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Origin and evolution of Folk Arts

Handed on from generation to generation folk art still persists in many parts of the
country. Being culturally different and diverse, a variety of art forms have grown
over the years. Mostly portraying religious extravaganzas, but still unique, admirable
and matchless in their own might. They were made with natural dyes and colors
made of soil, mud, leaves, and charcoal, on canvas or cloth.
Folk art expresses distinct cultural identity by conveying the aesthetic values of
various communities. India had always been known as the land that portrayed
cultural and traditional liveliness through its conventional arts and crafts. All the
states of the country have their own Art form through which they display their own
cultural and traditional identities. Every region in India has its own style and pattern
of art, which is known as folk art. Apart from folk art, tribal art form is also very
popular amongst the rural population of our country. They both speak volumes about
our country’s heritage
The rural folk painting of India are different with colorful designs, which are treated
with religious and spiritual themes. Some of the most famous folk paintings of India
are the Madhubani Paintings of Bihar, Patachitra paintings from the state of Odisha,
the Nirmal paintings of Andhra Pradesh, and other such folk art forms. Other form
such as pottery, home decorations, ornaments, cloth-making, and so on are also very
popular among foreign tourist for their ethnic and traditional beauty.
Traditional folk dances are performed by people to express their excitement on every
possible event or occasion, such as the arrival of seasons, the birth of a child,
weddings, festivals, etc. the government of India, as well as other societies and
associations, have therefore made all efforts to encourage such art forms which have
become an inherent part of India’s cultural identity.
India is a land where more than 2000 ethic group exists and they all have a wide
variety of art form. Many of which are the main source of income for certain
community. These arts are often referred to as crafts as distinct from fine arts.
However often these art forms are done with such finesse and style that many of
these are entering the art market with prices that only high-quality fine art can
command. These art forms have produced artists of individual distinctions and
allowed artists to grow individually.
Among the most well-known among the folk art of India, the Kalighat pats are the
most popular and oldest. These Pats where made by the rural folk of Kalighat in
Bengal which depicts stories of regular life, often in humor form. In fact, Kalighat
pats are often referred as the first set of fine artworks that came from Bengal. Similar
to these Pats, one comes across another kind of Pats which are found in the state of
Orissa. The Orissa Patchitras, mostly painted on cloth are however more detailed
and more colorful and most of these depict stories of Hindu gods and goddesses.
Like Orissa pats, Madhubani paintings are also done mostly on cloth with natural
dyes. Practiced mostly by women, Madhubani used to be a community-art form.
However, each Madhubani artwork is created by an individual artist. Many of these
artists have tasted a good amount of success.
Another very popular form of art is the Warli artwork which are practices by a tribal
community of Maharashtra. They show high degrees of intellection, where the side
space is covered by abstract constructs and designs. These artwork designs are not
based on any specific theme and are also practiced by the Banni tribes of Gujurat
and also by the tribes of Jharkhand.
Not all the folk arts and crafts are entirely Indian in their origin. Some of the crafts
and techniques have been imported from the Orient like the Batik. But they have
now been Indianised and the Indian form of Batik has a distinct identity and has
helped many individual artists like Ganga Devi to achieve international success.
Other important folk art forms in India include Tanjor paintings. Tibetan Scrolls,
Pahari and Rajasthani paintings, Glass paintings, Kalamkari needlework, Bandhni
print work, Kalamajhethu and Alpana floor works, etc.

The concept of Folk-Traditional media.

Folk media are the traditional media based on sound, image and sign language.
Folk media is the medium to communicate to people through cultural and
Performing Arts. In traditional societies, the most popular and successful means of
communication were the drama, skits, poems riddles, songs, and dance.
Traditional media in simple word means the non-electronic medium which is used
to pass on the cultural traits from generation to generation. This traditional form of
communication existed before the advent of modern Mass Media
Traditional Media constitute an integral part of the culture and tradition of people as
they function within the cultural framework of the society. They are mainly
concerned with appealing to emotions by including the powerful dimension of
Every individual has an inborn urge to communicate, to express and to share thought
and experiences. This urge has given birth to the various Art form. Every state in
India has its own distinct cultural Art form to entertain and educate the people of the

Characteristics of Traditional Folk media

1. Traditional folk media has its own unique style and specific language, music,
2. Compare to the new media it is much cheaper and also easy at convincing.
3. It requires a limited area of operation.
4. It is an original and oldest form of Art, which is being transmitted from
generations to generation.
5. They appeal at personal and intimate level.
6. It is easy to built-up rapport and gets immediate feedback.
7. Local talents are encouraged.
8. Folk media can never die in spite of the obstacle form the modern media.
9. It is a very flexible medium of communication
10.They are carry forwarded by the people themselves as they satisfy their social
and psychological needs through fresh contents.

Advantages of Traditional folk media

1. The language used is local so this familiar language gives more clarity in
2. Traditional media is at the personal and intimate level and has a direct
influence on people.
3. Traditional media does not require specific training or technology.
4. Face to face interaction allows immediate feedback.
5. It is local and live and hence direct rapport can be established.
6. It is very flexible medium as it can easily accommodate new themes and
changes the form and content of the existing theme.
7. It is very cost effective.
8. Traditional folk media helps in preserving our tradition and culture in a lively

Role and nature of traditional folk media.

There are very few countries in the World which posses the rich treasure of lively
folk performances. India is one of them. In the recent year's educationists, media
experts, and development practitioners have realized the great potential of folk art
forms as means of communication with people. Traditional folk media functions
within the cultural and traditional framework of the society, the messages carried by
folk media communicators appeal directly to the audience as they are connected with
emotions. They are the integral part of the culture and have instant mass appeal
Folk media provide for face to face communication. The traditional folk media let
us imagine the audio-visual message which impact as well as maximum audience
participation provides instant feedback. It gives expression to the life style and
values of the people in spoken word and song, rhythm and spontaneous
choreography, and also acts as a most persuasive communicator and an effective
corrective force.
Although mass media is proved to be too glamorous, impersonal, and unbelievable.
Through folk media people identify themselves with the experience provided by folk
media. They provide the audience with emotional, intellectual and subconscious
level of experience through music, melody, fantasy, humour and intelligible

Information, education, and entertainment by folk media:

Folk media has the utility as the mass communication media to provide information,
education, and entertainment into the society. Problems in a society are increasing
day by day. In the society, therefore, the need to communicate by mass media is
increasing. Folk media has the usefulness as the mass communicator to communicate
the solutions of the social problems through the content of folk media.

Diverse educational and informative issues can be carried to people through folk
media to solve the social problems. In social causes, both of traditional and modern
media has the ability for innovative and strategic communication to fulfill some
purpose through edutainment and infotainment. Both traditional and modern media
could help promote improved levels of communication, and shared information that
enables sustainable development on a global scale.
Folk media performs communication through entertainment. This is significant that
folk media provides entertainment to the masses. Folk groups get entertainment by
involving in the folk media performances. The creative concept, preparation, dress-
up, costume, musical instruments, singing, acting, dancing, a talent for performance,
the arrangement of materials required all are done with the active involvement of the
masses. Therefore, in each of the steps from the preparation to performance, folk
people get natural entertainment through folk media.
During the freedom struggle period, IPTA (Indian People's Theatre Association) the
cultural front of the communist party of India, successfully held some of the highly
popular regional theatre forms like the Jatra of Bengal, Bhavai of Gujarat, Tamasha
of Maharashtra and Burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh to inform educate the people of
Jawaharlal Nehru welcomed the movement as it was mainly aimed at motivating the
traditional theatre of the people, for their own entertainment and enlightenment. It
also inspired the country.
The dramatic medium was effectively used to tell villagers the story of
Independence, the programmes of Five Year Plans and other specific projects for
village improvement. In the social reform movement in Maharashtra, the Tamasha
of Satyashodhak Samaj and Jalsas of Dr. Ambedkar's followers made powerful use
of the traditional media.
String puppets were the most potential traditional media for communicating child
development and nutrition messages, folk theatre for messages on time and energy
saving devices, consumer education, saving and credit facilities and storytelling for
messages on income generation. Melas and festivals were reported to be the most
potential media for messages on clothing and textiles.
Puppetry was found to be very effective in educating regarding income activities and
importance of educating girls and women. Folk media have also proved effective in
carrying the message of adult education.
Street plays also have been used widely by many non-government organizations in
generating social awareness and change the process of social development.
Separately and collectively, folk media have provided both entertainment and
education for the rural folk. In order to communication with the rural people at the
community level, it is crucial to understand and utilize the various folk media which
characteristically operate in the rural milieu.
Song and Drama Division as an arm of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting
conducted field experiments with folk arts. The experiments showed that puppet;
Katha and Song varieties became effective live media for communication of any

Traditional folk media as a medium of communication

The folk arts are the products of the folkways and culture of the society. They are
inseparable as they form a part of the society that they belong to. People live and die
with folk arts, hence, they become easy to decode and understand. They are easy to
understand by the common masses because of their nature of origin. Folk art is the
most effective way of communication.
They are a part of the mass media. This phenomenon of mass media is exploited by
several government and nongovernment organizations for their individual and
common purposes. Traditional media have been in existence in India for long and
have been used as a medium of communication in rural areas. Folk media appeal to
the emotion rather than the intellect so they easily render the encoded message and
easily get the desired feedback. The best part of the folk media is that it is not
institutionalized and organized and so individual authority controls its quantity and
quality. This nature of folk media makes it adaptive to any region in every age. They
cater to the individual need but they belong to the community
Over the years, rural masses have been using the folk media for expressing their
social, ritual, moral and emotional needs. Traditional media has a crucial role to
perform in the process of socio-economic development in India. It helps in
convincing and influencing people in a very effective way. For example during the
freedom struggle, folk media played a great role in spreading the message of
patriotism. Utpal Dutt who was a popular actor is said to have used Jatra, a traditional
theatre form in Bengal during the freedom struggle. Paala, a traditional form of
ballad singing is used for spreading awareness on various social issues by the
government of Orissa. The Song and Drama Division of the government of India
uses various forms of traditional media to spread awareness on a number of social
issues like AIDS, polio immunization etc. During festivals, we exchange sweets,
greet each other and decorate our houses. This communicates our friendship and
love for others. This is also an example of the traditional form of communication.
Today we use modern ways of communication such as the mobile phone and internet
to send messages of friendship and greetings. Communication through traditional
media thus helps in building good relations.

General users of Traditional Folk Media

In India the Government has been the biggest user of traditional folk media. The
Directorate of Field puppet shows, plays dances, dramas, ballads and sound-and-
light shows. These programs have been organized through departmental groups and
private parties registered with the Division. The Publicity and their State colleagues
have employed these media to the maximum. The Song and Drama Division have
supplemented modern communication efforts by offering live stage performances
like Division presents these programs for the masses, which include rural and urban
people, as also tribal people in interior areas. These programs create an awareness
of the social, economic and democratic ideas cherished by the nation. Understanding
the potential of folk media, some State Governments and non-official organizations
have also made use of programs of these media.
The next great users of folk forms are AIR (All India Radio) and Doordarshan. In
fact, these organisations have been the pioneering institutions to draw upon folk
music. The radio and Doordarshan dramas and theatre have integrated various folk
theatre forms and Jatra, Tamasha, Nachs, Bhavai, Nautanki, Yakshagana,
Therukuthu, Burrakatha, Kavi Sammelans and Mushairas have been meaningfully
utilised for dissemination of messages. Broadcast in Tribal dialects for Adivasi from
various stations of AIR comprise both tribal music and folklore.
2-Performing techniques in Folk Media

Emotions: 9 Rasas
In Sanskrit Nava means nine and Rasa has much English translations the most
popular one being juice, essence, and taste. The Navrasa are considered as the
backbone of human emotions. And are considered as the foundation from which the
traditions of dance, music, theatre, art, and literature evolved. Thus it is not
surprising that the most performing art, which tries to present to its viewer a slice of
human life precisely focuses on their Rasas.
Rasas are the mainstay of performing art, or Natya is a fact that has been well
recognized for centuries now. It is also very important to understand that a rasa
encompasses not just the emotion, but also the various things that cause that emotion.
Both things go hand in hand and it is very difficult to separate both the following is
in the brief explanation of all nine Rasas, what each one means and the different
flavor of these Rasas.
SHRINGARA / LOVE: Shringara means to love and beauty. It is the ultimate rasa
and considered as the king of all Rasas and also the one which finds the most
frequent portrayal in Art. It can be used to express the love between mothers and her
children’s, the love between friends, the love between teacher and his students love
for god. But the love between a man and women is the most popular form of this
rasas. The purpose of the universe is to experience this divine love. This love exists
in everything. It is within each one of us.
HASYA / JOY: Hasya means joy or mirth. It can be used to depict simple light
heartedness or rigorous laughter and everything in between this rasa connects you to
humor, laughter happiness and contentment. When we laugh, it is easier to slip into
a no-mind state, because the mind has been freed from its usual workload of
thoughts, and clearly where there is hasya, all is well with the world, there is joy all
BHIBATSYA / DISGUST: It means self-pity, self-hatred. When we see something
that is graceless, beneath human dignity, something which revokes or sickens us is
Bhibatsya that we feel. Example when prince Siddharta for the first time saw the
sickness old age death. He was moved to disgust which later transformed into
Gautama. The Buddha – the Enlighten one. It usually act as a catalyst for higher and
more pleasant emotions.
ROWDRA/ANGER: It means anger and all its anger we go into the fire, one
moment of anger can destroy lifetimes of good deed. In Indian mythology, lord
Shiva is thought as the master of all disharmony. When lord Shiva performs the
tandava it creates havoc in the sky, the earth and the hinder world. When ones anger
isn’t honored it can bring up irritation, violence and hatred.
SHANTA/PEACE: Shanta represents the harmony between the mind, body, and the
universe. It means deep calmness and relaxation. Shanta is what the Buddha felt
when he reached the higher spiritual plane tha led him to nirvana and freed him from
the cycle of death. Shanta is untroubled steadiness and is a key to eternity.
VEERA/HEROISM: Veera means heroism. It represents bravery, pride and self-
confidence. Rama, the hero of the Ramayan, is typically the model for this Rasa. His
confidence and heroism while facing the mighty ten-headed demon king Ravana is
part of Indian legend, folklore, and mythology. A somewhat different type of
heroism is displayed by characters like Abhimanyu, who went to war knowing fully
that he would be severely outnumbered and almost certainly die and yet fought so
bravely as to earn accolades even from his enemies. In Indian music, this rasa is
represented by a lively tempo and percussive sounds.
BHAYA/FEAR: Bhaya means Fear. The subtle and nameless anxiety caused by a
present of evil, the feelings of helplessness aroused by a mighty and painful ruler,
and the terror felt while facing certain death are all aspects of bhaya. The fear for
one’s wellbeing and safety is supposed to be. Bhaya is the feeling of being
overwhelmed and helpless. Dread, cowardice, agitation, discomposure, panic and
timidity are all aspects of the emotion of fear. Bhaya is also used to characterize that
which causes fear. People and circumstances that cause other to cower in terror
before them are as central tp portrayal of this rasa as those feeling the fear.

KARUNA/GRIEF: Karuna is grief and compassion. The feelings of unspeakable

tragedy and despair, utter hopelessness and heartbreak, the sorrow caused by parting
with a lover, the anguish caused by the death of a loved one are all karuna, So also,
the compassion and empathy aroused by seeing someone inferior and distressed is
Karuna. Compassion is what connects all of us. Through compassion we can relate
with each is a bridge between us and others which helps us understand and
empathize with them.

ADBHUTA/CURIOSITY: Adbhuta is wonder and curiosity. The wonder that one

feels when one comes across something divine and supernatural, some power or
beauty that is the remarkable and never seen or imagined before is Adbhuta. Adbhuta
is the curiosity of man regarding the creation of the world and all its wonders, the
surprise caused by seeing something unusual and magical.

Schools of Theatre/Acting/Mimetic
A successful career in theatre/ acting/mimetic requires equal parts talent and practice
with a bit of luck thrown in. Actors at work can be seen and heard everywhere: TV,
the big screen, the theater, on the Internet, in videos and on podcasts. They portray
characters from the past that have impacted history, and they portray characters that
are destined to impact pop culture in the future. Some experiment in a variety of
entertainment mediums, while some stick to the stage, and use their voice to create
new worlds or dedicate their lives to the silver screen. Some make up the cast of
extras that round out a production, while some achieve levels of fame that makes
them a household name. A career in the glamour industry is something each one of
us dreams of pursuing. Right from our childhood we have dreamt of following the
footsteps of legendary actors like Dilip Kumar, Madhu Bala, Amitabh Bachchan,
Shah Rukh Khan and the likes.

Every actor in India has aspirations of joining Bollywood. Primarily due to

increasing job opportunities, glamour factor and high pay scale offered in this field.
As per ‘The Statistics Portal’ the value of the film industry in India was a whopping
142.3 billion in 2016 and its value is expected to reach 206.6 billion in 2021. One
should possess skills and contacts to make their mark in the industry and the best
way to do this is by joining a good acting school.
Established in 1960 on the Prabhat Studio premises at Pune, FTII boasts of a rich
legacy in quality Indian cinema. The Prabhat Studio was declared as a heritage site
by the Pune Municipal Corporation and is used by students to this day. “The Institute
was renamed 'The Film and Television Institute of India' in 1971. The Television
Wing, earlier located at Mandi House, New Delhi was shifted to Pune in the early
seventies, bringing together the training in film and television under a common roof”
states the official website.
Established in 1999 in Film City, Noida (Uttar Pradesh), Barry John Acting Studio
(BJAS) operates under the Theatre in Education Trust, a non-profit association. In
2002, the course moved to a studio in Saidulajab, Saket in New Delhi.
“It was set up by the Sangeet Natak Akademi as one of its constituent units in 1959.
In 1975, it became an independent entity and was registered as an autonomous
organisation under the Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860, fully financed by the
Ministry of Culture, Government of India”, informs the official website. At National
School of Drama as part of their training, students are required to produce plays
which are then performed before the public.
Established in 2010 by Balaji Telefilms to offer courses to students in courses related
to the Media and Entertainment industry such as Acting, Cinematography, Direction,
Editing, Production, Scriptwriting, Sound, Animation & VFX, Dance, Ad Film
Making, Digital Photography and Modeling.
Established in 2005 by Anupam Kher, this acting school stands apart because it
regularly welcomes Bollywood celebrities who share with students their invaluable
on-the-job experiences and tips to succeed. Some of the guest speakers who visited
this acting school are Preity Zinta, Anil Kapoor, Konkona Sen Sharma, Om Puri,
Imtiaz Ali, Ranbir Kapoor, Shabana Azmi, Shekhar Kapoor, Mahesh Bhatt, Vikram
Bhatt, Boman Irani, Dimple Kapadia and many more.
Established in 1993, Asian Academy of Film & Television (AAFT) was sponsored
by Asian Society of Film & Television and became the first ever media school in the
private sector. AAFT is also affiliated to International Film & Television club.
Media firms which visit AAFT for campus placement are Star Plus, Star News, AAJ
Tak, B4U Music, SONY, NDTV, Sahara Samay, Channel 7, BBC, Sadhna, Colors,
India TV, ESPN, Times Now, Zee Network, Star One, Doordarshan, Discovery,
Network 18, Bag Network, Balaji Telefilms, MTV, CNN IBN, ETV, NDTV
Imagine etc.
Established in 2006 by filmmaker Subhash Ghai, Whistling Woods International
(WWI) is an institute for film, fashion and communication. WWI has also
successfully diversified into allied fields like animation, media & entertainment,
communication and fashion.
Located at in New Delhi, R K Films & Media Academy (RKFMA) offers a wide
range of certificate courses in radio jockeying, anchoring and news reading in
association with Delhi university’s colleges like Hansraj College, Miranda House,
Janki Devi Memorial College and Shyam Lal College.
The Zee Institute of Media Arts (ZIMA) is an integral part of Zee Learn Limited,
education division of Zee Networks. This media school offers cutting-edge
technology. Some of the famous recruiting companies which visit the campus are
UTV, Prime Focus, Pixion, Sony, Zee Tv, Shemaroo, Star Plus, Times Now, Ramoji
Film City, Vishesh Films, Balaji, Yash Raj Films, MTV, Radio City 91.1 FM, Neo
Sports, Rajshri Studio, Music India, Oye 104.8 FM, Relaince Media Works and
many more.
The institute offers state-of-the-art infrastructure, resources and technology to
students. Delhi Film Institute offers training to students such that they understand
the overall working of the electronic media such as film, television and radio. Some
of the top recruiters visiting the campus are Aaj Tak, Times Now, IBN 7, News X,
Radio City, My FM, Azad News, Red FM, The Pioneer, Dainik Jagran etc.
Offering theoretical as well as practical knowledge by industry professionals,
Ramesh Sippy Academy of Cinema and Entertainment (RSACE) was established by
Ramesh Sippy. RSACE has a tie-up with University of Mumbai in association with
the Garware Institute of Career Education and Development. Aspirants who
complete the film making programmes offered by RSACE will be awarded graduate
degrees by Mumbai University’s Garware Institute of Career Education and
Voice and speech modulation
The easy is to say that the word, when connected with speaking or indeed music,
means a changing in the volume, filming or pitch. Modulation makes music or
speech interesting to listen to. With speech, it is modulation that makes the word and
phrases stand out and to be more readily understood and remembered. It is important
therefore that a public speaker masters the art of modulation.

Modulation is made up of three elements. Following is the brief explanation of each

Pitch: The pitch is how high or low we speak just as there are higher or lower notes
in music represented by the notes on the board when written down. By varying the
level of our voice in pitch we can create variety in our voice as well use to make
certain words stand out. You might, for example, use a higher pitch for excitement
and a lower pitch for something serious. People who speak on one level come across
to an audience as quite boring and so varying the pitch is essential. There are also
many of us that develop a bad habit of raising the pitch at the beginning of a sentence
and then gradually tapering downwards until the next one or those that end every
sentence on a higher pitch. Your public speaking coach will advise you if you are
doing this.

Pace: The pace or timing of which you speak also needs to be different. There are
times when quite rapid speech is called for, other times for it to be slowed more than
normal. Rapid or slow speech should be used carefully but there will be speeds that
vary in between the very fast and the very slow. Always be cautious that if you go
too fast your words may become unclear and your listeners will not understand what
you are saying. A naturally slow speaker cause’s people to lose concentration as their
minds want to go faster than the speaker. Speaking at a good pace and varying the
pace does require practice and you will need feedback from your trainer to help you
master it. It can also help if you record your presentations and listen to them later
and try and put yourself in the place of your audience.

Power: The third and final element of modulation is the power and volume that we
use when speaking. Very not just the loudness (volume) but also the power or
intensity that we use in our voice. This is perhaps the simplest area of modulation to
master for many people.
Practice: To be able to use good modulation will take practice and more practice. It
is good as with most things in public speaking to try and use modulation in our
everyday speech. You will find with good coaching and practice that good
modulation will become second nature to you.

Tips and Techniques

Pace – one of the easiest ways to incorporate pace is to slow down through key
Pitch – A convenient way to hit different pitch points is to play with different
emotional content. A sad voice takes on a different pitch than a content voice, which
is distinct from an excited voice, and so on. Stories are good speech building blocks
for many reasons, including how they bring a speaker’s voice alive through different
Power (Volume) – Don’t overdo it with changes in volume. Again, align your
variations in volume with emotional content. Anger or joy tends to bring out a load
voice. Fear or sadness calls for a quiet voice.
Pauses – There are a multitude of ways to incorporate pauses in a meaningful way
(watch for a future Six minutes article dedicated to pauses). For this speech, keep it
straightforward. Make sure you’ve got short pauses following every sentence, and
longer pauses at the ends of paragraphs or transitions within your speech.

Music, movements and visual composition

Visual music, sometimes called ``colour music,’’ refers to the use of musical
structures in visual imagery, which can also include silent films or silent Lumia
work. It also refers to methods or devices which can translate sounds or music into
a related visual presentation. An expanded definition may include the translation of
music to painting; this was the original definition of the term, as coined by Roger
Fry in 1912 to describe the work of Kandinsky.
Visual music also refers to systems which convert music or sound directly into visual
forms, such as film, video or computer graphics, by means of a mechanical
instrument, an artist’s interpretation, or a computer. The reverse is applicable also,
literally converting images to sound by drawn objects and figures on a film’s
soundtrack, in a technique known as drawn or graphical sound. Filmmakers working
in this latter tradition include Oskar Fischinger (Ornament Sound Experiments),
Norman McLaren, Barry Spinello, Steven Woloshen, Max Hattler, Richard Reeves
and other contemporary artists. Visual music overlaps to some degree with the
history of abstract film, though not all Visual music is abstract.
Even short pieces of happy or sad music can affect us. One study showed that after
hearing a short piece of music, participants were more likely to interpret a neutral
expression as happy or sad, to match the tone of the music they heard. This also
happened with other facial expressions, but was most notable for those that were
close to neutral.
Something else that's really interesting about how our emotions are affected by
music is that there are two kind of emotions related to music: perceived emotions
and felt emotions. This means that sometimes we can understand the emotions of a
piece of music without actually feeling them, which explains why some of us find
listening to sad music enjoyable, rather than depressing. Unlike in real life situations,
we don't feel any real threat or danger when listening to music, so we
can perceive the related emotions without truly feeling them—almost like vicarious

Sound and its role in performances

-Seeing and hearing, are the two basic fundamentals of higher senses, and both are
equally important.
-Music and Sound is essential for enhancing and presenting any performance.
-The Sound and also the background Sound effects have traditionally been of great
importance in the theatre.
-For example; an offstage battle, were stimulated by sounds such as trumpet blast,
shouts, clashing weapons, etc.
The most important aspects of sound are those qualities which convey emotions.
-It is through the different expressive qualities of sound that we learn the various
nuances of emotions.
-Sound effects add realism in performance but too much of sound can be misinterpret
if relied upon too heavily.
-Today most sound effects are recorded on records or tapes, which provide greater
realism and allow for the production of an almost limitless range with no need of
bulky sound-production devices.

Genres of theatre
In India there are numerous forms of folk theatre and all with a mixture of song,
dance and dialogue.
-One major reason is the various types of languages used, which have created their
own local types of folk theatre in all states of the country.
-India has a longest and richest tradition in theatre going back to at least 5000 years,
and like all folk Art. The origin of India theatre is also related to ancient rituals and
seasonal festivities of the country.
-There are a variety of theatrical styles used in theatre and drama. These include:
FAMILY DRAMA-Family Drama is a genre revolving around conflicts
between family members. In a more general sense, any work of fiction about the
relationships within a family. Many Soap Operas overlap with this genre.
COMEDY-Although comedy has no precise definition and its boundaries are broad.
They are about ordinary people, written in a style that is amusing. For example-
conflict between parents and childrens, between slaves and masters.
2) TRADEGY-Mahabharata, is a strong example of this type of theatre. A tragedy
is a play that recounts the ordeals and death of a person of high rank. They are usually
based on human suffering and emotionally painful events.
3) MUSICAL-They are plays that are performed in completely song and dance form.
Example- all the classical dance forms in India such as Kathak, Kathakali,
Kuchipudi, Odissi are musicals.
3-Types of Folk Media

Classification of folk media in India

The forms of folk media are many. Un-official estimate of folk media existing in
India runs around 6000 in number. With a little variation, all these forms can be
included into various groups such as – puppetry, drama, Harikatha (Story of God),
story-telling, folklore, tales, ballad singing, pad recital (visual aid), kavad (story
box),folkdance, folksongs, street play, riddles, proverbs etc.

A folk song is a lyrical short, simple, less artistic and rhythmic song of community.
It has capacity of free addition, subtraction and modification and no originator. It
originated, transmitted and continued through oral traditions while persons express
their emotions as to get relax from exhaustion or to express happiness in festival
gathering for entertainment. Following are the few types of folk song popular in
Bhajan: The literal meaning of Bhajan is a religious song. This folk art is generally
performed on religious functions especially during Diwali season. It consists of six
or seven performers. One of them is the main singer and all rest are his associates.
Besides religious themes, they also have social themes. Singer can easily modify
them according to his need. Musical instruments like dholki (drum), manjira (metal
bells), harmonium, tambora (voilin) and tabala (kind of drum) are used as
accompaniment to make it more interesting. The Bhajan programmes are normally
held at night. The preferred occasions for holding Bhajans are childbirth, after death,
navaratras Ganesh utsav.
Kirtan: It is one of the oldest of folk songs. It spread with prayers or Bhajan chanting
in harmony with the entire crowd of the listeners along with the performer in lavish
state. There is one main singer with narrator who is supported by 6-7 players of
musical instruments such as harmonium, tabla, tambora and manjira. Main singer
has also wooden structure with metal bells. The performer begins his address by
singing the text of a suitable theme song and goes on explaining its purpose with
relevant explanation and comments making his
Quawwali: This folk art is favourite of the Muslim community. The main attraction
in this art is that there is one leading male singer and one leading female singer
opposite him. There are two groups of performers consisting of 5 to 6 different artists
like harmonium player, Dholki player, banjo player, churmura (local musical
instrument) player and tabala player.

Forms of Indian theatre are numerous and the rich account of Indian drama unveils
the verity that Indian theatre has a deep rooted relation with Indian epics and Indian
mythologies. This later not only structured the rich forms of Indian theatre but also
aided in making Indian 'Natya ' to stand apart as a whole new form of expression.
India has the most recollect tradition in theatre which goes back to 5000 years.
According to the rich timeline of Indian natya, it has its roots deeply allied
with Vedic ritualism and with age old socio cultural anthropology which delineated
the development of various dramatic forms of Indian theatre.
Bhand Pather: Jammu Kashmir:
This is a traditional satirical theatre form of Kashmir with unique combination of
dance, music and acting. They include actors from farming community. They mainly
showcase their way of living, ideals and sensitivity in the drama is discernible.
Swang: Rajasthan, Haryana, UP and Malwa
Swang is a folk dance drama of Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Malwa region
of Madhya Pradesh. It incorporates suitable theatrics and mimicry accompanied by
song and dialogue. The theme is mostly bases on releigion.
Nautanki: Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab etc.
In entire north India, it was the most popular entertainment art before arrival of
Cinema. The most popular centres of this traditional theatre form are Kanpur,
Lucknow and Haathras. This popular art from has now decreased. In contemporary
times, the street plays resemble to the Nautankis.
Raasleela: Uttar Pradesh
Rāsleela is a theatre form of Uttar Pradesh. It is based exclusively on Lord Krishna
legends. It is believed that Nand Das wrote the initial plays based on the life of
Krishna. The dialogues in prose combined beautifully with songs and scenes from
Krishna’s pranks.
Maach, Madhya Pradesh
Maach is a traditional theatre form of Madhya Pradesh. The term Maach is used for
the stage itself as also for the play. In this theatre form songs are given prominence
in between the dialogues.
Ramman, Uttarakhand
Ramman is a folk theatre of Uttarakhand. It is a multiform cultural event combining
theatre, music, historical reconstructions, and traditional oral and written tales. It is
celebrated every year in Baisakh month (april) in the courtyard of the temple of
Bhumiyal Devta situated in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand. Mask dance performed
exclusively by the Bhandaris (Ksatriya caste).
Jatra, Bengal
Jatra refers to the musical plays performed at fairs in honour of gods, or religious
rituals and ceremonies. This dance-drama born and flourished in Bengal. The earlier
form of Jatra has been musical. Dialogues were added at later stage. The actors
themselves describe the change of scene, the place of action, etc.
Bhaona, Assam
Bhaona is a traditional form of musical theatre with religious messages. It is
performed in Assam and one can see the glimpses of culture of Assam, Bengal
Orissa, Mathura and Brindavan in this folk dance drama. In this form, the narrator
called Sutradhaar begins the story, first in Sanskrit and then in either Brajboli or
Assamese. The actors are called Bhaoriya.
Bhavai, Gujurat
Bhavai is a traditional theatre form of northern Gujarat and southern Rajasthan.
Bhavai is partly entertainment and partly a ritual offering made to Goddess Amba.
Tamasha, Maharastra
Tamasha is a traditional folk theatre form of Maharashtra. It has evolved from the
folk forms such as Gondhal, Jagran and Kirtan. Unlike other theatre forms, in
Tamaasha the female actress is the chief booster of dance movements in the play.
Classical music, footwork at lightning-speed, and vivid gestures make it possible to
portray all the emotions through dance. The themes of Tamasha have been used in
some Marathi films also.
Dashavatar, Goa and Konkan
Dashavatar is a popular theatre form of the Konkan and Goa regions. The performers
personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity.
Apart from stylized make-up, the Dashavatar performers wear masks of wood.
Krishnattam, Kerala
Krishanattam is the folk theatre of Kerala. It came into existence in 17th century
under the patronage of King Manavada of Calicut. Krishnattam is a cycle of eight
plays performed for eight consecutive days, presenting the story of lord Krishna.
Burrakatha/ Harikath
Harikatha is a storytelling play used in villages of Andhra Pradesh,Karnataka and
Tamil Nadu. The term ‘burra’ is used for tambura, a musical string instrument with
a hollow shell and ‘katha’ means story. It is a narrative entertainment that consists
of prayers, solo drama, dance, songs, poems and jokes. Burrakatha tellers are called
as budagajangalu. The topic will be either a Hindu mythological story or a
contemporary social problem.


Each state and region offers a unique glimpse and taste into its way of life, rituals
and traditions. Indian folk and tribal dances are simple, and they are performed to
get pleasure from them. Dancing is a part of daily life and religious rituals. Indian
folk dances have eternal forms and rhythm.

Traditional dancing is organised on every time, i.e. the births of children, festivals,
marriage opportunities and the arrival of seasons. Indian folk and tribal dances are
dance with minimal steps or movements. These folk dance of India are full of
vibrancy, enthusiasm and energy.following are the few popular folk dances of India.
Bhangra, Punjab
Everyone today knows this dance form. This dance originates from the Majha area
of Punjab. Bhangra is practiced and performed in the month leading up to the harvest
festival of Vaisakhi. Traditionally, this dance form was performed only by
men. Bhangra’s vivacious rural flavours are highlighted by the singular beats of
the dhol and the bright costumes worn by the dancers.
Rasleela, Uttar Pradesh
Rasleela is an ancient form of folk dance originating from the Braj region of Uttar
adesh. It is about describing the night when Gopis of Vrindavan heard the sound of
Krishna’s flute, and came out in forest to dance with Krishna. The Indian classical
dance form of Kathak is said to have originated from Rasleela. This dance is popular
especially during the festivals of Janmashtami and Holi. This is also a popular folk
dance in Manipur.
Garba, Gujarat
Garba is the folk dance of Gujarat, The dance symbolises a celebration of life.
Usually performed around a clay lantern, the dancers honour the Goddess Durga. In
modern times, the Garba that is performed is heavily influenced by the Dandiya
Raas, thus giving it the high energy it is known for. The elaborate costumes of the
dancers (especially, women) also make Garba a treat for the eyes.
Ghoomar, Rajasthan
Ghoomar is performed by women in colourful spinning ghagharas. The beauty of
this dance is in the stunning circling which go on to reveal the various gorgeous
colours of the spinning skirts. Ghoomar is a fascination dance to see. while dancing
the women clap and snap their fingers at a particular part of the song. this dance is
perofred to honour the goddess of wealth-Saraswati.
Lavani, Maharashtra
Traditionally performed to the beat of the dholki, Lavani is a high-energy
performance, performed to the beat of dholki. this folk dance has contributed
immensely to the development of folk theatre in Maharashtra. There are two types
of Lavani performances – Phadachi Lavani-enacted in a public space, a theatrical
atmosphere and Baithakachi Lavani-performed in a closed space to a select
audience, and mostly while sitting down.
Raut Nacha, Chhattisgarh
The Raut Nacha dance is performed by the Yadava tribe of Chhattisgarh.
The Yadavas are considered to be direct offspring of Lord Krishna. The dance is
performed during the ‘Dev Udhni Ekadashi’ – considered to be a time when the
Gods awaken from their brief rest. This dance is a celebration of victory over all
Puli Kali, Kerala
Performed during Onam, Kerala’s harvest festival, Puli Kali is a visual art in almost
every aspect. Artists and dancers paint their bodies as tigers and hunters and dance
to the beat of musical instruments like the Udukku and Thakil. It takes place on the
fourth day of Onam, and people and performers attend and participate in the festival
in huge numbers. Over the course of time, the costumes, the paintings and the body
art have become more bright, vibrant and colourful, and are an overwhelming sight
to see.
Matki Dance, Madhya Pradesh
Matkidance originates from the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. This is a solo
dance performed by women on special occasions such as birthdays, festivals,
weddings, etc. The performer dances with a Matki-clay pot on top of her head which
is often more than one in number. The dance involves complicated dance moves in
colourful costumes, which only adds to the elegant beauty of this dance.

Indian Folk Dramas have grown over the centuries and are a part of the life and
culture of the rural people. Folk plays in the form of songs, dances and dramas have
nourished a rich tradition. Though many of these have now become extinct and some
are weakening, the rural folk have preserved and nurtured, quite a few folk-plays
such as Ram Leela, Rasaleela, Prahlad Natak, etc.

Rama Leela Folk Play

It is a religious folk play in India. The word Leela literary means sport and therefore
‘Ram Leela’ portrays the sport of Rama, the King.Ram Leela performances start
from Ram Navami day and customarily deal with the various incidents from the
story of Ramayana which continues for several nights. The folk art of Ram Leela
revolves around the heroic deeds of Lord Rama. Besides Lord Rama, the important
characters of the play are Goddess Sita (wife of Lord Rama), Lakshman (brother of
Lord Rama), and Lord Hanuman. Actors playing the role of demons, wear masks.
Actions in the play stick to to dance-music or song-music which is cast in the form
of dialogues. The group of chorus singers with orchestral music repeats the refrains.

Several Vaisnav poets have written innumerable songs of devotion pertaining to
Radha and Krishna. Rasa Leela centers on the immortal love story of Lord Krishna
with Radha and the Gopis and are played for nights together. Now-a-days dialogues
have been added. The chorus singers always sing the refrains.

Bharat Leela
Bharat Leela draws its plot from the epic tales of Mahabharat. It is therefore, called
Bharat Leela. In these play four essential characters, namely Arjuna, Subhadra,
Satyabhama and Dwari participate. The core of the Lela relates to love and
subsequent marriage of Arjuna with Subhadra. Dwari.

Moghul Tamasha
It is a spoof play on the Mughals and is confined to Bhadrak area. It is multi-lingual
performance, with songs and dialogues being used in Persian, Urdu, Hindi
languages. It was inspired by the Marathas, ruling over Orissa, who satired on the
earlier Muslim (Mughal) rule.

Prahlad Natak
It is typical play of Ganjam district of Orissa. Literally it means a play about Prahlad,
the devotee boy. This unique folk theatre embodies many of the rich folk, classical
and tribal traditions of Orissa.

‘Suanga’ means joking. It is a folk drama and its tradition is very old in India. It is a
development over the Leelas. Suang mostly concerns itself with stories from
legends, folk lores, and episodes from mythologies and often from history.

It is one of the important traditional media for communicating technology to the
farmers in the villages. Puppetry is believed to be the oldest form of popular theatre
in India. The term, sutradhar (string holder) was used for the director or the stage
manager in the live, classical (sanskrit) theatre of ancient India (AD 100-1000).
Experts reason that this use of the terminology derived from the puppet theatre is an
evidence that puppetry preceded the live theatre in India.
In ancient India, especially in the South, the puppeteers were respected as
intellectuals. They were usually patronized by kings and wealthy families and
enjoyed immense prestige. The art of puppetry was popular both as pure
entertainment and as an educational medium.
Puppetry is especially suitable for villages. It is an inexpensive activity. It is an easily
acquired art and even crudely made puppets when played with a lively sense of
drama can hold an audience. The puppet play can impart lessons on health, literacy,
agriculture, home-making; education, employment, rural youth activities, recreation,
etc. There are many types of puppets: String puppets (originated in Rajasthan),
Glove puppets, Rod puppets (Orissa and Tamil Naidu) and Shadow puppets (Kerala
and Orissa).
Puppets can make an impact, if properly used with the active participation of the
local people. Local dialect should be used if at all a foreigner’ wants to stage a
performance in a village. Puppetry attracts all age-groups.


Story-telling has been one of the best and the oldest art is also most
commonly used methods of instruction in informal education, religious
propagation, rural development, etc. Over the years, certain customs have been
developed that are associated with story-telling. Before the story teller begins the
narration, he asks, are you ready to listen? The listeners respond with ‘Yes’ sound.
This ensures proper attention when the story is narrated. The listeners often make
some kind of sound at regular intervals to express attention. So important topics
which help in proper development of the rural people can be touched through the

This is also an educational device through which elders used to communicate
knowledge. Sometimes these riddles are very helpful in passing on the real
meaning of technology. Some puzzles are given to the rural people who help them
understand the use of proper practices in the crop cultivation, home-making, etc.

The folklores and folktales have been a timeless part of every culture since ages.
When it comes to Indian folk tales, the country of diverse religions, languages and
cultures has a complete range of tales and short stories. Indian folklore has a wide
range of stories and mythological legends, which emerge from all walks of life.
The interesting stories range from the remarkable ‘Panchatantra’ to ‘Hitopadesha’,
from ‘Jataka’ to ‘Akbar-Birbal’.The great Indian epics like ‘Ramayana’,
‘Mahabharata’ and ‘Bhagvad Gita’ are full of moral stories inspired from the lives
of great souls. Being full of moralistic values, Indian folklore makes perfect stories
for children, who are required to be, instilled with right values. All these ancient
stories have been passed from generation to generation, creating bondage present-
day generation.

Hitopadesha Tales
The Hitopadesha is a remarkable compilation of short stories. It is composed by
Narayana Pandit, Hitopadesha had its origin around a thousand years ago. In
Indian Literature, the Hitopadesha is regarded more or less similar to the
Panchatantra. Hitopadesa has been translated into numerous languages to benefit
the readers all over the world.

Jataka Tales
In 300 B.C, the Jataka Tales were written for the mankind to gain knowledge and
morality. Ever since, Jataka tales have become story books that are both enjoyable
as well as knowledgeable. Originally written in Pali language, Jataka Buddhist
tales have been translated in different languages around the world. The brilliant
fables of ‘Jataka’ are projected to impart values of self-sacrifice, morality, honesty
and other informative values to people.

Panchatantra Tales
The Panchatantra is a legendary collection of short stories from India. Originally
composed in the 2nd century B.C, Panchatantra is believed to be written by Vishnu
Sharma along with many other scholars. The purpose behind the composition was
to implant moral values and governing skills in the young sons of the king.
4-Aplication of Folk Arts

Use of folk media for community development

In a country like India so vast and varied, modern mass media alone does not
constitute the sum total of communication channels. We have TV, newspaper,
internet etc. But the millions of people in rural areas have no regular access to such
media due to literacy and poverty. Till today different forms of traditional media are
practiced, since traditional media speaks about the community and their culture, the
events which are related to them, people easily understand the information given
through this media. Tradition media has greatest appeal to the masses and have
qualities of touching the deepest emotions of the illiterate millions. Among all the
folk forms puppetry is believed to be the oldest form of popular theatre in India. It
is used to communicate new technologies to the farmers in the village, Folk theatre
form like Tamasha, Nautanki, Keertana or Harikatha still attract the rural audiences.
So, people can be educated through there mediums to bring about desirable changes
in their behavior. Street play also attracts a large group of people. People in villages
get fascinated by their folk dances and folk songs. Melas or country fairs are full of
joy for rural people where life follows a hard routine. Tradition folk media was used
during the British rule in India to communicate about various movement to the
people even after the independence. There have been many instances of the
government using traditional performance for the development in rural areas. Folk
songs have played a very important role in the Chipko and Apiko movements. The
first significant international recognition of role of traditional media in the
development in the developing countries came in 1972 when the International
Planned Parenthood Federation and UNESCO organized a series of meetings on the
integrated use of the folk and the mass media in family planning communication
programmers in London. Traditional media has been used in our country ever since
the time of the Independence Movement. “AHLA”, the popular ballad of Uttar
Pradesh and its counter parts like “LAAVANI” of Maharashtra, “GEE-GEE” of
Karnataka, “VILLUPAATTU” of Tamil Nadu and “KAVIGAN” of Bengal were
effectively used to make people aware during the Independence period

Mahatma Gandhi also launched many socio-political campaigns using folk media.
A well-known Tamil poet Subramanya Bharti used folk music to invoke patriotism
in the people. Folk tunes succeeded in popularizing songs glorifying the charkha or
spinning wheel and boycott British made goods. Even after Independence there
have been many instances of the Government using traditional performances for
development in rural areas. In the 1940’s, Indian People Theatre Association
(IPTA), used some of the popular regional theatre forms like “Jaatra” of Bengal,
“Bhavai” of Gujrat, “Tamasha” of Maharashtra and “Burkatha” of Andhra Pradesh
to increase social awareness and political education.

In 1977, a non-governmental organization in Kerala called Kerala Sastra Sahithya

Parishad (KSSP) organized Science Jatha, a Science Procession in to spread the
message of people’s involvement in the development process. From 1980, the
Jathas began to use different folk art forms for conveying the themes which were
mainly on education, health, environment and social inequality. The range from
songs, street dramas and other several forms of folk arts.

Well-known Theatre personality Ravi Varma of Vikas Lok Manch has been
creatively interpreting social realities by linking them into the fabric of folk dances,
choral singing etc. with the help of slum children. Issues like alcoholism, pollution,
religion, inequalities of caste and class, communalism and so forth are also focused
on for the play. One of the group’s most famous street plays is Hame Jawab Chahiya
(1985) on the Bhopal gas tragedy.

Folk songs have played a very important in the Chipko and Apiko movements. Folk
Singers of the region composed songs in folk tunes and sang them in the street.

Rajasthan Adult Education Association (RAEA) had conducted an experiment in a

village Devakishanapura where they sponsored Ravi Chaturvedi, a graduate of
National School of Drama for formulating development messages through the use
of theatre based on stories from the epics.
The traditional media, are close to the hearts and minds of the people. They are
more personal and intimate. Different folk media can be used to cater to different
regions. Every village has its relevant music, dance or theatre. These traditional
media can be used to reach these people in the process of change and development
of the country. Traditional media uses a delicate form of persuasion by presenting
the required message in locally popular artistic forms. This cannot be equaled by
any other means of communication. So, if we want to introduce the message of
growth among the rural masses we have to use the folk forms of this country in a
more strategic way.

Folk Literature
Folk literature also called folk lore or oral tradition. The lore-meaning
traditional knowledge and beliefs of cultures have no written language. Folk
literature is mainly concerned with speaking and singing. when we write down these
songs or stories, the resulting preservation of oral tradition is known as folk
Myths, legends, epics, fables and folktales passed down by word of mouth
through generations to generations are the example of folk literature. Folk literature
are helpful to children as they contain stories which help to develop sense of morality
in them. It helps children to sort out good and evil in the word and to identify with
the good.
-The plot used for folk literature are generally shorter and simple than in other genres
of literature.
-The characters in folk literature are usually simple and straight forward. They are
either good or bad, which means they are easily identified.
-Folk lore remove the tale from the real world, they take us to a time and place where
animals talk, witches and wizards roam, and magic spells are common place.
-Themes in folk literature are quite simple, but serious and powerful.
-Indian folk heroes like Rama, Krishna in Sanskrit epics and history and also in
freedom movement are well known to everyone. But not only heroes, the heroines
of Indian folk lore have significant contribution in shaping the Indian culture.

Folk media vs. traditional and New media

Communication is a continuous and endless process in the world of human beings,

animals and plants. A human need for communication is as basic as the need for
food, clothing and shelter Communication is divided into many types and mass
communication is only one form of it. Media stands for the medium in mass
communication, and it is with the help of media vehicle a message can be
communicated to a large as well as geographically dispersed audience who has
different needs and point of view towards life

Folk media is a term which is used to signify people’s performances. It talks about
folk dance, rural drama and the musical variety of rural people. Creative use of folk
media, in cultures where it is popular and well rooted, subtle and effective way of
introducing development ideas and messages.
Although a large number of rural areas are slowly being converted into towns and
urban areas, the rural area is still much larger than the urban areas. The reach of
electronic media is limited due to various reasons. The rural people are generally
largely engaged in agricultural work or activities related to agriculture. They do not
understand high level language and the fast cultural change of this era. However, the
word ‘folk’ which implies customs, habits and the way of life has existed in society
from time immemorial and has been handed down from one generation to the next.
Therefore, folk media is a popular means of communication among them. It is also
an effective mass media among the rural people. It is true that rural people also use
electronic media for communication and entertainment but they do not understand
all the programs and information broadcasted or telecasted through this media. Thus,
folk media can be used in electronic media to communicate with the rural people.

Folk media has a clear – cut advantage over electronic media. The familiarity,
personal contact, common language, intelligibility, credibility and acceptance make
folk media universally acceptable among rural people. In electronic media such as
TV and radio, messages come out of an impersonal electronic box, but in folk media,
there is a very close contact between the sender and the receiver. As the contact is
direct and personal, the messages in folk media are far more credible and acceptable
than if they were transmitted through the electronic media.

The rural people are also very religiously inclined. They love their religion and are
devoted to it, so, if we talk to them in terms of myths and legends which are a part
of their religion, they can understand the messages properly. Folk media has been
estimated as successful motivators. They inspire the masses in times of stress and
strain. Electronic media has an advantage in that it can reach large number at the
same time whereas in folk media, it takes a long time to reach a larger audience. The
reach, is greater in electronic media but effective reach is far greater through folk
media. So we can say that if we convey a message through electronic media, we can
cover a large audience even though it is not really effective to the audience.
Similarly, if we use folk media, the message must be effective for the people but we
cannot reach a large audience through this medium. Folk media is more flexible and
repeatable than electronic media. Repeating a message is very expensive on
electronic device. Different forms of folk media such as folk dances, folk music, folk
songs, folk theatre can be used to convey messages to the people of rural areas. We
can say that folk media is the media of the people. It has a direct attachment with the
common people so it attaches itself to people’s mind. The language of folk media is
local and thus messages through it more easily understood. If folk media is presented
to a larger audience through the help of the electronic media it can be all the more

Folk media as a tool for promoting Literacy, social change, cultural

legacy, creating Political awareness.
In today's dynamic world, communication and its role has become very specialized
and significant. In India, modern mass media alone cannot reach to the millions of
people in rural areas who have no regular access to TV, newspapers, internet etc due
to poverty and illiteracy. The modern media's reach is largely restricted to urban
areas. Information, education and entertainment do not reach to a large majority of
the people in rural and remote areas. Folk media can overcome the difficulties of
language, speech, words and other barriers of communication like interest,
understanding, interpretation, attitude and perception.
The folk performing art is changing its structure continuously over centuries
modifying it to the needs of the changing situations. Folk media is one of the most
important vehicles of social change and nation building. While a lot of modification
may be needed to convey social messages, folk media will easily carry social issues
related to rural development. Therefore, we need to keep our traditional media alive
by continuously and cautiously safeguarding and preserving from the adverse effects
of globalization.
Street play is one more form of folk media that is being used widely to propagate
socio political messages and to create awareness for social issues. A group of people
perform on streets, and gather crowds. The objective here is to make people a part
of the play and thus convey the social message. Thus, even a common man identifies
with the issue and becomes a part of the act. Street plays are short, direct, loud, and
over expressive since they are performed in places where there are huge crowds.

Political awareness is also created using various folk forms, people are made aware
that it is important to vote for the development of our country by performing street
play and other forms of folk Art. During the general elections, members of the
various political parties use the folk song for campaigning and presented humorous
skits to ridicule the opposition's candidate and win support for their own candidates.
Swang and Ragini have been effectively utilized by political parties in Haryana.
Kabigaan and Tarza have been used by Ipta groups to support candidates of the
communist parties in Bengal Tamasha and lavani in Maharashtra have been
extensively used for political propaganda in the State.

The folk media in India seems to be used as supplement to the mass media rather
than as the center of communication efforts to reach majority of India's population
who live in the villages. In India, mass media continue to be limited largely to the
urban population Apart from the live programs with face-to-face communication the
traditional folk forms have been used in programs over the electronic media. India's
role in identifying folk media for communication purposes has been quite positive.
Unlike in western theatre, folk performance is a composite art in India. It is a total
art with fusion elements from music, dance, pantomime, versification, epic ballad
recitation, religion and festival peasantry. It imbibes ceremonials, rituals, belief and
social system. In India, the traditional folk media has been used as addressing the
masses and has been very effective and powerful in communicating the latest
development of the country along with bringing about the desired changes, protests
and awareness among the people.
The traditional folk performing arts traditions and customs have long lasting impact
on society and culture. Though, globalization, economic liberalizations and modern
forces of change have widely impacted folk media and folk performing arts,
traditions and cultural heritage, honor, folk media has still contributing significantly
in social integrity promotion of cultural diversity and nation building.