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Original Title: Understanding LER-Induced MOSFET VT Variability—Part I-3D Simulation of Large Statistical Samples

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Variability—Part I: Three-Dimensional

Simulation of Large Statistical Samples

Dave Reid, Campbell Millar, Scott Roy, and Asen Asenov, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—In this paper, using computationally intensive 3-D of statistical variability, when gate lengths are scaled to 20 nm

simulations in a grid computing environment, we perform a de- and below [7]. While new device architectures such as silicon-

tailed study of line-edge-roughness (LER)-induced threshold volt- on-insulator (SOI) and FinFETs tolerate low-channel doping

age variability in contemporary MOSFET S. Statistical ensembles

of tens of thousands transistors have been simulated. Our analysis which reduces RDD-induced variability, they remain suscep-

has been predominantly performed on a 35-nm channel-length tible to LER-induced variability [8]–[10].

bulk MOSFET test bed, widely used in previous studies to investi- LER-induced variability has been the subject of numer-

gate the impact of different statistical variability sources. Compre- ous modeling and simulation studies of different degrees of

hensive data mining and statistical analysis provide information complexity and sophistication. The use of 2-D simulations of

about the shape of the distribution of the device threshold voltage,

which is significantly non-Gaussian. Strong nonlinear correlation devices with different channel lengths in combination with

has been observed between the threshold voltage and the average the statistics of different channel length occurrences in the

channel length of the simulated devices. The width dependence of presence of LER has been popular due to the low computational

LER-induced threshold voltage variability has also been simulated burden [11]–[14]. Comprehensive 3-D simulations vary in the

and analyzed. Additional confirmation of the basic conclusions complexity of the LER description from square wave approx-

from the simulation and statistical analysis of the 35-nm test

bed transistor is provided by the simulation of a 42-nm physical imations [15], [16] to realistic statistical descriptions of the

channel-length bulk LP MOSFET, a 32-nm channel-length thin- gate edge based on different autocorrelation functions fitted to

body silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFET, and a 22-nm channel- experimental LER data [17]. More sophisticated 3-D simulation

length double-gate (DG) MOSFET. studies include the confluence of LER and atomic-scale process

Index Terms—line edge roughness, MOSFET, numerical simu- simulation [18] and the impact of LER-induced strain variations

lations, statistical analysis, variability. [19]. However, a common denominator in all of the published

3-D simulations studies is the relatively small statistical sample,

I. I NTRODUCTION which rarely exceeds 200 microscopically different devices.

Recent detailed simulation study of RDD-induced variability

S TATISTICAL variability, introduced by the discreteness of

charge and the granularity of matter, is one of the major

challenges facing the scaling of contemporary MOSFET S in

have shown that simulations of much larger statistical samples

are needed in order to reveal the actual shape of the resulting

statistical distribution and to understand the physical reasons

future technology generations [1]. Random discrete dopants

behind it [20].

(RDD) dominate statistical variability in conventional (bulk)

In this paper, we present a comprehensive 3-D simulation

MOSFET S [2], [3], which remain the workhorse of the semi-

study of LER-induced MOSFET threshold voltage variability

conductor industry [4]. However, the contribution of line-edge

using statistical samples of more than 104 transistors. Contem-

roughness (LER) to statistical variability is becoming increas-

porary bulk, ultrathin-body (UTB) SOI, and double-gate (DG)

ingly important, due to the fact that LER scaling currently lags

MOSFET S have been simulated and analyzed. The large size

the requirements of the International Technology Roadmap for

of the simulated statistical samples allows accurate estimation of

Semiconductors [5], [6]. Recent comprehensive simulation of

the higher order moments and the shape of the distributions of

statistical threshold voltage (VT ) variability in bulk MOSFET S

VT . Intensive statistical data mining is also used in order to

indicates that failure to reduce LER below its current level

explain the specific shape of the simulated distributions.

(approximately 5 nm) could promote it to the dominant source

The simulation methodology and grid technology used to

facilitate simulation of these very large statistical samples is

Manuscript received January 20, 2010; revised July 15, 2010; accepted described in Section II. Section III is dedicated to the com-

July 16, 2010. Date of publication September 9, 2010; date of current ver- prehensive simulation and analysis of LER-induced variability

sion November 5, 2010. The review of this paper was arranged by Editor in a 35-nm gate-length template bulk MOSFET, widely used

H. S. Momose.

The authors are with the Device Modelling Group, Department of before by the authors of this paper to study and compare the

Electronics and Electrical Engineering, University Of Glasgow, G12 8LT impact of different statistical variability sources [7]. Simula-

Glasgow, U.K. tion results for a set of alternative bulk, UTB SOI, and DG

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. MOSFET S are presented in Section IV and conclusions are

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TED.2010.2067731 drawn in Section V.

2802 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 57, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2010

The simulations presented in this paper were carried out

using the well-established Glasgow 3-D “atomistic” statistical

device simulator, described in detail elsewhere [7]. Random

gate LER patterns are introduced into the simulations using 1-D

Fourier synthesis, as described in [17]. A Gaussian autocorre-

lation function characterized by an RMS amplitude (Δ) and

correlation length (Λ) has been adopted to describe LER, as in

previous LER simulation studies [17]. Following the usual LER

definition, the quoted values for LER magnitude correspond to

3Δ. In all simulations reported in this paper, values of Δ =

1.6667 nm and Λ = 30 nm have been used to generate random

source/drain and gate edges introduced by roughness of the re-

sist and the following gate patterning process. This corresponds

to LER patterns with magnitude 5 nm, which is representative Fig. 1. Comparison of the histograms of VT obtained from RDD-only and

of the state-of-the-art 193-nm lithography expected to be used LER-only simulations at VD = 100 mV.

in manufacturing of the 32- and 22-nm technology generations.

The 3-D doping profile in the presence of LER is generated A. Simulation Results

using 2-D process simulation results and by assuming that

We focus on LER-induced VT variability, which could have

the p-n junctions follow the same pattern as the gate edge.

strong influence on static random access memory performance

This is a reasonable approximation in contemporary CMOS

and yield. The threshold voltage is defined using a current

technology, where laser scan annealing is progressively applied

criterion. 25 000 3-D simulations were carried out at a low

for doping activation.

drain voltage of VD = 100 mV and 10 000 3-D simulations

Grid technology is used to facilitate the handling of the

were carried out at a high drain voltage of VD = 800 mV. Only

large-amount computational resources deployed and the vast

square devices (L = W = 35 nm) are simulated and analyzsed

amount of data generated [21]. The computational resources

in this and the next subsection.

for this paper were provided by the ScotGrid computer system

In order to quantify the relative contributions of RDD and

[22] via the Globus software tool kit, and large-scale job sub-

LER to the overall VT variability of the template transistor, the

mission was achieved using the Ganga frontend [23]. Special

distributions of VT introduced by RDD and LER at low drain

care was taken to track failed and/or numerically unstable

voltage (VD = 100 mV) are compared in Fig. 1. It is clear that

simulations in order to preserve the statistical integrity of the

while RDD is the dominant source of statistical variability in

samples. A data management system based on a PostgreSQL

this device, LER introduces statistical variability of a compara-

database backend was deployed in order to manage the large

ble magnitude, with the standard deviation being ∼40% of the

distributed data sets. The database also facilitated some sem-

RDD-induced standard deviation. There is also a small shift in

blance of live job status monitoring and allowed complex

the central tendency between the distributions, with VT being

data mining searches to be performed on the data via SQL

5 mV higher for LER compared to RDD. Comparison of the

queries and direct interfaces to statistical analysis tools such

simulated distributions with reference Gaussian distributions

as “R” [24].

having mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) values calculated

from the data clearly shows that the LER-induced distribution

of VT is skewed in the opposite direction compared to the RDD-

III. 35-nm T EST B ENCH MOSFET

induced distribution. This is consistent with the descriptive

The simulated 35-nm physical gate-length n-channel statistics extracted from the distribution presented in Table I,

MOSFET developed and published by Toshiba [25] has a which show negative skew with a large magnitude for the LER-

complex doping profile featuring retrograde Indium channel induced distribution compared to the positive skew due to RDD.

doping and source/drain pockets. It has a 0.88-nm Oxy-Nitride The simulated LER-induced distributions of VT at low and

gate dielectric, 20-nm extension junction depth, and a 26-nm high drain voltages are compared in Fig. 2(a) and (b) with

metallurgical (junction-to-junction) channel length. Details of Gaussian distributions with mean and standard deviation ex-

the calibrated doping profile and the current voltage charac- tracted from the data. It is clear that the threshold voltage

teristics of the transistor are available in [20]. The choice of variation increases and average threshold voltage decreases

this “template” MOSFET is motivated by the fact that it has with drain voltage. This can be attributed to the influence of

been used extensively by the authors to study the individual drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL). The increase in drain

and combined impact of different statistical variability sources voltage results in a negative mean threshold voltage shift of

[2], [7], including the 105 statistical sample 3-D simulation 56.8 mV (∼25%) and an increase in the standard deviation by

study of RDD variability that motivates this paper [20]. Pre- 6.4 mV (∼50%). We also note that there is a small shift in the

liminary results of the simulations of LER-induced threshold average VT of the ensembles, as compared to that of the uniform

voltage (VT ) variability of the same transistor were reported continuously doped device, with ΔVT = 1.4 mV at low drain

in [26], [27]. and 2 mV at high drain. There is thus a slight increase in DIBL

REID et al.: UNDERSTANDING MOSFET VT : 3-D SIMULATION OF SAMPLES 2803

TABLE I

SUMMARY OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE DATA FOR LER

SIMULATIONS AT VD = 100 mV AND VD = 800 mV. DATA FOR

100 000 RDD SIMULATIONS AT VD = 100 mV IS ALSO

SHOWN FOR COMPARISON

Fig. 3. Relative change in the first four statistical moments of the distribution

of VT as a function of sample size at VD = 100 mV.

Strong nonlinear correlation between VT and average LC can be observed.

Fig. 2. Comparison of the histograms of VT obtained for LER simulations at

VD = 100 mV and VD = 800 mV. Gaussian distributions with the data mean

and standard deviation are shown for comparison. B. Statistical Analysis

Fig. 4 compares the distributions of VT as a function of the

from 56.2 to 56.8 mV due to the introduction of LER. Further minimum, maximum, and average value of the channel length

examination of the distribution of DIBL indicates that this is LC . It is visually clear that both the minimum and maximum

due to the distribution being significantly non-Gaussian, with a values of LC are strongly correlated with the threshold voltage,

skew of 0.46 and kurtosis of 0.41. Therefore, more devices will with calculated correlation coefficients of ρmin LC ,VT = 0.92

suffer from higher DIBL, leading to an increase in the average and ρmax LC ,VT = 0.88. The shapes of the two distributions

DIBL and the observed negative skew in the distribution of VT . confirm the expectation that a transistor with LER always has a

Furthermore, the data in Table I indicates that the drain voltage larger threshold voltage compared to a uniform transistor with

slightly increases the asymmetry of the distribution. the channel length equal to the minimum channel length of

The relative change in the first four statistical moments of the LER transistor, and a smaller threshold voltage compared

the VT distribution at VD = 100 mV as a function of sample to a uniform transistor with the channel length equal to the

size is shown in Fig. 3. The relative change is defined as maximum channel length of the LER transistor.

|xi − xi−1 |/xi−1 , where xi is the current value of the particular However, the correlation between average channel length and

moment and xi−1 is the previous value. Although the trend VT is stronger, yielding a correlation coefficient of ρavgLC ,VT =

is monotonic, there is a statistical noise associated with each 0.994. Fig. 5 compares the channel length dependence of the

moment, so the relative change is averaged out over a window threshold voltage obtained from simulations of transistors with

of 200 devices, resulting in the smooth trend seen in Fig. 3. This uniform gate edges with the scatterplot of VT against average

gives an indication of the rate of convergence of the different channel length LC at low and high drain voltages. It is clear

moments of the statistical distribution and the level of statistical that the threshold voltage of the LER MOSFET S is below but

accuracy attained by the simulation of such large statistical very close to the threshold voltage of a uniform MOSFET

samples. It is clear that the shape of the distribution cannot be with LC equal to LC of the LER transistor. It was found that

accurately determined from small samples of a few hundreds of the channel length dependence of the threshold voltage of the

devices. uniform transistors can be accurately fitted by an expression of

2804 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 57, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2010

TABLE II

SUMMARY OF THE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF

VT FOR 35-nm DEVICES WITH WIDTHS 1–4. ALL RESULTS

ARE FOR VD = 100 mV

Fig. 5. Scatterplot of VT against average LC for low and high drain voltages.

The results of simulations with constant channel lengths are also plotted along

with a curve fit of the form α − β exp(−γx).

channel lengths are also plotted.

Fig. 7. Scatterplot of VT against LC for devices with different channel width.

the form f (x) = α − β exp(−γx) and the results of the fitting Samples of 1000 transistors were used for all channel widths.

at low and high drain voltages are also plotted in Fig. 5.

Although the focus of this paper is VT variability, we have

also examined the relationship between off-current (IOFF ) were simulated for devices with channel widths two, three, and

and LC , which determines the well-documented LER-induced four times the minimal channel width (W0 = L) of 35 nm

leakage current increase [28]. The scatterplot of IOFF against at a low drain voltage of 100 mV. The moments of the simulated

average LC is presented in Fig. 6 and shows a similarly strong distributions are presented in Table II together with the values

correlation to the scatterplot of VT . This is not surprising, of

√ the standard deviation of the square MOSFET scaled by

bearing in mind that log IOFF = log IVT − (VT /S), where IVT w. It is clear

√ that the standard deviation decreases more

is the current at threshold and S is the subthreshold slope. The slowly than 1/ w. Despite the relatively large statistical error

results for the dependence of IOFF on the channel length of associated with samples of this size, the skew shows a clearly

transistors with uniform gate edges are also plotted. Generally, decreasing trend with increasing channel width.

the off-current of the LER transistors is higher but very close Fig. 7 compares the distributions of VT as a function of LC

to the off-current of a uniform MOSFET with LC equal to for the transistors with different channel widths. A subsample

LC of the LER transistor. This indicates that the methodology of 1000 was selected for the square transistors to facilitate the

presented in Part II of this paper, which allows the LER-induced visual presentation of the decreasing spread of LC for transis-

distribution of threshold voltage to be easily reconstructed from tors with large channel widths. It is clear that the asymmetry

the channel length dependence of VT , can be trivially extended in the threshold voltage distribution is related to the nonlinear

to allow the prediction of the off-current distribution. correlation between VT and LC , with steeper changes at smaller

values of LC . Since for all channel widths, the average LC

is close to 35 nm, it is clear that the reduced spread of LC is

C. Width Dependence

responsible for the more symmetrical VT distribution in wider

In this subsection, the effect of transistor width on LER- devices, which manifests in the smaller absolute values of the

induced VT variations is investigated. Samples of 1000 devices corresponding skews.

REID et al.: UNDERSTANDING MOSFET VT : 3-D SIMULATION OF SAMPLES 2805

Fig. 8. Comparison of the distribution of VT due to LER in the four simulated Fig. 9. Comparison of the relationship between LC and VT in the four

devices at VD = 100 mV. simulated devices at VD = 100 mV.

TABLE III

SUMMARY OF THE STATISTICAL MOMENTS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF VT

IV. I MPACT ON A LTERNATIVE D EVICE A RCHITECTURES AT L OW D RAIN IN A LL F OUR T RANSISTORS

of the bulk 35-nm test bed MOSFET, and to examine the

potential impact of LER on different device architectures,

smaller ensembles of three other devices have been simulated.

The selection includes an LP 42-nm physical gate- length bulk

MOSFET with an oxide thickness of 1.7 nm, developed by

ST Microelectronics and described in detail in [29]; a 32-nm

physical gate-length UTB SOI MOSFET with a body thickness

of 7 nm and equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 1.2 nm;

and a 22-nm DG MOSFET with a body thickness of 10 nm

and EOT of 1.1 nm. The last two devices were developed by

the PULNANO consortium [30] and are described in detail in

[8]. The distributions of threshold voltage for 35- and 45-nm

bulk; 32-nm SOI and 22-nm DG devices at low drain voltage

(VD = 100 mV) are presented in Fig. 8. For all devices, the

shape of the distribution of VT is similar and all are negatively case scenario. Modeling the bottom gate with different edges to

skewed. It should be noted that the SOI MOSFET in particular the top gate would likely result in a reduction of the spread of

exhibits good immunity to LER-induced variability, having a VT due to statistical averaging.

standard deviation of VT that is much lower than the other three

devices. This is due to better electrostatic integrity and hence

reduced short-channel effects.

V. C ONCLUSION

Scatterplots illustrating the relationship between VT and LC

in each of the four devices simulated in this paper are shown in Analysis of the simulation results of large statistical samples

Fig. 9. The same strong nonlinear correlation between VT and of a 35-nm test bed MOSFET subject to LER has revealed that

LC initially observed in the 35-nm MOSFET is present for the distribution of the threshold voltage is asymmetrical with

the other three transistors. As mentioned previously, this rela- a negative skew, which increases with drain bias. There is a

tionship provides a mapping between the two random variables very strong nonlinear correlation between the threshold voltage

(LC and VT ), hence the shape of this function, which closely and the average channel length of the LER transistors that very

follows the correlation between VT and LC , will directly affect closely follows the channel length dependence of the threshold

the final distribution of VT . The skew and kurtosis values voltage in transistors with uniform gate edges. Increasing the

for the four simulated devices are given in Table III, along with channel width reduces√the threshold voltage standard deviation

the other moments of the statistical distributions. The values more slowly than 1/ w and improves the symmetry of the

of the moments also confirm the visual observation that the distribution of threshold voltage. The asymmetry of the distrib-

SOI device has significantly better immunity to LER-induced ution and the strong nonlinear correlation between the threshold

fluctuations. While there would appear to be no improvement voltage and the average channel length was also confirmed in

in the VT spread for the DG device compared to the 35-nm bulk the simulation of a 42-nm physical channel-length bulk LP

device, it should be noted that in these simulations, both gates MOSFET, a 32-nm channel-length thin-body SOI MOSFET,

follow the same LER pattern, and therefore represent a worst and a 22-nm channel-length DG MOSFET.

2806 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 57, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2010

Y. Toyoshima, and H. Ishiuchi, “High performance 35 nm gate length

[1] G. Declerck, “A look into the future of nanoelectronics,” in VLSI Symp. CMOS with NO oxynitride gate dielectric and Ni salicide,” IEEE Trans.

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simulations of advanced VLSI SOI-MOSFETs,” in Proc. Simul. Semi- Dave Reid received the B.Eng. degree in electronics

cond. Process. Devices, 2007, vol. 12, pp. 101–104. engineering and the Ph.D. degree in large-scale sim-

[10] E. Baravelli, A. Dixit, R. Rooyackers, M. Jurczak, N. Speciale, and ulations of intrinsic parameter fluctuations from the

K. De Meyer, “Impact of line-edge roughness on FinFET matching per- University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K., in 2007 and

formance,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2466–2474, 2010, respectively.

Sep. 2007. He is currently a Research Assistant in the Device

[11] P. Oldiges, Q. Lin, K. Pertillo, M. Sanchez, M. Ieong, and M. Hargrove, Modelling Group of the Electronics Department of

“Modelling line edge roughness effects in sub 100 nm gate length de- the University of Glasgow, working on large-scale

vices,” in Proc. SISPAD, 2000, pp. 131–134. statistical simulations of intrinsic parameter fluctu-

[12] J. Wu, J. Chen, and K. Liu, “Transistor width dependence of LER degra- ations in MOSFETs and CMOS circuits using Grid

dation to CMOS device characteristics,” in Proc. SISPAD, Kobe, Japan, and HPC technology. His research interests include

2002, pp. 95–98. high-performance parallel computing, device modeling, circuit simulation, and

[13] S.-D. Kim, H. Wada, and J. C. S. Woo, “TCAD-based statistical analysis statistical techniques.

and modeling of gate line-edge roughness effect on nanoscale MOS tran-

sistor performance and scaling,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf., vol. 17,

no. 2, pp. 192–200, May 2004.

[14] A. T. Putra, A. Nishida, S. Kamohara, and T. Hiramoto, “Random thresh-

old voltage variability induced by gate-edge fluctuations in nanoscale

metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Express,

vol. 2, no. 2, p. 024 501, Feb. 2009.

[15] T. Linton, M. Giles, and P. Packan, “The impact of line edge roughness Campbell Millar is currently a member of the De-

on 100 nm device performance,” in Proc. Ext. Abs. Silicon Nanoelectron. vice Modelling Group at the University of Glasgow,

Workshop, 1998, pp. 82–83. Glasgow, U.K. His research interests include semi-

[16] T. D. Linton, S. Yu, and R. Shaheed, “3D modeling of fluctuation effects conductor device simulation, statistical device and

in heavily scaled VLSI devices,” VLSI Des., vol. 13, pp. 103–109, 2001. circuit simulation techniques, TCAD and ECAD

[17] A. Asenov, S. Kaya, and A. R. Brown, “Intrinsic parameter fluctuations in tool design, High-Performance Computing, and

decananometre MOSFETs introduced by gate line edge roughness,” IEEE Biological and Bionanotechnology simulation. He

Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1254–1260, May 2003. has published over 50 papers in the above fields. He

[18] M. Hane, T. Ikezawa, and T. Ezaki, “Atomistic 3D process/device simu- is currently a member of the ULIS 2010 organizing

lation considering gate line-edge roughness and poly-Si random crystal committee.

orientation effects,” in IEDM Tech. Dig., 2003, pp. 951–954.

[19] X. Wang, S. Roy, and A. Asenov, “Impact of strain on the performance

of high-k/metal replacement gate MOSFET,” in Proc. ULIS, 2009,

pp. 289–292.

[20] D. Reid, C. Millar, S. Roy, G. Roy, and A. Asenov, “Analysis of threshold

voltage distribution due to random dopants: A 100,000 sample 3D simula-

tion study,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 2255–2263,

Oct. 2009. Scott Roy is currently the Head of the Department of

[21] R. Sinnott, A. Asenov, D. Berry, D. Cumming, S. Furber, C. Millar, Electronics and Electrical Engineering at the Univer-

A. Murray, S. Pickles, S. Roy, A. Tyrell, and M. Zwolinski, “Meeting the sity of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K., and a Senior Mem-

design challenges of nanocmos electronics: An introduction to an EPSRC ber of the Device Modelling Group with research

pilot project,” in Proc. U.K. e-Sci. All Hands Meeting, 2006, pp. 29–36. interests at the interface of CMOS device simulation

[22] Scotgrid Webpage. [Online]. Available: http://www.scotgrid.ac.uk/ and circuit design. He was promoted to Reader in

[23] Ganga Webpage. [Online]. Available: http://ganga.web.cern.ch/ganga/ 2006, and has published approximately 200 papers

[24] R Development Core Team. (2008)., R: A language and environment in the fields of device transport, MC simulation

for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, (III-V, Si and SiGe devices), device scaling, and the

Austria. [Online]. Available: http://www.R-project.org development of practical compact models for devices

[25] S. Inaba, K. Okano, S. Matsuda, M. Fujiwara, A. Hokazono, K. Adachi, at the nanoscale. He was the Local Chair of the 1st

K. Ohuchi, H. Suto, H. Fukui, T. Shimizu, S. Mori, H. Oguma, SINANO Summer School 2005, PNGF4 2009, and is the General Chair of

A. Murakoshi, T. Itani, T. Iinuma, T. Kudo, H. Shibata, S. Taniguchi, ULIS 2010.

REID et al.: UNDERSTANDING MOSFET VT : 3-D SIMULATION OF SAMPLES 2807

Asen Asenov (M’96–SM’05) received the M.Sc. their application in the design of advanced and novel CMOS devices. He has pi-

degree in solid-state physics from Sofia University, oneered the simulations and the study of various sources of intrinsic parameter

Sofia, Bulgaria, in 1979, and the Ph.D. degree in fluctuations in decanano- and nano-CMOS devices, including random dopants,

physics from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, interface roughness, and LER. He is the Author of over 330 publications in

Sofia, in 1989. process and device modeling and simulation, semiconductor device physics,

He had a ten-year industrial experience as the “atomistic” effects in ultrasmall devices, and impact of variations on circuits

Head of the Process and Device Modelling Group, and systems, including, in the last five years, more than 15 papers in the IEEE

Institute of Microelectronics, Sofia, where he de- TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES.

veloped one of the first integrated process and Dr. Asenov is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Scotland and a member

device CMOS simulators, IMPEDANCE. During of the IEEE Electron Devices Society Technology Computer-Aided Design

1989–1991, he was a Visiting Professor with the Committee. He is currently a member of the program committees for the Inter-

Physics Department, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Since national Electron Devices Meeting, the European Solid-State Device Research

1991, he has been with the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engi- Conference, the International Workshop on Computational Electronics, the

neering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K., where he was the Head in Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, the Hot Carriers in Semiconductors, and the

1999–2003. As a Professor of device modeling, the Leader of the Glasgow IEEE Nanotech Conference, and is the forthcoming Program Committee Chair

Device Modeling Group, and the Academic Director of the Glasgow Process for the 2006 Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop. In the last five years, he was

and Device Simulation Centre, he coordinates the development of 2-D and also given more than 65 invited talks at prestigious international conferences

3-D quantum-mechanical, Monte Carlo, and classical device simulators and and meetings in Europe, the U.S., and Japan.

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