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1 . The speed of a boat is 5 km/h in still water. It time is given by jc = 3 1 - 4 r 2 t '\ where x is
crosses a river of width 1.0 km along the
in metre and t in second. The work done
shortest possible path in IS min. The velocity
during the first 4 s is :
of the river w ater is : (in km /h)
(a) 570 mJ (b) 450 m j
(a) 5 (tO 1 (c) 490 m j (d) 528 mJ
(c) 3 (d) 4
6. A bullet is fired from a gun. The force on the
2 . Two particles A and B are connected by a rigid
bullet is given by :
rod A8. The rod slides along perpendicular
rails as shown here. The velocity of A to the F = 600 - 2 x 10r’ t
right is 10 m /s. What is the velocity of B when where F is in newton and r in second. The
angle a - 60° ? force on the bullet becomes zero as soon as it
leaves the barrel. What is the average impulse
imparted to the bullet ?
(a) 8 Ns (b) Zero
(c) 0.9 Ns (d) 1.8 Ns
7. Two equal masses m-j and m2 moving along the
same straight line with velocities + 3 m /s and
- 5 m /s respectively collide elastically. Their
velocities after the collision will be respectively :
(a) + 4 m /s for both
(b) - 3 m/s and + 5 m /s
(a) 9.8 m /s (b) 10 m/s (c) - 4 m /s and + 4 m /s
(c) 5.8 m /s (d) 17.3 m /s (d) - 5 m/s and + 3 m /s
3. A mass of 1 kg is suspended by a thread. It is 8. A 5000 kg rocket is set for vertical firing. The
(:) lifted up with an acceleration 4.9 m /sz, exhaust speed is 800 ms"1. To give an initial
(ii) lowered with an acceleration 4.9 m /s2. upward acceleration of 20 m /s 2, the amount of
The ratio of the tensions is : gas ejected per second to supply the needed
(a) 3 : 1 Cb) 1 : 3 thrust will be : (g = 10 ms"2)
Cc) 1 : 2 (d) 2 : 1 (a) 127.5kg s_1 (b) 187.5kg s"1
4. A car moving with a speed of 40 km /h can be (c) 185.5kg s"1 [d) 137.5kg s '1
stopped by applying brakes after adeast 2 m. If
the same car is moving with a speed of 80 km/h, 9. A ball of mass 0.25 kg attached to the end of a
what is the minimum stopping distance ? string of length 1.96 m is moving in a horizontal
(a) 8 m (b) 2 m circle. The string will break if the tension is more
(c) 4 m (d) 6 m than 25 N. What is the maximum speed with
which the ball can be moved ?
5. A force acts on a 3.0 g panicle in such a way
(a) 14 m/s (b) 3 m /s
that the position of the particle as a function of (c) 3.92 m /s (d) 5 m /s
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

10. O is the centre of an equilateral triangle (a) 5 Cb) 1

ABC. Fj, F2 and F3 are three forces acting along Cc) 2 Cd) 3
the sides AB, BC and AC as shown in figure. 15. A mass m is vertically suspended from a spring
What should be the magnitude ofF3 so that the of negligible mass; the system oscillates with a
total torque about O is zero ? frequency n. What will be the frequency of the
system, if a mass 4 m is suspended from the
same spring ?
Cb) 4 n

(d) 2 n

16. A particle, with restoring force proportional to

displacement and resisting force proportional
to velocity is subjected to a force F sin wt. If
(a) (F, + F2) / 2 (b) (Fl - F2) the amplitude of the particle is maximum for
(c) (F, + F2) (d) 2CF1 +F2) to = o>t and the energy of the particle is
maximum for cd= cu2, then :
11. A weightless ladder 20 ft long rests against a
(a) uj) = (i)0 and * Mq
frictionless wall at an angle of 60° from the
(b) o>! = top and <d2 = wo
horizontal. A 150 pound man is 4 ft from the (c) ci>j * cu>oand co2 = toQ
top of the ladder. A horizontal force is needed Cd) * £o0 and m-2 * wj0
to keep it from slipping. Choose the correct where to0 -» natural angular frequency of
magnitude of force from the following : oscillations of particle.
(a) 17.3 pound (b) 100 pound
17. If the ratio of specific heat of a gas at constant
(c) 120 pound (d) 150 pound
pressure to that at constant volume is y, the
12. A thin circular ring of mass M and radius r is change in internal energy of a mass of gas,
rotating about its axis with a constant angular when the volume changes from V to 2 V at
velocity w. Two objects each of mass m are constant pressure P is :
attached gently to the opposite ends of
diameter of the ring. The ring will now rotate (a) 7^ Cb) PV
with an angular velocity : PV yPV
Cc) Cd)
co (M - 2 m) „^ tiiJVf Cy-1) C y -l)
(a) Cb) (M + 2m )
( M + 2 ra ] IS . We consider a thermodynamic system. If AU
(a M a) (M + 2 m) represents the increase in its internal energy
(c) (d)
(M + m) M and W the work done by the system, which of
13. A rubber ball is dropped from a height of 5 m the following statements is true ?
on a planet where the acceleration due to Ca) AU = - W in an adiabatic process
gravity is not known. On bouncing it rises to Cb) AU = W in an isothermal proccss
1.8 m. The ball loses its velocity on bouncing (c) AU = - W in an isothermal process
by a factor o f : (d) AU = W in an adiabatic process
I6 Cb) ~ 19. The radiant energy from the sun,
(0) 25 incident normally at the surface of earth is
/■ > 3
(C) 5 (d4 20 kcal/m 2 min. What would have been the
radiant energy, incident normally on the earth,
14. Two simple pendulums of length 0.5 m and 2.0 if the sun had a temperature, twice of the
m respectively are given small linear present one ?
displacement in one direction at the same Ca) 160 kcal/m2 min
time. They will again be in the same phase Cb) 40 kcal/m2 min
when the pendulum of shorter length has Cc) 320 kcal/m “ min
completed oscillations : Cd) 80 kcal/m2 min
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

20. A transverse wave is represented by the

equation than the size of the dipole) (hen electric field at
2~ Q is proportional to :
y ~ y 0 sin ~ (vt - X) (a) p ‘ and rA Ch) p and r ;;
(c) and r (dj p and r ‘
For what value of ?. is the maximum particle
velocity equal to two times the wave velocity ? 27. A particle of mass m and charge </ is placed at
(a) X = 2 ny0 (b) X- rest in a uniform electric field E anti then
released. The kinetic energy attained by Lhe
to >- = (d) k = ny0 panicle after moving a distance y is :
00 q E y 2 (b) q i r y
21. A vehicle, with a horn of frequency n is moving
to q E y (d) cf E y
with a velocity of 30 m /s in a direction
perpendicular to the straight line joining the 28. A hollow insulated conducting sphere is given
observer and the vehicle. The observer a positive charge of 10 pC. What will be the
perceives the sound to have a frequency n + ’i- electric field at the centre of [he sphtre if its
Then : ( if the sound velocity in air is 300 m/s) radius is 2 m ?
(a) n! = lOn (ti) nj = 0 (a) Zer° (b) 5nCm““
(c) it, =0.1 n (d) nj = -0 .1 n t o 20 pCm"2 (d) 8 n C m -
22. In a sinusoidal wave, the time required for a
29. Three equal resistors conncctcd in series across
particular point, to move from maximum
a source of emf together dissipate 10 watt of
displacement to zero displacement is 0.170 s.
The frequency of the wave is : power. What will be the power dissipated in
(a) 1.47 Hz (b) 0.36 Hz watt if the same resistors are connected in
(c) 0.73 Hz (d] 2.94 Hz parallel across the same source of em f ?
(a) 10/3 (b) JO
23. A standing wave having 3 nodes and 2 (c) 30 (d) 90
antinodes is formed between two atoms
30. A 5°C rise in temperature is observed in a
having a distance 1.21 A between them. The
wavelength of the standing wave is : conductor by passing a current. When the
current is doubled the rise in temperature will
(a) 1.21 A (b) 1.42 A
be approximately:
t o 6.05 A (d) 3.63 A
(a) 16°C (b) 10rC
24. A luminous object is placed at a distance of (c) 20°C (d) 12'C
30 cm from the convex lens of focal length 20
cm. On the other side of the lens, at what 31. If nearly 10'' C liberate 1 g equivalent of
distance from the lens, a convex mirror of aluminium, then the amount of aluminium
radius of curvature 10 cm, be placed in order (equivalent weight 9) deposited through
electrolysis in 20 min by a current of 50 amp
to have an upright image of the object
will b e :
coincident with it ?
(a) 0.6 g Cb) 0.09 g
(a) 12 cm (b) 30 cm
t o 5.4 g (d) lO.Sg
GO 50 cm (d) 60 cm
32. A galvanometer having a resistance of 8 ohm is
25. Light enters at an angle of incidence in a
shunted by a wire of resistance 2 ohm. If the
transparent rod of refractive index n. For what
total current is 1 A, the part of it passing
value of the refractive index of the material of
through the shunt will be :
the rod the light once entered into it will not
leave it through its lateral face whatsoever be (a) 0.25 A (b) 0.8 A
t o 0.2 A (d) 0.5 A
the value of angle of incidence ?
(a) n > 4 2 (b) n = i 33. A roil of one turn is made of a wire of certain
t o n = l .l (d) 71 = 1.3 length and then from the same length a coil of
two turns is made. If the same current is
26. A point Q lies on the perpendicular bisector of
passed in both the cases, then the ratio of the
an electrical dipole of dipole moment p. If the
distance ofQ from the dipole is r ( much larger magnetic induction at their centres will be :
fa'I 7 ■1 CM l • A r,.\ a ■ i i -
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998
111 1.9 eV. The kinetic energy of the photoelectron
34. Two long parallel wires are at a distance of 1
m. Both of them carry one ampere of current. emitted will be :
The force of attraction per unit length between (a) 0.58 eV (b) 2.48 eV
the two wires i s : (c) 1.24 eV Cd) 1.16 eV
(a) 2 x 10 7 N/m (b) 2 x 1 0 * N/m 41. In a photo-emissive cell, with exciting
(c) 5 x 1 0 MN/m (d) 10"7 N/m wavelength the fastest electron has speed v.
If [he exciting wavelength is changcd to 3)y4,
35 . For protecting a sensitive equipment from the the speed of the fastest emitted electron will
external magnetic field, it should be : be :
(a) placed inside an aluminium can (a) v (3/4)’/a
Cb) placed inside an iron can
(c) wrapped with insulation around it when Cb) v(4/3)1/2
passing current through it (c) less than v (4/3)1/J
(d) surrounded with fine copper sheet Cd) greater than v (4/3)1/2
36. Two coils have a mutual inductance of 42. Half-lives of two radioactive substances A and
0,005 H. The current changes in the first coil B are respectively 20 min and 40 min. Initially
according to equation 1 —/q sir. . where the samples of A and B have equal number of
/() = 10A and m = 100 it rad/s. The maximum nuclei. After 80 min the ratio of remaining
value of emf in the second coil is : number of A and B nuclei is :
(a) 2 it GO 5 it (a) 1 :16 Cb) 4 : 1
(c) n (d) 4 ;i Cc) 1 :4 Cd) 1 : 1
37. A step-up transformer operates on a 230 V line 43. Atomic weight of boron is 10.81 and it has two
and supplies current of 2A to a load. The ratio isotopes and ’/ R Then, the ratio of atoms
of the primary and secondary windings is
o f ^ B and r]B in nature would be ;
1 : 25. The current in the primary coil i s :
(a) 15 A (b) 50 A (a) 19: 81 fb) 10 : 11
(c) 25 A Cd) 12.5 A Cc) 15: 16 Cd) 81 : 19
38. The 21 cm radio wave emitted by hydrogen in 44. A nucleus nXnl emits one u and two p particles.
interstellar space is due to the interaction The resulting nucleus is ;
called the hyperfine interaction in atomic n> - 4
(a) „X cw „ .y"‘ 4
hydrogen. The energy of the emitted wave is f n v xn 4
CO n ■■A ^
(d) none of these
n early :
(a) 10.-17 Cb) 1 J 45, Complete the equation for the following fission
(c) 7 xlO -6 J (d) 10"M J process:
<j2U rr1 -------*
- o'1 » c r/ * +
+ ..........
39. In the Bohr's model of a hydrogen atom, the
c e n tr ip e ta l force is furnished by the Coulomb (a) MXe14;* * 3 rfi1
attraction between the proton and the (b) MXe14S
electron. If a0 is the radius of the ground state
orbit, m is the mass and e is the charge on the CO r>7Xe142
electron, f-q is the vacuum permittivity, the Cd) P4 Xch 2 + oH1
speed of the electron is : 46. The cause of the potential barrier in a ;> n
(a) zero (b) diode i s :
(a) depletion of positive charges near tIn­
n Zq Qq fn junction
Cc) (d)
,/4 i:n an m (b) concentration of positive charges near the
40. Light of wavelength 5000 A falls on a sensitive Cc) depletion of negative charges near the
plate with photoelectric work function of junction
(d) concentration of positive and negative
charges near the junction
CBSE Medical Solved Paper 1998
47. A semi-conducting device is connected in a
series in circuit with a battery and a resistance.
A current is allowed to pass through the
(a) (b)
circuit. If the polarity of the battery is reversed,
[he current drops to almost zero. The device
may be :
(a) a p-n junction (c) (d)
(b) an intrinsic semiconductor
(c) a p-type semiconductor (a) A (b) B (c) C (d) D
(d) an n-type semiconductor 50, The truth table given below is for which gate ?
48. The transfer ratio p of a transistor is 50. The Input Output
input resistance of the transistor when used in
the common emitter configuration is 1 kfi. The
0 0 1
peak value of the collector AC current for an
0 1 1
AC input voltage of 0.01 V peak is :
(a) 100 pA (b) 0.01mA 1 0 1

(c) 0.25 mA (d) 500 |jA 1 1 0

49. Which one of the following gates will have an

(a) XOR (b) OR (c) AND (d) NAND
output of 1 ?

51. Given the number, 161 cm, 0.161 cm. in the measurement of the momentum of the
0.0161 cm. The number of significant figures helium atom is :
for the three numbers is : (a) 50 kg ms-1
(a) 3, 4 and 5, respectively (b) 80 kg ms-1
(b) 3, 4 and 4, respectively
(c) 8 0 x 1 0"26 kg m s '1
(c) 3, 3 and 4, respectively
(d) 3, 3 and 3, respectively (d) 5.0 x 1O'26 kg m s '1
52. Haemoglobin contains 0.33% of iron 55. Which one is not paramagnetic among the
by weight. The molecular weight of following ?
haemoglobin is approximately 67200. [Atomic number : Be = 4, Ne = 10, As = 33,
H ie number of iron atoms (at. wt. of Fe is Cl = 17]
56) present in one molecule of haemoglobin (a) Cl“ (b) Be
are : (c) Ne2*’ Cd) As'
(a) 1 (b) 6 56. Number of neutrons in a parent nucleus X,
(c) 4 (d) 2
which gives 7N14 nucleus after two successive
53. Bohr radius for the hydrogen atom (n = 1) is
p-cmmissions would b e :
approximately 0.530A. The radius for the first
(a) 9 (b) 6
excited state (n = 2} orbit is (in A ) :
(c) 7 (d) 8
(a) 0.13 (b) 1.06
(c) 4.77 (d) 2,12 57. In PO^“ ion, the formal charge on each oxygen
54. The position of both, an electron and a helium atom and P—O bond order respectively are :
atom is known within 1.0 mm. Further the (a) - 0.75, 0.6
momentum of the electron is known within 00 -0 .7 5 ,1 .0
5.0 xlO kg ms-1. The minimum uncertainty (c) - 0.75, 1.25
(d) - 3 ,1 .2 5
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998
58. The number of anti-bonding electrons in 0 ^ 66. If K-, and K are the respective equilibrium
molecular ion on the basis of molecular orbital constants lor the two reactions :
theory is (Atomic no. of O is 8 ) : XelvO?)T XcOF4 Cg)~ 2HFfc)
(a) 5 (b) 2 XeO 4 (g )+ XcFtl(g) ^ Xe0174 (g) + XcO jF .fe)
(c) 4 (d) 6 the equilibrium constant of the reaction
59. Schottky defect in crystals is observed when : XeO«Cs)+ 2HFCg) ^ X e03F2Cg)+ H p ( g )
(a) an ion leaves its normal site and occupies will be :
an interstitial site (a) K2/(K 2)2
(b) unequal number of cations and anions are Cb) ■K2
missing from the lattice (c) K:/K>
(c) density of the crystal is increased Cd) JC2/JC,
(d) equal number of cations and anions are 67. In the reaction
missing from the lattice
4NH3(g )+ S 0 2(g)-> 4 N O (g H 6 H p (0
60. The edge length of face centred unit cubic cell
when 1 mole of ammonia and 1 mole of Ck, are
is 508 pm. If the radius of the cation is 110 pm,
made to react to completion then :
the radius of the anion is :
(a) 1.0 mole of H^O is produced
(a) 288 pm (b) 398 pm
(b) 1.0 mole of NO will be produced
(c) 144 pm (d) 618 pm
(c) all the oxygen will be consumed
61. The second order Bragg diffraction of X-rays (d) all the ammonia will be consumed
with X = J.OA froma set of parallel planesin a
68. Identify the correct statement regarding
metal occurs atan angle 60°. Thedistance entropy :
between the scattering planes in the crystals is: (a) At absolute zero temperature, entropy of a
(a) 0,575 A (b) 1.00 A perfectly crystalline substance is taken to
(c) 2.00 A (d) 1.17 A be zero
62. In crystals of which of the following ionic (b) At absolute zero of temperature the
compounds would you expect maximum entropy of a perfectly crystalline substance
distance bet ween ccntres of cations and anions ? is +ve
(c) At absolute zero of temperature the
(a) LiF (b) CsF entropy of all crystalline substance is to be
(c) Csl (d) zero
63. An organic compound containing C, H and N (d) At 0°C, the entropy of a perfectly
gave the following results on analysis C = 40%, crystalline substance is taken to be zero
H = 13.33%, N = 46.67%. Its empirical formula 69. Activation energy of a chemical reaction can be
would be : determined by :
(a) C2H7N2 (b) CI!,N (a) evaluating rate constant at standard
(c) CH4N (d) C2H7N temperature
64. A 5% solution of cane sugar (mol. wt. = 342) is (b) evaluating velocities of reaction at two
isotonic with 1% solution of a substance X. different temperatures
The molecular weight of X is : (c) evaluating rate constants at two different
(a) 34.2 (b) 171.2 temperatures
(c) 68.4 (d) 136.8 (d) changingconcentrationofreactants

65. The vapour pressure of a solvent decreased by 70. One mole of an ideal gas at 300K is expanded
10 mm in two columns of mercury when a isothermally from an initial volume of 1 I. to
non-volatile solute was added to the solvent. 10L. The AE for this process is
The mole fraction of the solute in the solution (ft = 2 c a lm o l" IK’ 1) :
is 0.2. What should be the mole fraction of the (a) 163.7 cal
solvent if the decrease in the vapour pressure (b) zero
is 10 be 20 mm of mercury ? (c) 1381.1 cal
(a) 0.8 (b) 0,6 (d) 9 L atm
(c) 0.4 (d) 0.2
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

71. For the cell reaction, 79. Reaction of CH2 — CIi2 with RMgX leads to
Cuaf (C, ac0 + 7,n(s) ^ Zn2* (C2 aq) + Cu(s)
of an electrochemical cell. The change in free formation of
energy (AG) at a given temperature is a Ca) RCHOHR Cb) RCHOIICIIj
function o f :
(a) InCCj) (b) ln{C 2/ C :) Cc) RCH2CH2OH (d) >C H C H pH
(c) In (C2) Cd) In (C, * C2) R^

72. Without losing its concentration ZnCl2 solution 80. Glucose molecule reacts with ‘X’ number of
cannot be kept in contact with : molecules of phenylhydrazine to yield
(a) Au (b) A1 osazone. The value of *X ' is r
(c) Pb (d) Ag (a) four (b) one
Cc) two (d) three
73. At ihc critical micelle concentration (cmc) the
surfactant molecules : 81. Iodoform test is not given by :
(a) decompose fa) 2-pc man one
fb) dissociate (b) ethanol
(c) associate (c) ethanal
(d) become completely soluble Cd) 3-pentanone
74. IUPAC name of the compound 82. An ester (A) with molecular formula C.jH kP ^
Ck ,C H £ H 3 was treated with excess of CH3MgBr and the
complex so formed was treated with to
give an olefin (B). Ozonolysis of (B) gave a
ketone with molecular formula C#HK0 which
(a) rraris-3 iodo- 4 chloro-3-pentene shows +ve iodoform test. 'Die structure of (A)
(b) ci5-2-chloro-3-iodo-2-pentene is :
(c) rrarLs-2-chloro-3-iodo-2-pemene (a) C[;H5COOC2Hs
Cd) cis-3-iodo-4-chloro-3-pentenc Cb) C6H^C00CoH-,
75. Which of the following compounds is not Cd) p -H ^C O — C6H4 — COCH;{
chiral ?
[a) DCH^H^CHXl Cb) CHoCH^CHDCl 83. Which one of the following esters cannot
Cc) CH3CHDCH2C1 (d) CH3CHC1CH2D undergo Claisen self-condensation ?
76. Which one of the following orders is correct Cb) CoHr,C00C2H5
regarding the -1 effect of the substituents ? Cc) C ^ a i^ G O O C a lls
Ca) -N R 2 < - OR > - F Cd) c (h u c h / : o o c 2u s
Cb) -N R 2 >-OR > - F
Cc) -N R 2 < -O R < - F 84. Which one of these, is not compatible with
Cd) -N R 2 > -O R < - F arenes ?
(a) Greater stability
77. Which one of the following compounds is (tO Delocaiisation of it-elcctrons
resistant to nucleophilic attack by hydroxyl (c) F.lectrophilic additions
ions ? Cd) Resonance
(a) Methyl acetate Cb) Acetonitrile
(c) Dimethyl ether (d) Acetamide 85. Which one of the following compounds will be
most easily attached by an electrophile ?
78. 2-bromopentane is heated with potassium
ethoxide in ethanol. The major product
obtained i s :
(a) 2-ethoxypentane
Cb) pcntcne-1
(c) mms-pentene-2
Cd) ds-pentene-2
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

86. Aniline is reacted with bromine water and the 93. A co-ordination complex compound of cobalt
resulting product is treated with an aqueous has the molecular formula containing five
solution of sodium nitrite in presence of ammonia molecules, one nitro group and two
dilute hydrochloric acid. The compound SO chlorine atoms for one cobalt atom. One mole
formed is converted to a tetrafluoroborate of this compound produces three mole ions in
which is subsequently heated. The final an aqueous solution. On reacting this solution
product i s : with excess of AgNO:i solution, we get two
(a) 1, 3, 5-tribromobenzenc moles of AgCl precipitate. The ionic formula
(b) fhbromofluorobenzenc for this complex would be :
(c) p-bromoaniline (a) [Co(NH3)4(N 0 2)Cn [(N H p ]
(d) 2, 4, 6-mbromofluorobenzene (b) [Co(NII;0Cl][Cl[NO2)l
87. Aspirin is an acetylation product o f : (c) [CoCNHa)r,(N 0 2)lC l2
(a) ohydroxybenzoic acid (d) [Co(NH:.)5][(N 0 2)2CUJ
(b) o-hydroxybenzene 94. Which one of the following elements shows
(c) m-hvdroxybenzoic acid maximum number of different oxidation states
(d) pdihydroxybenzene in its compounds ?
88. The number of molecules of ATP produced in (a) Eu (b) La
the lipid metabolism of a molecule of palmitic (c) Gd (d) Am
acid i s : 95. Which one of the following elements
(a) 130 (b) 36 constitutes a major impurity in pig iron ?
(c) 56 (d) 86
(a) Silicon
89 . In DNA the complementary bases are : (b) Oxygen
(a) adenine and thymine, guanine and Cc) Sulphur
cytosinc (d) Graphite
(b) uracil and adenine, cytosine and guanine 96. When a substance A reacts with w ater it
(c) adenine and guanine, thymine and produces a combustible gas B and a solution of
cytosine substance C in water. When another substance
(d) adenine and thymine, guanine and uracil
D reacts with this solution of C, it also
90. 'file first ionization potential (in eV) of Be and produces the same gas B on warming but D can
B, respectively are : produce gas B on reaction with dilute
(a) 8.29, 9,32 (b) 9.32,9.32 sulphuric acid at room . temperature. ‘A’
(c) 8.29,8.29 Cd) 9.32,8.29 imparts a deep golden yellow colour to a
91. The total number of possible isomers for the smokeless flame of bunsen burner A, B, C, and
complex compound [Cu11(NH;i)4l [Pt!1Cl4J D, respectively are :
(a) Na, H2. NaOH, Zn
(a) 3 (b) 6
(c) 5 (d) 4 (b) K, H2, KOH, Al
(c) CaH3,CaCOH).li,Sn
92. 1UPAC name of [Pt(NH3);i (Br) (N 02)C11 Cl is :
(a) Triammine chlorobromomtro platinum (d) CaC2, C2H2, Ca(OH)2, Fe
(IV) chloride 97. Which one of the following pairs of substances
(10 Triammine bromonitrochloro platinum on reaction will not evolve Ha gas ?
(IV) chloride (a) Iron and H^SO,, (aqueous)
(c) Triammine b romoch loro nit ro platinum (b) Iron and steam
(IV) chloride (c) Copper and HC1 (aqueous)
[dj Triammine nitrochlorobromo platinum (d) Sodium and ethyl alcohol
(IV) chloride
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

98. A one lilre flask is full of brown bnim 1:11c (a ) U re a

vapour. The intensity of brown colour of (b) Superphosphate of lime
vapour will not decrease appreciably on (c) Ammonium sulphate
adding to the flask some : (d) Potassium nitrate
(a) pieces of marble 100. Which one of the following ionic species w
Cb) animal charcoal powder impart colour to an aqueous solution ?
(c) carbon tetrachloride (a) Ti44 (b) Cu+
Cd) carbon disulphide
Cc) Z n ^ (d) C rH
99. Repeated use of which one of the following
fertilizers would increasetheacidityof the soil?

101. The reason why vagetatively reproducing crop 106. Which of the micro-organisms is used f
plants are best suited for maintaining hybrid production of citric acid in industries ?
vigour is that : (a) Lactobacillus bulgaris
(a) they can be easily propagated Cb) PcnctWium citrinum
Cb) they have a longer life span Cc) Aspergillus niger
Cc) they are more resistant to dieases Cd) Rhizopus nigricans
Cd) once a desired hybrid is produced, there
107. Which of the following is not main function
are no chances of losing it
lymph glands ?
102. An adult human with average health has (a) Forming WBC (b) Forming antibod i<
systolic and diastolic pressures a s : (c) Forming RBC (d) Destroying bacter
(a) 80 mm Hg and 80 mm Hg
108. In mammals, histamine is secreted by :
(b) 70 mm Hg and 120 mm Hg
(a) fibroblasts (b) histocytes
(c) 120 mm Hg and 80 mm Hg
(c) lymphocytes Cd) mast cells
(d) 50 mm Hg and 80 mm Hg
109. Which one of the following organisms is u.‘
103. The formation of multivalents at meiosis in
as indicator of water quality ?
diploid organism is due to :
Ca) Bcggmtoa (b) Chlorclla
Ca) monosomy
(c) Azospmllum (d) Escherichia
(b) inversion
(c) deletion 110. Transfusion tissue is present in the leaves o
Cd) reciprocal translocation Ca) Diyopteris (b) Cycas
104. In the developmental history of mammalian (c) Pt'nus Cd) Both Cb) and (c)
heart, it is observed that it passes through a 111. The hormone that stimulates the stomach
two-chambered fish-like hearr, three secrete gastric juice is :
chambcred frog-like heart and finally (a) gastrin (b) renin
four-chambered stage. To which hypothesis (c) enterokinase (d) enterogasirone
can this above cited statement be 112. Phytochrome becomes active in :
approximated ? (a) green light (b) blue lighf
(a) Biogene tic law (c) red light (d) none of these
Cb) Hardy-Weinberg law
(c) Lamarck’s principle 113. Which one of the following statements ah
(d) Mendelian principles Cycas is incorrect ?
(a) It roots contain some blue-green al;>ne
105. Which of the following is the contractile (b) It does not have a well organized fen
protein of a muscle ? flower
(a) Tubulin (b) Myosin (c) It has circinate vernation
(c) Tropomyosin (d) All of these (d) Its xylem is mainly composed of xy
CBSE Medical Solved Paper 1998

14. Plants such as Prosopis. Acacia and Capparis 123. Which important green house gas, other than
represent examples of tropical; CO 2, is being produced from the agricultural
(a) grass lands fields ?
(b) thorn forests (a) Arsine (bj Sulphur dioxide
(c) deciduous forests (c) Ammonia (d) Nitrous oxide
(d) evergreen forests
124. Carbon mono-oxide is a pollutant because :
15. The rate at which light energy is converted into (a) it reacts with Oj
chemical energy of organic molecules is the (b) it inhibits glycolysis
ecosystem’s : (c) reacts with haemoglobin
(a) net primary productivity (d) makes nervous system inactive
(b) gross secondary productivity
125. A plant hormone used for inducing
(c) net secondaiy productivity
(d) gross primary productivity morphogenesis in plant tissue culture is :
(a) abscisicacid (b) gibberellins
L6. The layer of cells that secrete enamel of tooth (c) cytokinins (d) ethylene
is :
126. The exchange of gases in the alveoli of the
(a) dentoblast (b) ameloblast
lungs takes place by :
(e) osteoblast (d) odontoblast
(a) osmosis (b) simple diffusion
.7, Which one among the following chemicals is (c) passive transport (d) active transport
used for causing defoliation of forest trees ?
127. If there was no C 0 2 in the earth’s atmosphere
(a) Amo-1618 (b) Phosphon-D
the temperature of earth’s surface would be :
(c) Malic hydrazide (d) 2, 4-D
(a) same as present
8. Two opposite forces operate in the growth and (b) less than the present
development of every population. One of them (c) higher than the present
is related to the ability to reproduce at a given Cd) dependent on the amount of oxygen in the
rate. The force opposing to it is called : atmosphere
(a) biotic control 128. When a single gene influences more than one
(b) mortality
traits it is called :
(c) fecundity
(a) pleiotropy
(d) environmental resistance
(b) epistasis
9. One of the factors required for the maturation (c) pseudodominance
of erythrocytes i s : (d) none of these
(a) vitamin D (b) vitamin A 129. The role of double fertilization in angiosperms
(c) vitamin (d) vitamin C is to produce :
0. The hormone which regulates the basal (a) endosperm (b) integuments
metabolism in our body is secreted from : (c) cotyledons (d) endocarp
(a) pituitary (b) thyroid 130. Total number of bones i ■ the hind limb of a
fc) adrenal con ex (d) pancreas man is :
1. Loss of an X-chromosome in a particular cell, (a) 14 (b) 21
during its development, results into : (c) 24 (d) 30
(a) diploid individual 131. If Mendel had studied the seven traits usinj.^ a
(b) iriploid individual plant with 12 chromosomes instead of 14, in
fc) gynandromorphs
what way would his interpretation have been
(d) b o th ‘a’a n d ‘b’
different ?
2. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used the (a) He would have mapped the chromosome
industrial production o f : Cb) He would have discovered blending or
(a) butanal incomplete dominance
(b) citric add (c) He would not have discovered the law of
(c) tetracycline independent assortment
(d) ethanol Cd) He would have discovered sex linkage
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998
132. The lower jaw in mammals is made up of : Cb) flowers are of various colours
(a) angulars (b) mandible Cc) flowers can be safely pressed
(c) dentary (d) maxills Cd) reproductive parts are more stable and
133. Botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum conservative than vegetative pans
affects t h e : 142. Calcitonin is a thyroid hormone which :
(a) spleen [a) elevates potassium level in blood
(b) intestine Cb) lowers calcium level in blood
(c) lymph glands [c) elevates calcium level in blood
(d) neuromuscular junction Cd) has no effect on calcium
134. Which of the following is non-symbiotic 143. A bacterium divides every 35 minutes. If a
biofertilizer ? culture containing 105 cells per ml is grown lor
(a) VAM Cb) Azotobacter 175 minutes, what will be the cell
(c) Artabacna Cd) Rhizobium concentration per ml after 175 minutes ?
135. The most important component of the oral Ca) 175 x i o 5 cells (b) 85 x l 0 r cells
contraceptive pills is : Cc) 35 x 10'’ cells (d) 32 x 10'* cells
(a) progesterone
144. Mental retardation in man, associated with sex
(b) growth hormone
chromosomal abnormality is usually due to :
(c) thyroxine
Cd) luteinizing hormone (a) reduction in X complement
(b) increase in X complement
136. The contraction of gall bladder is due to :
(c) moderate increase in Y complement
Ca) gastrin (b) secretin
(d) large increase in Y complement
Cc) cholecystokinin Cd) enterogastrone
145. Which of the following meristems is
137. Microtubule is involved in the :
responsible for extrastclar secondary growth in
Ca) cell division
dicotyledonous stem ?
(b) DNA recognition
(a) Phellogen
(c) muscle contraction
(b) Intra-fascicular cambium
(d) membrane architecture
(c) In ter-fascicular cambium
138. Which base is responsible for hot spots for (d) Inter- calary meristem
spontaneous point mutations ?
146. I.actose is composed of :
(a) Guanine (b) Adenine
(a) glucose + fructose
Cc) 5-bromourciciI (d) 5-methylcytosine
(b) glucose + glucose
139. The age of the fossil of Dryopithecus on the (c) glucose + galactose
geological time scale is : (d) fructose + galactose
Ca) 7 5 x 1 0 ° years back 147. Pucdnia form s:
Cb) 2 5 x 1 0 ° years back (a) uredia and pycnia on barberry leaves
(c) 2.5x10** years back (b) uredia and aecia on wheat leaves
(c) uredia and lelia on wheat leaves
(d) 5 0 x l 0 6 years back
(d) uredia and aecia on barberry leves
140. A sewage treatment process in which a portion 148. Radioactive thymidine when added to the
of the decomposer bacteria present in the medium surrounding living mammalian cells
waste is recycled into the beginning of the gets incorporated into the newly synthesised
process, is called : DNA. Which of the following types of
Ca) cyclic treatment chromatin is expected to become radioactive if
(b) primary treatment cells are exposed to radioactive thymidine as
Cc) activated sludge treatment soon as they enter the S phase ?
(d) tertiary treatment
Ca) Neither hcterochromatin nor euchromatin
141. Floral features are chiefly used in angiosperms but only the nucleolus
identification becau se: Cb) Heterochromatin
[a) flowers are nice to work with Cc) Euchromatin
Cd) Both (b) and (c)
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1999

149. Cellulose, the most important constituent of 158. What is the major cause of diminishing wild
plant cell wall is made up of : life number ?
(a) branched chain of glucose molecules (a) Cannibalism
linked by «, 1 ,6 glycosidic bond at the site (b) Habitat destruction
of branching (c) Felling of trees
Cb) unbranched chain of glucose molecules (d) Paucity of drinking water
linked by a , 1, 4 glycosidic bond 159. Biological control compenent is central to
(c) branched chain of glucose molecules advanced agricultural production. Which of
linked byp, 1, 4 glycosidic bond in straight the following is used as s' third generation
chain and a, 1 ,6 glycosidic bond at the site
pesticide ?
of branching
(a) Pathogens
Cd) unbranched chain of glucose molecules
(b) Pheromones
linked by p, 1, 4 glycosidic bond
(c) Insect repellants
150. Which of the following pesticides is an (d) Insect hormone analogues
acetylcholinesterase inhibitor ? 160. The embryo in sunflower has :
(a) Aldrin Cb) Y-BHC (a) no cotyledon
(c) Endosulfan (d) Malathion (b) one cotyledon
151. In desert grasslands, which type of animals are (c) two cotyledons
relatively more abundant ? ' (d) many cotyledons
(a) Diurnal (b) Arboreal 161. Crossing over in diploid organism is
(c) Aquatic (d) Fossorial responsible for :
152. The long bones are hollow and connected by (a) dominance of genes
air passage. They are the characteristics o f : (b) linkage between genes
(a) aves (b) mammals (c) segregation of alleles
(c) reptilia (d) land vertebrates (d) recombination of linked alleles
153. Ulothrix can be described as a : 162. The main role of bacteria in the carbon cycle
(a) filamentous alga with flagellated involves :
reproductive stages (a) photosynthesis
(b) non-motile colonial alga lacking zoospores (b) assimilation of nitrogenous compounds
(e) filamentous alga lacking flagellated (c) chemo synthes is
reproductive stages (d) digestion or breakdown of organic
(d) membranous alga producing zoospores compounds
154. How many different types of genetically . 163. A condition of failure of kidney to form urine is
different gametes will be produced by a called :
heterozygous plant having genotype AABbCc ? [a) deamination (b) entropy
(a] Two (b) Four (c) Six (d) Nine (c) anuria Cd) none of these
155. In vertebrates lacteals are found in : 164. Human immuno deficiency vims (HIV) has a
(a) ileum (b) ischium protein coat and a genetic material which is :
(c) oesophagous (d) ear Ca) single stranded DNA
Cb) single stranded RNA
156. Which combination of gases is suitable for fruit
(c) double stranded RNA
ripening ? (d) double stranded DNA
(a) 80% C2H4 and 20% C 0 2
(b) 80% C 0 2 and 20% CH2 165. Which one of the following is a protein
(cj 80% CH4 and 20% COa deficiency disease ?
(d) 80% C 0 2 and 20% 0 2 (a) Eczema Cb) Cirrhosis
(c) Kwashiorkor Cd) Night blindness
157. The DNA of E. coli is :
(a) single stranded and linear 166. Largest sperms in the plantsworld are found in:
(b) single stranded and circular [a) Thuja (b) Pin us
(c) double stranded and linear (c) Banyan (d) Cycas
Cd) double stranded and circular
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

167. Recombinant DNA is obtained by cleaving the (a) physical contact between donor and
pro-DNAs b y : recipient strains
(a) primase (b) conjugation between opposite strain
(b) exonucleases bacterium
(c) bacteriophages released from the donor
(c) ligase
(d) restriction cndonuclease bacterial strain
(d) another bacterium having special organ
168. The water potential and osmotic potential of for conjugation
pure water are :
177. The periderm includes :
(a) 100 and zero (b) zero and zero
(c) 100 and 200 (d) zero and 100 (a) cork
Cb) cambium
169. The chemical knives of DNA are : (c) secondary phloem
(a) ligases (b) polymerases (d) all of these
(c) endonucleases (d) transcriptases
178. Typhoid fever is caused by :
170. Which of the following cells, found in testes of (a) Giardia (b) Salmonella
rabbit, secrete male hormone ? Cc) Shigella (d) Escherichia
(a) Leydig’s cell (b) Sertoli cells
179. Most appropriate term to describe the life cycle
(c) Epithelial cells (d) Spermatocytes
of Obelia is :
171. What is agent orange ? (a) neoteny (b) metagenesis
(a) A biodegradable insecticide (c) metamorphosis (d) all of these
(b) A weedicide containing dioxin
(c) Colour used in fluorescent lamp 180. The walking fern is so named because :
Cd) A hazardous chemical used in luminous (a) its spores are able to walk
paints (b) it is dispersed through the agency of
walking animals
172. Genes that are involved in turning on or off the (c) it propagates vegetatively by its leaf tips
transcriptionofasetstructuralgenesarecalled: Cd) it knows how to walk by itself
(a) polymorphic genes
181. The functional unit of contractile system in
(b) operator genes
(c) redundant genes striated muscle i s :
(d) regulatory genes (a) cross bridge (b) myofibril
(O sarcomere (d) Z-band
173. Farmers have reported over 50% higher yields
of rice by using which of the following 182. Bryophytes are dependent on w ater because :
biofertilizer ? (a) archegonium has to remain filled with
water for fertilization
(a) Mycorrhiza
(b) water is essential for fertilization for their
(b) Asolla pinnata
homos porous nature
(cl Cyanobacteria
(d) Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis Cc) w ater is essential for their vegetative
174. The supersonic jets cause pollution by the (d) the sperms can easily reach upto egg in the
thinning o f : archegonium
(a) C 02 layer (b) S 0 2 layer 183. How many genome types are present in a
(c) 0 2 layer (d) 0 3 layer
typical green plant’s cell ?
175. Albinism is known to be due to an autosomal (a) Two Cb) Three
recessive mutation. The first child of a couple Cc) More than five (d) More than ten
with normal skin pigmentation was an albino.
184. Restriction endonucleases are :
What is the probability that their second child
(a) synthesized by dog
will also be an albino ? (b) present in mammalian cells for
(a) 100% (b) 25% (c) 50% (d) 75% degradation of DNA
176. Transfer of genetic information from one Cc) used for in vitro DNA synthesis
bacterium to another in the transduction Cd) used in genetic engineering
process is th ro u g h :
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

185. The diversity in the type of beaks of finches 193. Genetic engineering is possible, because :
adapted to different feeding habits on the (a) the phenomenon of transduction in
Galapagos islands, as observed by Darwin, bacteria is well understood
provides evidence f o r : (b) we can see DNA by electron microscope
(a) origin of species by natural selection (c) we can cut DNA at specific sites by-
(b) intraspecific variations endonucleases like DNAse I
(c) intraspecific competition fd) restriction endonucleases purified from
(d) interspecific competition bacteria can be used in vitro
186. DNA elements, which can switch their 194. Two bacteria found to be very useful in genetic
position, are called : engineering experiments are :
[a) exons (b) introns [a) Nitrosornonas and Klebsiella
(c) cistrons (d) transposons [b) Escherichia and Agrobacterium
187. Which one of the following statements about (c) Nitrobacter and Azotobacter
cytochrome P450 is wrong ? (d) Rhbsobium and Diplococcus
(a) It has an important role in metabolism 195. Species restricted to a given area are called :
(b) It contains iron (a) sibling Cb) endemic
fc) It is a coloured cell (c) sympatric (d) allopatric
(d) It is an enzyme involved in oxidation
196. Which one of the following statements is
reactions correct ?
188. Genetic drift operates only in : Ca) Homo erectus is the ancestor of man
fa) island populations (b) Cro-magnon man’s fossil has been found in
(b) sma 11er po pu la tio n s Ethiopia
(c) larger populations (c) Australopithecus is the real ancestor of
Cd) Mendelian populations modern man
189. A ninterestingm odificationofflow ershapefor (d) Neanderthal man is the direct ancestor of
insect pollination occurs in some orchids in Homo sapiens
which a male insect mistakes the pattern on 197. In a terrestial ecosystem such as forest,
the orchid flower for the female species and maximum energy is in which tropliic level ?
tries to copulate with it, thereby pollinating Ca) T, (b) T2 (c) T3 fd) T4
the flower. This phenomenon is called :
198. A woman with two genes (one on each ‘X’
fa) mimicry chromosome) for haemophilia and one gene for
(b) pseudocopulation colour blindness on the ‘X’ chromosomes
(c) pseudopollination marriesa normal man. How will the progeny be ?
(d) pseud opart henocarpy
Ca) All sons and daughters haemophilic and
190. The response of different organisms to the colourblind
environmental rhythms of light and darkness is (b) Haemophilic and colourblind daughters
called : (c) 50% haemophilic colourblind sons and
(a) phototaxis (b) phototropism 50% haemophilic sons
(c) vernalization (d) photoperiod ism (d) 50% haemophilic daughters and 50%
colourblind daughters
191. Warm ocean surge of the pern current
recurring every 5 to S years or so in the East 199. Solenocytes are the main excretory structures
Pacific of South America is widely known as : in :
(a) Magnox (b) Gull stream (a) annelids ft) molluscs
(c) El Nino (d) Aye Aye (c) echinodermates (d) platyhelminthes

192. In th e five kingdom system of classification, 200. A few organisms are known to grow and
which single kingdom out of the following can multiply at temperatures of 100-105 'C. They
include blue-green algae, nitrogen fixing belong to :
bacteria and methanogenic archaebacteria ? (a) thermophilic subaerial fungi
(a) Monera (b) Fungi (b) marine archaebacteria
(c) Plantae (d) Protista (c) thermophilic sulphur bacteria
(d) hot spring blue-green algae
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

/^ fiy N S W E R S

1. (C) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (a) S. <d) 6. (C) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9. (a) 10. (<=)
11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (b) 14. (C) 15. (o) 16. (c) 17. (o) 18. (a) 19. (c) 20. W)
21. (b) 22. (a) 23. (a) 24. (e) 25. (a) 26. (d) 27. (c) 28. (a) 29. (d) 30. (e)
31. (c) 32. (b) 33. (b) 34. (a) 35. <b) 36. (b) 37. (b) 36. (d) 39. <c) 40. (a)
41. <d> 42. (c) 43. (a) 44. (a) 45. (a) 46. (d) 47. (a) 48. (d) 49. (=) 50. (d)

51. (d) 52. (0 53. (d) 54. (b) 55. (b) 56. (b) 57. (c) 58. (d) 59. (d) 60. (=>
61. (d) 62. (=> 63. (c) 64. (c) 65. (b) 66. (d) 67. (C) 68. (a) 69. (c) 70. (b)
71. fb) 72. (b) 73. (o) 74. (C) 75. (a) 76. (e) 77. (c) 78. (c) 79. (c) 80. (d)
81. (d) 82. (a) B3. (b) 84. (c) 85. Id) 86. Cd) 87. (a) 88. (a) 89. (a) 90. (d)
91, (d) 92. (c) 93. (C) 94. <d) 95. (d) 96. (a) 97. (c) 98. (a) 99. (c) 100. (d)

101. Id) 102. (c) 103. (d) 104. (a) 105. (b) 106. (c) 107. <c) 108. (d) 109. (d) 110. (d)
111. (a) 112. (c) 113. (d) 114. (b) 115. (d) 116. (d) 117. (d) 118. (b) 119. (c) 120. (b)
121. (c) 122. (d) 123. (d) 124. <c) 125. (c) 126. (b) 127. (b) 128. (a) 129. (a) 130. (d)
131. (d) 132. (c) 133. (d) 134. (b) 135. (a) 136. (c) 137. (a) 138. (d) 139. (b) 140. (c)
141. (d) 142. (b) 143. (d) 144. (b) 145. (a) 146. (c) 147. (c) 148. (c) 149. (d) 150. (d)
151. (d) 152. (a) 153. (a) 154. (b) 155. (a) 156. (a) 157. (d) 158. (b) 159. (b) 160. (c)
161. (d) 162. (d) 163. (c) 164. (b) 165. (c) 166. (d) 167. (d) 168. (b) 169. (c) 170. (a)
171. (b) 172. (d) 173. (b) 174. (d) 175. (b) 176. (c) 177. (d) 178. (b) 179. (b) 180. (c)
181. (c) 182. (d) 183. (b) 184. (d) 185. (a) 186. (d> 187. (c) 188. (b) 189. (b) 190. (d)
191. Cc} 192. (a) 193. (d) 194. (b) 195. (b) 196. (a) 197. (a) 198. (c) 199. (d) 200. (b)


l . Let vr = velocity of river Shortest path is taken when vj, is along AB. I
vbr ~ velocity of boat in still w ater and
this case
iv = width of river 7 7
Time taken to cross the river = 1 5 min v br - v ; + v h

_ IS 1_ Now, t
w w

" 60 4 V v 6r -
1 1
4 /= 2 n
\ ' 5 ‘' v r
~ v r = 16
v? = 2 5 - 16 = 9
iV = V9 = 3 km/h
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998
NOTE : If vr i vb, , the boatman can never reach at For same retarding fo rc e ,s * v
point B.
2 . Let the velocity along jr and y axes be vx and s -fe H S T -*
respectively. S2 = 4sj = 4 v 2 = 8 m
dx , dy
A lte rn a tiv e : Initial speed of car
v* ~ d t andv> = dy
u = 40 km /h = 40 * ~ m /s = m /s
From figure. iO 7
y From 3rd equation of motion,
tan u = —
.* v2 - u2 - 2ns
=> y - x tan a
Differentiating Eq. (i) w.r.r. t, we get
dy dx
tan a a= 2500 , 2
_ r m/s
dt dt
=> Vy = vx tan a
Final speed of car = 80 km /h
Here, vx = 10 m /s, a = 60°
Vj, = 10 tan 60°= 10v3 = 17.3 m/S
5 200
= 80 ’<i 8 “ T rn/s
3. K ey I d e a : In a lift weight is the net force Suppose car stops for a distance s \ Then
acting on the mass while going upwards or v2 - u 2
- n2as■
(i) When mass is lifted upwards with an . f 2 0 0 f _ 2500
acceleration a, then 0= [ 9 -J “ 2 " 8 T S
apparent weight , 200 x 200 x 81 _
Tj - mg = ma 5 = 9 , 9 x 2x2500 = Sm
=> Ti = mg + ma
m u 5. Key I d e a : Work done during the first 4s is
'1\ - m[g + a) equal to gain in kinetic energy.
Substituting the values, we mg We have given,
obtain jc = 3 t - 4 1“ + t 3
Tj = (1) (9.8 + 4.9)= 14.7 N So, velocity
(ii) When mass is lowered downwards with an
acceleration a, then T v = ^ = 3 ~ 8 r + 3 t2
mg - T2 = ma At t = 0, vj = 3 “ 0 + 0 = 3 m/s
=> T2 ~ m g ~ m a = m(g - a) A t t = 4 s , v2 = 3 - 8 x 4 + 3 x 4 ”
Substituting the values, we m
= 3 - 32+ 4 8 = 19 m/s
Now work done during t = 0 to t = 4s
T2 - Cl)(9.8 - 4.9) = 4.9 N
mg = gain in kinetic energy
Then, ratio of tensions
1 *>1 2 1 / - 2 2\
'1 _ 14.7 = - mv2 ~ 2 mv» = 2 m ~ V*
= ^ x 3 x 10~3 [(19)2 - (3)2]
Tj : T2 = 3 :1
4 . According to conservation of energy, the kinetic (Using c-2 - bu2 = Ca + f»)(a - h)\
energy of car = work done in stopping the car
= 1.5 x 10 x[(19 + 3) (19 - 3)]
i.e., -1 mv2 = rKs,
= 1.5 xlCT3 x 22x16
where F is the retarding force and s the = 528 *10“3 J
stopping distance.
= 528 mJ
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

6. We have given => v2 ^ , = ( l ) ( 3 t 5 ) ('-' e = 1)

F - 600 - 2 x 10r>t ^ vj - v2 = - 8 ...00
At the bullet leaves the barrel, the force on the Adding Eqs. (i) and (ii), we obtain
bullet becomes zero. 2vj = - 10
So, 600 - 2 x 10s t = 0 => v, = - 5 nVs
600 From Eq. (i),
f - V = 3 x ] 0 '3 s
2 x 10J = - 2 - Vj = - 2 + 5 = 3 m/s
Then, average impulse imparted to the bullet Thus, vx = - 5m /s, v2 = + 3 m/s
A lte rn a tiv e : If two bodies collide elastically,
/ = f Fdt
Jo then their velocities are interchanged. Since, it
f3 * tO”3 is an elastic collision hence, velocities after
=j (600 - 2 x 10 f ) df collision will be -5 m/s and 3 m/s.
8 . Key I d e a : Thrust force on the rocket balances
600 t - — the weight of the rocket.
Thrust force on the rocket
= 600 x 3 xlO - 1 0 5 x (3 x 10 3v!
= 1.8 - 0.9 = 0.9 Ns
A lte rn a tiv e : As obtained in previous Weight of the rocket
method, the time taken by bullet when it w = mg (downwards)
leaves the barrel Net force on the rocket
t = 3 * 1 0 :is Fnet = Ft ~ w
Let Fj an F2 denote the forces at the time of . -d m
firing of bullets i.e., at t = 0 and at the time of ma=v nr mg

leaving the bullet i.e., at t = 3 x 10“3 s.

Fj = 6 0 0 - 2 xlO 5 x 0 = 600 N
.'. Rate of gas ejected per second
F2 - 600 - 2 x 1 05 x 3 x 1 0 ”3 = 0
_ 5000 (10 + 20) 5000 x 30
Mean value of force 800 " 800
1 600+ 0 = 187.5 kg s”1
= 300 N
NOTE ; Problems related to variable mass can be
Thus, impulse = F xt solved in following three steps :
= 300 x 3 x 10”3 1. Make a list of all the forces acting on the main
mass and apply them on it.
= 0.9 Ns
7. K ey Id e a : In an elastic collision, linear 2. Apply an additional thrust force Fr on the mass,
momentum remains conserved.
the magnitude of which is v, ± dm ' and
Given : u: = 3 m/s, u2 = - 5m/s, mj = m2 = m dt
According to principle of conservation of linear
direction is given by the direction of v r in case the
mass is increasing and otherwise the direction of
ffijiij + m # 2 = n^v, + m2v2
- v r if it is decreasing.
n i x 3 - m x 5 = mvj + mv2
Vj + v2 = - 2 3. Find net force on the mass and apply
or ... 0)
In an elastic collision, dv
v2 - v , r nel = m — ■ ( m = mass at that particular
e = — ------
“l ~ u2 instant)

=> v2 - v , = e(u , u2)

CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998
9 . K ey I d e a : In a horizontal circle, tension in tke vv is the weight of man. Suppose N j and N 2 be
string provides the necessary centripetal force. normal reactions of ground and wall
Por a ball to move in horizontal circle, the ball respectively.
should satisfied the condition : In horizontal equilibrium,
Tension in the string = Centripetal force W2 = F
In vertical equilibrium,
Wj = iv
1max ■R Taking moments about A;
: V M
Clockwise torque = Anticlockwise torque
Making substitution, we obtain Ni *CD = N 2 *OB
[2 5 x 1 .9 6 OB
vmax--\| 0 25 but in AAOB, sin 60° = - ^
= v'196 OB = AB sin 60"
= 14 m/s In ABCD,
NOTE : In a vertical circle, the tension at the highest CD
point is zero and at lowest point is maximum. cos 60” =
10 . Let r be the perpendicular distance of CD = BC cos 606
Flt F2 and F3 from O as shown in figure Substituting in Eq. (i), we have
N r x BC. cos 60° = N 2 * AB sin 60'J
1 V~3
vv x BC x - = F x AJ) x

Given : w = 150 pound, AB = 20 ft., BC = 4 ft.

1 V3
. ISO x 4 x - = J' X 20 X~
150 x 4
F ■=
150 x 4 x V3
The torque of force F3 abou t O is clockwise, while 20 x 3
torque due to Fj and Ft are anticlockwise- = 17.3 pound
For total torque to be zero about O, wemust have
12. K ey I d e a : Angular momentum remains
I-\ r + fV ~ f'V = 0 conserved in the universe■
=> F3 = F] + I’2 According to conservation of angular
11. Key I d e a : The net moment about point momentum
o f contact between ground and ladder should be L - constant
zero. or ioi = constant
Let (as shown in figure) AB be a ladder and F
be the horizontal force to keep it from slipping.
Initial moment of inertia
/j =JW R2
and angular velocity
( \i) " (ll

Hence, a)) = MR^ii ...(ii)

When two objects of mass m are attached to
opposite ends of a diameter, the final readings
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998
l2 = M R 2 + m R2 + mR2
.. H .
= (M + 2m) R 2 n - l " V li' “ V 0.5
So, / 2o>2 —(M * 2/7?} "”0)9 or =2
n -l
.-.FromEqs. (i), (iij and (iii) or 71 = 2n - 2
M R2 V) = {M + 2m)K2 to2 n=2
15. Key I d e a : Time period of oscillating system
®2 =
whether it is a simple pendulum or spring-mass
13. K ey I d e a : According to conservation of system, is given by
energy, potential energy at height h - kinetic j _ 2n Ifdisplacement ’j
energy at ground ^ acceleration ) '
Potential energy = Kinetic energy Time period of spring-mass system is
i.e., 1 1 I acceleration
n =—=
T 2n V displacement
=* v = ^2gh
1 Is .„(i)
If hl and h2 are initial and final heights, then "=2 ^7
vj = J2gh^ , v2 = -j2gh2 In case of vertical spring mass system, in
Loss in velocity equilibrium position
Av = Vj - v2 = \2 g h } - -J2gh2 kl = mg => ^ = —
Av I m
Fractional loss in velocity = -
where (= extension in the spring and
■Jlgh 1 - -J2gh2 k - spring constant or force constant of
From Eq. (i), we have
_ 1 fk
■ '- • H Z n 2ti "Vm
Substituting the values, we have 1
or n oc - =
Av _ 11.8 vm
v,' “ 1 V 5 ni 1my
or - L= L
= 1 - v 0.36 = 1 - 0 . 6 n2 V mi
. 0.4 . | but rrij = m, m 2 = 4m; nj = n (given)

14. K ey I d e a : For the pendulum to be again in the — ■J— =2

same phase, there should be difference of 1
complete oscillation. or n2 ~ ‘

If smaller pendulum completes n oscillations

the larger pendulum will complete (n-1) 16. In driven harmonic oscillator, the energy is
maximum at (o2 - o>0 and amplitude is
oscillations, so
maximum at frequency u 1 < m0 in the presence
Time period of n oscillations of first =■ Time of damping. So, mj * m0 and <i)2 = «>o-
period of (n-1) oscillations of second
17. Change in internal energy is
i.e., nT\ = [n - 1 )TZ

Here, V} = V, V2 = 2V
or n^Lj = ( n - l ) ^
AU = ” y [P * 2 V -P x V ]
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

1 21. When velocity of source (vehicle) is

" 7-1 perpendicular to the line joining the observer
PV and source, then there is no Doppler's effect of
~y-l sound or, there is no change in apparent
frequency. Therefore, nx = 0.
NOTE: The internal energy of an ideal gas depends
only on its absolute temperature (7) and is directly 22. If T is the time period, then time required for a
proportional to T. point to move from maximum displacement to
18. An isothermal process is a constant zero displacement is —.
temperature process. In this process, T =
constant or AT = 0. r-r = 0.170
AU = nCv AT = 0
or T = 0.170 * 4 = 0.680 s
An adiabatic process is defined as one with no
Therefore, the frequency of wave is
heat transfer into or out of a system.
Therefore, Q = 0. From the first law of
"4 =d « r M7H*
W = -A tf 23. Key Id e a : The given standing wave has 2
or A l/= - W .
The given standing wave has shown in the
19. According to Stefan's law, the rate at which
an object radiates energy is proportional to
the fourth power of its absolute temperature
E - oT* or E tcT*

As length of one loop or segment is so

£2 U 2J
Here, 7^ = T, Ta = 2T, £j = 20 k c a l/n r min length of 2 segments is 2 j .
20 = ( T \ 2
2 ^ -1 .2 1 A
E2 { 2 T J
20 1 => X = 1.21 A
E2 = 16
24. The lens formula is ^
J V u
E2 = 20 x 16
- 320 kcal/m 2 min we have
u = - 30 cm, / = 20 cm
20. The given wave equation is
1 _1 1
.In . ,
y - Jo sm K (vt ~ XJ 20 v -30
1 1 1 3 - 2 1
In the wave equation v is the particle velocity. or v 20 30 60 60
Differentiating Eq. CO with respect to time, v = 60 cm
The ray diagram for the problem is shown as
2 kv
follows :
Maximum particle velocity, u,najf = y 0 ^
Now it is given that,
2 x wave , ........
velocity f x . U | M — C
270* „
or / o — = 2v
u = - 30 cm R- 10 cm
----------------- v------ ----------- ■*<
or X= *y 0
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

For the image (/) coincident with object (0),

the rays after refraction from the lens must fall
on the convex mirror normally or the rays or ii2 > sin2 f + 1
refracted from lens must meet at C.
The maximum value of sin i is 1. So,
LC - v = 60 cm
Thus, distance between lens and mirror n2 >2
LM = 60 - 10 = 50 cm or n >4 l
25. Key I d e a : The first idea is r/iat for no 2 6 . Electric field due to a dipole at bisector or at a
refraction at its lateral face, angle of incidence point on its broad side on position is given by
should he greater than critical angle. E- ■1 _P
Let a light ray enters at A and refracted beam is 4 nfif, r's
AB. At the lateral face, the angle of incidence is or E *4 ..(i)
0. For no refraction at this face, 0 > C r
sin 9 > sin C where r is the distance of that point from
centre of dipole.
So, from Eq. (i)
E xp
NOTE: The electric field due to a dipole at its end on
position is twice the value at its broad side on
position i.e.,
but f) + r = 90° F 1 2p
4 n £ o • (,3
^ 6 = (90° - r)
sin [90° - r) > sin C 2 7 . Key I d e a : Kinetic energy obtained by the
or c o s r> s in C particle is equal to the work done in moving a
Key Id e a : The second idea is that in Eq. (i), distance y.
the substitution for cos r can he found from Electric force on charged particle
Snell's law.
F =qE
Now from Snell's law,
Kinetic energy attained by particle
sin t sin i
n=■ sin r = - work done
sin r
- force x displacement
sina i
cosr ri = n/l - sin2 r - 1- = q£ x y
A lte rn a tiv e :
Eq. (i) gives, Force on charged particle in a uniform electric
, sin2 i . field is
1 ------ > sin C F = m a - Eq
sin2 i . 2 or a=- —(i)
1 ------ *—> Sin C
From the equation of motion, we have
Also sin C = — v2 = u2 + 2ay
, sin i 1 = 0+2 3 x v
1-------2“ >~ m
n n
, 1 sin2 t
or !> — +— r
n n
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

Now kinetic energy of the particle P2 = 9Pl = 9 x 1 0

- 90 watt
K = \ mv2
30. Key Idea : When current is passed through a
m 2E q y ~ conductor, electric energy is absorbed by the
= 2 X m = *Ey conductor through collisions between its atomic
28. Key Id ea : Wo charge is enclosed by the hollow lattice and the charge carriers causing its
insulated conducting sphere. temperature to rise.
Charge resides on the Energy loss in conductor Q - i2RT
outer surface of a
conducting hollow Heat developed = ms A0
sphere of radius R (say). ms A0 = i ftt
We consider a spherical or A0 qc i2
surface of radius r < ft.
By Gauss theorem AO2 _ [f
A0i ~ f2

or A02 = A0! ... (i)

or E ■4 nr2 = - x O Here : i2 = 2ix , A0j = 5°C
From Eq. (i)
=> E- 0
i.e., electric field inside a hollow sphere is A0. x5
- f f l
= 4 x 5 = 20° C
29 . Key Id ea : Power is the rate at which energy is
31. Total charge flowing through electrolyte
Q = if
Power — = = Vi
At At = 50 x. 20 x 60
= 6 x 10* C
or & V = iR )
P - V,' = T 105 C release = 9 g of A1
When resistors are in series, then ..6 x 104 C would release
ft} = ft -r J? -t- ft —3R
9 x 6 x l o4
.-. Power dissipated
p x _V2 V2... = 5.4 g of Al
1 ft, 3ft
When resistors are in parallel, then 32. Key Id ea : Potential difference across
galvanometer should be equal to potential
1 1 1 1 _ 3
ft2 " ft + ft + ft “ ft difference across shunt.
The shunt and galvanometer are connected as
*2 " 3 shown in figure.
Let the total current through the parallel
V2 V* _ 3V■2 combination is i, the current through the
P2 ' ft/3 - R
R2 galvanometer isi’s and the current through the
shunt isi - i g .
Therefore, P2 _ 3V2 =9
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

*L = I
B2 4
3 4 . Magnetic force between parallel wires per unit
length is
F M '1 ‘2
I ' ' 2k '
where 4 a n d i2 are the
currents in wires 1 and
The potential difference Vat> (= Va - i$ the
2 respectively and r is
same for both paths, so
the distance between
fg G - ( i - i g )S them. Since, it is given
or ig (G + S )= iS that between two
wires, there is a force
or i• = S
c T+ FG of attraction, so the
The fraction of current passing through shunt direction of currents in
both will be the same.
. 1 lg _ 1 _ £i.
f, = i2 = 1 A, r = 1 m,
S +G 0 = 4x x 10“7 T-m/A
4ii x 10 1x1
S +G 2n 1
= 2 x l 0 -7 N/m
: 2+ 8
35. Iron is a ferromagnetic substance. There are no
= r e - 08A magnetic lines of force inside a ferromagnetic
substance. So, equipment may be protected by
33. Magnetic induction at the centre of current
placing it inside the can made of a
carrying coil
ferromagnetic substance. Hence, it is placed
B =. Mg m' ...CO inside an iron can.
3 6 . Key Idea : For maximum value of emf in the
Suppose the length of the wire be L.
second coil, the rate of change o f current j
1st c a s e : For coil of one turn, let radius be rv
L = 2 kvi xn s/ioufd be maximum.
L L The given equation of current changing in the
or r-t - ('■' n = 1)
2i * n 2n first coil is
2n d c a se : For coil of two turns, let radius be l = / c sinii)[ ...(0
Differentiating Eq. (i) with respect to time, we
L - 2nr2 x n have
L _ L dl d ,r . .
[v u = 2)
*"2 * 2it x n - 2it x 2 dt = dt* 0
dl , d , . .
or , -1 or
dt 0 dt 0,0
From Eq. (i), we have or ^ -1 c w cos col
A = -1 x h
B2 ^ n-2
i xi For maximum the value of cos ur should be
Bi _ 1 * 2 at
or equal to 1.
B>2 ri * 2
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

Coulomb’s attraction between the positive

^ •'max
f£] 1 e2
proton and negative electron = - —;— -
The maximum value of emf is given by 4Tt£o

®inax = Al/0m Centripetal force has magnitude

- ( a .
F _ inv2
Here, M = 0.005 H. J0 = 10 A, co = 1007t rad/s
fiinax = 0.005 x 10 XIOOtt = 5ir As per key idea,
37. K ey I d e a : The flu x per turn o f primary coil 2
mv 1
must be equal to flu x per turn of the secondary r 4 tieo f2
As per key idea, — = — v2 =
4iten rar

eft n. dt ^ 4 nttfnr

h =5i For ground state of H-atom, r = Oq

as e
eP n P v=
For no loss of power, ^Ane^naQ
ei - constant 40. Energy of photon is given by
_ he 12375 „
i = —x constant E = -y- = — j— eV
e 1 x(A)

Einstein's photoelectric equation is

Ek = E - W
1 = 2.48 eV - 1.9 eV
Here, =-0.58 eV
l f = 3 ‘ l* =2A
25 41. Einstein's photoelectric equation is given by
1 Ek = E ~ W
or tp = 25 x 2= 50 A but Ei. = ^ mv2 and E = ~
NOTE : In step-up transformerns >np. It increases 1 2 he ...
- mv - —— W ...(0
voltage and reduces current. 2. K
In step-down transformer, np >ns . It increases Suppose v' be the new speed, when X is
current and reduces voltage.
changed to — ,
38. The energy of emitted photon
„ he 1 mv --------------W

,2 he
2 (3X /4)
Given : X = 21 cm = 0.21 m 1 ,2 4 /ic ...
2 ~ 3^ I —
6 .6 x l 0 “34 x 3 * 1 0 8 .
£ = ~--------- (X21---------- = 1° J Dividing Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i), we get
39. Key Id ea : According to the Newton's second 4 he TA,
v'2 3 T ~ ^
law. a radially inward centripetalforce is needed
to the electron which is being provided by the v2 . k . w
Coulomb’s attraction between the proton and
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1999

4 he 4 ...W —1vv
... rij x 10 + n2 x 11
----------- 10.81 =
_ 3 A. 3 3 rt] + n2
$ -W or 10.81 nj + 10.81 n2 = 10 + 11 n2
4 w or 0.81 nj = 0.19 n2
3+ ~L _ 0.19 19
n2 0.81 81
44. Key Id ea : In a-particle emission, atomic mass
v‘ 4
decreases by 4 unit and atomic number decreases
V > V3
by 2 unit. In (3-particle emission, atomic mass
42. K ey I d e a : Total no. of nuclei remained after n remains unchanged and atomic number increases
'1 '" by 1 unit.
half-lives is N = N a I •
The reaction can be shown as
Total time given - 80 min
80 min
Number of half-lives of A, n , ~ =4 wn-4 2f* rm-A
20 min * IT™
Thus, the resulting nucleus is the isotope of
Number of half-lives of B, n„ ~ ^ - 2
40 iron parent nucleus and is
Number of nuclei remained undecayed 45. Key Id e a : In a nuclear reaction, atomic mass
and chargc number remain conserved.
For a nuclear reaction to be completed, the mas;
where N 0 is initial num ber of nuclei number and charge number on both sides should
be same.
If we complete the equation by choice (a), then
(1)"' the complete reaction is
Total atomic number on LHS = 92 + 0 - 92
■ (r 92U233 + on1 ^ 3fiSr90+ r>4*e143 + 3 ^
Total atomic number on RHS
M = 38 + 5 4 + 0 = 92
Total mass number 011 LHS = 235 + 1 = 236
" (if (?) Total mass number on RHS
NA _ . = 90 + 143 + 3 x 1 = 236
Nu Thus, choice .(a) is correct.
NOTE : The graph between number of nuclei 46. In a p-n junction diode, majority carriers are
decayed with time is shown along side. holes on p-side and electrons on n-side. Holes
thus diffuse to n-side and electrons to p-side
This diffusion, causes an excess positive charge ir
t he n-regionand an excess negative chargeinthf
p-region near the junction. This double layer o
charge creates an electric field which exerts i
force on the electrons and holes, against thei:
diffusion. This electric field becomes strong
enough as diffusion proceeds to stop it. In the
equilibrium position, there is a barrier, fo:
43. Let nj and n2 be the number of atoms in 5 B charge motion with the n-side at a highe:
and isotopes. potential than the p-side.
Atomic weight The junction region has a very low density o
either p or n-type carriers, because of inte
_ n, x (At. wt. of 5°B] + n2 x(At. wt. of ^B ) diffusion. It is called depletion region. There is t
rij + n2 barrier VBassociated with it. This is the potentia
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

47. When the connection of battery is reversed, then

a semiconducting device is reverse biased. We
know that in forward biasing ofp-/i junction the
current is of the order of milliampere while in
reverse biasing the current is of the order of
microampere (negligible), Thus, device is a p-n
48. Key I d e a : In common emitter configuration of a
transistor, the input current is a base current..
Input current 50. The given truth table gives
_ AV^
B ~ ~r ~ 0*0 = 1

0.01 0*1 = 1
1000 1*0 = 1
Also current gain 1*1 = 0
P= ^ The above data represents the expression
Y =A B
if; = Pip = 50 x 10 s A
This expression is the Boolean expression of
= 500 x 10"° A = 500 pA NAND gate.
49 . (a) Gate A is NAND gate, is ouput will be NOTE : NAND gate used as OR function
ya - n =1 = 0
(b) Gate B is NOR gate, its output will be /flo- -C+-
=m =T=0 -o A + B
(c) Gate C is NAND gate, its output will be Bo- -E»-
yc = cTT = o = i
A-B = A + B
Cd) Gate D is XOR gate, its ouput wil be
1 ^ = 0 ® 0 = 0 -0 + 0 0 = 0 'l+li us =X + B
Thus, gate (c) will give an output of 1. This is according to De Morgan's theorem
NOTE:Option(d) represents a logic symbol of exclusive which states that complements of products
OR gate or XOR gate. Its descriptive form showng its equals the sum or vice-versa.
Boolean expression may be represented as :

51. (i) All non zero digits are significant. 0.33 x 67200
g = 221.768 g of iron
(ii) Non zero digits to the right of the decimal 100
point are significant. Number of Fe atoms = = 3.96 = 4
(iii) Zeroes to the left of the first non-zero 56
digits in a num ber are not significant 53. r * n 2 Z 2
So, the number of significant figures for the
where n = number of orbir
numbers 161 cm, 0.161 cm and 0.0161 cm are
same i, e. , 3 Z = Atomic number

52. v 0.33% of iron by weight means 100 g

haemoglobin has 0.33 g iron. r2 x n2 (Z - I for H-atom)
100 g of haemoglobin contains iron = 0.33 g
, 67200 g of haemoglobin contains iron So,
CBSE Medical Solved Paper 1998

0.530 12
58. Total no. of electrons inO^- = 16 + 2 - 1 8
r2 2-
According to MOT, the configuration o f o |“ is
r2 = 0 .5 3 0 x 4 = 2.120 A
crls2, c* Is2, o2s2, cr 2s2, o2p2, n2py
54. By Heisenberg uncertainty principle
n 2p2, it 2Py a 2pi
Ax x Ap > —
4 tt Orbitals with represent anti bonding M.O. so,
when the position of electron and helium atoms is the number of antibonding electrons = 6
known and momentum of electron is also known 59- Schottky defect in crystals is observed when
within a range, therefore the momentum of equal number of cations and anions are
helium atom is equal to the momentum of electron missing from the lattice.
i.e., 5 x l 0 “26 kg ms"1 So, the crystal remains neutral e.g.. NaCl
55. Paramagnetic character is based upon presence and the density of the crystal decreases.
of unpaired electron 60. Edge length = 2 r* + 2 r”
17CP = Is 2, 2 s22p(‘, 3s23p~Zpy3p; 508 +
— ■= r + r
Unpaired electron about Diamagnetic 2
„Be = l s “ 2 sl2p1x 254 = 110+ r“
is 2 2s2 r~ = 254 - 1 1 0 = 144 pm
10Ne2+ = Is2, 2 s22p~2p\2p\
61. According to Bragg’s equation nk = 2d sin 0
33As+ =ljr2,2 s 22p6I 3s23p63d10,4s2 Ap\ 4p}4p?
n = 2 a. = 1 0 = 60° d = ?
All have unpaired electrons. So, these are
paramagnetic in nature. 2 x J = 2 x d x sin 60°
56. After emiting a [3 particle, atomic number is 2 x 1 = 2 x. d > — ■
increased by one unit and atomic weight has no
change. So the atomic number of parent nucleus 2 2 °
d = % - -A: = 1-17 A
will be 5. v3 1-7
,14 -P A 4 -[1~ ■»,N
t7 i
62. On moving from top to bottom in a group of
Numberofneutrons=Mass num ber-N u mb er of periodic table distance between ions in ionic
proton compounds increases. Hence, it is maximum in
= 1 4 -5 = 9 Csl.
57. Bond order between P—O 63. Tableforem piricalform ula
no. of bonds in all possible direction
Total no. of resonating structures Elem ent % At. Relative Ratio
wt. Number
= -r = 1*25 C 40.00 12
4 4° = 3.66 _ ] 0 9 —1
Resonating structures are :
H 13.33 1 13.33
O O' “ ..1133 333 =
T>— P—O" o = p —t r 3.33
N 46.67 14 46-67
14 = S.SS
I I 3.33 "
0“ Or
1 Hence, empirical formula CII^N
0“ 0~
I I 64. Isotonic solutions are the solutions having
0 ”— P = 0 “O— P—O^ same osmotic pressure.
i II
o~ 0 _ Applying Van’tHoff equation
Total charge on PO^~ ion is -3 tiV = nST

So, the average formal charge on each ‘O’ atom n = cST

Osmotic pressure of 5% cane sugar solution
is = - |A = - 0.75
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

t^) =c xS * r = yQ.0821 X T 1 mole of 0 2 requires = - = 0.8 mole of NH3

Osmotic pressure of 1% solution of substance While 1 mole of NH3 requires

x (n2) = - = 1.25 mole of 0 2
lp g /L
X0.0821 x T
M As there is 1 mole of NH3 and 1 mole ofO->. So,
Both are iso ionic all oxygen will be consumed.
SO, 7Ij = 7!2
68. At absolute zero temperature, entropy of a
or ~ x 0.0821 x r = J? x 0.0821 x T perfectly crystalline substance is taken lo be
342 M
342 zero.
M (mol. wt. of X ) - = 68.4 It is called third law of thermodynamics.
65. According to Raoult’s law. The relative lowering 69. Activation energy can be calculatcd by us in;.;
of vapour pressure is equal to the mole fraction Arrhenius equation. The Arrhenius equation is
of solute i.e., 100*2* Ey \ T 2 -T
-1 ,
P~P, _ n °S fcj 2.303ft [ T{T2
p n (N where /tj and k-> = rate constant at two
or Ad = - n
-X different temperatures
p n +N Ea = Activation energy
R = Gas constant
— = 0.2 .'.p - 50 mm So. activation energy of a chemical reaction
can be determined by evaluating rate
For other solution of same solvent
constants at two different temperatures.
20 _ n
p n +N 70. Isothermal means temperature is constanr.
20 _ n
At constant temperature, change in internal
energy (AE) remains constant.
50 ~n + N
So, AE = 0
0A = -^ T 7 71. A« = - n £ 0F
(mole fraction of solute) For concentration cell
So, mole fraction of solvent =1 - 0 .4 = 0 .6 RT In
F = —pr t c2
nF Cj
66. XeF6tg )+ H ^ O (g )^ X e O H 4(g)+2H F tg )
In it R, T, n and F are constant,
[XcOF4] [I IF]
...Ci) SoF is based upon In C2 /C ;
1 [XeF6] [H-jOJ
AG = - nEF
X e04(g) + XeOF4(g) + XeO^F.fe) „ RT . C-, . C-,
= - nF x — In ^ - RT In
nF Cj
[Xe04] [XeF0]
So, at constant temperature AG depends upon
For reaction, In C2/ C :
Xe04 (g)+ 2 H F C g J ^ X c 0 3F2tff)+ H ^pfe) 72. In electrochemical series A1 is placed above Zn
[XcQ3F: ] [H20] and all others are present below Zn. So,
[X e04J [HF]“ aluminium displaces zinc from ZnCl2 solution.
.'.FromEqs. CD and (ii) Hence, it cannot keep in contact with Al
2A1 + 3ZnCl2 — » 2A1C13 + 3Zn
73. The soap concentration at which micelles first
>7. 4NH3(g) + 5 0 2( 5 ) ---- » 4NO(g) + appear is called as critical micelle
concentration (CMC). At this condition the
4 mol + 5 m o l---- » 4 mol + 6 mol
surfactant molecules associate with each
According to equation other.
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

4 5 80.
3 / C H 2— c h 3 CHO c h = n n h c 6h 5
74. c = c I
I -H2O I -CfcHsNH^
In ihese groups preferential order is (CHOHh (CHOH)3 -NH-,
—Cl > — CH3 and — I > — CH2 — CH3 t
Hence, more preferential order containing Glucose Phenyl hydrazune
groups are attached in opposite sides. So it is E CH = NNHC6H5 CH = NNHC6H5
(trans) isomer. I I
C=0 C— NNHC&Hs
Thus its name is trans-2-chloro-3-iodo- Q,H;NHNH;
I -H ,0
2-pen ten e (CHOH)3 (CHOH)3
75. Chiral carbon is that carbon whose all the four I I
CH2OH c h 2o h
valencies are satisfied by four different groups. Glucosazone
Due to absence of asymmetric (Chiral) C- atom Thus only three phenyl hydrazine molecules
and one molecule of glucose is required lo
D — CH2 — CH2 — CHaCl form osazone.
molecule is not a chiral molecule 81. Iodoform test is given by compounds whichhave
76. The electronegativity follows the order H
N < O < F. So due to electronegative character I
the order o f - / effect is : CH3 — CO —group or CH3 —C — group.
— NR2 < ~ O r < — F OH
77. Dimethyl ether does not show nucleophilic Hence, 2-pentanone, C2HgCHO and C2H^5H
attack due to absence of multiple bond. give this test CH3CH2CH2COCH3
Other compounds have multiple bond C-atom 2 -p en t a n o n e
and bears partial positive charges therefore and 3-pentanone C H /IH 2COCH2CII3 does not
they undergo nucleophilic attack by OH- ions. give ido form test.
C^ h sc r K + CH3 — COCH2 — CH2 — CH3 + 3I2 + 4NaOH
78. CH3 — CH — CHa — CH2 — CH3 ----------- » CHI3 4 + CHjCH-CHXOONa
Br [yellow ppt.)
+ 3NaI+ 3 H P
(-B r- )
CH, — CH— CH, - CHt — CH, ------- > CH3 — CHO + 3I2 + 4NaOH---- *
-H + CHI3 I + HCOONa
CH Iodoform
H (yellow ppt.)
H^ > x CH2 — CH3
+ 3NaI + 3HJD

6- C2H5OH + 4I2 + 6NaOH - c h i3 4.

79. CHj — CH2 + R — MgV- Iodoform
(yellow ppt.)
o + HCOONa + 5NaI + 5 H p
Ethylene oxide
In it following reaction is possess
R — CH2 — CH2 — O — MgX
HiO/H+ I■> 1-,+ NaOH
R — CH2 — CH2 — OH -------- (C2H5OH — ^> CH3 — CHO •- CHI3)
CH3 — CH2 — CO — CH2 — c h 3 + I2
+ Mg (OH) X + NaOH — > No reaction
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

OMgBr 84. Arenes undergoes electrophilic substitution

82. C6 H5 COOC 2 Hs CH^ Br» C6 H 5 —C—OC 2 H5 reactions. Arenes do not give electrophilic
addition reaction in normal state.
(A) I
ch3 85. —Cl atom shows o/p-directive influence but
I -CC2Hj - 0 ) deactivate the benzene ring, while —OH and
I MgBr —CH3 groups show o/p influence but activates
OMgBr o
u J. CHjMgBr 1
c 6h s— c - c h 3 < -1- * C6H5—C—c h 3
the benzene ring but in these —OH group
activate the benzene ring more than —CH3.
Hence, order of electrophilic substitution is
| h *o

c 6h 5 - c - c h 3 c 6h 5 — c = c h 2
-Hj O o » r ^
ch3 ' CH 3
c 6h 5 - c = = c h 2 c 6 h 5 — C—c h 3
I [I
CH3 o

C6 Hs~ C —CH 3 _ J l _ . CH ! 3 + C6 H5COONa

O Iodoform

83. It isdue to presence ofa-hydrogenatom in ester

(a) CH3 —CH2—CHg—CH2 — Br
2 ,4 ,6 -tribromo
C-l-O—C2H5 + H^-CH—COOCiHs benzenediazonium
[I ■■..........................’ | chloride
o CH2 —CH 2 CH3
- n2. -BF,
c o n d e n sa tio n Br
CH-,—C H2—
,—C H. G H aj —C 2,4,6-tribrom o fluoro
. -v—p CH—COOC2Hc
0 CH2— CH2— c m 3 + C2HsOH OCOCH3
(b) C6 H 5 C 0 0 C 2 H 5 + C6 H 5 COOC2 H 5
— ». No reaction because for Claisen
condensation an ester with two
87. Aspirin is or
/V ^ C O O H

a-hydrogens atoms are required which is acetylated product of salicylic acid

(c) c 6h s—CH2c o ; b c 2Hs + h |c h c o o c 2h s (o-hydroxy benzoic acid).

c 6h 5 OH OCOCH3
■— Claisen- - C5H5CH2C0CHC00C2H5 -COOH COOH
c o n d e n s a tio n |
c 6H5 OJ + C H 3COCI— [O + HC1
(d) C6H! j CHsCO b c 2Hs + h X c h —c o o c 2h 5 Salicylic Acetyl salicylic acid
acid (Aspirin)
Claisen 88. The number of molecules of ATP (Adenosine
condensation tri phosphate) produced in lipid metabolism of
C6 Hn CHzCOCH— C 0 0 C 2 H 5 + C2 H 5 0 H a molecule of palmitic acid is 130.
c 6h „
CBSE Medical Solved Paper 1998

89. DNA has a double helical structure. These helix Am shows maximum number of differer
contains polynucleotide chains and these chains oxidation state due to its larger size and lo'
are held together by hydrogen bonds. In these ionisation energy
polynucleotide chain of DNA, adenine has 95. Graphite produces impurity in pig iron. Pig iro
thymine opposite to it and guanine has cytosine contains 2.5 to 5.0% of carbon.
opposite to it. 96. Only Na gives golden colour to bunsen flame. Si
90. FirstionisationpotentialofBe(completelyfilled A is Na.
orbital) is greater than boron due to stable 2Na + 2H2O — *■2NaOH + H ,t
configuration "A1 'C
4Be = Is2, 2 s2 Zn + 2NaOH--- » Na^Zn02 + H ,T
'D ' ‘C "B
5B = 1s2, 2 s22pl
Zn + dil. H ^ 0 4 ---- ►ZnS04 + Hzt
Order of attraction of electrons towards nucleus
2s > 2p, so more am ount of energy is required to Na, produces golden yellow colour wit
remove the electron with 2s-orbital in smokeless flame of bunsen burner.
comparison to2porbital. So ionisation potential
97. Fe+ dil. H2S 0 4 — * FeS04 + H2 T
of Be is 9.32 eV and B is 8.29 eV.
3Fe + 4H^O-----> Fe304 + 4H2 1
91. Total isomers of the given complex are four. Steam
These are— Cu is below H in electrochemical series.
CO [Cu CNH3)4] [PtCl4J Cu + dil. HC1---- > No reaction
(ii) [Cu (NH3)3 Cl] [Pt (NH3)C13] 2Na + C 2H^)H ——> 2C2H^ONa + H2 t
(iii) [Pt (NH3)2 Cl2] rcu CNH3)2C12]
98. Bromine is soluble in CCl4 and CS2. Anim
(iv) [Pt (NH3)4] [CuCl4]
charcoal also adsorbs on bromine water. B:
92. Oxidation number of central ion (Pt) = + 4 and marble has no action with Br2. So, after addir
ligands are arranged in alphabetical order. So, (CaCO 3) marble piece to the flask, there will 1
mammine bromo chloro nitro platinum (IV) no d e crea me nt in th e int cn sity o f b rown co lou r
chloride. 99. Ammonium sulphate is a salt of weak base ar
93.. [Co(NH3)5N 0 2] Cl2 -» [Co(NH3)5N02]2+ Strong acid. The aqueous solution of ammoniu
+ 2C1" sulphate is acidic, so, it produces acidity.
100. Cr3+ - Is2. 2s22p6, 3s23p63d3 (coloured)
2C1' + 2AgN03 ---- > 2AgCl + 2NOj
Zn2+ - Is2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s23p63d10 (colourless)
94, Oxidation state shown by elements are as—
Cu+ = Is2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2, 3/>63d10 (colourless)
La = + 3
Europium (Eu) and gadolium (Gd) - + 2 and +3 Ti4+ = l s 2, 2s2 2p6, 3s23p6 (colourless)
Americum (Am) = + 2, + 3, + 4, + Sand + 6 (Colour is produced due to presence of unpain

103. In case a translocation is present in one of t
10 1. Vegetative reproduction is the process of
multiplication in a small part or portion of the two sets of chromosomes, this will
plant body which functions as a propagule and translocation heterozygote. In such
develops into a new individual. Thus, organism, normal pairing into bivalents wou
vegetative reproduction does not involve not be possible. Instead, pairing betwe
meiosis; hence, recombination and no loss of homologous segments of chromosome wot
heterozygosity. result in an ‘X’ shaped arrangement involvi
four chromosomes (multivalent).
102. In a normal human being, the systolic and
diastolic pressure are 120 mm Hg and 80 mm
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

L04. Biogenetic law as propounded by Ernst 114. Flora of thorn forests include Prosopis
H a e c k e l in 1860. According to it, during its cineraria, Acacia senagal, Capparis decidua,
development an animal passes through Salvadora oleoides, Asparagus racemosus,
ancestral adult stages. F.phedra foliata.
LOS. Myosin-II, a two-headed tailed variety of 115. Plants, found in an ecosystem are known as
myosin is involved in muscle contraction. producers, because they can prepare food for
106. At one time, citric acid was commercially theirself by the process of photosynthesis T he
prepared from concentrated lemon juice. But energy fixed by the autotrophs during
now its main source is the fermentation of photosynthesis gets incorporated into organic
sugar with A niger. compounds. The rate at which organic
Citric acid has an extraordinary range of uses. molecules are formed in a green plant (or a
It gives tartness and flavor to the foods. It is an population of green plants) is called gross
antioxidant and pH adjuster in many foods and primary productivity,
dairy products, it often serves as an emulsifier. 116. The pulp cavity contains a mass of dense but
107. Cells of lymph nodes (i) produce lymphocytes soft connective tissue which is called pulp. A
(ii) synthesize antibodies (iii) destroy bacteria single layer of o d o n to b la st c e lls is lined the
by phagocytosis. pulp cavity. These cells secrete e n a m e l which
is a bluish white shiny translucent and the
LOS. Histamine is a potent vasodilator formed by hardest substance of the body.
decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine
and released by mast cells in response to 117. 2, 4-D (2, 4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) is an
appropriate antigens. auxin hormone. It overstimulate the growth
Mast cells are especially prevalent in the activities of the cells of the root due to which
connective tissue of the skin and respiratoiy roots gel destroyed and thus plants finally
tract and in surrounding blood vessels. destroy. 2, 4-D is used as a defoliant for broad
leaved dicots (mainly weeds).
09. A variety of the enteric group of bacteria
(facultative, aerobic) reside in the human 118. Environmental resistance is against biotic
large intestine (e.g., F. coll). Therefore, their potential. A population tends to decrease by
mortality (death) and emigration. Mortality is
presence in water supply indicates that water
opposite to reproduction.
supply has been contaminated by sewage.
119. Vitamin Bj 2 (cyanocobalamin) promotes DNA
10. In Cycos, transfusion tissue consists of a few synthesis, maturation of erythrocytes and
layers of transversely elongated cell present in myelin formation. Vitamin D is also known as
both wings just in between the palisade and calciferol. It is necessary for the formation of
spongy parenchyma. In Pinus, many healthy bones and teeth. Vitamin A is also
transfusion cells are present interspersed with knwon as retinol. It is necessary for proper
albuminous cells and parenchymatous cells. body growth and night vision. Vitamin C is also
11. The stomach controls the production of gastric known as ascorbic acid. It helps in wound
juice by means of a digestive hormone called healing, blood formation and absorption of
g a s tr in . It is produced by endocrine iron.
(hormone secreting) cells that are scattered 120. Thyroxine (Tj) and triiodo-thyroxin (Tj)
throughout the epithelium of the stomach. hormones are secreted by the thyroid follicular
12. Phytochrome has two forms - and PFK which cells. These hormones maintain the basal
absorb red light and far-red light respectively. metabolic rate (BMR) of the body.
Phytochromes are pigment molecules that
121. Gynandromorphs are those individuals in which
absorb light energy and undergo changes in
one part of the body is female while another pan
their chemical structure as a result of this is male. It occurs due to irregularity in mitosis at
energy absorption. the first clevage of the zygote. One of the
13. Vessels are absent from ihe xylem of all X-chromosomes of an XX (female) zygote lags in
gymnosperms (except Gnetales). Cycos the spindle, one daughter nucleus receives only
belongs to Cycadales (not Gnetales). one X-chromosomes while the other receives
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

X-chromosomes. A mosaic body pattern is thus called as endosperm which provides nutrition
established. to developing embryo.
122. When yeast is added to sugar solution, it 130. 1 Femur + 1 fibula + 1 tibia + 1 patella + 7
causes fermentation leading to the formation tarsals + 5 meta tarsals + 14 phalanges make
of alcohol. one hind limb of man.
123. In addition to C 02, some other gases also 131. It is possible that at least two traits might have
contribute to green-house effect. These include been linked, and had not assorted
ozone, CFCs, nitrous oxide and even methane. independently.
Nitrous oxide is produced by denitrifying 132. Dentary is tooth bearing membrane bone of
bacteria acting on artificial fertilizers applied lower jaw of the vertebrates-one on each side.
to poorly aerated soils. 133. Clostridium botuiinum bacterium causes food
124. Carbon monoxide, when inhaled, combines poisoning (botulism). C/osfriciium is an
with blood haemoglobin to form obligate anaerobic endospore-forming gram
carboxyhaemoglobin at a rate 210 times faster positive rod shaped bacterium.
This bacterium produces an exotoxin which is
than the rate oxygen forms oxyhaemoglobin.
highly toxic for the synaptic ends of the nerves
Thus, respiration is impaired. where it blocks the release of a cety lch o lin e.
125. Ratio of cytokinin to auxin controls cell Later is a chemical necessary for the
differentiation. If there is more cytokinin than transmission of nerve impulse across the
auxin, shoot buds develop. Relatively more synapses.
auxin than cytokinin s leads to the 134. Free-living (non-symbiotic) bacteria like
development of roots. Abscisic acid (ABA) is Azotobacter and Bacillus pofymyxa fix
known as natural plant growth inhibitor. atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to
Gibberellin stimulates stem elongation, leaf crop plants. VAM (V ascular A rbuscular
M ycorrhizae) is an endosymbiosis between
expension, bolting flowering etc. Ethylene is a
fungi and roots of higher plants.
fruit ripening hormone.
Ana fattena is a cyanobacterium (blue-green
126. Oxygen diffuses from alveoli to deoxygenated
algae) which live solitary or in association with
blood, and C 0 2 diffuses from deoxygenated
other plant and can fix atmospheric N2.
blood to alveoli by simple diffusion. Diffusion
/yu'zobium bacterium makes symbiotic
is defined as, the flow of the substance (gases) association with leguminous plants.
from a region of their higher concentration to a
135. Use of contraceptive pills is a wide spread form
region of lower concent ration.
of birth control. Contraceptive pills contain
127. C 0 2 layer around earth surface acts as estrogen and progesterone. The production of
insulator and does not allow heat of the earth the pituitary hormones FSH and LH in the
to escape into space thus keeping the earth normal sexual cycle of a female is shut down
warm. by these hormones. In the absence of FSH, the
128. Pleiotropy is the condition in which a single ovarian follicles do not ripen and ovulation
gene influences more than one traits, e, g. , does not occur in the absence of LH.
gene for single cell produces anaemia as well 136. Cholecystokinin (also called pancreozymin) is
as resistance to malaria. a hormone of mucosa of small intestine. It is
129. Usually, fertilization of female egg by male released in the response to chyme, it causes
gamete results in the formation of zygote. In pancreas to release pancreatic enzymes and
angiosperms, however, a second fertilization gall bladder to eject bile.
of secondary polar nucleus by another male 137. Microtubules are one of the essential protein
gamete leads to the formation of triploid filaments of the cytoskeletons of probably all
primary endosperm nucleus. This nucleus is eukaryotic cells and of their cilia, flagella, basal
divided by successive or simulataneous type of bodies, centrioles and mitotic and meiosis
division and forms a multicellular structure spindles. Each microtubule is made up of a
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

hollow cylinder of 13 protofilaments of the 144. K1inefeIter’s syndrome is formed by union of

tubulinprotein.The diam eterof each microfibril an XX egg and a normal Y sperm or normal X
is 25 nm. The function of microtubule is to guide egg and abnormal XY sperm. The individual
organelle and chromosome movement in the thus has 47 chromosomes (44 + XXY). Such
ccl!, cause cell elongation and help in persons are sterile males with undeveloped
movements of cilia/flagella. testes, mental retardation etc.
138. The term “hot spots” was used by Benzer for 145. Phellogen or cork cambium is a part of
the sites which are more mutable than other periderm. It presents between phellem or cork
sites.Studies in 1978 revealed that 5-methyl towards outerside and phelloderm or
cytosine residues occur at the position of each secondary cortex towards inner side.
hot spot. Phellogen appearing in the cortical regions
139. Dryopithccus lived about 20-25 million years cuts off new cells for extrastelar secondary
ago. Dryopithecus had the combined characters growth—cork on the outer side and secondary
of great apes, old world monkeys and man. cortex on the inner side.
The main structural characteristics of 146. Lactose (CI2H220 | j ) is a disaccharide found in
Dryopithecus are broaded jaws, large canines, mammalian milk. It comprises galactose and
semicrect walking, 5 cusped molars and glucose units which are linked together by
absence of brow ridges. [J, 1-4 glycosidic bonds. It is a reducing sugar.
140. The word activated sludge system is derived 147. Pucdnia graminis tritici (fungus) causes black
from die practice of adding to the incoming rust of wheat. It is a heteroecious parasite i.e.,
sewage some of the sludge from a previous it’s life cycle completes within two hosts. It's
batch. This sludge inoculum contains large dikaryotic phase completes on wheat plant
numbers of metabolizing bacteria, together (Triricum aesrivumj which is also known as
with yeasts, molds and Protozoa. An especially primary host while its haplophase completes
important ingredient of the sludge are species on leaves of barbery plant (Barberis vulgaris)
of Zoogloca bacteria, which form flocculam which is also known as secondary host.
masses (floe) in the aereation tanks. The Uredios pores (uredia) and tele u to spores
activity of these aerobic micro-organisms (telia) are formed on wheat leaves.
oxidizes much of the effluent's organic matter
148. In the beginning of S phase, DNA replication
into carbon dioxide and water. When the
occurs. DNA replication can occur in
aeration phase is completed, the floe
diffuse/less tightly coiled euchromatin.
(secondary sludge) is allowed to settle to the
bottom, just as the primary sludge settles in 149. Cellulose (C6H1(p :,)n is the most abundant
primary treatment. organic polymer. It is a polysaccharide and
consists of long unbranched chains of glucose
141. Vegetative parts are relatively less stable and
residues linked by (1, 1-4 glycosidic bonds. In
exhibit changes due to environmental factors
plants, cellulose is formed from sugar. It serves
quite readily. On the other hand, floral
as building material in the formation of cell
features are more conservative and can be
relied upon. On the basis of reproductive parts
of different flowers Linnaeus classified plants 150. Malathion is one of the most widely used-
into different groups. organophosphate. It combine with the
phosphorus molecule of enzyme
142. Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone which
cholinesterase and inhibiting its normal
lowers calcium and phosphate levels of plasma
by inhibiting bone degradation and
stimulating their uptake by bone. Parathyroid 151. Fossoria! animals are adapted to digging,
hormone elevates calcium level in blood. burrowing to live under-ground inside
143. 1 x 105 ?r>lllin >2 x l0 5 ■- 7Hnii-1 >4 *103
152. The bones of birds are pneumatic (i.e., they
■ ]05ml11 >8 x l O 5 140lT]in >16 x l O 5 have air cavities) to reduce weight which help
17:,min >32x10^ them in flying.
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

153. Ulothrix is a fresh water, filamentous green 160. Sunflower is a dicotyledonous plant; so ihc
algae, found in rather cold flowing water. number of cotyledons in sunflower is two.
Sexual reproduction in Ulothrix is iso g a m o u s Monocotyledons contains only one cotyledon
type i.e ., it takes place between two in their embryo.
morphological similar motile, flagellated male
161. The genes present on the same chromosome
and female gametes which come from
do not always remain together. These usually
get separated and recombine with genes
154. First pair AA is homozygous, hence it will present on homologous chromosomes to form
contribute only one type of genes to gametes, new combinations (recombinants).
Bb will yield two types of gametes—B and b
162. Huge amount of plants, animals and human
similarly, Cc will yield two types of
wastes are decomposed by bacteria and fungi
gametes—C and c. Hence, 1 x 2 x 2 = 4 types of
present in environment and Large quantity of
gametes would be produced having the
CO2 necessary for photosynthesis is released
into the atmosphere.
ABC. A Be. AbC and Abe
163. The terms anuria, oligonuria, polynuria and
155. Lacteals are lymph vessels draining villi of dysuria are used for abscnce of urine, scanty
vertebrate small intestine. After digestion, urine, large amounts of urine, and painful
reconstituted fats are released into lacteals as
urination respectively. Deamination is the
removal of an amino (- NMj) group frequently
156. Ethylene is a gaseous hormone which from an amino acid by transaminase enzymes.
promotes ripening of fruits. M eth ion in e
164. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
a m in o a cid is precursor molecule for was first reported in U.S.A in 1981. It is caused
ethylene synthesis. Ethylene synthesis takes by HIV (H um an Im m u n o d eficien cy
place in al! parts of a plant such as roots, stem,
V irus). HIV is the member of retroviruses.
leaves fruits, seeds etc.
Later are so named because they contain
157. In prokaryotes (bacteria) most of the genetic enzyme re vers transcriptase, which mediates
material is included in a closed circular the formation of DNA from RNA. The genetic
molecule of DNA that resides in the n u cleo id material of HIV is single stranded RNA.
region . Later is a portion of a prokaryotic cell J 65. Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disease (no
which is not bounded by membranes.
calorie deficiency but structural). Its common
158. Destruction of habitat (including felling of symptoms are wasting of muscles, thinning of
trees) exposes wildlife to a number of adverse limbs, failure of growth and brain
factors leading to diminishing of their development; and diarrhoea.
166. Cycas is a gymnospermic planL. It has the
159. Inorganic substances, oils, plant extracts used biggest sperms (amherozoids), and ovules in
as insecticides are called first generation the plant world.
pesticides; synthetic organic compounds as
167. Restriction endonuclease is a class of
second generation pesticides; whereas insect endonucleases which cleaves double stranded
hormones as third generation pesticides.
DNA at specific base sequences, called
P h e r o m o n e s are the chemical substances
restriction sites. W. Arber postulated the
which when released into an animal’s presence of restriction enzymes, while first
surroundings, influence the behaviour or
true restriction endonuclease was isolated in
development of other individuals of the same 1970 by Sm ith e t. al., for which they were
awarded Nobel Prize in 1978.
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

168. The term water potential indicates the net

tendency of any system to donate water to its
surroundings. The water potential of pure
w ater at atmospheric pressure is zero. Any
addition of solute to this water reduces it’s Bacterial DNA
water potential and makes it’s value negative.
The osmotic potential of pure water also would
Phage miects bactenal cell
be zero.
169. Restriction endonucleases work as knives, and
a re us ed to cho p o ut re q u ired se gme n ts of DNA.
170. Leydig cells (= interstitial cells) are group of
relatively scanty cells in the interstices
between seminiferous tubules of the vertebrate
testes and are responsible for production of
steroids specially testosterone.
171. Agent orange, so called because of distinctive Hosl ON A is hydrolyzed ir«o
pieces and phage DNA and
orange stripe on its packaging, combines equal proteins are made

parts of 2, 4-D and 2, 4, 5-T; was later on

found to contain a highly poisonous chcmical
dioxin as impurity.
172. The switching on and off of an operator is
controlled by respressor protein which is coded
by the regulator gene R.
173. Anabaena azollae, a cyanobacterium living in
the cavities of fern Azolla fixes atmospheric
nitrogen and releases it into the leaf cavity of
the fcm. Farmers have reported over 50#/o
higher yields by using Azolla.
174. Ozone layer is found in the stratosphere. It
protects us from the harmful UV radiations come
from sun. The supersonic aircrafts flying at
stratospheric heights cause major disturbances
in ozone level due to releasing of CI-'Cs.
Transducing phages »nloc( new hosl cells, where
175. Since albinism is a recessive character, a child recombination due lo crossing over can occur
will be albino only if it is homozygous for
albinism genes. Since parents have normal
skin, it means they are heterozygous. As a
result of cross between two heterozygous
parents, 25% of the children will be
homozygous recessive. The nature of the
second child is not affected in any way by the
nature of the first child because both are
independent events. The recombinants have genotypes (A* B ) dilferent
from either (he donor (A' B") of recipient [A B )
176. During transduction, a small double-stranded
The various steps take place during transduction
piece of DNA is transferred from donor to
recipient by a bacteriophage. Transduction
does not involve physical contact between
donor and recipient strains.
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

177. Dicot stem produces a cork cambium or sporophyte phase. In Obelm, both polyploid
p h e llo g e n in the region of outer cortical and medusoid bodies are diploid, and this type
cells. Phellogen produces phellem or cork of life cycle is called metagenesis.
towards outerside. Phellem is consisted of 180. Adiantum is called walking fern. The tips of its
dead and compactly arranged cells which leaves, on coming in contact with the soil,
contains suberized cell walls while towards gives out adventitious roots which in turn
innerside phellogen produces secondary cortex produce new leaves and develop into new
or p h e llo d e r m which contains plants.
collenchymatous or parenchymatous cells. The 181. A skeletal muscle consists of a bundle of long
phellem, phellogen and phelloderm are
fibers running the length of the muscle. Each
collectively called as P eriderm . Ii protects
fiber is a single cell with many nuclei.
internal tissues and prevents water loss.
Skeletal muscle is also called striated muscle
^ Lenti cel because the regular arrangement of the
myofilaments creates as repeating pattern of
light and dark bands. Each repeating unit is a
Cork sa rco m ere, the basic functional unit of the
muscle. The borders of the sarcomere, the Z
• - 'j; i O c a o Cork cambium
{Phellogen) lin es, are lined up in adjacent myofibrils and
contribute to the striadons visible with a light
; • f f Secondary
Li.1. — 1 T~^
cortex microscope. The thin filaments are attached to
(phelloderm) ~ the 2 lines and project toward the center of the
Secondary sarcomere while the thick filaments are
centered in the sarcomere. At rest the thick
and thin filaments do not overlap completely,
X* ^ ' \\ u and the area near the edge of the sarcomere
r? W . _ . . where there are only thin filaments is called
Medullary the I band. The A b an d is the broad region
that corresponds to the length of the thick
filaments. The thin filaments do not extend
-Primary xylem completely across the sarcomere, so the H
;,C ‘vrrrr:
z o n e in the center of the A b an d contains
only thick filaments. This arrangement of thick
Fig : TS. o f a D ico t ste m
and thin filaments is the key to how the
178. SaJmune/Ja y p h i causes typhoid fever in sarcomere and hence the whole muscle
human beings. It is characterized by constant
fever due to infection of intestine. Giardia is a
flagellate protozoan, lamblia species of this 182. Bryophyta is a group of cryptogams. Main plant
protozoan causes disease giardiasis, a body of bryophy tes is gametophyiic ( ha ploid). 11
prolonged diarrheal disease of humans. bears male and female sex organs. The
antherozoids (sperms) of bryophytes are
Bacterial genus Shigefla causes shigellosis or
flagellated (motile) and need a film of water to
b acillary dysen tery. swim through for reaching the archegonium.
Escherichia coli is a facultative anaerobes,
found in the intestine of hum an beings. 183. Three types of genomes found in green plant
cell are (i) nuclcar genome, (ii) mitochondrial
179. True alternation of generations is alternation genome and (iii) chloroplast genome.
between haploid gametophyte and diploid
CBSE Medical Solved Paper 1998

184. Genetic engineering was made possible by the 190. Photoperiodism is the term to denote a
discovery and development; of a number of biological response to changes in the ratio of
tools and techniques. Perhaps most important light and darkness in a 24 hour cycle.
was the discovery of restrictio n
e n d o n u c le a s e s which are produced by 191. El Nino is a warm ocean surge of Peru current
bacterial cells. These enzymes can be used to (flowing north from Antarctic along the west
cut DNA from different sources into pieces that coast of South America to S. Ecuador, the
west). It recurs every 5-8 years or so in the
are easy to recombine in vitro means in glass
E. Pacific off Soutli America,
i. e., in test tube
192. For the classification of living organisms R.H.
185. Birds of Galapagos islands (Darwin's finches)
are believed to have evolved from ancestors on W hittaker (1969) proposed a five kingdom
the South American mainland as a result of system of classification, lie designated these
five kingdoms as :
natural selection due to different feeding
nichcs available to them. (a) M onera—-It includes ail prokaryotic
organisms including bacteria and
186. Transposons are genetic elements varying blue-green algae.
from 750 base pairs to 40 kilobase pairs in (b) P rotista—It includes eukaryotic
length and can move from a site in one unicellular organisms e.g ., Amoeba.
genome to another site in the same or in a (c) P lan tae—It includes algae, bryophytcs,
different genome. pteridophytes, gymnospcrms and
187. Cytochrome is not a coloured cell, instead this argiosperms.
is a respiratory pigment-mixture of iron and (d) Fungi—It includes fungi.
protein-which are electron acceptors. (e) A nim alia—It includes multicellular
188. Genetic drift may be of significance in small
populations only, where alleles may easily get 193. Genetic engineering is the manipulation of
extinct by chance alone. genetic material of an organism using enzyme
restriction endonuclease. N ath an s and
189. For its pollination the orchid Opkrys speculum
Sm ith (1970) isolated the first restriciion
has picked on the most selective attraction in endonuclease. Jack son , Sym ons and Paul
the entire animal kingdom. It is pollinated by a B erg (1972) successfully generated
hairy wasp, Colpa aurea. The wasp has a fixed recombinant DNA molecules in vitro.
habit whereby its males leave the burrows for
above-ground existence about four weeks 194. Till today, the most important tool in genetic
before the females emerge for the open-air engineering of plants has been the Ti plasmid
mating. The orchid opens its flowers about the of soil bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
same time the males appear and they possess E. coli has been extensively used for genetic
an appearance and odour similar to those engineering in animals e.g., Production of
possessed by the female wasps. The humulin, somatotropin.
inexperienced males mistake the Ophrys 195. Species restricted to small areas are called
fowers for their female counterparts and land endcmic; approximately 29% of dicots in the
to perform the act of pseudo-copulation. The Himalayas are endemic.
insect repeats the act with a number of orchid 196. Homo erectus was replaced by Homo sapiens.
flowers and carries pollinia from one flower to
another. This insect-plant relationship is 197. There is 90% loss at every trophic level. There
beneficial only to the plant. is maximum energy, therefore, at T, level.
CBSE M edical Solved Paper 1998

198. Haemophilia and colour blindness both are (b) 50% sons are haemophilic only.
r e c e s s iv e X -linked traits. They express in (c) 50% daughter are carrier for colour
males when present in single copy blindness and haemophilia.
(heterozygous) but in females they express (d) 50% daughter are carrier for haemophilia
only when present in homozygous condition. only.
199. Solenocytes (also called fla m e c e lls) arc
meant for excretion and osmoregulation in
(Man) — Parents platyhelminthes.
Annelids have m eta n e p h r id ia for excretion
1 Molluscs have k id n eys (although different
Xhcxr XY — garnets from vertebrate kidneys) for excretion.
I In echinodermates no especial excretory
+ organs are found for excretion. In them
X Y excretion takes place through diffusion or
xhcx Xhc Y osmosis or through active transport.
200. The lipids of archaebacteria are branched
xn Xr,x Xh Y chain lipids, long chain branched alcohols,
phytanals, ether linked to glycerol, This helps
R esu lts : Ca) 50% sons are colourblinds and them withstand extreme conditions and
haemophilic. temperature.