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CHAPTER 25

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
PRACTICE EXAMPLES
1A A   has a mass number of zero and an “atomic number” of 1 . Emission of this electron
94 Pu  95 Am + 1 
has the effect of transforming a neutron into a proton. 241 241 0

58
1B Ni has a mass number of 58 and an atomic number of 28. A positron has a mass number
of 0 and an effective atomic number of +1. Emission of a positron has the seeming effect
of transforming a proton into a neutron. The parent nuclide must be
copper-58.
28 Ni + 1 
Cu  58
58 0
29

2A The sum of the mass numbers 139 +12 = ? +147  tells us that the other product species
has A = 4 . The atomic number of La is 57, that of C is 6, and that of Eu is 63. The atomic
number sum 57 + 6 = ? + 63 indicates that the atomic number of this product species is
6 C  63 Eu + 41 n
139
zero. Therefore, four neutrons must have been emitted. 57 La +12 147 0

2B An alpha particle is 42 He and a positron is 01  . We note that the total mass number in the
first equation is 125; the mass number of the additional product is 1.
The total atomic number is 53; the atomic number of the additional product is 0; it is a
4 124 1

51 Sb + 2 He  53 I + 0 n
121
neutron.
In the second equation, the positron has a mass number of 0, meaning that the mass
number of the product is 124. Because the atomic number of the positron is +1 , that of the
product is 52; it is 124
52 Te .
124
53 I  0+1  + 124
52 Te

3A (a) The decay constant is found from the 8.040-day half-life.


0.693 1d 1h 1min
= = 0.0862 d 1    = 9.98 107 s 1
8.040 d 24 h 60 min 60 s
131
(b) The number of I atoms is used to find the activity.
1g 1 mol 131 I 6.022 1023 atoms
no. I atoms  2.05 mg 
131
 
1000 mg 131 g 131 I 1 mol 131 I
 9.42 1018 atoms 131I
activity   N  9.98  107 s 1  9.42  1018 atoms  9.40  1012 disintegrations / second

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

(c) We now determine the number of atoms remaining after 16 days. Because two half-
lives elapse in 16 days, the number of atoms has been halved twice, to one-fourth
(25%) the original number of atoms.
N t = 0.25  N 0 = 0.25  9.42  1018 atoms = 2.36  1018 atoms

(d) The rate after 14 days is determined by the number of atoms present on day 14.
rate =  N t = 9.98 107 s 1  2.36  1018 atoms = 2.36  1012 dis/s

0.693 0.693
3B First we determine the value of  :  = = = 0.0608 d 1
t1/2 11.4 d
Then we set N t = 1 % N 0 = 0.010 N 0 in equation (25.12).

0.010 N 0
= ln  0.010  = 4.61 =   0.0608 d 1  t
Nt
ln =  t = ln
N0 N0
4.61
t= = 75.8 d
0.0608 d 1

4A The half-life of 14 C is 5730 y and  = 1.21  104 y 1 . The activity of 14 C when the object
supposedly stopped growing was 15 dis/min per g C. We use equation (25.12) with
activities  N  in place of numbers of atoms (N).
8.5 dis/min 0.57
=  1.21104 y 1  t = 0.568 ; t =
At
ln =  t = ln = 4.7  103 y
A0 15 dis/min 1.21104 y 1
4B The half-life of 14 C is 5730 y and  = 1.21  104 y 1 . The activity of 14 C when the object
supposedly stopped growing was 15 dis/min per g C. We use equation (25.12) with
activities  N  in place of numbers of atoms (N).

=  1.21 104 y 1  1100 y  = 0.13


At At
ln =  t = ln
A0 15 dis/min
At
= e 0.13 = 0.88 , At = 0.88  15 dis/min = 13 dis/min (per gram of C)
15 dis/min

5A mass defect.  145.913053 u 146



Sm  141.907719 u 
142

Nd  4.002603 u  He 0.002731 u
4

931.5 MeV
Then, from the text, we have 931.5 MeV = 1 u E = 0.002731 u  = 2.544 MeV
1u

5B Unfortunately, we cannot use the result of Example 25–5 ( 0.0045 u = 4.2 MeV ) because it is
expressed to only two significant figures, and here we begin with four significant figures. But,
we essentially work backwards through that calculation. The last conversion factor is from
Table 2-1.

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

1.602 1013 J
= 8.955 1013 J = mc 2 = m  2.9979 108 m/s 
2
E = 5.590 MeV 
1 MeV

8.955 1013 J 1000 g 1.0073 u


m=   = 0.005999 u
 2.9979 10 m/s  1 kg 1.673  1024 g
8 2

1u
Or we could use m = 5.590 MeV  = 0.006001 u
931.5 MeV

88
6A (a) Sr has an even atomic number (38) and an even neutron number (50); its mass
number (88) is not too far from the average mass (87.6) of Sr. It should be stable.
118
(b) Cs has an odd atomic number (55) and a mass number (118) that is pretty far
from the average mass of Cs (132.9). It should be radioactive.
30
(c) S has an even atomic number (16) and an even neutron number (14); but its mass
number (30) is too far from the average mass of S (32.1). It should be radioactive.

6B We know that 19 F is stable, with approximately the same number of neutrons and protons:
9 protons, and 10 neutrons. Thus, nuclides of light elements with approximately the same
number of neutrons and protons should be stable. In Practice Example 25–1 we saw that
positron emission has the effect of transforming a proton into a neutron.   emission has
the opposite effect, namely, the transformation of a neutron into a proton. The mass
number does not change in either case. Now let us analyze our two nuclides.
17
F has 9 protons and 8 neutrons. Replacing a proton with a neutron would produce a more
stable nuclide. Thus, we predict positron emission by 17 F to produce 17 O .
22
F has 9 protons and 13 neutrons. Replacing a neutron with a proton would produce a
more stable nuclide. Thus, we predict   emission by 22 F to produce 22 Ne .

INTEGRATIVE EXAMPLE

0.693
A.    5.54  10 10 y -1 Calculate the fraction of 40K that remains after 1.5 × 109 y.
1.25  10 y
9

Nt Nt
ln    t   5.54  10 10 y -1  1.5  10 9 y   0.83  0.44
N0 N0
Thus, the fraction of 40K that has decayed is 1.000 – 0.44 = 0.56.
The fraction of the 40K that has decayed into 40Ar is 0.110 × 0.56 = 0.062.

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

This fraction is proportional to the mass of 40Ar. Then the ratio of masses is determined.
40
mass Ar 0.062
40
  0.14
mass K 0.44

B. (a) Zr(s) + 6H2O(l)  ZrO2(s) + 4 H3O+(aq) + 4 e 1.43 V


4 H2O(l) + 4 e  2 H2(g) + 4 OH(aq) 0.828 V
______________________________________

Zr(s) + 2 H2O(l)  ZrO2(s) +2 H2(g) 0.602 V (spont)

Yes, Zr can reduce water under standard conditions.


0.0592 0.0592
(b) E = log K eq 0.602 V = log K eq Keq = 4.67  1040
n 4
(c) pH = 7 Therefore, [OH] = [H3O+] = 1.0  107
0.0592 0.0592
Eox = Eox  log Q = 1.43 V  log(1.0  10 7 ) 4 =1.84 V
n 4
0.0592 0.0592
Ered = Ered  log Q = 0.828 V  log(1 107 ) 4   0.414 V
n 4
Ecell = Eox + Ered = 1.84 + (0.414) = 1.43 V (spontaneous)
(d) Zr may be the culprit responsible for the H2(g) formation. In the Chernobyl accident,
the reaction of carbon with superheated steam played a major role.
Reaction: H2O(g) + C(s)  CO(g) + H2(g)

EXERCISES
Radioactive Processes

1. (a) 234
94 Pu  92
230
U + 24 He
(b) 248
97 Bk  98
248
Cf + 01e
(c) 196
82 Pb + 01e  196
81 Tl ; 196
81 Tl + 01e  196
80 Hg

3. We would expect a neutron:proton ratio that is closer to 1:1 than that of 14 C . This would
be achieved if the product were 14 N , which is the result of   decay: 14
6 C  7 N + 1e .
14 0

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

Radioactive Decay Series

5. We first write conventional nuclear reactions for each step in the decay series.
232
90 Th  88
228
Ra + 24 He 228
88 Ra  228
89 Ac + 01e 228
89 Ac  228
90 Th + 01e
228
90 Th  224
88 Ra + 24 He 224
88 Ra  220
86 Rn + 42 He 220
86 Rn  216
84 Po + 42 He

Now for a branch in the series:

these two 216


84 Po  212
82 Pb + 24 He 212
82 Pb  212
83 Bi + 01e
or these two 216
84 Po  216
85 At + 01e 216
85 At  212
83 Bi + 42 He

And now a second branch:


these two 212
83 Bi  208
81 Tl + 42 He 208
81 Tl  208
82 Pb + 01e
or these two 212
83 Bi  212
84 Po + 01e 212
84 Po  208
82 Pb + 42 He

208
Both branches end at the isotope 82 Pb . The graph, similar to Figure 25-2, is drawn below.

235
Plot of Atomic Mass versus Atomic Number
230
Atomic Mass (u)

225

220

215

210

205
80 82 84 86 88 90 92
Atomic Number (Z)

7. In Figure 25–2, only the following mass numbers are represented: 206, 210, 214, 218, 222,
226, 230, 234, and 238. We see that these mass numbers are separated from each other by
4 units. The first of them, 206, equals 4  51 + 2 , that is 4n + 2 , where n = 51.

Nuclear Reactions

9. (a) 160
74 W  156 4
72 Hf + 2 He (b) 38
17 Cl  18
38
Ar + 01 

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

(c) 214
83 Bi  84
214
Po + 01  (d) 32
17 Cl  16
32
S + 0+1 

11. (a) 7
3 Li + 11H  84 Be +  (b) 9
4 Be + 12 H  10 1
5 B + 0n

(c) 14
7 N + 10 n  14 1
6 C + 1H

28 Ni  Rg  5 42 He + 252
272
13. 209
83 Bi + 64 111 Rg + 10 n ; 272
111 101 Md

15. 48
20 Ca  249
98 Cf 
249
118 Unk  01n  01n  01n

17. 58
26 Fe  244
94 Pu  120 Unk
302

Rate of Radioactive Decay

19. (a) Since the decay constant is inversely related to the half-life, the nuclide with the
smallest half-life also has the largest value of its decay constant. This is the nuclide
4
84 Po ,with a half-life of 1.64  10
214
s.
(b) The nuclide that displays a 75% reduction in its radioactivity has passed through two
half-lives in a period of one month. Thus, this is the nuclide with a half-life of
32
approximately two weeks. This is the nuclide 15 P , with a half-life of 14.3 days.
(c) If more than 99% of the radioactivity is lost, less than 1% remains. Thus ( 12 ) n  0.010 .
Now, when n = 7 , ( 12 ) n = 0.0078 . Thus, seven half-lives have elapsed in one month, and
each half-life approximates 4.3 days. The longest lived nuclide that fits this description
222
is 86 Rn , which has a half-life of 3.823 days. Of course, all other nuclides with shorter
half-lives also meet this criterion, specifically the following nuclides: 13
8 O  8.7 103 s  ,
28
12 Mg  21 h  , 80
35 Br 17.6 min  , and 214
84 Po 1.64 104 s  .

21. We use equation (25.13) to determine  and then equation (25.11) to determine the
number of atoms.
0.693 1y 1d
=   = 1.52  105 h 1
5.2 y 365.25 d 24 h
rate of decay 6740 atoms/h
N= = = 4.4  108 60
Co atoms
 1.52  105 h 1
27

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

23. Let us use the first and the last values to determine the decay constant.
Rt 138 cpm 1.981
ln = t = ln =  250 h = 1.981 = = 0.00792 h 1
Ro 1000 cpm 250 h
0.693 0.693
t1/2 = = = 87.5 h
 0.00792 h 1
A slightly different value of t1/2 may result from other combinations of Ro and Rt .
32
25. 15 P half-life = 14.3 d. We need to determine the time necessary to get to the detectable
1 0.693 0.693
limit, of the initial value. Use     0.0485 d 1
1000 t1/ 2 14.3 d
 1  1
ln   = 0.0485 d (t) t = 142 days
 1000 

Age Determinations with Radioisotopes


27. Again we use equations (25.12) and (25.13) to determine the time elapsed. The initial rate
of decay is about 15 dis/min. First we compute the decay constant.

0.693
= = 1.21  104 y 1
5730 y
10 dis/min 0.405
ln  0.405   t ; t  3.4  103 y
15 dis/min 1.21  104 y 1
The object is a bit more than 3000 years old, and thus is probably not from the pyramid
era, which occurred about 3000 B.C.
0.693
29. First we determine the decay constant.  = = 4.99  1011 y 1
1.39  10 y
10

Then we can determine the ratio of (Nt),the number of thorium atoms after 2.7  109 y, to
N 0 , the initial number of thorium atoms:
= kt =   4.99  1011 y 1  2.7 109 y  = 0.13
Nt Nt
ln = 0.88
N0 N0
Thus, for every mole of 232
Th present initially, after 2.7  109 y there are
0.88 mol 232 Th and 0.12 mol 208 Pb . From this information, we can compute the mass ratio.
0.12 mol 208 Pb 1 mol 232 Th 208 g 208 Pb 0.12 g 208 Pb
  =
0.88 mol 232 Th 232 g 232 Th 1 mol 208 Pb 1 g 232 Th

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

31. First convert argon-40 to the number of atoms/g in the sample. Next, convert % potassium
to atoms/g in the sample. Finally, use equation (25.21) to determine the final answer
3.03109 y.

Energetics of Nuclear Reactions

33. The principal equation that we shall employ is E = mc 2 , along with conversion factors.
1 kg
  3.00 108 m/s  = 5.42 109 kg m 2 s 2 = 5.42 109 J
2
(a) E = 6.02 1023 g 
1000 g
931.5 MeV
(b) E = 4.0015 u  = 3727 MeV
1u
35. The mass defect is the difference between the mass of the nuclide and the sum of the
masses of its constituent particles. The binding energy is this mass defect expressed as an
energy.
particle mass = 9 p +10 n + 9 e = 9  p + n + e  + n
= 9 1.0073 +1.0087 + 0.0005486  u +1.0087 u = 19.1576 u

mass defect = 19.1576 u  18.998403 u = 0.1592 u


931.5MeV
0.1592 u 
1u
binding energy per nucleon =  7.805 MeV/nucleon
19 nucleons
37. mass defect = 10.01294 u + 4.00260 u   13.00335 u +1.00783 u  = 0.00436 u
931.5 MeV
energy = 0.00436 u  = 4.06 MeV
1u

39. 1 neutron  1 amu = 1.66  1027 kg


E = mc2 = 1.66  1027 kg(2.998  108 m s1)2 = 1.49  1010 J (1 neutron)
1 eV = 1.602  1019 J,
1 eV
Hence, 1 neutron = 1.49  1010 J  19
= 9.30  108 eV or 930. MeV
1.602  10 J
1 neutron
6.75  106 MeV  = 7.26  103 neutrons
930 MeV

Nuclear Stability

41. (a) We expect 20 Ne to be more stable than 22 Ne . A neutron-to-proton ratio of 1- to-1 is


associated with stability for elements of low atomic number (with Z  20 ).

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

(b) We expect 18 O to be more stable than 17 O . An even number of protons and an even
number of neutrons are associated with a stable isotope.

(c) We expect 7 Li to be more stable than 6 Li . Both isotopes have an odd number of
protons, but only 7 Li has an even number of neutrons.

43.   emission has the effect of “converting” a neutron to a proton.  + emission, on the
other hand, has the effect of “converting” a proton to a neutron.
(a) The most stable isotope of phosphorus is 31 P , with a neutron-to-proton ratio of close
to 1-to-1 and an even number of neutrons. Thus, 29 P has “too few” neutrons, or too
many protons. It should decay by  + emission. In contrast, 33 P has “too many”
neutrons, or “too few” protons. Therefore, 33 P should decay by   emission.

(b) Based on the atomic mass of I (126.90447), we expect the isotopes of iodine to have
mass numbers close to 127. This means that 120 I has “too few” neutrons and
therefore should decay by  + emission, whereas 134 I has “too many” neutrons (or
“too few” protons) and therefore should decay by   emission.

45. A “doubly magic” nuclide is one in which the atomic number is a magic number (2, 8, 20,
28, 50, 82, 114) and the number of neutrons also is a magic number (2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82,
126, 184). Nuclides that fit this description are given below.
4 16 40 56 208
Nuclide He O Ca Ni Pb
No. of protons 2 8 20 28 82
No. of neutrons 2 8 20 28 126

Fission and Fusion


131
47. We use the conversion factor between number of curies and mass of I which was
developed in the Integrative Example.
18.8 g 131 I
no. g 131 I = 170 curies  = 1.37  103 g = 1.37 mg
2.33  106 curie

Effect of Radiation on Matter


49. The term “rem” is an acronym for “radiation equivalent-man,” and takes into account the
quantity of biological damage done by a given dosage of radiation. On the other hand, the
rad is the dosage that places 0.010 J of energy into each kilogram of irradiated matter.
Thus, for living tissue, the rem provides a good idea of how much tissue damage a certain
kind and quantity of radiation damage will do. But for nonliving materials, the rad is
usually preferred, and indeed is often the only unit of utility.

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

51. One reason why 90 Sr is hazardous is because strontium is in the same family of the periodic
table as calcium, and hence often reacts in a similar fashion to calcium. The most likely place
for calcium to be incorporated into the body is in bones, where it resides for a long time.
Strontium is expected to behave in a similar fashion. Thus, it will be retained in the body for a
long time. Bone is an especially dangerous place for a radioisotope to be present—even if it
-
has low penetrating power, as do  rays—because blood cells are produced in bone marrow.

Applications of Radioisotopes
53. Mix a small amount of tritium with the H2(g) and detect where the radioactivity appears
with a Geiger counter.
55. The recovered sample will be radioactive. When NaCl(s) and NaNO 3 s  are dissolved in

solution, the ions ( Na + , Cl  , and NO 3 ) are free to move throughout the solution. A given
anion does not remain associated with a particular cation. Thus, all the anions and cations
are shuffled and some of the radioactive 24 Na will end up in the crystallized NaNO 3 .

INTEGRATIVE AND ADVANCED EXERCISES

59. We use H of [CO 2 (g)]  393.51 kJ/mol as the heat of combustion of 1 mole of carbon. In
the text, the energy produced by the fission of 1.00 g 235U is determined as 8.20  107 kJ.
1000 g 8.20  107 kJ 1mol C 12.01 g C
metric tons of coal required  1.00 kg 235
U    
1 kg 1.00 g 235 U 393.5 kJ 1mol C
1.00 g coal 1 kg 1 metric ton
    2.9  103 metric tons
0.85 gC 1000g 1000 kg

62. First we find the decay constant. The activity (N ) is the product of the decay constant and
the number of atoms.
0.693 1y 1d 1h
     7.93  10 10 s 1
27.7 y 365.25 d 24 h 3600 s
1 Ci 3.7  1010 dis/s
radioactivity  1.00 mCi    3.7  10 7 dis/s
1000 mCi 1 Ci
activity 3.7  10 dis/s
7
1 mol 90 Sr 90 g 90 Sr
N   4.7  10 16 90
Sr atoms  
 7.93  10 10 s 1 6.022  10 23 atoms 1 mol 90 Sr
 7.0  10 6 g 90 Sr  7.0 g 90 Sr

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

1 Ci 3.7  1010 dis/s


63. decay rate  89.8 mCi    3.3 2  10 9 dis/s
1000 mCi 1 Ci
1g 1 mol 137 Cs 6.022  10 23 atoms
N  1.00 mg     4.40  1018 137
Cs atoms
1000 mg 137 g 137 Cs 1 mol
decay rate 3.3 2  10 9 dis/s
decay rate   N    7.5 5  10 10 s 1
N 4.40  10 atoms
18

0.693 0.693 1h 1d 1y
t1 / 2       29 y
 10 1
7.5 5  10 s 3600 s 24 h 365.25 d

67. Assume we have in our possession 100 g of the hydrogen/tritium mixture. This sample will
95.00gH
mol hydrogen   94.246mol hydrogen
1.008g/mol
5.00gH
mol tritium   1.656mol tritium
3.02g/mol
1.656mol tritium
mole fraction tritium   1.72 7 102
1.656mol tritium  94.246mol hydrogen
PV (1.05atm)(4.65L)
total moles of gas in mixture    0.199 5 mol
RT L atm
0.0821 (298.15K)
mol K
afford us 95 g hydrogen and 5 g tritium.
mols of tritium  (0.1995mol)(1.727  10 2 mol tritium / mol mixture)  3.445  10 3mol tritium
# of tritium atoms (N)  (2  3.445  10 3mol tritium)(6.022  10 23 tritium atoms/mol)  4.15  10 21tritium atoms
0.693 0.693
rate  N  4.15  10 21  7.42  1012disintegrations/s
t 1/2 365 d 24 h 60 min 60 s
12.3 y    
1y 1d 1h 1 min
7
7.42  1012disintegrations/s
activity in curies   2.0  10 2 Ci
disintegrations/s
3.7  1010
Ci
2.5 g 0.006 g U 1 mol U
68. energy  1.00  10 3 cm 3  3
 
1 cm 100.000 g shale 238 g U
6.022  1023 U atoms 3.20  1011 J 1 kJ
    1.2  107 kJ
1 mol U 1 U atom 1000 J

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

FEATURE PROBLEMS
72. First tabulate the isotope symbols, the mass of the isotope and its associated packing
fraction.
 
Isotope Mass of Packing
Symbol Isotope (u) Fraction

   0.0085
 Plot of Packing Fraction
He  
9 versus Mass Number
Be  
12
C  
16
O   0.0065
20
Ne  
24
Mg  
32
S  

Packing Fraction
40 0.0045
Ar  
40
Ca  
48
Ti  
52
Cr   0.0025
56
Fe  
58
Ni  
64
Zn  
80 0.0005
Se  
84
Kr   0 50 100 150
90
Zr  
102
Ru   -0.0015 Mass Num ber (u)
114
Cd  
130
Te  
138
Ba  
142
Nd  
158
Gd  
166
Er  
This graph and Fig. 25-6 are almost exactly the inverse of one another, with the maxima of
one being the minima of the other. Actual nuclidic mass is often a number slightly less
than the number of nucleons (mass number). This difference divided by the number of
nucleons (packing fraction) is proportional to the negative of the mass defect per nucleon.

73. (a) The rate of decay depends on both the half-life and the number of radioactive atoms
present. In the early stages of the decay chain, the larger number of radium-226, atoms
multiplied by the very small decay constant is still larger than the product of the very small
number of radon-222 atoms and its much larger decay constant. Only after some time has
elapsed, does the rate of decay of radon-222 approach the rate at which it is formed from

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

radium-226 and the amount of radon-222 reaches a maximum. Beyond this point, the rate
of decay of radon-222 exceeds its rate of formation.

dD - t
(b) =p P - d D = p Po e p -d D
dt

(c) The number of radon-222 atoms at the proposed times are: 2.90  1015 atoms after 1
day; 1.26  1016 after 1 week; 1.75  1016 after 1 year; 1.68  1016 after one century;
and 1.13  1016 after 1 millennium. The actual maximum comes after about 2
months, but the amount after 1 year is only slightly smaller.

74. (a) Average atomic mass of Sr in the rock


87 86 84
Sr Sr Sr
86
= 2.25 88
= 0.119 88
= 0.007 Given: 15.5 ppm Sr
Sr Sr Sr
Let x = 86Sr, y = 88Sr, z = 87Sr, w = 84Sr x + y + z + w = 15.5 ppm
z x w
=2.25 , =0.119 , = 0.007
x y y
86
Set x = Sr = 1 and find the relative atom ratio of the other
Hence, z = 2.25x = 2.25×1 = 2.25
x 1
y= = = 8.403
0.119 0.119
w = 0.007y = 0.007×8.403 = 0.0588
x + y + z + w=1+2.25+8.403 +0.0588 = 11.712
As a percent abundance, we find the following for the Sr in the sample.
%86Sr = 1/11.712 × 100 % = 8.538 %
%88Sr = 8.403/11.712 × 100 % = 71.75 %
%87Sr = 2.25/11.712 × 100 % = 19.21 %
%84Sr = 0.0588/11.712 × 100 % = 0.5 %

av. mass Sr = mass86Sr (% 86Sr) + mass88Sr (% 88Sr) + mass87Sr (% 87Sr) + mass84Sr (% 84Sr)
av. mass Sr = 8.538 % (85.909 u ) + 71.75 % (87.906 u)+ 19.21 % (86.909 u) + 0.5%(83.913 u)
average atomic mass Sr = 7.335 u + 63.07 u + 16.695 u + 0.42 u = 87.5 u

87
Rb
current atom ratio is 85
= 0.330
Rb
Set 1000 atoms for 85Rb and 330 atoms 87Rb or a total of 1330 atoms of Rb
Percent abundance of each isotope: 85Rb = (1000/1330)×100% = 75.2 % 85Rb
87
Rb = (1000/1330)×100% = 24.8 % 87Rb

av. mass Rb = mass85Rb (% 85Rb) + mass87Rb (% 87Rb)


av. mass Rb = 75.2 % (84.912 u ) + 24.8 % (86.909 u)
average atomic mass Rb = 63.85 u + 21.55 u = 85.4 u

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

(b) Original Rb in rock?


Need to convert atom ratio → isotope concentration in ppm.
85
Rb concentration in ppm
1000 atoms 85 Rb 1 atom Rb 84.912 u 85 Rb
=   85
 265.4 ppm Rb = 198.4 ppm 85 Rb
1330 atoms Rb 85.4 u Rb 1 atom Rb
87
Rb concentration in ppm
330 atoms 87 Rb 1 atom Rb 86.909 u 87 Rb
=    265.4 ppm Rb = 67.0 ppm 87 Rb
1330 atoms Rb 85.4 u Rb 1 atom 87 Rb

Currently 265.4 ppm (198.4 ppm 85Rb + 67.0 ppm 87 Rb)

Recall earlier calculations showed: %86Sr = 8.538 %; %88Sr = 71.75 %;


%87Sr = 19.21 %; %84Sr = 0.5 %

Consider 100,000 atoms of Sr. Calculate the concentration (in ppm) of 86Sr and 87Sr.
86
Sr concentration in ppm
8538 atoms 86Sr 1 atom Sr 85.909 u 86Sr
=   86
 15.5 ppm Sr = 1.299 ppm 86Sr
100,000 atoms Sr 87.5 u Sr 1 atom Sr
87
Sr concentration in ppm
19,210 atoms 87Sr 1 atom Sr 86.909 u 87Sr
=   87
 15.5 ppm Sr = 2.957 ppm 87Sr
100,000 atoms Sr 87.5 u Sr 1 atom Sr

87
Sr 19,210 atoms 87Sr
Currently: 86
= 2.25 =
Sr 8,538 atoms 86Sr
87
Sr
Originally: 86
= 0.700 or 87Sr = 86Sr  0.700 = 8,538  0.700 = 5,977 atoms 87Sr
Sr
Change in 87Sr = 19210 – 5977 = 13233 atoms 87Sr (per 100,000 Sr atoms)
Currently, 19210 per 100,000 atoms is 87Sr which represents 2.957 ppm.
A change of 13233 atoms represents (13233/19210)×2.957 ppm = 2.037 ppm 87Sr

The source of 87Sr is radioactive decay from 87Rb (a 1:1 relation).

Change in the 87Rb (through radioactive decay) = change in 87Sr = 2.037 ppm
87 85
Isotope: Rb Rb Total Rb
Current concentration 67.0 ppm 198.4 ppm 265.4 ppm
Change concentration +2.037 ppm  +2.037 ppm
Original concentration 69.04 ppm 198.4 ppm 267.44 ppm

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

 2.037 ppm 
(c) % 87Rb decayed =   100% = 2.95 % (% 87Rb remaining = 97.05%)
 69.04 ppm 

0.693 0.693
(d) ln(0.9705) = t ( =  = 1.444 1011 y1)
t1/ 2 4.8 1010 y

ln(0.9705) = 1.444  1011 y1t; t = 2.07  109 years

SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISES
78. (c)

79. (b)

80. (d)

81. (c)

82. (c)

83. (d)

84. (d)

88 Ra  86 Rn+ 2 He
(a) 214 210 4
85.
(b) 20585 At  84 Po+ +1 b
205 0

87 Fr+e  86 Rn
(c) 212 - 212

(d) 21 H+ 21 H  23 He+ 01 n
95 Am+ 2 He  97 Bk+2 0 n
(e) 241 4 243 1

(f) 23290Th+ 42 He  232 1


92 U+4 0 n

0.693
86. First use the equation t1/2  to determine  from t1/2 :

0.693 0.693
   0.0608d -1
t1/2 11.4d
N  N
Then use the equation ln  t    t with t  0.01and solve for t:
 N0  N0
4.605
ln 0.01  0.0608t  t   76days
0.0608

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Chapter 25: Nuclear Chemistry

0.693
87. First use the equation t1/2  to determine  from t1/ 2 :

0.693 0.693
   7.88  10 3 d -1
t1/2 87.9d
N  N 253 104 52
Then use the equation ln  t    t with t  , , and and solve for t:
 N0  N 0 1000 1000 1000
253
ln
ta  1000  174days
7.88  10 3
104
ln
tb  1000  287days
7.88  10 3
52
ln
tc  1000  375days
7.88  10 3

88. (b)

89. (d)

90. (c)

91. (a)

92. (b)

679