, tadpoles have mature gonads with eggs and sperm,
A mood disorder is a condition whereby the pre­ whereas normal tadpoles of the same stage have
vailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropri­ undifferentiated gonads. Larval reproduction has
ate to the circumstances. ‘ never been reported in anurans, but gonadal devel­
The two major types of mood disorders are depres­ opment decoupled from metamorphosis brings
sion (or unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder. ‘ these giants the closest of any anurans to being
Depression (or unipolar depression), including sub- truly neotenic We discuss behavioural and mor­
types: . phological factors that may hinder both reproduc­
Major Depression tion in giant Xenopus larvae and the evolution of
neoteny in anurans in general. Experimental treat­
Major Depression (Recurrent) ment with exogenous thyroid hormone induces
Major Depression with psychotic symptoms some, but not complete, metamorphic changes in
(psychotic depression) these giants. The limbs and head progress through
metamorphosis, however, all tadpoles die at the
Dystfiymfa
stage when the tail would normally be resorbed.
fbstpartum depression The disproportionate growth of tissues and organs
Bipolar disorder, a mood disorder described by al­ in giant tadpoles may predude complete metamor­
ternating periods of mania and depression (and in phosis, even under exogenous thyroid hormone in­
some cases rapid cycling, mixed states, and psy­ duction.
chotic symptoms symptoms). Subtypes indude: 178. (1) BUharzia is a human disease caused by para­
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder. It difficult for a sitic worms called Schistosomes. Over one billion
person to tell the difference between real and un­ humans are at risk worldwide and approximately
real experiences, to think logicaly, to have normal 300 millions are infected. Bilharzia. is common in
emotional responses to others, and to behave nor­ the tropics where ponds, streams and irrigation ca­
mally in social situations. nals harbor bilharzia-transmitting snails, fturasite
175. (1) Mitochondria have their own genetic mate­ larvae develop in snails from which they infed hu­
rial however, and, in sexually reproducing organ­ mans, their definitive host, in which they mature
isms. are inherited only via the cytoplasm of the and reproduce.
egg cell Leptospirosis is a potentially serious illness that
176. (3) These are simple columnar epithelial can affect many parts of the body. Leptospirosis is
cells, but in addition, they posses fine hair-like out­ caused by Leptospira interrogans, a corkscrew­
growths, cilia on their free surfaces. These cilia are shaped bacterium (spirochete). Leptospirosis-caus­
capable of rapid, rhythmic, wavelike beatings in a ing bacteria are common worldwide, especially in
certain direction. This movement of the cilia in a tropical countries with heavy rainfall. Infected ro­
certain direction causes the mucus, which is se­ dents and other wild and domestic animals pass
creted by the goblet cells, to move (flow or stream) the bacteria in their urine. The bacteria can live for
in that direction. Ciliated epithelium is usually a long time in fresh water, damp soil, vegetation,
■ found in the air passages like the nose. It is also and mud. Flooding after heavy rainfall helps
found in the uterus and Fallopian tubes of females. spread the bacteria in the environment Bsople get
The movement of the dlia propel the ovum to the leptospirosis by contact with fresh water, damp soil,
uterus. or vegetation contaminated by the urine of infected
177. (2) Tadpoles treated with thyroxine (thyroid hor­ animals. Fteople who canoe, raft, wade, or swim in
mone) or iodine will develop at an increased rate, contaminated lakes, rivers, and streams can get
whereas tadpoles treated with thiourea, a thyroid- leptospirosis. Leptospirosis is also a problem for
hormone inhibitor, will metamorphose at a slower people who work in contaminated flood plains or
rate. Furthermore, a higher concentration of thy­
wet agricultural settings. Leptospirosis baderia can
roxine will be more effective at speeding metamor­
enter the body through broken dan and mucous
phosis than a lower concentration
membranes. The bacteria can also enter the body
Xenopus laevis tadpoles that arrest development
when a person swallows contaminated food or
and remain as larvae for several years sometimes
water, including water swallowed during water
occur spontaneously in laboratory populations.
sports. Once in the bloodstream, the baderia can
reach all parts of the body and cause signs and in contaminated food or drink. They enter the
symptoms of illness body through the mouth when the contaminated
Hepatitis A is an inflammation of the liver caused food or drink is swallowed. The amoebae are then
by a virus, the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It varies in able to move through the digestive system and take
severity, running an acute course, generally starting up residence in the intestine and cause an infec­
within two to six weeks after contact with the virus, tion. Amoebic dysentery is passed on by careless 01
and lasting no longer than two or three months. negligent hygiene where contaminated food and
HAV may occur in single cases after contact with drink is consumed without adequate heat treat­
an infected relative or sex partner. Alternately, epi­ ment.
demics may develop when food or drinking water Salads washed with contaminated water are a
is contaminated by the feces erf an infected person. common method of spread.
Diarrhoea : Diarrhoea is a symptom of infection 179. (2) The Maximem Contaminant Level (MCL)
caused by a host of bacterial, viral and parasitic or­ of nitrate as nitrogen (N03-N) at 10 m ^L (or 10
ganisms most of which can be spread by contami­ parts per million) for the safety of drinking water.
nated water, it is more common when there is a Nitrate levels at or above this level have been
shortage of dean water for drinking, cooking and known to cause a potentially fetal blood disorder in
infants under six months erf age called methemo­
deaning and basic hygiene is important in preven­
globinemia or “blue-baby' syndrome; in which
tion. Water contaminated with human faeces for
there is a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity
example from municipal sewage, septic tanks and
of blood.
latrines is of special concern. Animal faeces also
contain microorganisms that can cause diarrhoea
Pneumoconiosis is a lung condition that is
caused by inhaling particles of mineral dust, usu­
Diarrhoea can also spread from person to person,
ally while working in a high-risk, mineral-related in­
aggravated by poor personal hygiene. Food is an­
dustry At first, irritating mineral dust can trigger
other major cause of diarrhoea when it is prepared
lung inflammation, which causes areas of the lung
or stored in unhygienic conditions. Water can con­
to be temporarily damaged. Over time, these areas
taminate food during irrigation, and fish and sea­
can progress to form tough, fibrous tissue deposits
food from polluted water may also contribute to
This stage of pneumoconiosis is called fibrosis, f i ­
the disease.
brosis stiffens the lungs and interferes with the
Guinea worm infection : Infection occurs when lung’s normal exchange of oxygen and carbon di­
the parasitic guinea worm resides within the body oxide. . Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis is a respira­
Infection is not apparent until a pregnant female
tory disease caused by inhaling coal dust for
worm prepares to expel embryos. The infection is prolonged periods (Black lung disease)
rarely fatal, but the latter stage is painful. The infec­
tion is also referred to as dracunculiasis, and less
Non-Hodgkin'S lymphoma is cancer that origi­
nates in lymphatic system, the disease-fighting net­
commonly as draconbasis.
work spread throughout the body. In
FTMartaalt :The thread-like, parasitic filarial worms non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, tumors develop from
Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia mdayi that cause white blood ceils (lymphocytes). These tumors can
lymphatic fUariasis live almost exclusively in hu­ occur at different locations in the body. There are
mans. These worms lodge in the lymphatic system, more than 30 types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
the network of nodes and vessels that maintain the Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is more than seven
delicate fluid balance between the tissues and times as common as the other general type of lym­
blood and are an essential component for the phoma — Hodgkin’s disease Causes. Normally,
body’s immune defence system. They live for 4-6 white blood cells (lymphocytes) go through a pre­
years, producing millions of immature microfilariae dictable life cycle Old lymphocytes die, and body
(minute larvae) that circulate in the Mood. creates new ones to replace them. But in non-
The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes that bite Hodgkin’s lymphoma, body produces abnormal
infected humans arid pick up the microfilariae that lymphocytes that continue to divide and grow un­
develop, inside the mosquito, into the infective controllably. This oversupply of lymphocytes
stage in a process that usually takes 7-21 days. The crowds into lymph nodes, causing them to swell.
larvae, then migrate to the mosquitoes* biting Doctors don’t know what exactly causes non-
mouth-parts, ready to enter the punctured skin fol­ Hodgkin's lymphoma. But researchers believe that
lowing die mosquito bite, thus completing the cy­ activation of certain abnormal genes may be in­
cle. volved in the development of all cancers, induding
Amoebic dysentery (amoebiasis) is an infection lymphomas.
of the intestine (gut) caused by an amoeba called Methane being a green house gas has direct effect
Entamoeba histolytica, which, among other things, on ozone depletion (cause of skin cancers) Expo­
can cause . Amoebae are parasites that are found sure to asbestos, a group of minerals found in
housing and industrial building materials can cause (Grafting is limited to dicots and gymnosperms.
a variety of medical problems, such as Mesothe­ Monocots lack the vascular cambium required.)
lioma. In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots,
Studies have shown that people who are exposed and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other
to high amount of benzene are at risk for cancer. plant is selected for its stems, leaves, flowers, or
Benzene is a chemical found in gasoline, smoking, fruits and is called the a d oa .
and pollution. Often called the “asbestos cancer". In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a
Mesothelioma is a disease affecting the abdomen, shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted
chest and areas around the heart onto the stock of another type. In another common
180. (2) A coronary angiogram is a special type of form called budding, a dormant side bud is grafted
X-ray which looks at the blood vessels of the heart. on the stem of another stock plant and when it has
If you have angina or have had a recent heart at­ fused successfully, H is encouraged to grow by cut­
tack you may be asked to undergo this test. Nor­ ting out the stem above the new bud.
mal X-rays would not show up blood vessels A For successful grafting to take place, the vascular
type of dye called 'contrast' is injected into the cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must
blood vessels of the heart that allows us to see be placed in contact with each other. Both tissues
them clearly. The catheter (a thin long length of must be kept alive till the graft has taken, usually a
plastic tubing), which is used to deliver the contrast
period of a few weeks Successful grafting only re­
'dye' to the heart is inserted via a large blood ves­
quires that a vascular connection takes place be­
sel in the groin. You will have this area cleaned and
a local anaesthetic drug will be injected into the tween the two tissues. A physical weak point often
skin so that you do not feel any pain. Once this still occurs at the graft, because the structural tissue
drug has been injected you will feel pressure and of the two distinct plants, such as wood may not
'tugging' at the site but no pain. The catheter is fuse.
passed through a large blood vessel in the groin or 184. (4) Evert concluded that the most likely function
arm all the way up to the coronary arteries. You of P-protein is to seal the sieve plate pores of in*
may be asked to hold your breath or cough during jured sieve elements as a rapid first line of defense.
this procedure. Once the operator enters the blood 185. (2) Myxonycetea also called Mycetozoa, phy­
vessels of the heart a small amount of contrast will lum of funguslike organisms within the kingdom
be injected so that the blood vessels show up on Protista, commonly known as true slime molds.
the X-rays. Rarely this may cause some discomfort They exhibit characteristics of both protozoans
in the chest (one-celled microorganisms) and fungi. Distributed
181.. (3) BRINJAL (Sohnaum melongenet) is suscep­ worldwide, they usually occur in decaying plant
tible to nematode invasion due to multiple crop­ material
ping pattern, good moisture level prevailing and 186. (4) Benthan and H ooker did not know the af­
continued presence of host. Rootknot caused by finities of the families placed under series viii. Or­
meloidogyne incognita is the most destructive elmes anomaly and the families were tentatively
nematode grouped together.
Potato late blij^it is one of the most devastating DICOTYLEDONES
plant diseases. Fbtato late blight, caused by Phyto- 1. POLYPETALAE
phthora infestans Series i. THALAMIFLORAE
Citrus canker is a highly contagious disease of Series ii. DISCIFLORAE
citrus crops caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas Series iii. CALYCIFLORAE
axonopodis pathovar dtri.
2 GAMOPETALAE
Pigeon pea cyst nematode -Heterodera cajani
Series i. INFERAE
182. (4) The basic chromosome number of wheat is 7
Series ii. HETEROMERAE
(x =7) and its hexaploid species contains 42 (6 x
7) chromosomes. Thus, it’s monosomic (one chro­ - Series iii. BICARPELLATAE
mosome missing) contains 41 (42 - 1) chromo­ 3. MONOCHLAMYDEA E
somes, haploid 21 (42/2) chromosomes. Nullisomic Series i. CURVEMBRYEAE
(one chromosome pair missing) contains 40 (40 - Series ii. MULTIOVULATAE AQUATICAE
2) chromosomes and trisomic contains (42 + 1) Series iii. MULTIOVULATAE TERRESTRES
chromosomes. Series rv. M1CREMBRYEAE
183l (2). Grafting is a method of plant propagation
Series v. DAPHNALES
widely used in horticulture, where the tissues of
one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of an­ Series vi. ACHLAMYDOSPOREAE
other. H is most commonly used for the propaga­ Series vii. UN1SEXUAUES
tion of trees and shrubs grown commercially. Series viii. ORDINES A N O M A U
187. (3) Hirudin: An anticoagulant ("bloodthinner"). Montreal protocol limits the production and use ol
Hirudin is the active principle in the salivary secre­ ozone depleting substances such as CFCs.To date
tion of leeches. The name hirudin is from Hirudo more than 175 countries have signed the montrea
medicinalis, the name of the medicinal leech. In protocol. '
1884 John Haycraft in Strasbourg found that 196. (4) A keystone species is a species whose very
leeches contained a substance with anticoagulant presence contributes to a diversity of life and
properties. This anticoagulant in leech saliva was whose extinction would consequently lead to th«
isolated in the 1950s and found to be an an­ extinction of other forms of life. Keystone species
tithrombin (an inhibitor of thrombin). The primary help to support the ecosystem (entire community
chemical structure of hirudin was determined in of life) of which they are a part.
1976. Hirudin is produced from transgenic Bros- 197. (3) Genetic diversity is a characteristic of eco­
sica napus systems and gene pools that describes an attribute
188. (2) The graft consists of a top portion (the . which is commonly held to be advantageous foi
scion), which is the desired plant, growing on the survival - that there are many different versions ol
roots of another plant (the stock). The quality of otherwise similar organisms. For example, the Irish
flowers and fruits of such a composite plant pro­ potato famine can be attributed in part to the fact
duced is mainly determined by scion, (also refer that there were so few different genetic strains ol
Ans. 183) potatoes in the country, making it easier for one vi­
189. (4) Present in photosynthetic bacterian and blue rus to infed and kill much of the crop.
green algae, chromatophore is a simple body that 198. (3) RNA synthesis continues until RNA polym­
lacks the complex internal structure and chemically erase reaches a site on the DNA called the termi­
simpler than chlorophyll of plants. nator or non-eeace codons. Non-sense codons
190. (4) In fungi, a large sporophore, or fruiting body, signal the end of protein molecule’s synthesis
in which sexually produced spores are formed on (UAA, UAG, UGA)
the surface of dub-shaped structures (basidia). 199. (2) A biosphere reserve is a large area protected
Basidiocarps are found among the members of the for its ’natural’ beauty this may indude the various
Basidiomycetes (q.v.), with the exception of plants, the animals feeding on the plants and the
the rust and smut fungi. The largest basidiocarps primary hunters who in turn feed on the herbivores
indude giant puffballs (Calvatia gigantea). which (although man is a part of the biosphere none
can be 1.6 m (5.25 feet) long, 135 m broad have been housed in reserves till date!). National
191. (4) Leghaemoglobin : Form of haemoglobin parks are much the same except for the fact that
found in the nitrogen-fixing root-nodules of leg­ they are usually smaller in size. The origin of the
umes. Binds oxygen, and thus protects the nitiro- word sanctuary comes from the word sanduarium
gen-fixing enzyme, nitrogenase, that is oxygen (Latin origin). It means “a place of safety for in­
sensitive. jured or hurt animals” . Here the animals recoup
192. (1) The Avena geo-curvatare test is a bioassay their numbers away from their “inhuman human
for auxin-type growth regulators. Measurement of enemies
the effect of a known or suspected biologically ac­ 200. (1) Somaclonal variation is the term used to
tive substance on living material is called as bioas describe the variation seen in plants that have been
say. Avena curvature test was first time performed produced by plant tissue culture. Chromosomal re­
by Went for measuring the activity fo auxin hor­ arrangements are an important source of this vari­
mone. ation. Somaclonal variation is not restricted to, but
193. (4) New Plastids arise from preexisting plas- is particularly common in plants regenerated from
tkls by a fission like process. callus. The variations can be genotypic or pheno­
194 (3) Salvia, Calotropis and Mussanda are insect typic, which in the later case can be either genetic
pollinating flowers or epigenetic in origin. Typical genetic alterations
Kadam and Kigelia are bat pollinating flowers are: changes in chromosome numbers (polyploidy
Triticum, Zea mays, Cannabis and Pinus are wind and aneuptoidy), chromosome structure (transloca­
pollinating flowers. tions, deletions and duplications) and DNA se­
quence (base mutations). Typical epigenetic related
195. (3) Montreal Protocol (16 September 1987) 27 in­ events are: gene amplification and gene methyb-
dustrialised countries agreed to limit production of
tion.
chlorofluorocarbons to half the level of 1986,