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AeroGATES: PART 66 courseware 11A– Turbine aeroplane aerodynamics, structures and systems

Category  A  B1  B2  B3 9- Flight controls (ATA 27)


Level  1  2  3

Module 11A-09
Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics, Structures and
Systems
Flight Controls-ATA 27

11A – 09- 1
AeroGATES: PART 66 courseware 11A– Turbine aeroplane aerodynamics, structures and systems
Category  A  B1  B2  B3 9- Flight controls (ATA 27)
Level  1  2  3

Table of contents

I. PRIMARY CONTROLS: AILERON, ELEVATOR, RUDDER, SPOILER ............................................................................................................................... 6


1. AXIS: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
2. PROPERTIES: ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
3. AILERONS: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
4. ELEVATORS, STABILATORS, CANARDS: ...................................................................................................................................................................... 15
4.1. T-tail configuration: ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19
4.2. Stabilators: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20
4.3. Canard: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21
5. RUDDER:............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 22
5.1. Rudder limiters: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
5.2. V-tails, ruddervators: ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26
5.3. Elevons: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
6. SPOILERS: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
II. TRIM CONTROL ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33
1. TRIM SYSTEMS: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
2. TRIM TABS: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 33
3. BALANCE TABS: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
4. ANTI-BALANCE TABS: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
5. SERVO TAB: ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
6. ANTISERVO TAB: .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 38
7. GROUND AJUSTABLE TABS: .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 39
7. ADJUSTABLE STABILIZERS: .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 41
8. TRIMMING OF POWERED FLIGHT CONTROLS:............................................................................................................................................................. 42
9. AILERONS AND RUDDER TRIM: ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 43
9.1. Light aircraft: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43
9.2. Example of regional aircraft (rudder only): ..................................................................................................................................................................... 44
10. VARIABLE INCIDENCE HORIZONTAL STABILIZER: ................................................................................................................................................... 51
III. ACTIVE LOAD CONTROL .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 55
1. GENERAL PROCEDURES – NORMAL AND DIRECT MODES: ...................................................................................................................................... 55
1.1. Normal mode procedure: ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 55
1.2. Direct mode procedure: .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 56
2. OTHER PROCEDURES: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58
IV. HIGH LIFT DEVICES............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 59
1. DEFINITIONS (RECALL): ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60
2. LIFT AUGMENTATION - GENERAL: ................................................................................................................................................................................. 60
2.1. Trailing edge devices: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
11A – 09- 2
AeroGATES: PART 66 courseware 11A– Turbine aeroplane aerodynamics, structures and systems
Category  A  B1  B2  B3 9- Flight controls (ATA 27)
Level  1  2  3
2.2 Leading edge devices: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 61
2. ANGLE OF ATTACK AND LIFT: ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 61
2.1. Principle of lift:................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 61
2.2. AOA, lift and stall: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 62
3. LEADING EDGE DEVICES:................................................................................................................................................................................................ 64
3.1. Leading edge fixed slots: ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 65
3.2. Leading edge movable slats: .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 65
3.3. Leading edge flap: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67
3.3. Leading edge function: ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 68
4. TRAILING EDGE DEVICES: ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
4.1. Trailing edge flaps: ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69
4.2. Flaperons: ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
4.3. Trailing edge function: .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 74
V. LIFT DUMP, SPEED BRAKES ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 77
1. GENERAL: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77
1.1. Lift dump: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 77
1.2. Speed brakes: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 77
2. SPOILERS: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
2.1. Flight spoilers: .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 78
2.2. Ground spoilers: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81
3. SPEED BRAKES: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 84
4. LIFT DUMPERS: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 85
VI. SYSTEM OPERATIONS: MANUAL, HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL, FLY-BY-WIRE ........................................................................................................... 87
1. CONTROL SYSTEMS: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 87
2. OPERATION SYSTEMS: .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88
2.1. Manual: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88
2.2. Mechanical: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 89
2.3. Hydro-mechanical: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 90
2.4. Electro-mechanical design (Flight-by-wire): ................................................................................................................................................................... 96
VII. ARTIFICIAL FEEL, YAW DAMPER, MACH TRIM, RUDDER LIMITER, GUST LOCK SYSTEMS .................................................................................. 107
1. ARTIFICIAL FEEL SYSTEMS: ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 107
1.1. A simple spring feel units: ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 107
1.2. Q feel units: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 109
2. YAW DAMPER: ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 111
2.1. Dutch roll: ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 111
2.2. Yaw damper operation: ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 112
3. MACH TRIM: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 114
4. RUDDER LIMITER: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115
5. GUST LOCK SYSTEMS: .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 116
11A – 09- 3
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Category  A  B1  B2  B3 9- Flight controls (ATA 27)
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VIII.BALANCING AND RIGGING .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 117
1. BALANCING: .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117
1.1. Effects of adverse balance: .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 117
1.2. Management of weight and balance control: ................................................................................................................................................................ 118
1.3. Basic principles of weight and balance computations: ................................................................................................................................................. 118
1.3.1 Aircraft balance: ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 118
1.3.2 Control surface balance:.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 119
2. RIGGING: .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 120
2.1. Preparation: .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 121
2.2. Structural alignment: ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 121
IX. STALL PROTECTION AND WARNING SYSTEMS ........................................................................................................................................................... 128
1. STALL PROTECTION:...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 128
2. STALL WARNING: ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 130
2.1. General: ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 130
2.2. Automatic procedures for stall protection: .................................................................................................................................................................... 131

11A – 09- 4
AeroGATES: PART 66 courseware 11A– Turbine aeroplane aerodynamics, structures and systems
Category  A  B1  B2  B3 9- Flight controls (ATA 27)
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Airbus 330 – Flight controls

11A – 09- 5
AeroGATES: PART 66 courseware 11A– Turbine aeroplane aerodynamics, structures and systems
Category  A  B1  B2  B3 9- Flight controls (ATA 27)
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I. PRIMARY CONTROLS: AILERON, ELEVATOR, RUDDER, SPOILER

1. AXIS:
An airplane has three axes that a pilot can control, that define the plane’s attitude and flight path: Roll, Pitch, and Yaw.
An aircraft can be rotated in flight about any one, or a combination of its three axes.

These axes act at right angles to each other, and all pass through the aircraft’s centre of gravity.

The main flight controls involve the control surfaces:


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Category  A  B1  B2  B3 9- Flight controls (ATA 27)
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 Roll control or banking,
 Pitch control or elevation,
 Yaw control or direction.

Movement about the lateral axis is known as pitch, movement about the longitudinal axis is known as roll and movement about the normal axis is
known as yaw.

Movements are achieved via a primary flying control system, which in its basic form consists of moveable control surfaces linked to controls in the
cockpit.

2. PROPERTIES:
Flying control systems are regulated by the FARs, PARTs, and must comply with the following standards:
 Sense :
The aircraft must move in the direction signified by the control input, e.g. control column back, pitch nose-up.
 Rigidity:
The control system must be strong enough to withstand any operating loads without excessive distortion, e.g. airloads on the control
surfaces (irreversibility).
 Stability:
The control surfaces must remain where selected by the pilot and must not be affected by signals which are not self initiated, e.g. vibration
and aerodynamic loads.
 Sensitivity :
There must be immediate response from the control surfaces to the pilots input signals.
 Safety :
Passengers, cargo and loose articles must safeguard the control system against jamming, chafing, and interference. Guards must therefore
be fitted where appropriate to provide the necessary protection.
 Fail-Safe :
The control system must be duplicated or be capable of manual operation in the event of hydraulic power failure.

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3. AILERONS:
The primary effect of ailerons is to provide roll control about the longitudinal axis.

This movement causes a slight decrease in lift on the wingtip with the upward moving aileron, while the opposite wingtip experiences a slight increase
in lift.
Because of this subtle change in lift, the airplane is forced to roll in the appropriate direction ie when the pilot moves the stick left, the left aileron will
rise and the airplane will roll left in response to the change in lift on each wing.

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The ailerons are controlled by a left/right movement of the control stick, or ‘yoke’.
If the control column is moved to the right the ailerons will move in opposite directions by equal amounts; the right aileron will deflect upwards, and the
left aileron will deflect downward. This will locally alters the shape of the wing where the ailerons are attached.

In flight this will produce a downward aerodynamic force on the right wing and an upward aerodynamic force on the left wing, causing the aircraft to roll
to the right. If the control column is moved to the left, the reverse effects occur.
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In principle a downward movement of the aileron causes an increase in the effective angle of attack and a corresponding increase in lift, whilst an
upward movement of the aileron causes a reduction in the effective angle of attack and a decrease in lift. The difference in lift between the two wings
produces the necessary rolling moment.

In addition to changes in lift the deflection of the ailerons also causes variations in drag.

The down-going aileron will produce a predominance of induced drag, whilst the up-going aileron will produce a predominance of profile drag. At
slow airspeeds the increase in drag will be greater on the down-going aileron than the up-going aileron and the aircraft will yaw in the opposite
direction to the roll.

This is the secondary effect of ailerons, and is known as adverse aileron yaw.

Note - Adverse yaw;


Since the downward deflected aileron produces more lift as evidenced by the wing raising, it also produces more drag. This added
drag causes the wing to slow down slightly.
This results in the aircraft yawing toward the wing which had experienced an increase in lift (and drag). From the pilot’s perspective,
the yaw is opposite the direction of the bank.

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Adverse yaw is caused by higher drag on the outside wing, which is producing more lift.
Application of rudder is used to counteract adverse yaw. The amount of rudder control required is greatest at low airspeeds, high angles of attack, and
with large aileron deflections. Like all control surfaces at lower airspeeds, the vertical stabilizer/rudder becomes less effective, and magnifies the
control problems associated with adverse yaw.
All turns are coordinated by use of ailerons, rudder, and elevator.
Applying aileron pressure is necessary to place the aircraft in the desired angle of bank, while simultaneous application of rudder pressure is
necessary to counteract the resultant adverse yaw.
Additionally, because more lift is required during a turn than when in straight-and-level flight, the angle of attack (AOA) must be increased by applying
elevator back pressure. The steeper the turn, the more elevator back pressure is needed.
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As the desired angle of bank is established, aileron and rudder pressures should be relaxed. This stops the angle of bank from increasing, because
the aileron and rudder control surfaces are in a neutral and streamlined position.
Elevator back pressure should be held constant to maintain altitude. The roll-out from a turn is similar to the roll-in, except the flight controls are
applied in the opposite direction.
Aileron and rudder are applied in the direction of the roll-out or toward the high wing. As the angle of bank decreases, the elevator back pressure
should be relaxed as necessary to maintain altitude.
In an attempt to reduce the effects of adverse yaw, manufacturers have engineered four systems: differential ailerons, frise-type ailerons, coupled
ailerons and rudder, and flaperons.

 Differential ailerons:
With differential ailerons, one aileron is raised a greater distance than the other aileron is lowered for a given movement of the control
wheel or control stick.

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This produces an increase in drag on the descending wing.
The greater drag results from deflecting the up aileron on the descending wing to a greater angle than the down aileron on the rising
wing.
While adverse yaw is reduced, it is not eliminated completely.

 Frise-type ailerons:
With a frise-type aileron, when pressure is applied to the control wheel or control stick, the aileron that is being raised pivots on an
offset hinge.
This projects the leading edge of the aileron into the airflow and creates drag. It helps equalize the drag created by the lowered aileron
on the opposite wing and reduces adverse yaw.

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The frise-type aileron also forms a slot so air flows smoothly over the lowered aileron, making it more effective at high angles of
attack. Frise-type ailerons may also be designed to function differentially.
Like the differential aileron, the frise-type aileron does not eliminate adverse yaw entirely. Coordinated rudder application is still
needed wherever ailerons are applied

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4. ELEVATORS, STABILATORS, CANARDS:
The primary effect of elevators is to provide pitch control about the lateral axis. Pushing the control column forwards causes the elevator to move
downwards.

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This produces aerodynamic force acting on the tailplane in an upward direction causing the aircraft to pitch nose-down. Pulling the control column
rearwards has the reverse effect and causes the aircraft to pitch nose-up.

Like the ailerons on small aircraft, the elevator is connected to the control column in the flight deck by a series of mechanical linkages. After movement
of the control column deflects the trailing edge of the elevator surface up. This is usually referred to as “elevators up”.

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The elevators produce no real secondary effect on an aircraft, although changes in pitch attitude result in changes in angles of attack, and hence
airspeed.

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4.1. T-tail configuration:
In a T-tail configuration, the elevator is above most of the effects of downwash from the propeller as well as airflow around the fuselage and/or wings
during normal flight conditions.
Operation of the elevators in this undisturbed air allows control movements that are consistent throughout most flight regimes.
T-tail designs have become popular on many light and large aircraft, especially those with aft fuselage-mounted engines because the T-tail
configuration removes the tail from the exhaust blast of the engines.
Seaplanes and amphibians often have T-tails in order to keep the horizontal surfaces as far from the water as possible. An additional benefit is
reduced vibration and noise inside the aircraft.

Airplane with a T-tail design at a high angle of attack and an aft CG.

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Since controls on aircraft are rigged so that increasing control forces are required for increased control travel, the forces required to raise the nose of a
T-tail aircraft are greater than those for a conventional-tail aircraft.
Longitudinal stability of a trimmed aircraft is the same for both types of configuration, but the pilot must be aware that the required control forces are
greater at slow speeds during takeoffs, landings, or stalls than for similar size aircraft equipped with conventional tails.
T-tail airplanes also require additional design considerations to counter the problem of flutter.
Since the weight of the horizontal surfaces is at the top of the vertical stabilizer, the moment arm created causes high loads on the vertical stabilizer
which can result in flutter.
When flying at a very high AOA with a low airspeed and an aft CG, the T-tail aircraft may be susceptible to a deep stall. In a deep stall, the airflow over
the horizontal tail is blanketed by the disturbed airflow from the wings and fuselage.

Note;
When the aerodynamic efficiency of the horizontal tail surface is inadequate due to an aft center of gravity condition, an elevator down spring may
be used to supply a mechanical load to lower the nose.

At slow speeds, the elevator on a T-tail aircraft must be moved through a larger number of degrees of travel to raise the nose a given amount than on
a conventional-tail aircraft.
This is because the conventional-tail aircraft has the downwash from the propeller pushing down on the tail to assist in raising the nose.

4.2. Stabilators:
Stabilators are essentially a one-piece horizontal stabilizer that pivots from a central hinge point.
When the control column is pulled back, it raises the stabilator trailing edge, pulling the airplane’s nose up.
Pushing the control column forward lowers the trailing edge of the stabilator and pitches the nose of the airplane down.
Because stabilators pivot around a central hinge point, they are extremely sensitive to control inputs and aerodynamic loads. Antiservo tabs are
incorporated on the trailing edge to decrease sensitivity. They deflect in the same direction as the stabilator.
These results in an increase in the force required to move the stabilator, thus making it less prone to pilot-induced over controlling. In addition, a
balance weight is usually incorporated in front of the main spar.
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The stabilator is a one-piece horizontal tail surface that pivots up and down about a central hinge point.

The balance weight may project into the empennage or may be incorporated on the forward portion of the stabilator tips.

4.3. Canard:
The canard design utilizes the concept of two lifting surfaces, the canard functioning as a horizontal stabilizer located in front of the main wings. In
effect, the canard is an airfoil similar to the horizontal surface on a conventional aft-tail design.
The difference is that the canard actually creates lift and holds the nose up, as opposed to the aft-tail design which exerts downward force on the tail to
prevent the nose from rotating downward.
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The Piaggio P180 includes a variable-sweep canard design


The canard design dates back to the pioneer days of aviation, most notably used on the Wright Flyer. Recently, the canard configuration has
regained popularity and is appearing on newer aircraft. Canard designs include two types–one with a horizontal surface of about the same size as
a normal aft-tail design, and the other with a surface of the same approximate size and airfoil of the aft-mounted wing known as a tandem wing
configuration.
Theoretically, the canard is considered more efficient because using the horizontal surface to help lift the weight of the aircraft should result in less
drag for a given amount of lift.

5. RUDDER:
The primary effect of the rudder is to provide yaw control about the normal (vertical) axis.

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If the right rudder pedal is moved forwards the rudder will move to the right. In flight this will produce an aerodynamic force on the fin and the aircraft
will yaw to the right. If the left rudder pedal is moved forwards the reverse action will take place, and the aircraft will yaw to the left.
Like the other primary control surfaces, the rudder is a movable surface hinged to a fixed surface, in this case to the vertical stabilizer, or fin.
Moving the left or right rudder pedal controls the rudder.

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When the rudder is deflected into the airflow, a horizontal force is exerted in the opposite direction.
Rudder effectiveness increases with speed; therefore, large deflections at low speeds and small deflections at high speeds may be required to provide
the desired reaction. In propeller-driven aircraft, any slipstream flowing over the rudder increases its effectiveness.

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5.1. Rudder limiters:


The Rudder Limiter (or Rudder Stop Limiter) improves the reliability of the airplane by controlling and monitoring the deployment of a backup rudder
limiter system that restricts rudder throw to a maximum of 10 degree in either direction from the faired position at great airspeed.

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5.2. V-tails, ruddervators:
The V-tail design utilizes two slanted tail surfaces to perform the same functions as the surfaces of a conventional elevator and rudder configuration.
The fixed surfaces act as both horizontal and vertical stabilizers.

Ruddervators versus ailerons

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Ruddervators versus elevators

The movable surfaces, which are usually called ruddervators, are connected through a special linkage that allows the control wheel to move both
surfaces simultaneously.
On the other hand, displacement of the rudder pedals moves the surfaces differentially, thereby providing directional control.
When both rudder and elevator controls are moved by the pilot, a control mixing mechanism moves each surface the appropriate amount.
The control system for the V-tail is more complex than that required for a conventional tail. In addition, the V-tail design is more susceptible to Dutch
roll tendencies than a conventional tail, and total reduction in drag is minimal.

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Beechcraft Bonanza V35

5.3. Elevons:
Some aircrafts, as the fighter RAFALE, do not have elevators. The technology used is a set of elevons, positioned on the trailing edge of the aerofoil.
The 4 elevons act by pairs: there is an internal pair and an external one .

Both pairs can act as pitch or roll control surfaces.


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 Operation for roll control: Both pairs act as roll control surfaces (differential steering).
 Operation for pitch and bank control: The internal pair acts as a pitch control surface, while the external pair acts as roll one.

Elevons are fitted to the trailing edge of the wings on delta winged aircraft such as Concorde, and perform the function of both ailerons and elevators.
When the control columns is moved backwards or forwards the Elevons move like elevators, and deflect by equal amounts in the same direction.
For example if the control column is moved rearwards the elevons will deflect upwards, and the aircraft will pitch nose-up.
If the control wheel is turned the elevons on one wing will rise, and on the other wing will lower, as in the case of conventional ailerons.
For example when the control wheel is turned to the right the right Elevons will rise and the left elevons will lower, causing the aircraft to roll to the
right.

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Elevons versus elevators

Elevons versus ailerons


The control systems are also interconnected so that the surfaces can be deflected simultaneously to produce combined pitching and rolling
moments.
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6. SPOILERS:
Spoilers are flap type control surfaces, which are normally, located on the upper surface of the wing, just in front of the trailing edge flaps.
These surfaces are individually hinged at their leading edges and are actuated by hydraulic power supplied by dedicated power control units.

As their name implies the main purpose of the surfaces is to disturb the smooth airflow over the top of the wing, thereby reducing the wings lifting
capability, and when fully extended considerably increasing aircraft drag.

The spoilers are positioned so that aircraft pitch trim is not adversely affected by their deployment and the surfaces are extended in various sequences
depending upon the mode of flight.

They are used for helping roll or brake in flight or on ground.

Spoilers operate asymmetrically in flight whenever the control wheel is rotated to assist the ailerons in providing roll control, particularly at high
airspeeds. When this occurs the appropriate spoiler servo valves are signalled by way of the aileron operating system and the requisite surfaces are
deflected upwards in proportion to the roll input.
During a roll the spoilers on the lowering wing are deflected upwards, so decreasing its overall lifting capability and increasing the aircraft’s roll rate,
whilst the spoilers on the opposite wing remain retracted.The innermost spoiler on the lowering wing also remains retracted to prevent tail buffet, and
degraded pitch control.

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On aircraft fitted with two sets of ailerons, (inboard and outboard), as the airspeed increases the aerodynamic loads on the ailerons tend to twist the
wing at the tips, where it is more flexible. To overcome this tendency some aircraft use the technique of locking the outboard ailerons in the faired or
neutral position, and use an inboard aileron/spoiler combination above flap retraction speeds to provide the necessary roll control

 Flight spoilers:
In this mode the spoilers are operated symmetrically about the aircraft’s longitudinal axis to slow an aircraft down in flight.

 Ground spoilers
In this mode the spoiler panels on both wings automatically rise to their full extension after touchdown to increase an aircraft’s rate
of retardation (airbrakes), when certain ground conditions are fulfilled.

Spoilers fully deployed at landing

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II. TRIM CONTROL

The trim control system is principally designed to reduce the stick forces or control forces to zero. This allows an aircraft to maintain any yaw, pitch or roll
attitude set by the pilot without further control input.

Even though an aircraft has an inherent stability, it does not always tend to fly straight and level. The weight of the load and its distribution affect stability.
Various speeds also affect its flight characteristics. If the fuel in one wing tank is used before one in the other tank the aircraft tends to roll toward the full
tank.

All of these require constant exertion of pressure on the controls for correction. While climbing or gliding, it is necessary to apply pressure on the controls to
keep the aircraft in the desired attitude. To offset the forces that tend to unbalance an aircraft in flight, ailerons, elevators, and rudders are provided with
auxiliary controls known as tabs. These are small, hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the primary control surfaces.

Tabs can be moved up or down by means of a crank or moved electrically from the cockpit. These tabs can be used to balance the forces on the controls so
that the aircraft flies straight and level or may be set so that the aircraft maintains either a climbing or gliding attitude.

1. TRIM SYSTEMS:
Although an aircraft can be operated throughout a wide range of attitudes, airspeeds, and power settings, it can be designed to fly hands-off within only
a very limited combination of these variables.
Trim systems are used to relieve the pilot of the need to maintain constant pressure on the flight controls, and usually consist of flight deck controls and
small hinged devices attached to the trailing edge of one or more of the primary flight control surfaces.
Designed to help minimize a pilot’s workload, trim systems aerodynamically assist movement and position of the flight control surface to which they are:
 attached. tabs,
 balance tabs,
 antiservo tabs,
 ground adjustable tabs, and an
 adjustable stabilizer.
2.TRIM TABS:
The most common installation on small aircraft is a single trim tab attached to the trailing edge of the elevator.
Most trim tabs are manually operated by a small, vertically mounted control wheel. However, a trim crank may be found in some aircraft. The flight
deck control includes a trim tab position indicator.

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Placing the trim control in the full nose-down position moves the trim tab to its full up position. With the trim tab up and into the airstream, the airflow
over the horizontal tail surface tends to force the trailing edge of the elevator down. This causes the tail of the airplane to move up, and the nose to
move down.
If the trim tab is set to the full nose-up position, the tab moves to its full down position. In this case, the air flowing under the horizontal tail surface hits
the tab and forces the trailing edge of the elevator up, reducing the elevator’s AOA. This causes the tail of the airplane to move down, and the nose to
move up.

The movement of the elevator is opposite to the direction of movement of the elevator trim tab

In spite of the opposing directional movement of the trim tab and the elevator, control of trim is natural to a pilot.
If the pilot needs to exert constant back pressure on a control column, the need for nose-up trim is indicated.
The normal trim procedure is to continue trimming until the aircraft is balanced and the nose-heavy condition is no longer apparent.
Pilots normally establish the desired power, pitch attitude, and configuration first, and then trim the aircraft to relieve control pressures that may exist
for that flight condition.
Any time power, pitch attitude, or configuration is changed, expect that retrimming will be necessary to relieve the control pressures for the new flight
condition.

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CESSNA trim tab


3. BALANCE TABS:
The control forces may be excessively high in some aircraft, and, in order to decrease them, the manufacturer may use balance tabs. They look like
trim tabs and are hinged in approximately the same places as trim tabs.
The essential difference between the two is that the balancing tab is coupled to the control surface rod so that when the primary control surface is
moved in any direction, the tab automatically moves in the opposite direction.

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The airflow striking the tab counterbalances some of the air pressure against the primary control surface, and enables the pilot to move more easily
and hold the control surface in position.
These tabs are sometimes incorporated as part of the elevator on conventional tailplanes. They are mechanically linked to the tailplane by a linkage
that causes them to move in the opposite direction to the control surface.
The resultant aerodynamic force acting on the tab will produce a balancing moment, and reduce the overall stick force.
If the linkage between the balance tab and the fixed surface is adjustable from the flight deck, the tab acts as a combination trim and balance tab that
can be adjusted to any desired deflection.

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4. ANTI-BALANCE TABS:
These tabs are fitted on aircraft, when it is necessary to increase the stick force. This is because small movements of a control surface can produce
large aerodynamic loads, and may lead to over control.
These tabs operate in the same manner as balance tabs except that they move in the same direction as the control surface to increase the stick force,
(i.e. control surface down, tab down).

5. SERVO TAB:
In this design the tab is directly controlled by the pilot through a pivot point, and is deflected to supply the hinge moment necessary to move the
main control surface.

Movement of the tab provides an aerodynamic force that produces a hinge moment about the hinge-line of the control surface.

This causes the control surface to move to a new position of equilibrium in a direction of travel opposite to that of the tab i.e. tab down, control
surface up.
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6. ANTISERVO TAB:
Antiservo tabs work in the same manner as balance tabs except, instead of moving in the opposite direction, they move in the same direction as the
trailing edge of the stabilator.
An antiservo tab attempts to streamline the control surface and is used to make the stabilator less sensitive by opposing the force exerted
In addition to decreasing the sensitivity of the stabilator, an antiservo tab also functions as a trim device to relieve control pressure and maintain the
stabilator in the desired position. The fixed end of the linkage is on the opposite side of the surface from the horn on the tab; when the trailing edge of
the stabilator moves up, the linkage forces the trailing edge of the tab up.
When the stabilator moves down, the tab also moves down. Conversely, trim tabs on elevators move opposite of the control surface.

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Antiservo tab

7. GROUND AJUSTABLE TABS:


Many small aircraft have a no movable metal trim tab on the rudder.
This tab is bent in one direction or the other while on the ground to apply a trim force to the rudder. The correct displacement is determined by trial and
error. Usually, small adjustments are necessary until the aircraft no longer skids left or right during normal cruising flight.

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A ground adjustable tab


A ground adjustable tab is used on the rudder of many small airplanes to correct for a tendency to fly with the fuselage slightly misaligned with the
relative wind.

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Their actual setting is determined by flight tests and when they are set to give no resultant stick forces, the trailing position of the control surfaces is
governed by the actual deflection of the tab.

7. ADJUSTABLE STABILIZERS:
Rather than using a movable tab on the trailing edge of the elevator, some aircraft have an adjustable stabilizer.
With this arrangement, linkages pivot the horizontal stabilizer about its rear spar. This is accomplished by use of a jackscrew mounted on the leading
edge of the stabilator.
On small aircraft, the jackscrew is cable operated with a trim wheel or crank. On larger aircraft, it is motor driven. The trimming effect and flight deck
indications for an adjustable stabilizer are similar to those of a trim tab.
On small aircraft trim control comprises of moveable or fixed auxiliary surfaces.

These surfaces are called trim tabs and are normally hinged at the trailing edge of the primary control surfaces. Most light aircraft are fitted with
elevator and rudder trim, but aileron trim is normally only fitted on more sophisticated types of aircraft.

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8. TRIMMING OF POWERED FLIGHT CONTROLS:

On light aircraft this type of tab is only normally fitted on ailerons to make wing level flight more easily achievable without having to maintain a constant
stick force, i.e., to correct for a wing-low tendency.

On aircraft fitted with powered flying controls the position of the control surfaces is not affected by aerodynamic forces, and is only altered by
movement of the appropriate servo valve in response to flight deck control inputs.

Thus in order to correct for any out of trim condition a device is fitted which re-positions the neutral setting of the servo valve, and moves the control
surface to a new neutral position. The flight deck controls similarly take up a new neutral position in the direction of the required trim.

These devices are fitted in the control-input system, and consist of an electrical or mechanical linear actuator, controlled from the flight deck.

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When a trim actuator is operated it alters the effective length of the input lever to the servo valve, thereby making a selection, and moving the control
surface to a new neutral position.

A protection device in the form of a spring strut is also fitted between the trim actuator and the control input linkage, which normally operates as a fixed
member, but should the servo valve seize a spring inside the unit compresses or extends to protect the valve from further damage.

9. AILERONS AND RUDDER TRIM:


9.1. Light aircraft:
On most transport category aircraft aileron and rudder trim is applied through the movement of electrically operated trim switches. These switches are
normally positioned on the centre pedestal and are spring loaded to their central ‘off’ position.
To provide aileron trim both switches are simultaneously moved in the same direction to provide system integrity.
The amounts of aileron and rudder trim applied are conventionally displayed on dedicated trim indicators.
The rudder trim indicator is normally sighted on the centre pedestal, whilst aileron trim indicators are normally, sighted on each control column.

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9.2. Example of regional aircraft (rudder only):


In this regional aircraft, the rudder is attached to the vertical stabilizer of the aircraft. The rudder allows the pilot to control yaw in the horizontal axis.
Deflection of the rudder changes the horizontal direction in which the nose of the aircraft points. Movement of the pedals manipulates the rudders
deflection.
The rudder subsystem consists of:
 1 pedal unit,
 3 command transducer modules (CTM),
 3 actuator control electronic units (ACE),

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 1 ACE I,
 2 ACE II,
 3 rudder actuators. Rudder actuators are in fact electro-hydraulic servoactuators (R EHS).

 Brief description:
Three R EHS are attached to the rudder control surface. Each actuator is controlled by one ACE.
The three EHS of the rudder act in an active/active configuration. In case of power loss or under failure condition the affected R EHS
switches to a damped bypass mode and the remaining two R EHS continue to operate the rudder with full performance.
After failure of a second R EHS the last remaining R EHS operates the rudder with reduced dynamic performance and force.

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 Normal mode function:


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Three CTMs are located in the cockpit, connected to the pilot/copilot pedals. Movements of the pedals are converted into an electrical
signal by the sensors in the CTM.

The signal is transferred to the ACE. The signal is demodulated within the ACE and transferred to the PFCU. In the PFCU the signal is
compared to given data from all aircraft systems.
The initial signal is adapted to the current situation. The adapted signal is transferred back to the ACE. The ACE transmits the signal to
the R EHS. The R EHS moves the rudder.
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 Actuator control electronic units (ACE)
The rudder subsystem is equipped with three ACEs of two different types:
 1 ACE I
 2 ACE II
Both types of ACE are fail-safe units with dissimilar hardware and software design.
Each ACE is a digital computer with a control and monitor processing channel. All functions of the system application are software
controlled and fully automatic after power-up.
The ACEs have separated power supply units for control and for monitor channel.
The ACEs control the deflection of the rudder.
 Function:
The ACE receives signals from the pedal unit. The signal is demodulated within the ACE and in normal mode transferred to
the PFCU. In the PFCU the initial signal is adapted to the current situation. The adapted signal is transferred back to the ACE.
The ACE transmits the signal to the R EHS.
The signal operates the deflection of the flight surfaces.
 Control Channel:
The control channel in an ACE controls the deflection of the flight surface.
 Monitor Channel:
The monitor channel in an ACE monitors the control channel. The monitor channel reacts in case of malfunction to a fail-safe
mode function. The fail-safe mode prevents critical behavior of the system.
 Rudder actuator (R EHS):
Three R EHS are attached to the rudder. Each single R EHS is controlled by one ACE.
The three EHS of the rudder act in an active/active configuration. In case of power loss or under failure condition the affected R EHS
switches to a damped bypass mode and the remaining two R EHS continue to operate the rudder with full performance.
After failure of a second R EHS the last remaining R EHS operates the rudder with reduced dynamic performance and force.
The key components of the R EHS are:
 RAM assembly,
 valve block assembly.

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Typical actuator

 RAM assembly:
The ram assembly consists of:
 housing assembly,

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 eye end,
 piston rod,
 linear variable differential transducer (LVDT).

RAM assembly

The piston eye end connects to the piston rod. The piston rod runs in the housing assembly.
The fixed eye end belongs to the housing assembly. The LVDT runs inside the housing assembly and the piston rod.
The piston eye end and the fixed eye end have spherical bearings.
The piston has double piston-ring seals to provide the high reliability of the damping function. The piston rods have an identical
combination of tandem sealing arrangements on both ends.

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Two glands support the seals. The gland on the eye-end side also contains a scraper device. The duplex LVDT is placed inside the
hollow piston rod and is supported by a Teflon guide ring.

 RAM LVDT:
The ram linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) consists of two identical 6-wire LVDTs (duplex LVDT) in a common housing.
The Ram LVDT gives the feedback of the position of the actuator to the ACE. The LVDT contains a dual load path with anti rotation
device.

10. VARIABLE INCIDENCE HORIZONTAL STABILIZER:


On most transport category aircraft varying the angle of incidence of the horizontal stabiliser provides pitch trim.
This has the same effect as that achieved by movement of the elevator, but is aerodynamically more efficient, particularly at high airspeeds, and
if the required trim range is considerable.
Moving the stabilizer generate greater pitching moment for stability.

This way, the instability caused by the propensity of the aircraft towards nose-up or nose-down pitching can be trimmed.
Indeed, any disturbance (such as a gust) which raises the nose produces a nose-up pitching moment which tends to raise the nose further.

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Any disturbance on the stabilizer tends to increase instability

With the same disturbance, a well positioned horizontal stabilizer produces a restoring nose-down pitching moment which counteracts the natural
instability of the wing and makes the aircraft longitudinally stable.

The demonstration is quite similar in case of a disturbance which lowers the aircraft nose.

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The horizontal stabilizer can produce pitching moment to stabilize the aircraft
Because the tailplane is located some distance from the centre of gravity, even the small amount of force that the horizontal stabilizer undergoes
can generate a large pitching moment at the centre of gravity.

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The angle of incidence of the stabiliser is varied by an actuator assembly which is positioned near the leading edge and normally operates in
conjunction with the elevator, the combination of the two providing the least trim drag.

The leading edge of the stabiliser is normally moved up or down in flight by an electrically signalled hydraulic trim motor. This is in response to
signals primarily from the electrical trim switches that are situated on the control column, or alternatively in response to electrical signals from the
Autopilot pitch channel.

Like the rudder trim system, pitch trim is provided by the simultaneous movement of switches, located on each control wheel. This provides system
integrity and prevents pitch trim runaway. The rate of trim varies and is controlled by trim control modules.

10. TRIM CONTROL ON TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT:


On transport aircrafts, trim tabs are moveable. Powered flying controls are used on most transport category aircraft to provide assistance in moving the
primary and secondary control surfaces against the large aerodynamic loads, which may exceed the physical capabilities of the pilot at high airspeeds.

The primary flying control surfaces are arranged in the same configuration as on light aircraft, with ailerons, elevators and a rudder, although some
differ because they are additionally fitted with inboard ailerons.

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III. ACTIVE LOAD CONTROL

Aircrafts are subjected to some aeroelastic problems (gusts, wind, resonances, buffering, etc.).
Some “passive” solutions allow for reducing these problems. For example, as we saw in previous section, non-moveable trim tabs equipping light aircrafts
are adjusted on ground and can help correcting for wing-low tendency. We also saw in this section the effect of horizontal stabilizers on pitch trim.
On transport aircrafts, such passive devices are not sufficient. Instead, active load control surfaces are used to provide aerodynamic forces so as to oppose
instantly twisting and bending motions before they can reach a dangerous level. For example, if an up-gust causes one wing to bend upwards, the
movement can be opposed by applying up-aileron on that wing in order to reduce the aerodynamic lift.
Of course, a pilot alone cannot respond to all problems of instability by moving each required control surfaces to compensate. This is the reason why such
active devices require the use of computers and sensors. The system composed of computers which analyse and correct the pilot’s inputs and of sensors
which give information about the characteristics of each control surface back to these computers is called “active load control”.

1. GENERAL PROCEDURES – NORMAL AND DIRECT MODES:


Control surface systems provide on transport aircrafts two main modes of operation: normal and direct mode. Both modes are controlled by
computers.
1.1. Normal mode procedure:
The normal mode is the standard mode. It operates after power up and initialization without identified fault until power down, as long as no failure is
detected.
 1. The autopilot or the pilot send signals to a series of analog computers called ACE (Actuator Control Electronics) or sometimes MACE
(Motor Actuator Control Electronics if the control surfaces are driven by electric motors).
 2. The ACE demodulates the signal and sends the characteristics of the signal to independent digital computers called PFC (Primary Flight
Control).
 3. The PFC calculates the flight control commands based on control laws and flight envelope protection functions.
 4. The controlled signal is then transmitted back to the motors in order to drive the control surface. Sensors on the control surface send back
information about positioning, speed of deflection, failures… to the ACE.

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Normal mode procedure

1.2. Direct mode procedure:


The direct mode is a backup mode. It complements the normal mode and is operating occasionally in case of unexpected critical behavior or failure.

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Direct mode procedure


 1. Controls are switched to the direct mode based upon the detection of an error condition.
 2. The PFU are disconnected and the autopilot or the pilot’s inputs are then directly linked to the control surface via the analog computers
ACE.
 3. Sensors on the control surface send back information about positioning, speed of deflection, failures… to the ACE.

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2. OTHER PROCEDURES:
Other procedures can complement automatically the normal mode and are operating without human intervention in order to maintain the aircraft in a
safe configuration.

Other procedures
This is usually the case for the flap/slat control system which is automatically operated starting form the PFC via the ACE to control the surfaces
depending upon the altitude, for landing and take-off.

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IV. HIGH LIFT DEVICES

High speed devices location

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1. DEFINITIONS (RECALL):

2. LIFT AUGMENTATION - GENERAL:


Under the cover all term of lift augmentation, also referred to as high lift devices, are a range of airflow modifying attachments that are fitted to either
the leading or trailing edges of the aircraft’s wings. The spoilers/ lift dumpers covered earlier fall within this group.

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2.1. Trailing edge devices:


To improve the lifting capability of an aircraft’s wing at slow speed, trailing edge flaps that alter camber and or increase the surface area were devised.
While these create lift they also create drag, both of which can be a help or a hindrance depending on the situation.

In take off the extra drag they create is a hindrance thus flap extension is limited to gain an increase in lift with a lower drag penalty, whereas in the
approach and landing the drag created assists in slowing the aircraft down and the increased lift allows the aircraft to be flown at a lower speed.

2.2 Leading edge devices:


The original leading edge devices were slots let into the aircraft’s wing aft of the leading edge and in line with the ailerons.

These ensured that when the wings were at high angles of attack there was a laminar airflow across the ailerons, which maintained the ailerons’
effectiveness.

Transport aircraft are nowadays equipped with leading edge slats that are
moveable control surfaces, forcing airflow to run over the wing profile in order to
prevent stall when flaps are deployed. In such aircrafts, flaps and slats are
operated together according to sequenced rules.

2. ANGLE OF ATTACK AND LIFT:


2.1. Principle of lift:

Recall - Bernoulli theorem:

The pressure is lower where the speed is higher.

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Principle of lift

.
2.2. AOA, lift and stall:
The angle of attack is the angle between the airfoil's chord line and the direction of relative airflow wind.
At a given speed, the greater the angle of attack, the more airflow is diverted downwards by the wing and the more lift is generated

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However, at a given speed, the angle of attack must be small enough to allow attached airflow over and under the airfoil to produce lift. An excessive
angle of attack will eventually disrupt the flow of air over the airfoil.

If the angle of attack is not reduced, a section of the airfoil will reach its critical angle of attack, lose lift, and stall.

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3. LEADING EDGE DEVICES:

High-lift devices also can be applied to the leading edge of the airfoil. The most common types are fixed slots, movable slats, leading edge flaps, and
cuffs.

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3.1. Leading edge fixed slots:


A leading edge slot is an aerodynamic feature of the wing of some aircraft to reduce the stall speed and promote good low-speed handling qualities.
A leading edge slot is a span-wise gap in each wing, allowing air to flow from below the wing to its upper surface. In this manner they allow flight at
higher angles of attack and thus reduce the stall speed.
Slots are passageways built into the wing a short distance from the leading edge in such a way that, at high angles of attack, the air flows through the
slot and over the wing, tending to smooth out the turbulence due to eddies.

Fixed slot
Fixed slots direct airflow to the upper wing surface and delay airflow separation at higher angles of attack. The slot does not increase the wing camber,
but allows a higher maximum CL because the stall is delayed until the wing reaches a greater AOA.

3.2. Leading edge movable slats:


Movable slats consist of leading edge segments, which move on tracks. At low angles of attack, each slat is held flush against the wing’s leading edge
by the high pressure that forms at the wing’s leading edge. As the AOA increases, the high-pressure area moves aft below the lower surface of the
wing, allowing the slats to move forward.

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Movable slat
Some slats, however, are pilot operated and can be deployed at any AOA. Opening a slat allows the air below the wing to flow over the wing’s upper
surface, delaying airflow separation.

Leading edge slats prevent the stall up to approximately 30 degrees incidence (angle of attack) by picking up a lot of air from below, where the slot is
large, accelerating the air in the funnel shaped slot (venturi effect) and blowing this fast air tangentially on the upper wing surface through the much
smaller slot.
This “pulls” the air around the leading edge, thus preventing the stall up to a much higher angle of incidence and lift coefficient. The disadvantage of
the leading edge slat is that the air accelerated in the slot requires energy which means higher drag.
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As the high lift is needed only when flying slowly (take-off, initial climb, and final approach and landing) the temptation for the designer is to use a
retractable device which closes at higher speeds to reduce drag.
The slats can be mounted on roller rails so that at high angles of attack they are automatically pulled out by the airstream around the leading edge,
and in cruise (at lower angle of attack) they are pushed in. T
his is a relatively simple system and not too heavy to design, but it has one big disadvantage: in gusty weather only one wing slat may be drawn out
while the other stays in, creating a potentially major problem for the pilot who now needs full aileron just to keep the airplane level.
So the safe way is to connect the right and left wing slats mechanically to prevent asymmetric extension. However, creating such an installation is
heavy and more complex.
The efficiency gained by the system must be very significant to compensate for the extra weight of the device (not to mention cost and complexity). A
pilot controlled slat extension system is another approach, but has the same drawbacks: weight and complexity.

3.3. Leading edge flap:


Leading edge flaps are used to increase both CL-MAX and the camber of the wings. This type of leading edge device is frequently used in conjunction
with trailing edge flaps and can reduce the nose-down pitching movement produced by the latter.

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Leading edge flap


As is true with trailing edge flaps, a small increment of leading edge flaps increases lift to a much greater extent than drag. As greater amounts of flaps
are extended, drag increases at a greater rate than lift.

3.3. Leading edge function:


Leading edge slats wash down the airflow over the wing. Combined with trailing edge flaps, they allow higher angle of attack before stalling.
Hence, slats increase the critical angle of attack of the wing.

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Moreover, the stalling speed is lower when slats are deployed. Slats make low flying more comfortable and sure.

4. TRAILING EDGE DEVICES:


4.1. Trailing edge flaps:
Flaps are the most common high-lift devices used on aircraft.
These surfaces, which are attached to the trailing edge of the wing, increase both lift and induced drag for any given AOA.
Flaps allow a compromise between high cruising speed and low landing speed, because they may be extended when needed, and retracted into the
wing’s structure when not needed.
There are four common types of flaps: plain, split, slotted, and Fowler flaps.
 Plain flap:
The plain flap is the simplest of the four types. It increases the airfoil camber, resulting in a significant increase in the coefficient of lift (CL) at
a given AOA. At the same time, it greatly increases drag and moves the centre of pressure (CP) aft on the airfoil, resulting in a nose-down
pitching moment.

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 Slip flap:
The split flap is deflected from the lower surface of the airfoil and produces a slightly greater increase in lift than the plain flap. More drag is
created because of the turbulent air pattern produced behind the airfoil. When fully extended, both plain and split flaps produce high drag
with little additional lift.

 Slotted flap:
The most popular flap on aircraft today is the slotted flap. Variations of this design are used for small aircraft, as well as for large ones.
Slotted flaps increase the lift coefficient significantly more than plain or split flaps.
On small aircraft, the hinge is located below the lower surface of the flap, and when the flap is lowered, a duct forms between the flap well in
the wing and the leading edge of the flap.
When the slotted flap is lowered, high energy air from the lower surface is ducted to the flap’s upper surface. The high energy air from the
slot accelerates the upper surface boundary layer and delays airflow separation, providing a higher CL.

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Thus, the slotted flap produces much greater increases in maximum coefficient of lift (CL-MAX) than the plain or split flap. While there are
many types of slotted flaps, large aircraft often have double- and even triple-slotted flaps.
These allow the maximum increase in drag without the airflow over the flaps separating and destroying the lift they produce.
 Fowler flap:
Fowler flaps are a type of slotted flap. This flap design not only changes the camber of the wing, it also increases the wing area. Instead of
rotating down on a hinge, it slides backwards on tracks. In the first portion of its extension, it increases the drag very little, but increases the
lift a great deal as it increases both the area and camber.

As the extension continues, the flap deflects downward. During the last portion of its travel, the flap increases the drag with little additional
increase in lift.

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4.2. Flaperons:
A flaperon is a type of control surface that combines aspects of both flaps and ailerons. In addition to controlling the roll or bank of an aircraft like
conventional ailerons, both flaperons can be lowered together to function much the same as a dedicated set of flaps would. Both ailerons could also
be raised, which would give spoilerons.
The pilot has separate controls for ailerons and flaps. A mixer is used to combine the separate pilot input into this single set of control surfaces called
flaperons. The use of flaperons instead of separate ailerons and flaps can reduce the weight of an aircraft. The complexity is transferred from having a
double set of control surfaces (flaps and ailerons) to the mixer.
Many designs that incorporate flaperons mount the control surfaces away from the wing so as to provide undisturbed airflow at high angles of attack or
low airspeeds

4.3. Trailing edge function:


When extended, flaps increase the camber, that is, the asymmetry between the top and the bottom curves of the airfoil. The wings globally form a
larger angle of attack with the airflow and wash more airflow down. At a given speed, the lift increases.

This is shown with the lift coefficient which is a number associated with a particular shape of an airfoil to predict the lift force generated by a wing using
this particular cross section.

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The lift coefficient graph shows that the greatest amount of lift is produced as the critical angle of attack is reached. If the angle of attack is exceeded
beyond the critical angle, the lift produced by the wing decreases significantly. The airfoil is now stalled.

One can relate the angle of attack to relative airspeed or to relative aircraft speed: A lower speed requires a greater angle of attack to produce the
necessary lift and vice versa. At a given speed, flaps when extended produce additional lift.
Alternatively, for the same lift, the aircraft speed is reduced when flaps are extended.

Moreover, the stalling speed which is the minimum steady flight speed at which the airplane is controllable is lower when flaps are deployed.

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V. LIFT DUMP, SPEED BRAKES

1. GENERAL:
1.1. Lift dump:
When the pilot activates the spoilers to deploy them on both wings, the plates flip up into the air stream.

The flow over the wing is disturbed by the spoiler, the drag of the wing is increased, and the lift is decreased.

Spoilers can be used to "dump" lift and make the airplane descend; or they can be used to slow the airplane down as it prepares to land. When the
airplane lands on the runway, the pilot usually brings up the spoilers to kill the lift, keep the plane on the ground, and make the brakes work more
efficiently.

The friction force between the tires and the runway depends on the "normal" force, which is the weight minus the lift. The lower the lift, the better the
brakes work.

The additional drag of the spoilers also slows the plane down.

1.2. Speed brakes:

Speed brakes are a feature on some high performance airplanes. They are a device designed to facilitate optimum descent without decreasing power
enough to shock cool the engine and are especially advantageous in airplanes with high service ceilings.

They are also of use in setting up the right approach speed and descent pattern in the landing configuration. The brakes, when extended, create drag
without altering the curvature of the wing and are usually fitted far enough back along the chord so as not to disrupt too much lift and in a position
laterally where they will not disturb the airflow over the tail plane.

They are usually small metal blades housed in a fitting concealed in the wing that, when activated from the cockpit, pivot up to form a plate. On some
types of aircraft, speed brakes are incorporated into the rear fuselage and consist of two hinged doors that open into the slipstream.

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2. SPOILERS:
2.1. Flight spoilers:
The deflection angle of flight spoilers is determined from the flight deck in response to movements of a speed brake lever, which is typically located on
the centre pedestal on transport category aircraft.
With all spoilers fully retracted the lever is held in its down position to prevent inadvertent operation.

Movement of the lever from this position signals the flight spoilers to rise and they reach their maximum attainable in flight deflection angles with
the lever in its flight detent position.

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Movement of the speed brake lever for in-flight use is normally limited by a solenoid actuated stop. In this mode the outboard spoilers usually remain
retracted to prevent the aircraft pitching nose-up whilst the innermost spoilers are deflected by a lesser amount to prevent tail buffet.

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There are sometimes occasions in flight when both airbrake and roll commands occur together. On these occasions both inputs are fed into a complex
box, containing a mixture of levers, bell cranks and quadrants, called a spoiler mixer unit.
This unit sums both inputs and gives a revised output, which in turn varies the movement of the spoilers during an aileron input depending upon the
amount of speed brake selected.

Spoilers in this role can normally be used at any airspeed but at increasingly higher airspeeds they are forced down (blowback) progressively.

2.2. Ground spoilers:


The conditions that must be fulfilled to operate ground spoilers are typically:
 Speed brake lever in the armed position.
 Aircraft weight on the undercarriage (through the air/gound sensing system).
 All thrust levers in their idle positions.
 Aircraft wheels rotating (provides a time delay and ensures the aircraft is on the ground).

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As the spoilers deploy the speed brake lever automatically moves to the up position in line with their movement.

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The maximum deflection angles are greater in the ground mode than the flight mode.
With the spoilers in their fully extended position approximately 80% of the wing/flap lift is destroyed and the aerodynamic drag of the aircraft more than
doubles.
The subsequent loss of lift causes the aircraft to fully settle on the main undercarriage and increases its potential braking force. The flaps are also left
in their landing configuration because of the drag benefits on deceleration.
Should any of the thrust levers be advanced the speed brake lever automatically moves to the down position, and the spoilers retract.

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3. SPEED BRAKES:
Speed brakes are a feature on some high performance airplanes. They are a device designed to facilitate optimum descent without decreasing power
enough to shock cool the engine and are especially advantageous in airplanes with high service ceilings.

Speed brake on a Blackburn Buccaneer naval strike aircraft


They are also of use in setting up the right approach speed and descent pattern in the landing configuration. The brakes, when extended, create drag
without altering the curvature of the wing and are usually fitted far enough back along the chord so as not to disrupt too much lift and in a position
laterally where they will not disturb the airflow over the tail plane.
They are usually small metal blades housed in a fitting concealed in the wing that, when activated from the cockpit, pivot up to form a plate. On some
types of aircraft, speed brakes are incorporated into the rear fuselage and consist of two hinged doors that open into the slipstream.
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4. LIFT DUMPERS:
When the pilot activates the spoilers to deploy them on both wings, the plates flip up into the air stream.
The flow over the wing is disturbed by the spoiler, the drag of the wing is increased, and the lift is decreased.
Spoilers can be used to “dump” lift and make the airplane descend; or they can be used to slow the airplane down as it prepares to land. When the
airplane lands on the runway, the pilot usually brings up the spoilers to kill the lift, keep the plane on the ground, and make the brakes work more
efficiently.
The friction force between the tires and the runway depends on the “normal” force, which is the weight minus the lift. The lower the lift, the better the
brakes work.
The additional drag of the spoilers also slows the plane down.

Recall:
In the phases of takeoff and landing, it is essential not to reduce under the speed required to fly.
The mechanics of flight state that this minimum speed or stalling speed is given by the following formula and depends on several
parameters:

P
Vmini =
1/2 . ρ . S . Cz max

Consequently, it is obvious that if we want the speed V to decrease until a certain limit without reaching stalling, it is necessary either to increase S or
to increase CZ maximum. It is precisely the role of the high-lift devices.

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Tail section of a military aircraft with speed brakes deployed

VI. SYSTEM OPERATIONS: MANUAL, HYDRAULIC, ELECTRICAL, FLY-BY-WIRE

1. CONTROL SYSTEMS:
This is the method by which input signals from the flight deck controls are relayed through an aircraft to position an actuator, which in turn determines
the position of a flying control surface via one or several actuators.
On early airplanes, the input signals that were sent from the cockpit were directly linked to the control surfaces.
These signals were mechanical: Control surfaces were moved via rods and pulleys.
Nowadays, on light airplanes, the input signals can be of the same nature as the output signals that move the control surface, that is, from cockpit to
control surface:
 Mechanical only,
 Electrical only.

However, large airplanes are subjected to high loads. The input signals cannot be directly linked to the control surface, as the pilot cannot handle such
efforts. Input signals must be transformed into output signals via a device called Power Control Unit (PCU). Such input/output signals are called:
 Hydro-Mechanical signals.
 Electro-Mechanical signals,
 Electro-pneumatic signals,

In fact, nowadays, a basic powered flying control system must comprise the following components:
 A control system (Input and output signals),
 A power control unit (the interface between input and output signals),

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 An artificial feel system.

Irrespective of their design all powered flying control systems are regulated by the FARs, PARTs, and must comply with the following standards:
 Sense
The aircraft must move in the direction signified by the control input, e.g. control column back, pitch nose-up.
 Rigidity
The control system must be strong enough to withstand any operating loads without excessive distortion, e.g. airloads on the control
surfaces (irreversibility).
 Stability
The control surfaces must remain where selected by the pilot and must not be affected by signals which are not self initiated, e.g.
vibration and aerodynamic loads.
 Sensitivity
There must be immediate response at the control surfaces to the pilots input signals.
 Safety
Passengers, cargo and loose articles must safeguard the control system against jamming, chafing, and interference. Guards must
therefore be fitted where appropriate to provide the necessary protection.
 Fail-Safe
The control system must be duplicated or be capable of manual
operation in the event of hydraulic power failure.

2. OPERATION SYSTEMS:
2.1. Manual:
The control system from the cockpit is connected by a rod across the power
transmission quadrant to the control actuating system.
During manual operation, the pilot’s effort is transmitted from the control wheel
through this direct linkage to the control surface.
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Those aircraft which do not have the manual reversion system may have as many as three sources of hydraulic power: primary, back-up and auxiliary.
Any or all of the primary controls may be operated by these systems.

2.2. Mechanical:
Mechanical flight control systems are the most basic designs. They were used in early aircraft and currently in small aeroplanes where the
aerodynamic forces are not excessive.
The flight control systems use a collection of mechanical parts such as rods, cables, pulleys and sometimes chains to transmit the forces of the cockpit
controls to the control surfaces.

Typical mechanical flight control system

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2.3. Hydro-mechanical:
In this system the control signals are relayed through a series of cables and linkages to mechanically position the servo valve.

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Typical hydro-mechanical actuator

The complexity and weight of a mechanical flight control systems increases considerably with size and performance of the airplane. Hydraulic power
overcomes these limitations. With hydraulic flight control systems aircraft size and performance are limited by economics rather than a pilot's strength.
A hydro-mechanical flight control systems has 2 parts:
 The mechanical circuit
 The hydraulic circuit
The mechanical circuit links the cockpit controls with the hydraulic circuits. Like the mechanical flight control systems, it is made of rods, cables,
pulleys, and sometimes chains.

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Hydro-mechanical detailed system


The hydraulic circuit has hydraulic pumps, pipes, valves and actuators. The actuators are powered by the hydraulic pressure generated by the pumps
in the hydraulic circuit. The actuators convert hydraulic pressure into control surface movements. The servo valves control the movement of the
actuators.
 Hydro-mechanical operation systems:
The power control unit is the main component in a power operated control system and provides all of the force necessary to move a
control surface, with the pilot only having to supply a small force to operate a servo valve.

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It consists of a jack ram/piston arrangement, which is fixed to the aircraft structure, hydraulic fluid, inlet/outlet ports, and a jack
body.
These parts form a hydraulic actuator, which is controlled by a servo (control) valve and is connected via a control run to the flight
deck controls.
When the valve is displaced in either direction from its neutral position it allows hydraulic fluid under pressure to pass to one side of
the piston, and opens a return path from the other side.
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For example a rearward movement of the control column will cause the servo valve to move to the left.

Since the jack is fixed in position the resulting pressure differential across the piston will cause the jack body to move to the left, which
in turn will deflect the control surface upwards via a mechanical linkage.
The body continues to move until it centralises itself on the servo valve, i.e. returning it to its neutral position.

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At this point the hydraulic fluid will be trapped either side of the jack and will form a hydraulic lock.
This in turn will maintain the control surface rigidly in its selected position, and it will continue to remain so, irrespective of the
aerodynamic loads acting on it, until the servo valve is repositioned by further flight deck control inputs.
This is alternatively known as an irreversible control system.
Conversely if the control column is moved forward the sequence of operations will be reversed, i.e. if the servo valve moves to the
right, the jack body will move to the right, and the control surface will deflect downwards.

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Some power control units also operate in response to electrical inputs from the Autopilot and Auto-stabilisation systems when they are
engaged.
On transport aircrafts, the control surfaces are usually hydraulically activated (although some control surfaces may be electrically
actuated) and are powered from the aircraft’s main hydraulic systems.
Due to the importance of the flying control systems the surfaces are also normally powered by at least two independent hydraulic
systems.

2.4. Electro-mechanical design (Fly-by-wire):


In this system the control signals are measured by electrical transducers whose output is amplified and then relayed to electrically position the servo
valve.
This is commonly known as a fly-by-wire (FBW) system. In some aircraft the application of this system is limited to the control of only certain flying
control surfaces, e.g. spoiler control panels in the case of Airbus 320.
Classic flight control systems are heavy and require careful routing of flight control cables through the airplane using systems of pulley and cranks.
Both systems often require redundant backup, which further increases weight. Furthermore, both have limited ability to compensate for changing
aerodynamic conditions.
By using computers and electrical linkages, designers can save weight and improve reliability.
Electronic fly-by-wire systems can respond more flexibly to changing aerodynamic conditions, by tailoring flight control surface movements so that
airplane response to control inputs is consistent for all flight conditions.
Electronic systems require less maintenance, whereas mechanical and hydraulic systems require lubrication, tension adjustments, leak checks, fluid
changes, etc. Furthermore putting circuitry between pilot and aircraft can enhance safety.
For example the control system can prevent a stall, or can stop the pilot from overstressing the airframe.

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Fly-by-wire system

 Example of A320 fly-by-wire system:


Control on Airbus A320 is accomplished by use of sidestick movements or autopilot commands.
When the ailerons are moved by operating the sidestick, electrical signals are being sent to the active ELAC computer.
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The Airbus A320 has two operational ELAC computers available, one operating in active mode while the other operates in damping mode
and serves as back-up in case of failure.
The ELAC then sends a signal to both the SEC computer, which controls the flight spoilers, and the FAC computer which sends turn
coordination orders for the rudder.

Unlike the SEC, which consists of three independent computers, the FAC has two working computers in the same order as both ELAC’s.
The computers then process these signals into an output which activates the hydraulic system actuators connected to the control surfaces.
The control surfaces will then deflect according to sidestick input. For safety matters, the processing of signals by the flight control
computers use pre-set limitations and instructions called laws. This means that pre-scribed limitations can not be exceeded.
When the aircraft is controlled by the autopilot, the ELAC’s and FAC’s receive electric signals generated by the FMGS. Normally ELAC one
(green) is in control. In case ELAC one fails, ELAC two automatically takes over control. Similarly the FAC and SEC computers are being
backed-up.

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Note - redundancy:
Normally ELAC 1 (green) is in control. In case ELAC one fails, ELAC 2 (white) automatically takes over control. Similarly the FAC and
SEC computers are being backed-up.

 Detailed fly-by-wire system and operation:


Electronic fly-by-wire systems can respond more flexibly to changing aerodynamic conditions, by tailoring flight control surface
movements so that airplane response to control inputs is consistent for all flight conditions.
Electronic systems require less maintenance, whereas mechanical and hydraulic systems require lubrication, tension adjustments,
leak checks, fluid changes, etc. Furthermore putting circuitry between pilot and aircraft can enhance safety; for example the control
system can prevent a stall, or can stop the pilot from overstressing the airframe.
A fly-by-wire system literally replaces physical control of the aircraft with an electrical interface. The pilot's commands are converted to
electronic signals, and flight control computers determine how best to move the actuators at each control surface to provide the
desired response. Those actuators initially are usually hydraulic, but electric actuators have been investigated.
The main concern with fly-by-wire systems is reliability. While traditional mechanical or hydraulic control systems usually fail gradually,
the loss of all flight control computers will immediately render the airplane uncontrollable. For this reason, most fly-by-wire systems
incorporated redundant computers and some kind of mechanical or hydraulic backup.
This may seem to negate some advantages of fly-by-wire, but the redundant systems can be simpler, lighter, and offer only limited
capability since they are for emergency use only.
a) Actuator Control Electronic (ACE):
Each electrical control system is equipped with one Actuator Control Electronic (ACE) which is composed of several analog computers
of different types. Each computer is a fail safe unit with similar hardware and software design.

Each computer has:


 a control processing channel. The control processing channel operates the control surface.
 a monitor processing channel. The monitor channel receives feedback information from the sensors attached to the control
surface.
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Each channel has separated power supply units.


b) Example of horizontal stabilizer system – Regional transport aircraft:

The horizontal stabilizer is the fixed horizontal wing section at the rear of an aircraft. Pitch trim (the nose up/down tendency of the
airplane) is achieved by rotating the entire horizontal stabilizer. The pitch tendency of the plane is “in trim” when the pilot can take his
hands off the shifter, without any noticeable change in up or down movement.
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The horizontal stabilizer provides stability for the aircraft.


The horizontal stabilizer subsystem consists of:
 1 trim control panel,
 2 motor actuator control electronic units (MACE),
 1 MACE I,
 1 MACE II,
 1 horizontal stabilizer actuator / stabilizer setting mechanism (SSM),
 2 stabilizer angular position sensor units (SAPS).

The horizontal stabilizer subsystem is equipped with two MACEs of two different types
 1 MACE I
 1 MACE II
Both types of MACE are fail-safe units with dissimilar hardware and software design.
Each MACE is a digital computer with a control and monitor processing channel. All functions of the system application are software
controlled and fully automatic after power-up.
The MACEs have separated power supply units for control and for monitor channel.
The MACEs control the horizontal stabilizer actuator (SSM).

1. MACE function:
The MACE receives signals from the trim control panel or the autopilot. The signal is demodulated within the MACE and
 in normal mode transferred to the PFCU. In the PFCU the initial signal is adapted to the current situation. The adapted signal
is transferred back to the MACE. The MACE transmits the signal to the horizontal stabilizer actuator (SSM).
 in direct mode the MACE transmits the signal to the horizontal stabilizer actuator (SSM) directly.
The signal operates the horizontal stabilizer configuration.

2. Control channel:
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The control channel in a MACE controls the configuration of the horizontal stabilizer.

3. Monitor Channel:
The monitor channel in a MACE monitors the control channel. The monitor channel reacts in case of malfunction to a fail-safe mode
function. The fail-safe mode prevents critical behavior of the system

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c) Example of flap system – Regional transport aircraft:

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Two flaps are attached to the trailing edge of each wing of the aircraft. Flaps increase the lift of an aircraft when extended. When the
flaps are extended it allows the aircraft to fly more slowly and to steepen the approach to a landing site. Four extended positions are
provided.
The flap subsystem consists of:
 1 flap / slat selector lever,
 2 motor actuator control electronic units (MACE):
 1 MACE I,
 1 MACE II,
 1 power drive unit (PDU),
 22 transmission shafts:
 2 shafts, F01
 2 shafts, F02
 2 shafts, F03
 2 shafts, F04
 2 shafts, F05
 2 shafts, F06
 2 shafts, F07
 2 shafts, F08
 2 shafts, F09
 2 shafts, F10
 2 shafts, F11
 4 articulating spline joints,
 12 universal joints.

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The flap system of the aircraft operates two flap panels on each wing with two actuators on each panel.

a) Normal mode:
The standard mode of the flap control system is the normal mode. This mode is entered after power up and failure free initialization
and operates until power down.
The pilot / co-pilot moves the flap / slat lever. The signal is transferred to the MACE. The signal is demodulated within the MACE and
transferred to the PFCU. In the PFCU the signal is compared to given data from all aircraft systems. The initial signal is adapted to the
current situation. The adapted signal is transferred back to the MACE. The MACE transmits the signal to the PDU. The PDU moves
the actuators via various transmission shafts and gearboxes. The actuators move the flap surface.

Normal Function
 normal PDU sequencing in extend / retract direction,
 PDU / transmission speed within operating band,
 system loaded with maximum airloads,
 system all intact, all power supply systems available.

b) Direct mode:
The direct mode is a backup mode and the pilot can not enter this mode active.
During direct mode, the MACE processes the commands from the slat / flap lever directly.
The flap system will enter the direct mode after:
 Failure of the PFCU,
 Command of PFCU.

Abnormal function:
The wording „abnormal function comprises generally the type of failures:
• Drive Channel Failures:
Loss of control of one or two drive channels due to mechanical or electrical failure(s) or any combination of these.
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VII. ARTIFICIAL FEEL, YAW DAMPER, MACH TRIM, RUDDER LIMITER, GUST LOCK SYSTEMS

1. ARTIFICIAL FEEL SYSTEMS:


In a manually operated flying control system the aerodynamic loads acting on a control surface are fed directly back through the control runs to provide
stick force or feel on the flight deck controls.
The loads thus vary depending on control surface deflection and airspeed. In the case of a power operated flying control system there is however no
direct linkage between the control surface and the flight deck controls.
In fact the only force felt is that associated with the movement of a servo valve, and the effort provided by the pilot therefore bears no direct
relationship to the actual loads acting on the control surface.
These loads are alternatively dissipated through the aircraft structure via the body of a dedicated power control unit, thereby relieving the pilot of all
control loads. Consequently, to prevent over-controlling and overstressing of an aircraft, some form of artificial feel is incorporated in the control
system, so that the forces experienced are representative of a manually controlled aircraft. A suitable feel unit must therefore be capable of producing
an opposing force that varies with aired and control surface deflection.
On transport category aircraft the requisite feel forces are provided by; spring or Pitot-static Q feel units, or in some cases a combination of both.
Artificial feel systems normally also incorporate a self centring mechanism, so that if the flight deck controls are released they will automatically return
to their neutral position, and will also centralise the control surface.

1.1. A simple spring feel units:


This is the simplest form of artificial feel unit and is normally fitted in the operating linkage between the flight deck controls and the power
control unit.
It is designed so that any flight deck control movement is firstly made against string tension, so the larger the movement, the greater the opposite
spring force.
For example if the control column is moved rearward the left-hand side of the spring in the feel unit will be compressed in proportion to the control
column movement and subsequent deflection of the control surface.

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When the control column is centralised the spring unit off-loads itself, thereby centralising the linkage and returning the flying control surface to its
neutral position.
This type of feel unit by itself may be adequate at low airspeeds, but at higher airspeeds greater resistance to flight deck control movement is needed
to prevent over-stressing the aircraft.

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This is because the amount of feel only varies in proportion to control surface deflection, and takes no account of airspeed. On transport category
aircraft this type of feel unit is only normally used by itself in aileron control systems.

1.2. Q feel units:


These units like spring feel units are fitted in the operating linkage between the flight deck controls and the power control unit.

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A basic Q feel unit consists of a diaphragm with static pressure acting on one side and Pitot pressure on the other, with the difference between
the two being dynamic pressure. The unit is also arranged so that movement of the flight deck controls in either direction deflects the diaphragm
against pitot pressure.

For example if the dynamic pressure increases due to an increase in forward airspeed (IAS), the forces required to move the right deck
controls would similarly increase.

Conversely, a reduction in forward airspeed will cause the load in the flight deck controls to decrease. This system therefore ensures
that the stick forces vary during flight in proportion to varying loads acting on the control surfaces. These units however tend to be very large,
so the sensing pressures are alternatively used to operate a piston subjected to hydraulic pressure, thereby providing hydraulic Q
feel

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In this system artificial feel is supplied hydraulically, enabling the unit itself to be much smaller. Like the spring feel unit the Q feel unit also
incorporates a self-centring mechanism that operates when the flight deck controls are released.
In practice this type of unit is typically used on most transport category aircraft in the rudder and elevator control systems, but is usually operated
in conjunction with a spring feel unit.
Two feel unit’s normally act together to resist movement of the flight deck controls from their neutral position.

2. YAW DAMPER:
A yaw damper is a device used on many aircraft (usually jets and turboprops) to damp (reduce) the rolling and yawing oscillations that can sometimes
occur.
A yaw damper control involves yaw rate sensors and a processor that provides a signal to an actuator connected to the rudder.
The yaw damper is a servo that moves the rudder in response to inputs from a gyroscope or accelerometer that detects yaw rate.
The yaw damper minimizes motion about the vertical axis caused by turbulence. (Yaw dampers on swept wing airplanes provide another, more vital
function of damping dutch roll characteristics.)
The yaw damper minimizes the plane’s tendency to oscillate by automatically commanding the rudder to move proportionally in opposite direction. It is
designed to make adjustments of some degrees in either direction.
Occupants will feel a smoother ride, particularly if seated in the rear of the airplane, when the yaw damper is engaged. The yaw damper should be off
for takeoff and landing.
There may be additional restrictions against its use during single-engine operation. Most yaw dampers can be engaged independently of the autopilot.

2.1. Dutch roll:


In aircraft design, Dutch roll results from relatively weaker positive directional stability as opposed to positive lateral stability.
Dutch roll is a type of aircraft motion, consisting of an out-of-phase combination of yaw and roll. The aircraft wages tail and rocks from side to side.
Dutch roll modes can degrade in damping as airspeed decreases and altitude increases.
Dutch roll stability can be artificially increased by the installation of a yaw damper. Wings placed well above the center of mass, sweepback (swept
wings) and dihedral wings tend to increase the roll restoring force, and therefore increase the Dutch roll tendencies; this is why high-winged aircraft
often are slightly anhedral, and transport category swept wing aircraft are equipped with yaw dampers.

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When an aircraft rolls around the longitudinal axis, a sideslip is introduced into the relative wind in the direction of the rolling motion. Strong lateral
stability begins to restore the aircraft to level flight. At the same time, somewhat weaker directional stability attempts to correct the sideslip by aligning
the aircraft with the perceived relative wind.
Since directional stability is weaker than lateral stability for the particular aircraft, the restoring yaw motion lags significantly behind the restoring roll
motion. As such, the aircraft passes through level flight as the yawing motion is continuing in the direction of the original roll. At that point, the sideslip
is introduced in the opposite direction and the process is reversed.

Duch roll phenomenon

2.2. Yaw damper operation:


Yaw Damping is provided by two completely independent dampers which can be operated singly or simultaneously. They provide automatic rudder
displacement proportional to and opposing the amount of yaw experienced.

One yaw damper controls the upper rudder the other the lower. Each yaw damper has an associated coupler which operates as a rate gyro and
senses yaw. The damper system then provides the necessary rudder movement to oppose and damp out the yaw.

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Rudder displacement resulting from yaw damper input is limited to 5 deg to prevent full rudder being applied in the event of a yaw damper malfunction.
The lower yaw damper is powered electrically from the Essential Radio Bus, upper yaw damper is powered from the No 2 Radio Bus.

Two yaw damper warning flags on the rudder and elevator position indicator are biased out of view when the respective yaw damper is engaged.
Some aircraft have green lights instead of the warning flags, lights are green when the damper is engaged.

Each yaw damper controls it's associated rudder through a transfer valve on the rudder power unit. The upper damper uses system B, the lower
damper system A. The loss of either hydraulic system pressure will result in the loss of the associated yaw damper. If this occurs a loss damper
disengaged warning will NOT occur.
The only common circuitry between the yaw dampers and the autopilot is an interlock that requires at least one yaw damper to be on in flight before
autopilot can be engage.

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Yaw damper operation

3. MACH TRIM:
The reason why an aircraft would need a mach speed trim control first of all relates to the behavior of its wing center of pressure as speed changes.
This has some effects on the efficiency of the elevator.

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Mach trim controls are computer assisted controls that operate the horizontal stabilizer when the aircraft reaches a speed susceptible to change the
wing centers of gravity.
During high speed flight, an aircraft is subject to changes in control and stability. One such change is the rearward movement of the wings centre of
pressure causing a nose down pitching moment.
The center of pressure is the point on a wing where the lift force acts. In low subsonic flight, the center of pressure is usually stable for a conventional
airfoil shape and is located about one-quarter of the way back from the wing leading edge.
But as speed increases, the center of pressure begins moving aft, particularly at transonic speeds starting at about Mach 0.7. As the Center of
pressure moves aft, the moment arm between it and the elevator decreases.
This movement makes the elevator less effective in providing pitch control. The difference in location between the Cp and the center of gravity (located
in front of the Cp) causes the aircraft nose to pitch down, so more elevator trim is required to keep the aircraft level.
This is commonly known as TUCK UNDER. At supersonic speed the use of trim tabs has little effect on the pitching movement of the aircraft.
From design studies, the point at which the pitch down conditions occurs is known to the aircraft designers.
For instance, let suppose it occurs in a certain aircraft at mach 0.80. By having sensors and drive motors coupled to the pilot static system a signal will
be generated to the mach trim system at mach 0.80.
This then sends on signals to the automatic flight control system, which in turn will carry out small trim changes to the horizontal stabilizers or the all
moving tail-plane to counteract the tendency to tuck under.

4. RUDDER LIMITER:
The rudder limiter on the A-300 and many similar planes blocks the rudder from moving too far and creating a dangerous yaw.
The faster the plane flies, the closer the limiter holds the rudder to the neutral position. Aircraft builders calculate the maximum force that the yaw can
produce and design the plane to survive 50 percent more.
If the rudder is pushed to its limit, the plane will swing hard, and because of its momentum, will reach maximum yaw and then settle back slightly
toward straight, in a new equilibrium.
When the plane reaches maximum yaw, the rudder is held steady or returned to neutral position, and the rudder is not pushed in the opposite direction
until the plane has reached equilibrium. In the case of the Queens crash that killed 265 peoples in 2002, the rudder appears to have moved in the
opposite direction at the moment of maximum yaw, and that may have overstressed the tail.
As some aircrafts have crashed due to the sudden deterioration of rudders, precautions have been taken to limit such risks. The Rudder is not free to
move suddenly from one position to its opposite. Its deployment depends upon aircraft speed: If speed is too high, the rudder angle range is reduced.
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5. GUST LOCK SYSTEMS:


Gust locks are mechanisms that lock control surfaces in place preventing random movement and possible damage of the surfaces from wind while
aircraft is parked. Gust locks may be internal or external.

Typical gust lock system

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VIII. BALANCING AND RIGGING

1. BALANCING:
Balance refers to the location of the center of gravity (CG) of an airplane, and is important to airplane stability and safety in flight. The center of gravity
is a point at which an airplane would balance if it were suspended at that point.
The prime concern of airplane balancing is the fore and aft location of the CG along the longitudinal axis. The center of gravity is not necessarily a
fixed point; its location depends on the distribution of weight in the airplane. As variable load items are shifted or expended, there is a resultant shift in
CG location.
The pilot should realize that if the CG of an airplane is displaced too far forward on the longitudinal axis, a nose-heavy condition will result. Conversely,
if the CG is displaced too far aft on the longitudinal axis, a tail-heavy condition will result.
It is possible that an unfavorable location of the CG could produce such an unstable condition that the pilot could not control the airplane.
Location of the CG with reference to the lateral axis is also important. For each item of weight existing to the left of the fuselage centerline, there is an
equal weight existing at a corresponding location on the right. This may be upset, however, by unbalanced lateral loading.

1.1. Effects of adverse balance:


Adverse balance conditions affect airplane flight characteristics in much the same manner as those mentioned for an excess weight condition. In
addition, there are two essential airplane characteristics that may be seriously affected by improper balance; these are stability and control.
Loading in a nose-heavy condition causes problems in controlling and raising the nose, especially during takeoff and landing.
Loading in a tail-heavy condition has a most serious effect upon longitudinal stability, and can reduce the airplane’s capability to recover from stalls
and spins.
Another undesirable characteristic produced from tail-heavy loading is that it produces very light control forces.
This makes it easy for the pilot to inadvertently overstress the airplane.
Limits for the location of the airplane’s center of gravity are established by the manufacturer.

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These are the fore and aft limits beyond which the CG should not be located for flight. These limits are published for each airplane in the Type
Certificate Data Sheet, or Aircraft Specification and the Airplane Flight Manual or Pilot’s Operating Handbook (AFM/POH). If, after loading, the CG is
not within the allowable limits, it will be necessary to relocate some items within the airplane before flight is attempted.

1.2. Management of weight and balance control:


Before any flight, the pilot should determine the weight and balance condition of the airplane.
Simple and orderly procedures, based on sound principles, have been devised by airplane manufacturers for the determination of loading conditions.
The pilot must use these procedures and exercise good judgment. In many modern airplanes, it is not possible to fill all seats, baggage compartments,
and fuel tanks, and still remain within the approved weight and balance limits. If the maximum passenger load is carried, the pilot must often reduce
the fuel load or reduce the amount of baggage.

1.3. Basic principles of weight and balance computations:


1.3.1 Aircraft balance:
It might be advantageous at this point to review and discuss some of the basic principles of how weight and balance can be determined.
The following method of computation can be applied to any object or vehicle where weight and balance information is essential; but to fulfill the
purpose of this handbook, it is directed primarily toward the airplane.
By determining the weight of the empty airplane and adding the weight of everything loaded on the airplane, a total weight can be determined. This
is quite simple; but to distribute this weight in such a manner that the entire mass of the loaded airplane is balanced around a point (CG), which
must be located within specified limits, presents a greater problem, particularly if the basic principles of weight and balance are not understood.
To provide the necessary balance between longitudinal stability and elevator control, the center of gravity is usually located slightly forward of the
center of lift. This loading condition causes a nose-down tendency in flight, which is desirable during flight at a high angle of attack and slow
speeds.
A safe zone within which the balance point (CG) must fall is called the CG range. The extremities of the range are called the forward CG limits and
aft CG limits. These limits are usually specified in inches, along the longitudinal axis of the airplane, measured from a datum reference. The datum
is an arbitrary point, established by airplane designers, which may vary in location between different airplanes.

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1.3.2 Control surface balance:


A control surface is a small airfoil and has its own center of gravity and center of pressure.
Balancing must therefore apply also to control surfaces.
For example, flutter is a mechanical phenomenon affecting trailing edge surfaces which oscillate both sides of their neutral points. One way to
overcome this bad behavior is to make use of mass balancing.
Mass balancing aims at adding mass on the leading edge of a control surface in order to make its center of gravity coincide with its hinge point
(see figure 17). This way, the control surface is balanced. As a consequence, fluttering is minimized.

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Unbalanced control surface and mass balanced control surface

2. RIGGING:
Control surfaces should move a certain distance in either direction from the neutral position.
These movements must be synchronized with the movement of the cockpit controls. The flight control system must be adjusted (rigged) to obtain
these requirements.
Generally speaking, the rigging consists of the following:
 Positioning the flight control system in neutral and temporarily locking it there with riggings or blocks, and
 adjusting surface travel, system cable tension, linkages, and adjustable stops to the aircraft manufacturer’s specifications.
When rigging flight control systems, certain items of rigging equipment are needed. Primarily, this equipment consists of tensiometers, cable rigging
tension charts, protractors, rigging fixtures, contour templates, and rulers.
In an aircraft operational life, its structural components are periodically checked for correct adjustments and relative alignment according to the
manufacturer's specification.
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The purpose of this reading material is to explain the generic methods of carrying out these checks and adjustments (called rigging). As structural
designs are different for different aircraft types, you should always follow the procedures and methods specified by the aircraft manufacturer when
rigging an aircraft.

2.1. Preparation:
Before checking the position or angle of the main components, the aircraft should be levelled.

Certain precautions must be observed in all instances. Normally, rigging and alignment checks should not be undertaken in the open. If this cannot be
avoided, the aircraft should be positioned with the nose into the wind.

2.2. Structural alignment:


The position or angle of the main structural components is related to a longitudinal datum line parallel to the aircraft center line and a lateral datum line
parallel to a line joining the wing tips. Before checking the position or angle of the main components, the aircraft should be leveled.
Small aircraft usually have fixed pegs or blocks attached to the fuselage parallel to or coincident with the datum lines. A spirit level and a straight edge
are rested across the pegs or blocks to check the level of the aircraft.
This method of checking aircraft level also applies to many of the larger types of aircraft.
However, the grid method is sometimes used on large aircraft. The grid plate, as shown in figure on the right, is a permanent fixture installed on the
aircraft floor or supporting structure.
When the aircraft is to be levelled, a plumb bob is suspended from a predetermined position in the ceiling of the aircraft over the grid plate. The
adjustments to the jacks necessary to level the aircraft are indicated on the grid scale. The aircraft is level when the plumb bob is suspended over the
center point of the grid.
Certain precautions must be observed in all instances. Normally, rigging and alignment checks should not be undertaken in the open. If this cannot be
avoided, the aircraft should be positioned with the nose into the wind.
The weight and loading of the aircraft should be exactly as described in the manufacturer's manual. In all cases, the aircraft should not be jacked until
it is ensured that the maximum jacking weight (if any) specified by the manufacturer is not exceeded.
With a few exceptions, the dihedral and incidence angles of conventional modern aircraft cannot be adjusted. Some manufacturers permit adjusting
the wing angle of incidence to correct for a wing-heavy condition. The dihedral and incidence angles should be checked after hard landings or after
experiencing abnormal flight loads to ensure that the components are not distorted and that the angles are within the specified limits.
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There are several methods for checking structural alignment and rigging angles. Special rigging boards which incorporate, or on which can be
placed, a special instrument (spirit level or clinometer) for determining the angle are used on some aircraft.

A clinometer
On a number of aircraft the alignment is checked using plumb bobs or a theodolite and sighting rods. The particular equipment to use is usually
specified in the manufacturer's manuals.
When checking alignment, a suitable sequence should be developed and followed to be certain that the checks are made at all the positions
specified.
The alignment checks specified usually include:
 Wing dihedral angle.
 Wing incidence angle.
 Engine alignment.
 Horizontal stabilizer incidence.
 Horizontal stabilizer dihedral.
 Verticality of the fin.
 A symmetry check.
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 Checking dihedral:
The dihedral angle should be checked in the specified positions using the special boards provided by the aircraft manufacturer. If no
such boards are available, a straight edge and a clinometer may be used.

The methods for checking dihedral are shown in the figure below. It is important that the dihedral be checked at the positions specified
by the manufacturer.

Checking dihedral

 Checking incidence:
Incidence is usually checked in at least two specified positions on the surface of the wing to ensure that the wing is free from twist. A
variety of incidence boards are used to check the incidence angle. Some have stops at the forward edge which must be placed in
contact with the leading edge of the wing. Others are equipped with location pegs which fit into some specified part of the structure.
The purpose in either case is to ensure that the board is fitted in exactly the position intended. A typical incidence board is shown in
figure below.

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When used, the board is placed at the specified locations on the surface being checked. If the incidence angle is correct, a clinometer
on top of the board will read zero, or within a specified tolerance of zero.

A typical incidence board


 Checking fin verticality:
After the rigging of the horizontal stabilizer has been checked, the verticality of the vertical stabilizer relative to the lateral datum can
be checked. The measurements are taken from a given point on either side of the top of the fin to a given point on the left and right
horizontal stabilizers, as shown in the figure below. The measurements should be similar within prescribed limits. When it is necessary
to check the alignment of the rudder hinges, remove the rudder and pass a plumb bob line through the rudder hinge attachment holes.
The line should pass centrally through all the holes. It should be noted that some aircraft have the leading edge of the vertical fin offset
to the longitudinal center line to counteract engine torque.
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Checking fin verticality

 Checking engine alignment:


Engines are usually mounted with the thrust line parallel to the horizontal longitudinal plane of symmetry. However, this is not always
true when the engines are mounted on the wings.
Checking to ensure that the position of the engines, including any degree of offset, is correct depends largely on the type of mounting.
Generally, the check entails a measurement from the center line of the mounting to the longitudinal center line of the fuselage at the
point specified in the applicable manual (typically as shown in the figure below on aircraft symmetry check).
 Symmetry check:
The principle of a typical symmetry check is illustrated in the figure below. The precise figures, tolerances and checkpoints for a
particular aircraft will be found in the applicable maintenance manual.
On small aircraft the measurements between points are usually taken using a steel tape. When measuring long distances, it is suggested that a
spring scale be used with the tape to obtain equal tension. A 5-lb. pull is usually sufficient.

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A typical symmetry check

Where large aircraft are concerned, the positions where the dimensions are to be taken are usually chalked on the floor. This is done
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by suspending a plumb bob from the checkpoints, and marking the floor immediately under the point of each plumb bob. The
measurements are then taken between the center of each marking

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IX. STALL PROTECTION AND WARNING SYSTEMS

1. STALL PROTECTION:
Although pointing the aircraft upward increases angle of attack and thus increases lift, this cannot be done without limit.
Up to a certain angle of attack, called the critical angle of attack, pointing the wings upward continues to produce more lift.
However, beyond the critical angle of attack, the airflow behind the wing separates from the wing and becomes turbulent, and the aerodynamic effects
that produce the lifting force largely disappear, and the wing stalls (that is, it ceases to provide lift for the aircraft).
Figure below shows an example of stall: If the wing’s angle is over the critical angle of attack, the aircraft “stalls” by suddenly falling down. This
aerodynamic effect can be understood by taking into account the airflow which is deviated by the wing: Under normal flight, the airflow is globally
“washed down” by the wing.

Over the critical angle of attack, the airflow is not enough “washed down” by the wing, causing the weight of the aircraft not to be supported anymore
by the airflow.
At the same time, the turbulence greatly increases drag, which slows the aircraft down as it moves through the air. As a result of these changes, the
aircraft begins to sink rapidly towards the ground.
Recovering from a stall is simple.
Since the stall is caused exclusively by an excessive angle of attack, simply pointing the nose of the aircraft downward will stop the stall, by reducing
the angle between the wings and the flow of air over the aircraft.
As soon as this angle drops below the critical angle, the wings will begin to produce normal lift again, and the stall will cease (and the aircraft will stop
dropping towards the ground).
Some aircraft have a natural tendency to pitch downward (sometimes dramatically) when the wings stall; others must be directed downward by the
pilot.
It is also possible to increase power from the engines to recover from a stall, in most cases (or in combination with pointing the aircraft slightly
downward). Increasing power increases the speed of the aircraft, which has the effect of reducing the angle of attack, and thus eliminating the stall.

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Prestall and stall


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Stalls in aircraft usually do not occur without warning.


Sensors in the aircraft alert the pilot when the aircraft is about to stall, and experienced pilots can often sense an approaching stall in the changing
behavior of the aircraft. Since the conditions that produce stalls are very well understood, pilots can easily avoid stalls, and many pilots never
experience stalls outside of their pilot training. Standard pilot training includes training in the proper ways to avoid, recognize, and recover from stalls.
Stalls can be alarming for non-pilots, because the aircraft may drop very suddenly and pitch forward in a frightening way. However, recovery is simple,
and stalls are not a cause for concern unless they occur in close proximity to the ground. Commercial airliners never experience stalls in normal flight,
and commercial pilots are especially careful to avoid stalls in order to avoid making passengers uncomfortable.
A few types of aircraft with a T-shaped tail or rear-mounted engines can enter a deep stall or superstall. This is a type of stall that produces turbulence
behind the wings that can interfere with the operation of engines or the tail of the aircraft.
There is no recovery from a deep stall (that is, a deep stall always results in a crash), so special control devices on aircraft with these designs prevent
the aircraft from ever approaching a position that can cause a deep stall. An example of such a device is a stick pusher, which forces the nose of the
aircraft down whenever it approaches a stall, regardless of any actions taken by the pilot.

2. STALL WARNING:
2.1. General:
The stall protection system includes wing-mounted angle of attack sensors that are connected to an avionics computer. The computer receives input
from the Angle Of Attack sensors and a variety of other flight systems.
When the data indicates an imminent stall condition, the computer actuates an aural alert.
On most large aircrafts, this auditory alert is coupled with another alert: The stick shaker.
A stick shaker is a mechanical device which rapidly and noisily vibrates the control yoke to warn the pilot of an imminent stall.
The shaker itself is composed of an electric motor connected to a deliberately unbalanced flywheel. When actuated, the shaker induces a forceful,
noisy and entirely unmistakable shaking of the control yoke. This shaking of the control yoke matches the frequency and amplitude of the stick
shaking that occurs due to airflow separation in conventional aircraft as they approach the stall. The stick shaking is intended to act as a backup to the
auditory stall alert, in cases where the flight crew may be distracted.
In larger aircraft (especially in T-tailed jets that might be vulnerable to deep stall), some Stall Protection Systems also include a stick pusher system to
automatically push forward on the elevator control, thus reducing the aircraft's angle of attack and preventing the stall.
Both systems have to be tested and armed before takeoff and remain on during flight.
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2.2. Automatic procedures for stall protection:


Today’s transport aircrafts are protected against stall by computer assisted controls. These controls deploy or retract automatically the leading and
trailing edge devices depending upon the aircraft relative speed.
The automatic mode is a protection mode meant for preventing aircraft stall.
The automatic mode can always operate between normal mode phases or direct mode phases (under the condition that the PCU computers are not
undergoing failures).

 Automatic mode: leading edge and trailing edge retraction:


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The automatic mode plays a role in Leading edge and Trailing Edge retraction.
When the actual aircraft speed exceeds the maximum allowable aircraft speed for the selected flap / slat selector lever detent, flaps
and slats surfaces are retracted to surface positions corresponding to the next smaller flap / slat lever detent
Flaps and slaps surfaces movements are executed according to sequencing rules: Flap retraction occurs before slat retraction.

Flap/Slat must retract because of aircraft speed


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 Automatic mode: leading edge and trailing edge extension:


The automatic mode intervenes in Leading edge and Trailing Edge extension. When the actual aircraft speed falls below the minimum
allowable aircraft speed for the selected flap / slat selector lever detent, Flaps and slats surfaces are extended to surface positions
corresponding to the next larger flap / slat lever detent
Flaps and slaps surfaces movements are executed according to sequencing rules: Flap extension occurs after slat retraction.

Flap/Slat must extend because of aircraft speed

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