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THE EARLY ARABIC HISTORICAL TRADITION A SOURCE-CRITICAL STUDY ALBRECHT NOTH sro Emon. tw COLLABORATION ‘1TH LAWRENCE I. CONRAD -Taanstaren Priow THE GERMAN MICHAEL BONNER ‘THE DARWIN PRESS, INC PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 1908 Conch @ eh © 190 by on "tln-Publcstion Data "The, Ege * maT Gana sy J Ares vba Ba vanaatd fen the Geen (Se cpa Me yang shi bate Fen und Tender Ohi pues carly Bam) row oL oP “pt 0 wnt a tet the ii a Lie "My Rese CONTENTS Abbreviations Preface to the Second Baition Introduction L. ‘The Satfent Themes of Early Historical Tradition Primary Themes eda Pus Bina Aaminiseation ‘ira abblafs" Isa Iran Secondary Themes Gharat Dating According ‘Analisi Style Armungerent According to Caliptes Taw snd Administration itis Court an Central Government Causal Links (the gra Literary Forms Documents Letters Speeches Liss Awa ‘Topot Topo Connected sith "Ouder of Bette (welt) Personal Names nets Whe Kill or Captre Wel. Known Enemies "To bean ath * Calis aod Thy us u7 120 m re 120 129 12 aH 135 137 18 12 us 145 6 16t 107 168 169 170 m1 13 73 W7 189 15 208 219 220 zoMe Abbreviations iden, Bil, 17-94 de Gonle 8 Sao of Oriental ant A rely of Hee B.D Beep of lim, oe. BAHAR. COD International Journal of Mile ast Stain anh ie wnt vermnte Mtsehap. Leiig, Wiesbaden, 1847- Preface to the Second Edition “Two ppcanes uavte Now PassED since the publication in 1973 of Qualonisaveke Studien su Themen, Formen ond Tendenzen frais. limischer Geachickeberiferung, [Themen and Formen by the De Pas teeta Sradies in the University of Bonn. ‘This work Feplecited the fst half of my Habiitatiomechrift and it was «ny intention to publish the remainder ofthe text, on Tendenzen, in due ours Tveapualy. however, this plan was overtaken by other consider Gone, Tennent nportant sections ofthis second part have appeared aries enioes journals and collective volumes, end publetion ofthe whole would thus, ta of researeh which is already widely avalable Sn pin ge extent, ow to the restatement ead 0 which L ‘would ave Fietle new to a A secon edition of the fist part Printer his tine, “The post two decades have witnessed both a ast lt a ce, The i ity of plished Arabi source ma Sai ind 2 drama pe natonprapiral problems involved ine ST Mamie tory ar an now resnch eat mst imnediately Sm, his suc tein the 73 st ad wile ny have no ute argent fm ol vrs, ther he indicted reas ili an net eed or nba AR eopeil atrc tive incentive for arsing HE sh a es eon Uh opty pa 9 8 of the Late Antiqlty and Easy stan projet Treat Anta arship i its fld by encouraging nd orga aa eric der contacts among researchers ithe varlous ae sarees became accesible to panting con the other band, seems appro nates a Ir gnglinh dition under the auspices whic is rendering an Prefuce Sic of interes colle (aod enn) pe UREN the question of ow these sources ean be used ley becomes ® more pressing concen stl the discussion as this new ei i re obviously its Peat ee ly its primary bio Audience, bit ‘nd Syviac studies and other Ed hat this oe tg Gero tn, ee Much now material hi mit a the mighty be ee te ral Cr cnet forthe wal hat tine fo thi ary oe a the Ruth al.Sham of att eptesents a thorough 2 MAY now be regarded as lAvl al the ly valuable. On inset hy afcantty enhance, i Sr Ne aos 2 tm mi a a Drang POR cos at ae Shc = et "a8 clear i the references se i » De. a E " hae cea lr 'ated by the invaluable Bonner Cam gratefal ng the German text rama a de elena Caron an Ti ied, The ext tion tp gr Useful eomnn ae Te Mase Sgt MS pa ft enidertin “au, wither ft lexeng PY Bronda Hall, a4, Mt th ty me rami Milne f2D% Lames 1, Con tert ge Pg By gee 1 C- eta ial Ba eppenre fom his ke ve buted enormity additions, and 0 our we, BMeE ht: Access to his bas contr the Preface x to the book as a whole [Arabe historiography has contributed mich to th The English edition thus reprsents an eterpris of achoacly callabo- zation in the fll sense ofthe term, and in elation should be refered tas *Noth/Conrad™ Finally, 1 shold ike in many ways, the purpose te stress that while the book fas changed OF nabs seine he same 10 offer a protic! guile to the problems which must be reeogiaed ates beacon any attempt to study esl sani Noy: A bfoe wil emerge that Arabian storia tradition coniins thnch which however reby may inform us aout ce perceptions and iow otter ten, revel ong 778 boat the ton objec Ure deuasion, Such problems require that the researcher remain i a gn al arco the a Cra a Jenonmerate that traditional positivist approaches to een ee hers have ao argo, eseatialy untenable, Bt Sens ie cenontng the historian of esl Islamic ines are ode oserble it sul ot be conta hat ee ee ao a or sh they be ak py tht ly omens ai Uo aly alam exer, i wl bing to Te een tems ofthe tain tal Great civilizations may not esl i WP ive Which rough heen into bein Altech Noth INTRODUCTION Te aod am te deat th rol Mahan he death of his fourth “deputy”, the caliph “A ibn Abt TD (40/65), the history of slam wold encompass some 30 years. Never agi “nv of ch lane al len ot iver at hc tin en moa Ine or conn sb sete ns hy the deta oS dep he so ar ier on wee a eal append encounter ch et cifcai b dow ee (Get a ar trout of a a be epee tn dng, tiny wl Kimi Kel 0 nccogeenba neat in the strict sense. That to ser gw esa bgp and pk! ins HY Sports i eb en ey ne wi ot tre oF things be bong een toca mt ens and despite the fact tha ee same 2018 or aren reel way ato ater tra aletions 99 Oa eae ot terary sources A-Tabar (wr 19/00) Cee ee nd dtd of the cat comes wil 28 OS cee a ran origin! erate to be examine. Pear Crk story of a Fata From Cri 10 ts Pl aac ft street ‘cites i pe cece With Arabie historical Src ions eget oo woh is dooted ta an ch se . attempt to work out at A rumba oft fect Thanet tng sade hae Canina tot ip 00s. The A. Dati ad Fe Already dete with this ub cur oseatal? Nabia At? tt ln ike et gt haart uf these book wt mat Uo hee coca te et SURES heat ia eration ot iy SB a ag EE Bad dow vas hates an eb has Leon ta lon, the quest 2%: the origin of the development of al Pein of dparace a sh ei ers vo ea tas re con ning a infor, ce onto th dans Co be ot tele snot a th an vith a PAE of “he composition “eh sl, the traditions thet thistat BE Aon hissy Tes lve thee ee nt eat ay ean the et fonstiege AP Of great interest For tg ale Pre a hee abut a Ht meet wi ge%8 Of how and unt Meret only inst at a et yo "067 proce Introduction 3 ‘The trations themselves ate the theme of the second group of studi: the investigations of MJ. de Goeje! Julius Wellaasen,” N.A, Madore and Leone Ceetani? ‘These studs are on the whole 50 rmeteulouny argued, end thee results have ben so widely accepted vk whether and why should De necessary 0 Ua hi theme. Having answered the formes Tater obliges 8 t0 pro "This eitique will that owe may well dere yet more research on th ‘question in the afmative, response to the ‘ide a fundamental ertque ofthese earlier works ilow us, at the same tint, tose fort a fuller ontine ofthe present stay The titles of the above-mentioned four studs thea authors wished to achieve with thee critial investigation of the ition namely, a poeentaion of ely history Teleant sections of his book) sought ‘yen Palestine for Wellhasen ng the epoch of the fst four show clearly what sources ofthe Ilan De Gorje and Mednior (in the to write the history ofthe conquest of Foe a Fiat in evaluating the results of thelr source tile the authows hed to make certain concesions in favor of tally convineng plete ofthe sequence of events, Ther etude elt Tear the tence atin process, Second cach of these thors inva} his critical eff ss ou ot traditions which he thouht erste bia n presentation of the not likely to provide him with foundation fo P vents he wished be deacribe, Criticism was thus oot brought to bea at the available traditions, but Sn eet so a a rather was imi to dsrete gr00R® © rad iterests. De Goel, for fonten, hy the researcher's topical or br Champlain ema the couse and chronleg of tbe aw Fin ype (ate: EB 10 TS yp sgn rte nr sy eae ae i aio a "Amat am (an Uno Bese oma Inertuction Inmet ofthe dramtncks mg! HE Moment. te reo wi deine 2 BY suck meth pest Soe de Cn Wethan es ade wae, Neha, eta, Ca erage nc et a ys ad hey aah Dar hg ER ito pa ote Period of te ato man nn, et Of the eu ed material are tot ensign *s (Mating goat the coy aga eae one another be dsinguste: the come sm Sin Aa agree mater he a= Fert str) aa a Ppt hy give el mot a te cio 1 Pe “Agar. wn fF eset yi ‘a Introduction cece to reports ofthe “Median schoo” over thse of the “Iral schoo! ‘The Inq accounts are rejected because oftheir Hegenday characte, ‘heisprrtrag bia, and their often hair-raising chrono ‘We must this begin witha ertique ofthis “theory af choos". The ‘sential f ahat we have to say on this matter have already been set down elsewhere and so need ot be repeated in deta!” Here we will ‘expand on several points. "The fst argument to be made against the “theory of cool” dee tives rom the peculiar character af slam historia tradition, «char Arter whic ssl eeoguizabe inthe tradition as it has come down to 1s Unlike the comparable historical tradition ofthe Chistian West td unlte the historia! books of the OM Testament (Wellausens Drevions abject of study, the earist Islamic historical tradition did Mme all at once, and similarly didnot sicular point of vw: All the we il have) were ot consider a longer period flier seen of events om lsuer compilations (these are the only ones whic based upon individual tnditions, which refered to hings and events in the minutes detail and were usually very sort- These indo) ‘rations, which had the most varied origin (For tstanes there Fe ations of tribes, of families, of factions), encompass. rest Vin ines nal penectiven, From thes small billing locks compendia ‘ere conateacred: itd nt rst ater broader in scope. But the ee, inal compiatory chercter ean be recogni om the fact that oy So frequently avortace tadtion with wchan of eaters Ad even i the en of euch historians as al-Dinawat (282/890) SUYutnd Doa/ay, nn al esl 345/966), ho donot wae oil wing ts sea tre WH te sya iia at He nthe ‘of Seo” of Arab tani his Pa ec aa ae bad Con seer Gecctrng SNE Ste ae ty a (ee 07/8) ern, een Go hit Main Wino Kieran er an Coro bl ete err te Breer Introdueton Pets ad repre Setar he erg Sting tee nts an recor vented snag mpg tg IY ome ths re tg ceca, of xan SIMO omit NUE other ee one oe batting mii. THe ee witha era eee about whan eB ocd nay aberdeen ret a Lie ee ef SPN citi of wi ioc ation” refers to che sesl® the dt aN dot ibe 3 to the ais gt 8 one hat tent mates: Thats of in tents and authors worked wil in aE ba A dy cont a aE Co sor mised We By sl was lia the result of the ®2 lt ne ce ete of ise el nn Peto fy he work fein a Abn ig aeStribe yall? identified, knowe times a ei rad p82 eatly, more or Fe 1 ittons Ms And did not end BY ible ge St With which wer are HO ‘And tradents handli™® Mr and 2 oe Histor apd Introdution 7 recsved material, and not athe partcuar individuals responsible for the bse presentations of ely Islamic history. Accordingly. while these compilers did add thee own changes to the material which they hal assembled, they were nonetheless colle tors of historical eports fest and foremost. The individual reports bad ty that time already undergone along process of change: But these ‘anges cannot be ascribe oa single region, to asngl group, oF even to'a single school, They had thei origins, rater, i varity of g- ‘zaphicl ares and in diferent socal envtonments, An exception may bre fond only in the eae of collections which address single highly restricted hee ia favor of one particular faction. So far at ow, ‘the only such collections to have survived are those of l-Azd (Bc 190/805), whose history of the Arab conguest of Syia presents& pro int viewpoint and exalts Ue rle ofthe southern tbe Nase iba Muah (4. 212/827), author ofa thorogbly pro‘Ali compilation othe confrontation between ‘AU abd Mu‘tviva at Sit and Aba Tshagal-Thacef 289/806), compiler of another pro'Abd eolletion of material on "AW conc with hie ving escaped from the paradigm of conception of story and its miler to other eompi investigation of those Scat within its ative 108 Dreseatation of evens; and secon soften very Uatous in precisely the same reposts. Atheros ‘EA aia t,o it at tC ie ly th At uae 2 Ba, hr ee eyo Fe Sa ee tary of Bi ae (Ca: "’Nageion Musabinn, Wag'at Sie Abs a San Mamma Haran (Ca angen Mon) CD of Sea ear J es Uh pao em, Ab AS ei Mabanoad b. Athan aber gerat", ZOMG in Hest Deco came : Imeoduction Sti of he comp own that Supf eal ae Sab Uae retained by al-Tabat as tt Boty base had ued cnerpion of story wl a il be etd ot Sey 01 Sas collection exhibits ae oe in Matters of fact, It als ‘ Prstppostions win tts aed in turn a gr sa = Buen the relat ate clearly at odds, t# Seine tees 7 ively fs ifs omic YF tape reetscmotin ea a Whe have srs rom Ibo With ad Or (Tart Lad eee aga, (78 Bd’ prove he he theory of sctools. "To bei nen Erin ett tn B18 hae HP har end tae td a aad ME te in {2 Mees Tn pag in ag ge, alata. on the upper dt at Ang ye, I, we Bd ib acne o6 trations, atin 8° ‘other ‘in whey mates, Heh the conqueror of Ha eat en ae onguered fom al-Kaa (that inet other authorities presen inn te! hors Tara # other comet te oa Abd ate itions, Ror insane (257/870), ¢Ame ibn al. i ea f when M8 80pean i en a Pets in 9f the Prophet must * Goce (Leiden: E Conaite de ta Syrie 194 iv mes, "eta eat Ed “Wheat Musi ie acta ee Sed RS ces * Phat ©. Torey (Ne Introduction ° ‘sume the comand from hin, bens of hi incompetence 0a to assure the Alin of vet when he receives selling fom Uinar because of hin tardy livery of Egyptian tases to Medina” and when, on his eatbed, he anos ponder his past conduc in ofice In traditions collected hy aFBalhur we al side rom other contradiction, assessments fa ingle petion which fondamentally di fe oan ome aother_-precely a8 one would expect fom an ator ‘hove rle was primarily that of collector/compile. The long chapter i al Balsdhues Awsab astra on the caliph ‘thm tus ince trains which i stress upon tis cali’ pein traits above ll his ec conversion to ln and his speil sats so ftfal Con besion othe Prophet whe ebewher neues trains in heh "Uihman is meretesy ilove for his inadequacies and mists. ALDinawart combined reports on the caliph ‘Aad his flowers together with reports on ATs biteest opponents ee Karte!” These prs ge pie anne fh the quai hey go a far a to compar, in Quranic fson, che pare of the Mii mn Area wy Mewes fom EO ‘Gustav Richter has shown that wile the historical compendium of Laub doe incu a munber of trations which exhibit Ste tendency in accordance with that autho’ om bas ti commend doe na eta dfler eset or the Sonat Kio! at tion Oh bass of tied similar oberatons lier bas Te See a “nee ob Dion tA ea at a 22 Sy Cee eet sat ab is 8) MS te pee of Nm nt wen he ey ne se os rh he Question of Shra Patility", Abr-Nabewe a Foie Jerwalen: Heo Unk ee 0 Das they Incroduction Tichonaneg ther charter” al wring ® tt” (Nebeneinanderhafic) of Art mens of py ta ly been es a ee ‘on Siffin by Nasr ib ‘Ste report viva ratty are enone above. The views and a By way aa ‘Ali sido then to be refuted int accordance with tls compet OM te pty =e of traditions wie MAY further give some & to pe ttich ate opposed to one me eget than historiography: #2 pln Siz (255/808) se ofthe Umayyad caliphs, desi nae Ibu Shabba (264/87) tions on the ‘Ald rebel eae Sere il i no ange KBE eon al questions (isp ical collections under invest evar agg a Introduction te have ve wg at rested in che conauest econ Eg nga SPOence etn “Ana iD Se ttn witha cet apenas A ne erly ry Ete, et ee Pont des Soeethaiy ace hms ibn at he da wi AN Wight lean nly ‘he ah a ‘ be ag 8 mane inI9 tele lee the 20 Una on ap i i Mh pH fhe yee 8 ay a MM hs ter, ok and anecdote? dag SME theresa #Y he east Medina, and bes e8 ancedtal pet” he o ae er 0 Introduction ® cx, ving od with cape ter, tbh ae oth at Tre in the Gow faguens whi hve cme down ows fo Tn Ua alacton, theres nll 2 ako node: the ‘pet Tn lds nothing Sa. Such neo ato be od iP acunts of he ght aginst Tulsa aod vying the adr. fe dda! The cere wih sg rns coneraing she Sint of Kaa anecdotal seis cunt fhm "aD haved dg the “page of Anand of the ig of thm bis house in enn = We have lead meoned the trains 0 a “er a ant No ay ew ow I te deal rom th comiaton o Tats sing ofthe der “The dency olen eligi ings oth ist Non cone Sues canthews be ete ni nas oes, THe gto tact ajay, he Banting commande ition om the ae to soa ou he Mas cm that sen daring the ts tion as these ofthe spon the Pans evn 10. is told by a spy whom ho hi bis opponents are "monks by night and ‘ews which causes him to despair of viclor tobe ont in re ete S| battle of al-Qudistya, we find the Muslims 1% cen el : ae his activity ax a tax collector for that of & a aginst the ae raid to have oveed his promotic AUPE are supposed to have busied ‘themselves as mis SWistian prisoners ATs 17 Qt. tvs en Tota 101 ee oh be Introduction Tako olan hg ho ee Sere so sy pany Erp cape sy Et pr ne il seman the a of ae wena fens eh techn eminent of ie oe uate ah stiesaat a nel Ant Maryan “Abd Gd, 0 secon fee a Seale tage) 8 ore fee ett Nd tion Finally in (he aa here ape ih toh Pri list of seven “leading tah set a8 Ringe HA eat) who are suppose trading lA been “Tene ection hy ie IRE cts Bech biol eh 8 is eollectiom em thr ag w to the ress Pond adequately to the te ‘sons which led to the rise & Toma nara he starting Dot say ne el eel an ds singg™t i his footsteps. TH ts ad get th Fabar'spresentati? an oe alc a0 tha Sta ea MEIN gould se td ah Me ta bg i lection wee ett yy te impression th MI or tt Hot a absued 308 of g peti: This irnpressio” gem ee "6, complete obi" Introduetion - ‘of comparison, it was impossible properly to compare the two, We have already mentioned the fact that Says eallction agrees on «number of fundamental points with the (elaively few) fragments which survive from the collection of Ibn Ishq, From this we may conclude that these ‘wo collections id not actualy ifr from one another all hat mic; ‘hats that oth eontained legendary material and betrayed underlying Sinss, and were prone to systematization and schematization, all "ore oles sia does. ‘The secon! reason forthe rise ofthe schoo sory as to do with the structure of those books which advocate this theory; specially the manner in which they unite source criticism with the writing of istry. In Wellhausen' da, f you wanted to wate history you were eqire, for better or worse, to establih a more o less plausible Fe « raga ees ari eae, ein ‘ons, on the other hand, offered a betier and cage dating of eres fat te arene ten ve ough ae talons Sentinal plenty af contractions and absuries, Les of ee ‘a vital réle in the uperading of sy Conoog hrs a anon of Sr mn te eed lar el ae th a procedure is quite understan ers intention of writing histor. Besides * the advocates ofthe “theory of choos” 1 nou moe ls fal ee ence of he cn en ton th the peri of the ently caliphs "od (that isto say, too “pei wo tas inthe meth of ss Eromlogy and tei tee take this 2P- ate oa ein tHE ion on the 8 ingl® be sure, there is a fatal ralividual collections both accor petetent of traditions by sbeet me vt overlook the fact hat i 4 ‘tiginally no Tink between the content ring to thei ui is s f trad sgn ony sate 5 i stein Soucy Cena scolar = Keer the (Anich: Cl. Bess 12) Cons : ted tat mala get Consequently, whenever we jut Tangent Ten famental distinction beeween conte fave supplied the thecal 2 this confuntaton with ences for the present stu ale alin Thread hhave transferred the circu Ss atcen Ia Don Tslamne civilization la tome i that of early Ilan. 1 fa hat each of the early Ilaie ‘ontined unit, thorough 1 tations of history ancl its O¥ ote, taht tha geet i particu, Pins, tH a the 7 sigh wt we ert int they neglected to note? mans Wich tad, toa lace® cot eagmentary mater Ba sold basis of om “Selections iter e8, roe ht to. be related * historical outlook. BS satin “erst Introduction iv on asa whole; next, they First, they would assess each collect te ther woud place the compilations side by side and evalu tals, they would decide which singe cnlecton was best sited to “reall ofthis procedure, eports Syrian) ealectons were 2 tions, above all the presentation of history: AS from the Median (and occasionally counted more trustworthy, while the Krag oll that of Sayt ibn ‘Umar, wee largely discounted that each col 4) Against this, we have shown i the discussion above ) hi, we have shown in the (man indo, Tistion contains within itself completely derepant "tually contradictory historical notions rious biases and conceptions Ae far as their view of ye alton 5) 1 hus also become apparent that va of history permeate all the collections istry is concerned, therefore, 30 singe one of ‘an be considered as a selcontaied uni J ft tht the ety 5 We may ok for senton or thi i he es compitrs were fist and foremost cl sorts of material, While its cera 108 Uhis nti in ferent wags they Oa ot Cohesive structure at they did ect re toa sna a Caen, bik we ‘and to eval : pnplete % parte We may now suggest a new point of de atrial raluatng heterogeneo _ ng to cone ee ed any auch ing triton ori early collet ul ld be rent neta Ye tmean go imply that er ital si soit, Mestinan, of perhaps eve S hie I lear, however, that 82 wo “AMES one cant e190 es "as tthe earctr ofthe tam "eo omen these io Introdetion cone Sve ht thi toy bec gg Si hat this study will avoid a nse tae tim a th i he as dang the presentation of actual ir tee et ced Mh company sh connect tronological ane Mork, th ad developed a somewhat plat tiation)? Me Med nto emphasizing tH they aga Rtg el Pes init amt ot the : te fH ge MY dd ng ony to of fa P2H5 which they ase 8 ter age tial a ta gna 8S. They ald mn *cUlit charact fully why this procedut® "CHL inven g OF Atly Islamic tradition payee 8 atom on the bs Ornate ina Bagra a8 tik ag this raicon proba Tab send Naat 1h att eng Nha tio 8 lkewive Wort man at sce at all of 88 , one hg, ts ie ther Craditions 0 about he conquest re than conglomeratio® ae ng te Ie fake git those traditions whe? eee a wile, in oro aattthe Ste ear FO tM rather yy Intvoduction 19 te assess accurately even one such oceurtence, This wil become clearer Jn the following examples. Thaditions about veges and the conquest of cis ae not rare ia the historical accounts of the prio ofthe ely caliphs. Ife conser cach of thew traditions by Heelf, i sooms plausible enough: things tray Tiss impression no longer holds, how could have happened thal the conquest of diferent See eee ae ce Costs in Syn Daya Pe a Egy Dra Kh and Cordbn 1 ean Ar having lle othe bad of the Ms Tatar a de ton evan toi ei constant (hire combine: pot the ty ileton tothe seats se Sm inf cy whi et the atenion a eee 2 al ops wn alethe ws fen with ence the maar Gin sere, Grom the alt tn show of red the orth opening of one of Chee ed the onda of the entire army. ‘That these a 8 Fa et inant hy repent the staat te eu he deplyment of Keay stones ee pi Tien ttn hn be ton art ibm Abt Habib (<, 128/745), according to which TRE Bao Ye ald xing ht le be IA tote a te Nat te tra aches of he Nl dln Min tr nest tc nt vind» Ey of ter aban, 1 ros 218510, nl on Ds Fath aS in Taka, Ty I a il, 188), LT ZS (Damon ele a de Goi Cur, uta bean, 1011-UET (Carns) an 1 at i, 2 (A) i ah abd, 80°3-88K1; ane anon. aLDRawat Siar magma ffl, a Andale, ra » ‘ame th mi Introdeti Danble ann Ua Wald sot ates, 0 selec because among OB Teese ORE i water en ween Teen Peking the eh tion ports ee Ua et Raga a POU Li between Honede nnt ae Anos 8 be gay the, the jee Cass may swe take ‘Umar on at evitably MEN Dy the fay (pits Bowed by sucl stercotyPiCt But I and of ite, Bat rei the ans this traction might 9 An excellent eet above, Mn deg Which pane tf Command ane! al ecg Ma oe Et ah ae ne ey gO at 2 the aa eer part Bribie Of the later tea inatttreny POhbition of eeting, “acrost rag oP a8 Obi (Peta the eb tie ee nec ea ot et His now eee “ot ters uf eal sit rt ; Saft tn witernnn 2 Msn armies Svch alata (e13.23,/008 44 oral Pai of Una (1 more broadly 10 a Nan sai ity ean, Aas Mir, a Introduction when the Mfstins had reached the Enis oftheir eapocty to expand nnd had come to appreciate the difalty of maintaining control ver atts operating at great Gistance fram the center of the state Te ina not be inteditely obvious tat in assessing reports on the battle ofa Qi, we ought to refer to traditions on Sin, and vice ‘erat, Buti s necessary to do this ll the same, sinoe #0 many sti lates can be identified in the traditions on these to events, however Aiferent his historical contests Those who sought to remove the caliph *Uebmin from his fice are said have made sarons accusations against the caliph ching thet ‘ffianeial misconduct, A tation on this theme, transite by ABO ildint, soon quite innocuous when considered by ited “Uebmaa’s ‘veruor inal if ae Wald (bn “aha ido Abt Mu'ay 8 sald to Lane Theron money from Abe All on Mas'ad, who was in earge ofthe tan nage areal (ercanury) He the fallod to return the money D#op- ‘lynn there nates between governor and teaser # rte wich the caliph became involved. “Udbanin protected is gverton) ore ‘pon The esd regu kis position in protest. Another eration, ah ttre toy Ab Mikehna, tay give ws pase, A similar aa Talis supped to have oncarred betwee the ep and His ease, ee lr eeu But third edition, eansnted dealing ere ith a recur wc and the teasuee is ‘Abd of governor held by Sad ent motif. Once aga the scene 6 Alla ibn Maa. But this time the of ibn Aty Wagan the eaiph takes Sed micondt % 28 Oe Sion toe the cali erp. "ema eben nas a le oe hin om hi owes. on inthe (Fr wich can Mei only ater have ou ‘em may, with any degree of eon straightforward at we can clear jee, be wpe 7pm Wc aw arch Richy 2 Tew el Th eater eth ne APD, Anaad ab-abos.V our iad ing bond Si. 2 Introduction raion 6 thee enconsteal eng Cotbed. One could of : Eopigetec em ate 8 hl of couse ape to {Hiya eo et AEH. But in this pita the en often UN meditely eacen when #8 Pe ve a the bedded ei of th inthe three traditions ct i ether Deng eae PA Uh “ inn aor i ome money was bore wpa TI ey dia wh Sat when cen te tug gab apparent that trad mil en dg ff thn he ny on = MY individual WS to yg Ot tied origins: and Furth iret ea yt ns ul te aw eS hg. Sch i eva i a ect aba Fae aod we wish to 0 ious cog to beg ert eM, those legendary 8M cue ican el deny, Kertetge of te eee cs Beg ene which teh) Eth ge we 8 ion i ra a aah ofthe en qe ea Stage tea, ‘Sotnection with all ott ig hen Mich ik eing fate ou 2) mer radio Mentone of the Ju Iatrodeton 2 concerning the personal and property ight ofthe congue peoples fi the ueation and admistation oft nds adding laces ‘The tradi, coer, are to be fund in a eat are of co estou under the mast ved ra grea maybe id ht Ira eto fal ks the sleet ricotta 0 sTesliy af a poman of scone (aa),v ne 2 important rleinabaping and dternning the ny Ristori train ‘The nace of aw om ay tion has lead bee rca fn ‘nv ance nontces treteat ands oeegenes Trl be fly econ ony fer ers tation has Bre ta consideration asa whole ‘Weinay conclude thatthe peculiar character of the ely slam i on total of transmitted ‘ovical tradition requires that we examine the sm total of tint Por fist ‘of all, the various compilations iehoy sesenble one another greatly asl lan ofthe present td allows an he te Te Se ene ety a ‘ly Islamie transmitters of bso" fand distinct subject areas inet sb ate not homogencous entities, and dare ont ni Cheon Pres, 163). 4 Introduction ote ; ‘al German tition of this boot conto on Bla lett eb a ein ng ts ecome enrol i Aad tnd aise OE Meter aad i, to WAL Pan eS oe eet cs some etn Mika gen, TH wok : We ofthe maa Mehl Cony Wos of Jon Wansbrous les, bt a ett At Stan Bashar to nae rer es, fern hee Mh tS Concasing both he vet to tion ant the view of eat ian Toa atl maha While sour the same as what 08 Depo ton of stoi i el ben of cf Posie for sk eet which i Wag Iam TR Mg tie Cambridge Unie Introduction 2s sxt—not only for their traditions or groupe of traditions can be assessed istrict", but im other waye as wel This book, then, i ocented historicity”, bt in otber i Tl them, rented ‘completely sowed the practical val mentions! : ‘toviding criteria for the historigraphical assessment of early [lam traditions, the prtiular frame of reference here being te ist decades alter the deat af the Prophet Mubamad. These traditions are Port not only to historians of early Islan but alo to students Tater periods since traditions ofthis Kind were afterwards of et = Portance inthe subsequent history and Mstoriography of arm Investigation atta this goal even. approximates then i will hve fue ite purpose, THE sq 1 MISICNT THEMES OF p ICAL TRADITIO SEY We say Sen A fay come th they onary Fame es ery inn iyo 81 Sug ere, noe te ord te ah 2 berate an Ean teas, then else dea of what can off Src ray to i et ea fhm pete in which he! onigjy tai Wate et co Tubrics must neces” sea et ee te ‘oteng Pete 8 be Mache EOS awe wn ti Mente pa og ingot nth os they ean ha DE are ently lacking, a tbe learned fom the eat! ih ever give ans et ak areas, eheoUeh be available 1 Salient Themes of Early Historical Tdition n a ona. soue basis, two For historiographicalsnestigation to proce tinguished lids of themes in early Islamic tration must be cel ftom one another, the primary ad the secondary. A primary theme i ‘subject area which, ao far as the extant evideuce allows jude epreseats'a genuine topic of easly interest as oppor to an ofhont Alevived from’ and therefore secondary to—one ot several such eal topice Secondary theme, onthe other hand, are fomlations wet Teoul ine necting of materiol which i already swab, materia ‘hich oll origivty have belonged to other cematic PouDs, TH Proceso remering i weentive one, and therefore will noes Pro Ahuce material not to be found in ves. But tit “new” Information i either Iiterary embel ae th i primary thet hme 0 puze tion: Nese C2 it be talon to eemeent od origin material which has fo whalers Fe oer in the primary themes. Never do we eneoovie Foe ar nox clon to a form we can ak tobe I itn eh “orignal” form al forthe spl reason tl er existed Smet ay wi pray teres we wot Sal hal a of even st of the traits which i "ater the cae that all hee eins Ba Of doves. Tas point that this development qalwlonnent The oi Sn a the pray theres bot oa cor of adn 00 7 aoe. The spc fe ile king i ths se une eel a comcrig ‘heir i that whet en vo me acon Frere {Etch cone a incite 2 io wl ae be ow it hee itr tons sh ea bat ‘tthe aume time, one to seh al of the recarchers "ew be ray He yon arcs Aisin wl fe ibe 0 © Shay fer ws are “orginal”. nulengone long proces a with Yer re foond ar 1 ton il ot he proceso diate tos frau he eeliabiity of salable td, the folloing istrial works which een secovered. Rel tyre stil eration fe hinge not 3 wthe Fila, or “Book : Salat Th Ie tty Sy Historical Trad located be ‘tien ean ee raion eens tone aban, wo ished his work about 377/987. and Siti wk The pd ae Primary Themes lamina SAY rina be aah in era tet the eadents of eas I fons 8 Hi oft ent ates at ite in nade ial they contained ‘These hemes may be categorized ay by 7 ie ay i he Sevan tbe Pagtt "Hh the apa the contigs es a et ay ato Ofte Arata el 20, for ag OMY is et ata ey fons which resulted finally lay ean The the hae 8 conae ot un i tvincng WCOnsiously) 9 tencent ious Deng in 7 re hl eens iain ec Soy asl else ad tg lt Aosta, b A Malte ee tg aad np ge ley it ey rea Toes wc onnpletety indapene™ See a ot kh a at elition can be detected ai? be detected a ok tave the author of a tt Ca 1 ie Na wa 2, Kat tot sa ef Te a en 5. Sto Tats At iaah and 2» Primary Themes the Riad” (Kitab lida) eg Hm Bin (2208/82 the fenees Ae Haya Macin® Aba sbi et tn Ts a Aisa oaz oa ce Wathtma fn st (257/851) al flowed dae eet the same tle The theme of rie asd a te ee cepts a thse of Tin Ahan ab KO Cer sgagh at Klas (. 280/88). aban” and a Tart = Sayfiim Una, wo ven the (e10-93/780 i). and ar Was tee a oe ween o Coma om “Rida andthe Howse 4)" Bt Sistem my be sete ht the theres of “8 ime ofthe cap Haran al-Rashid et coutitute exceptions. The es and Rida” ® the latter rom alTabar, who quotes Sent in that book) did dis Uinguih clearly Between Mast” end rida! jst EIR clearly a aldn tres bot conquests and lle Tr eharater of idda 388 SDC i ularly sharp relief Sie ear theme of historical tradition st in Poe Care Tin Athen, wie cay min oo AST tik of tnt om what pees ed ln stn Avis book: the ile sugges etme the rida andthe Upr ‘material as Nothing precise may be sid be ‘hate wished to draw a come 1 ln 9 cali ote “ANadin, Pav, 95. y Hisoio Wit Salient ‘hemes of Early Historical Tradition This appears it tons whe ave survived tO nt Individual suhjeet area tt gi oo re ih ae ttl Which ook place™ We Suc subteme of id ny Han ihn Mids Be CApaign against one of ia aa Liar Musaylima” (itl a une aon, which & He scion were ke, But frm 4 8 le une : de anh le designates as ri sal the of cay eal doh a esi a the ide ice wk Vata at wih km bine a ch ti Ean Te Primary Themes [ Putsh “The great majority of the traditions which deal with the time of the fat four cain f onccrae ith the Sot gece conanests of he Mastin outide the Arabian peninsula~in Syrin/Palesting, tena and Ege Norah Aen Toe re esate overall afte FAG thas arene ait nt ue principal historia rubric under Whi Cea ae tat odes of ais Lo th ely tras cane au 0 mth on th ae Site gets Mim tod thre wre many ere Aon by ane, ann theo id 2 a ay NM oul nl eam epee of an ete eis a ar te thee oe, Te a Hou ‘tikes witha i a sacri the loin i ‘battles, " = * ns here are nda wo arp Mesopotamia Ariel an a Stan a i Pe ca i nts man Thott ce, abd aoe ne 8 ire, and Buses, Hig, Damascus, Jerusalem, ‘Cacsarea, nae hc ee ae fie 3 Ben he ras Cone mie bn Tey Ys of Tater oe cane sl aot of PO cal sop Sai a 8 oa ge son the conquests in Iraq Si i Ate, Darin and Tabi wes There existed appar the tang of aeanian Ein ‘zeal, and Iiomic Comguests (Prinestow: PE 2 Salient Themes of Early Historical Tradition SSSA. hci enact Yer Guan es ee ited the Ptah ge 2 100/88) on the eco rah of Ty “Abt a aa ere te HOH oan Comp dina ie Ne alton of materia WH secant tions on Sang 60 tan of trations ld tn ang a: aly) have bee el pa rng gee heel, tat complet ti a nln he US the ut, te subjugation of provie 8 he ey fee contr ota wR the fact eat a limited sub swe piel are I nhl oe the works are ite Ie ony rt ft semalns er, tt 4 agg, Ne Lees, Caleta: Be to ae Ee hana Tei: Mat at am meee on ma Sri ins, ter Nn er Ah ah me ‘oe eration 1978), Of Primary Themes 2 ne ime as the mote allencompessing or th these, The Yason for this on hich traditions became Fixed often fixed in writing at the stm ‘compilations, or even, on occasion, lt apparent discrepancy is tha te dat inriting waa’ in the early ptiod, more or Iss & matter cf chance This dati by no-meane te sane as the time at whch the trations righted an ave fret circulated. We id faxthes support fee the senna ath fect that the surviving lege cllectons can often be Ter units, nies whieh are Bt trace Tce compose fale ns wis ch sea naval xk sma Fitns saphy intcate inter Musi confotatins ot cl war, whieh began wth che ion Miya assumed soe ‘Fitna in Islami histviog in other words vil wat. The fi ‘murder ofthe caliph "Usbinan and ended w 2 other portant theme ofthe tet ‘meer hve do ot i pet om ee hae aa el oem ae aly calcio sm eh The mer ng ice creo Fn "on uc fe ll rp Cl tthe sonoma Sin, each with its immediate prehistory * Thue eke known work on the wurde ot oul (sh of te gir eli ems 10 Wo and the Marder of be be “The Book of the Electoral C a Book of the Ea afer hia. cate ADD ‘Aba Mik a 213/820). 0 Mai i alee between 1-Muthaana (d. between 2 rom wrote «Kitab sad “Vimar sn Shabba (2. 264 ‘mageal“Uthnan (“Book ofthe M rns vote enc 0 Ae le Si ee a eatin 7 8S pT) each of wi nde of Uthm80") rin tons (ot Seu Sst Themes of Early Historical Tradition Neat all the 1 ow compiles ofthe eighth and ninth cena ttle ofthe Camel. This isthe battle i ih nd i Mai nts, the Propbel® ei Usd atey renin Zar ib aA ko the Camel ee Pllations all bore the tithe Kits Sat a Una ‘The authors in hal Sheets mc on ion 3, /$49)." “The Battle of the ‘ tein W together form the subjeet Of mal As thee oe pe a Dakin ant” Ihe og lt Compilers of traits . (a3, as ish. al-Wagidi," Nast Sha i, Ni pane at Wai fs 28°87 st Stn 2 fh appt MS Mumecrous works on tM “il on he? 28 Abr Shayna, preserve = SH eng estan to Uh rollected 10, filly thine of his histor! i bar 5 Atma na (Boabay: AFP % Primary Themes Medina and the collections om Sita by Abu Mikhna* and Nage Ion Merahim ' st Bast EA ae he me of mf te Bat on ete MT ive tase probaly the les ames of set fe We may ile this fom the tat the Fa a fr, no ved 10 160 yet fer the eee Fama aparently tone ang Ad i, he trios hcmaees whic tee aaa 0 COND fan eis tad This pine of Aeon ire oo be kanye 8 the cs ‘oletians onthe nto ofthe te of be wr Administration nic adsitation dai Spe complain of perso ithe founding, and status of the ear Fost ‘The origina thematic areas ‘are probably limited to the ity the “Uae ve Kata, and fs town of a Base KOLO he pnp of ‘On Ura penson ts (donee) OD te com rom tie lai gm Maha ly ong those vices fi 1 pravite neh lity" the Ativing he ines from UD wit renagnized ims t2 SUPP “betes wane = 160-73, 173-80 ob-Tabar, wk es Sa Se et aan ota i Pd ‘8 Fihlamtchen Teron nie % Sten Themes of Ean Historical Tein ent comers ead chap Cae He ee tt ith ying ith eo a a cap ine amounts of etal ine alleced there are nicer ia the mit anion what advice did the secomd Ho i Wage. However, one part of «Wr Sit eit “The Clans of Quenya Tape ltoduction of the Pensions Lists es yh Oring and Gena Bee shee Un mon en an collection of trations Tabled rations into separate chP- of the ar hs a ities onde ye te ef tsar divided it vtupters ¥ A Spots gent ro es ne ta ten ron Sed ek of the Trial Quartets M*Abd al-Raan al-Hayth” on ah ere One Ratti vet 2b we hae go wits tS by original, or else WE SI Urata Primary Theis St abl erg ue emo if “the caliph” seem to have been Sens which sy materi bot cove of tatoos inl ote Ansab well Koown, Already o> Te Arata’ prediction for ee1904 Tica le ae mth Ie i 8) se The ary pets of i eee Pret id ines 0 {ally determining the social hierarchy i a fon tannic genealosy BG Acute genet aa a theme of esl 1st ince onside ye Maslin pee ness i web re we shall simply mets Pa es ae ae 1TH, ec Cay tat sah DS % Salt Themes of Bayly Historical Tradition (uint BeMoial cneran of rs foi) a me tony oes Ne—vbaber pent ES Upon indnitunte Aree thin the oe ane ti¥—of geealoie a ee no aso 8a us woking of su futsb, and fitna, plies (2 ot ect 0h ia mAh a ae consents {MES ton nat he reat tap a towns. Considerations aft Reet yg mtn ih a et iat et "Heh of gla pros et ofthe Fut (This holds trie most particularly for clin detail 2 “ traditi Pht telatives in ‘Umar's Po sare rs OF fan meet et Ptical onder ‘isan nature ae Patt thy ing of less prominent peoP hs Me indentions of thi = ntter st loical affiliation”). This ® re, Petiod potting the actions andl ae ings of ath fant po tthe ‘eon, Active, ern ‘by the fact that a Cm Daly 4h h @ promis enealogic® ansas. ela ttOt OF his awn inter’ a et rg th la thw ogg ans Manne “ mon, cg Dam, gg ht -naraasmawt™ f st Sang T/ 1066 7,09 195 He daca itrae a see ai Secondary Themes Iron Talo on th ran Ss pe tees f h the theme of futth in uch ® ms ‘osnnian precedents le at ie the eause of certait fk, les et for Islam oeeur quite aut these are connected with the the 3% to explain Muslim successes throval te stine time identifying, the fata of Islam 28 Aleveepments i Trani history. Even fest ‘he fora in whieh they have en tennant ‘an netheens hardly be contested thst ofthe fist Islamic conquests was os oii Fora great many of the Persian ediions” BaNe Toalts and cannot be explained a8 the ‘tah. We have ok to compate tis NN hs 5 thoroughly individual ‘or at of lai cs ein he sr ae ong Saree Imnost al of whic ions oat thet nine Emit, lo st patria concept te {toi ranspering sperficall I oe personal Enst Roman opponents and thet ge Musing”. Ie is tre hey ee mse ine or tyPilY Persian traditions, but Toutinely speak and act 8 : he eran” cops "hata similar eend ean be detected ‘hese problematic cases do not ch ssa whok Secondary Themes By owe we have exh ‘ertanty a original. et Probabiiy secondary jk can be desert wo nes whieh rel se ake oat ead him econ theme oa trative cx ne approach and SPE Ra he on isa ea hr he avon 8 * Sutot Theo cof which, ‘Themes of Early: Historic! Traditiot oe ‘rao ts detain the xt ; tr tt Th hee amen et jor re i mpeg Sha ea ore ma cca Peo ese A/S te oe se "atthe the a 0 which thi enterpetation OY ondary co that of fit weak That en The fa ta Paton contin aes 8 sete TiN ts ch wih : a to! a) 9 it into ao ME The ee fom agit for thet AM 1B are also natn) or tt nthe Hig of 20/0 SP and a lis as all Hl * historiog nt ® @xtent the early Y= of lating gall” Probable, Treen p32 as much more: Hite ‘one OSH large *Phical survey S ar net pe a vey in Sal offi them art OF old Kafe inseriP tae te dace a *Y usage hardly allows " (Lies E41 i, 1908). fa ugh inna of eet org (oorabbe eg reap Suey tet dace ‘Secondary Themes: . a the montent offs . ‘ tice of the trans that prevailed on this point, and the arbitrary ‘manner in wich hi mbitrary” for sont ase tine herpes toto ieee dating "Te ‘Aonbs ju any formal ty ey ie vith referen rein the Neat Bot MS teditionally 2 maents wo pass oT ug B A portant the Sk ms par fie Sante af eon 3 cto ana ih =A rene tthe Yn ofthe ats i of i geared me Yee he ron 9 a a0 oF 7 {sme dc mh the Elephant, 15 years before oF “ai en Sai ot 08 i important ton of MT Sal of cor Si“ Na wi 8 ese he = ‘ase Oo 2 Saint Themes of EnrlyHistorien! Trait afer Dates given ie can, RE stems (year ofthe word, See 95 Fal year of Chen be im, a foes Anushirvan) Pm it 8%, and 608. The classical forlato® ng Solalyopinion—that Muti ho SRE hey aan ers were cal 8 at any rate were dated onl Constitute an cetlts of a Later sy:stematizatio®’ 2 aaton og ecient ological less confusion in the 504 McBain the pt ser de Gage, er mie Oya fo poe, AAs Sy, iit, Jooe 9 ea Hg ey sw Pretty tee le Tayon The oldest kN? ts sty yt a ‘ala L-sin Histor Py than intl ae ‘ti ibm Haba (a 238/89") Some Obgerations MES, a Secondary Themes Fee eRe Han 2, 2/8 2 Se (itary of the Prophets al Kine” of aL Tabas, ‘ae a me sen o2 i tion ae aed en i existe oy Bilary of wate dined es at sed sendy 68 istic desi of the beginning, and consequent Orga heme of sare stro IP cays are Bs es ly hat ven before the intoduction of A eyes annals brs in hoo NS Mca th wel ave te een ee years Eo SO Te wo ating ro eeing mnai ws But a glance at thet a thon a la A Aaa, Khali a0 Te enone or AE amen EAL atte, THe eat pl Beg te : trl ewe Mee ecng by years obo Fal tn - Sei, ay tates THE ye et a SS Makin Lana waht) does 208 Blo " cond wie fms fe EHS wey ght da cs ost ero of pars TH i ty Te rte, asl OR Th fom other tuitions: frst thes a © seats ot ‘The fo cut: cme ai ai, Ka tte g i ‘tifa 20) {Ai try Ts mn ese i ta ae ae roy iil u Salient 1 Themes of Barly Historien! Tradition 2 ie i another have hey usually report events eat Mees Thu il ener of tt Sie To ay re ln sae eg se Ties atl stout sera the positions elt 7 Sant And = this type rng to specific years” ey Sara met oe sig ibe then ge ted an anne en ‘ther bers tee ation whi a analitie tration lit! A foy ony dn before ocginal been conternpor™! Sere ty DES Select loes not prevail mo al? Doubts immediate” per, transmitted agai: bY Me m,n which the view is put yt ‘at in AH 12 this office “ 2 Thee ferent veins there cont Ml altaya ah Wafratin a this Ht reno ‘of Thn ‘Abbas’ deme Bee wel are of the be ection asa ab ann Secondary Theses : ‘ad a qadi.2” There is also lack of consensus ovet ‘Bagran government et Tarte en ‘AN 37-2 and the governor of Kuurisin io A# 38 - Oceasional slifeutties of this kind could of cours ‘be viewed a othing more than the product of onfsion or eor among div al radents But this hamdiul of example in ft typieal of mus ‘sie notiges ane based upon an oiginal ennai ‘tradition conten ee ther traditions, fom which they fe femal ‘they would. popes to splay st ayotem at later sage. FOr 2 ie er i in ee porary anc Wain SO be 1 ‘cing ts te gre ne et a oki ner bn ft Se arg Pancies, especially those which pertain {9 (persons. be tigation of its own. Here we oy ‘be conten er considered a aconcary tee of early Sto ‘writing s see! ein nem mn be short reports which we have just G8 According to Calrhal set out accord spans. TBE Arrangement tea materi i ean onnaltico Con li lection in ehh the trai hate “bates appeared sneha nae SSE Salient Themes of Early Historical Train pons fragments i Tovah erent: Mich ae attributed yy some scholars £0 & ‘slim age 7 sree MIS bat this ieatfnt inno 2 mk Thm eh wa ECE to our concerns heme AL-Nadin TEE te ap, Si Ela nt Tah al ‘tcaoe fom a aT teins nothing which wok indicate 128 Ned ows ofthe a Meat to caliphate. Further the Kins Ait eb thay ss walle Aya iba Seid ‘as a work redacted ether aly ne al-Umaws fd, 14/9). Te mh Mae ord hia 194/309), = ‘orkand compile it arg ce a ; - Srihlccnr po Semta om ayome “ian the ant BY Kata trades et Haat the accounts inthe pars” ai neg NE ac capi 8 Shee her a at no a in, comp accor bana ibn Hab (219/50) ear at these were indeed ara, ef compilation of eis kn 12 BS Tan Teh alas” YY ea Ta tt ® tation that the orginal te ® than il fata al fem, outlook oriented towards °° tude uc tl alpha, these ®" Outlook. (This applies 8 8 Mary wt Hore a Secondary Themes 7 oth Uhm : ‘ed out by the Muslim comm a the field, to a large extent independent! cre ai dip the ime binges of lip i a un ‘the ongoing ventures of futa.®* Tis emerges witb mare (Caypt) and fon Atha and al-Balios 88 PO ind, rae compile 0 a od. eer apo fer groupings or enegies ts cme ‘Aimngement of the material accor = vas ‘of Aba Bal ‘ e with the caliphate : Th here file dt ig me Ut the tenor of the rida traditions oe a i athe Pies oN i vows ties ign aga 0 i Senter stage in this materia, i the NY Wat the lender of numero «2 “ material a rang eit “ atlas tes the arrangement of traditions ie cr "alist, bt ale incl headings POW Sry ua "Ne beginning ofthe reigns of arin a se tent aOR the wy in which ee tah ath ape pea ae Salient Themes of Early Historical Trait rnzation of source ccondat "ate acording to caliphate ns dew rom the ‘nmlstic stl of presentation aw ond Administration law and adit a nt hy cae SN lyse int SE Ace Treg 8 4 Sng thee, wil we ae vibe dt loa wih geo et of Nos ates nh in come cet he eamintaion ase sn re cng att ae cnet 82 Seis ces, ea poe hs ite ni age ge YT acrorate the engueed 8 sittin Abe ae go tw a oa i ar ein 1 ‘ete manera Sed ana For he tater ‘ate ihe itn, tb einen oan ey iy in) ume a ene wi lth Matin, ; emcee agy ena ond all isla legal anes ato ihe Muslims who ad settled 3 e sation Sivgtted non-Musimn populti,, ake ‘Tasitinn cnt 8 of he ‘ie igen gc lar on {eat ng Sk ston eh eit : eed following wate rt A ee: lan ant res fr es gt (ton), fa neg ‘weed land) et” Mating) on individual Muslims), or a an ge Mara ie © Se Seca wad ee a te tag enti tie ‘arly legal sources whicl Tie Site bine Gog SH a eee eel Ce set. Thin process of 3G he fa gent 8 ‘ations which deal wit TT cther city Betts, at other times through comparison “low of the existence of esl clletions juilakhir) traditions.®% ‘The secoudary chance “Ais sa obvious as to make further comin’ oft pee ud Central Goveroment {Eas tend bec estat hat, th FEST at Court an ose of ratio sist PO i A eh en Te ean os ‘ini emt ae wre tee a Satent Themes of Eas Historical To He Gea information with an eye to the institution of thE Sanaa ah ots desea nee eae of histrealtefet ie afterwards became a major preoceupstie Awan ‘Umino eo ah aot, 1 ‘ime of Uthat cn tise mst be included ecause from aor ideenea OEE, Beeld power forall intent 4 opti to vps he ea las an oa to sy Wie Sp gad pte on = og ane Pit aaa © * woes wing Al ide, ft, and ma) estate hae bon fw ‘al cat nel They arene atm tie whe wa ltl Jeadng th Tn ves thepmnmt Em Sel ean we need got dell 6 Peto sd epee th thing es in wat hing wi agen. Wage ip itn ay eased se er armann ec, Geschichte 4 i mR" i ar Seomry Thee aig, bn 8 mater at length be, Tt worth es ty arab i rl Coe ity in sme way comparable tothe oy Foam ht al hoe eel PPE Danipul Me ion of individual ‘and tribal bonds of loyalty; fa ee or sein tea kee Tae melt ne ces om ate en ti ee sci Hatton er ne Ch Be oe em Sm ak mS Sa ight to control fiscal affairs im general Causal Links tc an tt? iatave en seo! ree if ne co The fet gil that our reports in their oF Py tronology would not be so disadvantaaeer ‘6 the ig anal Tinks between indi ee, I tt iy rarely possible, ition But wnfertnatel, thi 8 0018 THT orca ‘tio treat ety ne a my tdiion we SS ial wits Sate he eeason for this sth the oa ‘ nore that & PO) py thie Wal (they could rarely have o@c¥pied Ig ee tee cect i ng 284 on eh tant, there cane ato being st! THT ho wit se enon difialties forthe mode MAT pice bey dona and pice hess ith 2 MENTE ye cea atonal faa of tis: HTT ie gam "cud thane sone att, “het BE NETL OT. ite fe Tle ormutations; aso simply TE mm fr mn, ance mB "ately eneonnter pseudo ‘Wanstin, all af wie have «Ne treqent ® . Sale hemes of Bary Hora! Tio fa cei dt isang ters ofclp an sont ln om i Ce (cite) Aba Bak to Kha ae llcerd to have eg wit lsters fo . ibm al-Walid nie bid and ‘Iya ibn Ghanm."! A lettet Seseinc of mes Bt bath ‘re im Gham’ A gna at Sin ee ones of sod HE ‘st mae tina (modern Tunisia a a ee ae SIN EY erm te gc) supped ean wg The tear a apes ota Hm St Ea a ie ger ga edt Uae Imes i how to subdue the Sasame! a “A peat motif of women ‘dressed a3 we oat, 2 rb ot Ae Hay (sul) 0 woh te Khe age SN dengue eae OF SOM he Muslin . is under Trib Ziv 10% tapos kiran KOE fat lend EMORY and of original yan trea that events whit the portrayed as aceurring i wal TRC ee tg outa only a general view oF OT forthe ue tion of the rst four eae! Salient Themes of Early Historical Tradition 9 secondary thetic iy ad sce 10 the would seem tht Thematter may therefore est with the original and cecal teas wei we have diseused.. We could Inter, but from our reading ofthe relevant sures the themes we have name are the most important Om stated atte ous der chor eam eas 00" ip and wat hee 0% ve side ‘The goal ofthis capt has bee +, toto ' answer to the question of what th the traditions on the period of te eal © ly incited or else not at all. Fist the ost mes, fom whic ina. AONE rw ofthe ah tm he se of ree propos of the eo gmaly peed with autos an enpiand ose an nie an one he i to ft AE cosy ef ces er Mt vt the psd of HE The thece principal orginal ‘ons proceed, are vida, fot anf th repenty takes & special position ‘otal material are conoreaed. TDC {1 to administration, the theme of ‘xtent the theme of genealogy” ol Svignal themes, to which we may at aly partially to the thematic cers woh to bring (and have brought) #0 ‘acl caliphs All this rns fist be stated ex the moder scholar should ot alow ‘ects by hese ginal hema comers 9 pt then we ma ask if ded ia many 1 FF sami triton a sl : of the early ‘Ser i a se idee Petiod of the early caliphs under the 7 2 than ae ary te en i A BE Oe pe (Cota be ogee esa treet OF eR Tr mas of oe are in eas 2 caliphates (the dotuinant proce’ Ra al ve points of departure Toe te onal es do Pal en BN saving te pseu th en ABS NOS ao be "reise ineatigation into 1s Pen “ <_—<_<£<—_$<_$ ® : Salient Themes of Early Histovical Teton thatthe concer of mods ca ern hist ; ato a itn, namely the elite a ery urothelial wf pronene eminent MSU many essential atts may we coment ore mportant that these facts ane tA aS coer gee a ' sre na ee ae of ater ncn site om ee aR them ie oth scone ate eX 8 derive the following vital cones wren real td maveial order. "That bs 0 8 om dat pn rn se cnn es a nr ns rer Urania ay, ae Poss of si hag eta wih toe wnat ta = this People.nee “Help non-Arab to gail) Tei wes account by a Greek 7M, “ : a ra 2ton,and fae cote? ag ad false cont wvsome advance ©! Salient Themes of Barly Historical Tradition cr ea en ren rae Seth I tte itt th ait sa tee undamental use is nes as these, then they are of no fund ey cerument, together tion, di ing what acteaty happened ever Dus be 2 pan ag ee suo inet a Tt we eat have recourse 10 HOE Rye iil teh eice and coma, which BON er Shee and wc pode he st © SPE gy hw ie : ‘o the crignal themes, then sgn ones “hat nowlege in this eae is beyond F0° he purpose ofthis ep Ba B® 175 he peri a heel cabs 06 {Ee how they geparted on it Leto tea ln andy anew ie "and tin Dar are Rh TAMA