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DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION OVERVIEW

Mike Diedesch & Kevin Damron– Avista Utilities

Presented
March 12, 2011

At the 29th Annual


HANDS-ON Relay School
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington
1
Table of Contents

System Overview ………………………………………………………....… 3


Distribution (3-30MVA ) Transformer Protection ………………….…..…... 14
Relay Overcurrent Curves …………………………………………..……. 22
Symmetrical Components ……………………………………………..…….. 8
Distribution Fuse Protection ………………………………………….……. 24
Conductors ………………..………..………………………………………. 28
Electromechanical Relays used on Distribution Feeders…………….…….… 31
Coordinating Time Intervals …………………………………………….… 36
Transformer Relay Settings using Electromechanical Relays ………….…… 48
IEEE Device Designations …………………………………………….…….. 51
Transformer & Feeder Protection using Microprocessor Relays ………….… 52
Transformer Differential Protection ……………………………………….… 61
Moscow 13.8kV Feeder Coordination Example ……………………………. 64

2
System Overview - Distribution Protection
Objective:
Protect people (company personnel and the public) and equipment by the proper
application of overcurrent protective devices.
Devices include:
Relays operating to trip (open) circuit breakers or circuit switchers, and/or fuses blowing
for the occurrence of electrical faults on the distribution system.
Design tools used:
1 – Transformer and conductor damage curves,
2 - Time-current coordination curves (TCC’s), fuse curves, and relay overcurrent
elements based on symmetrical components of fault current.
Documentation:
1 - One-line diagrams and Schematics with standardized device designations as defined
by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) – keeps everyone on the
same page in understanding how the system works.
2 - TCC’s

3
System Overview – Inside the
Substation Fence
115 kV SYSTEM
MOSCOW
A-172
  XFMR 
12/16/20 MVA HIGH LEAD LOW
115/13.8kV DELTA/WYE
13.8 kV BUS
Feeder relay 500A, 13.8 kV
FDR #515 PT-1 13.8 kV FDR
3Ø = 5158 #512
556 ACSR SLG = 5346
Transformer PT-2A PT-2B 500 A FDR
#4 ACSR #2 ACSR
relays
556 ACSR 3Ø = 3699 1 PHASE
SLG = 3060 #4 ACSR

#2 ACSR PT-3B PT-3A PT-4


2/0 ACSR 3Ø = 1210
PT-3C SLG = 877
3Ø = 3453
SLG = 2762
PT-5 LINE RECLOSER P584 FUSE

#4 ACSR 3Ø = 558
3Ø = 1907
SLG = 1492 SLG = 463
3-250 KVA
1 PHASE PT-6A PT-6B WYE/WYE
#4 ACSR #4 ACSR PT-8
PT-6C 65T

#4 ACSR
3Ø = 322
SLG = 271
4
PT-7
System Overview – Outside the
Substation Fence

115 kV SYSTEM
MOSCOW
A-172
  XFMR 
Midline 12/16/20 MVA HIGH LEAD LOW
115/13.8kV DELTA/WYE
recloser
13.8 kV BUS
relay 500A, 13.8 kV
FDR #515 PT-1 13.8 kV FDR
3Ø = 5158 #512
556 ACSR SLG = 5346
PT-2A PT-2B 500 A FDR
#4 ACSR #2 ACSR

556 ACSR 3Ø = 3699 1 PHASE


SLG = 3060 #4 ACSR

#2 ACSR PT-3B PT-3A PT-4


2/0 ACSR 3Ø = 1210
PT-3C SLG = 877
3Ø = 3453
SLG = 2762
PT-5 LINE RECLOSER P584 FUSE

#4 ACSR 3Ø = 558
3Ø = 1907
SLG = 1492 SLG = 463
3-250 KVA
1 PHASE PT-6A PT-6B WYE/WYE
#4 ACSR #4 ACSR PT-8
PT-6C 65T

#4 ACSR
3Ø = 322
SLG = 271

PT-7

5
115 kV SYSTEM
MOSCOW
System Overview – A-172
Each device has at least one curve plotted with current and time values   XFMR 
12/16/20 MVA HIGH LEAD LOW
on the Time Coordination Curve. 115/13.8kV DELTA/WYE
13.8 kV BUS
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 5 1000
500A, 13.8 kV
FDR #515 PT-1 13.8 kV FDR
700
4
700
3Ø = 5158 #512
500
400
500
400
556 ACSR SLG = 5346
300 6 300 PT-2A PT-2B 500 A FDR
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.06710 A=556000.0 cmils
Conductor AAC #4 ACSR #2 ACSR
200 FEEDER 252 SMALLEST CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT 200

B. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3


Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.
100 IDAHO RD 12/16/20 MVA XFMR 100 556 ACSR 3Ø = 3699 1 PHASE
70 70
SLG = 3060 #4 ACSR
50 50
40 40

30 30 #2 ACSR PT-3B PT-3A PT-4


TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
HI-SIDE CT'S 2/0 ACSR 3Ø = 1210
20 1. IDR A-777 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200 20
CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s PT-3C SLG = 877
Ia= 679.8A (5.7 sec A) T= 0.78s H=8.33

S 10 10 3Ø = 3453
E
C
O 7 2 7
SLG = 2762
STATION VCB 252 PROTECTION
N
D 5 5 PT-5 LINE RECLOSER P584 FUSE
2. IDR 252 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
S 4 CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s 4
1
Ia= 5665.9A (35.4 sec A) T= 0.30s
3 3
3. IDR 252 50G 351S INST TD=1.000
2 CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
5f B 2 #4 ACSR 3Ø = 558
3Io= 0.0A (0.0 sec A) T=9999s
3Ø = 1907
MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE
SLG = 1492 SLG = 463
1 4. 252 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T
Total clear. FAULT DESCRIPTION:
1 3-250 KVA
.7
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.09s
MIDLINE OCR
Bus Fault on: 0 IDR 252 13.8 kV 3LG
.7 1 PHASE PT-6A PT-6B WYE/WYE
.5
5. Phase unit of recloser MID LINE OCR
.5 #4 ACSR #4 ACSR PT-8
.4 Fast: ME-341-B Mult=0.2
Slow: ME-305-A Add=1000.
.4
PT-6C 65T
.3 Ia= 5665.9A T(Fast)= 0.03s .3

MAXIMUM MIDLINE FUSE


.2
6. T FUSE S&C Link 50T
.2
#4 ACSR
Minimum melt. 3Ø = 322
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.01s
.1 .1 A SLG = 271
.07 .07

.05 .05
.04 .04
PT-7
.03 .03

.02 .02

Fault I=5665.9 A
.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

HORS 2010 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH 6


For Idaho Rd Feeder 252 in Idaho Rd PHASE 1 2007base.olr No.
Comment At Sub: 3LG=5667A, SLG=5863A, L-L=4909A Date 11-25-2008
System Overview –

1000
10 2 3 4 5 7 100
5
2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000
What are the types of curves?
700 700
4
500
400
500
400
Damage Curves:
300

200
6 300
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.06710 A=556000.0 cmils
Conductor AAC
FEEDER 252 SMALLEST CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT 200
- transformer
100
B. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3
Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.
IDAHO RD 12/16/20 MVA XFMR 100
- conductor
70 70

50
40
50
40
Protective Curves:
30

20
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
HI-SIDE CT'S
1. IDR A-777 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200
30

20
- relay
CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s

S 10
Ia= 679.8A (5.7 sec A) T= 0.78s H=8.33

10
- fuse
E
C
O 7 2 7
STATION VCB 252 PROTECTION
N
D 5 5
2. IDR 252 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
S 4 CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s 4
1
Ia= 5665.9A (35.4 sec A) T= 0.30s
3 3

2
3. IDR 252 50G 351S INST TD=1.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
3Io= 0.0A (0.0 sec A) T=9999s
5f B 2 So, what curve goes where?
MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE

.7
4. 252 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T
Total clear.
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.09s
FAULT DESCRIPTION:
Bus Fault on: 0 IDR 252
1
13.8 kV 3LG
.7
Damage curves are at the top and to
MIDLINE OCR
.5
.4
5. Phase unit of recloser MID LINE OCR
Fast: ME-341-B Mult=0.2
.5
.4
the right of the TCC.
Slow: ME-305-A Add=1000.
.3 Ia= 5665.9A T(Fast)= 0.03s .3

MAXIMUM MIDLINE FUSE


.2 .2
6. T FUSE S&C Link 50T

.1
Minimum melt.
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.01s
.1 A
Protective curves lowest and to the
.07 .07 left on the TCC correspond to those
.05 .05
.04

.03
.04

.03
devices farther from the substation
.02 .02
where the fault current is less.
Fault I=5665.9 A
.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

HORS 2010 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH 7


For Idaho Rd Feeder 252 in Idaho Rd PHASE 1 2007base.olr No.
Comment At Sub: 3LG=5667A, SLG=5863A, L-L=4909A Date 11-25-2008
Transformer Protection - Damage Curve – ANSI/IEEE C57.109-1985
Avista has Category III size (5-30MVA) Distribution Transformers in service per the above standard.
The main damage curve line shows only the thermal effect
from transformer through-fault currents. It is graphed
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7

from data entered below (MVA, Base Amps, %Z ): 1000

700
1000

700

500 500
400 400

300 300

200 200

A. T ransf. damage c urve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3


Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.
100 100

70 70

50 50
40 40

30 30

20 20

S 10 10
E
C
O 7 7
N
D 5 5

The dog leg on the curve is added to allow for additional S 4

3
4

thermal and mechanical damage from (typically more 2 A 2

than 5) through-faults over the life of a transformer 1

.7
1

.7

serving overhead feeders. .5


.4
.5
.4

.3 .3

.2 .2

Time at 50% of the maximum per-unit


.1 .1

through fault current = 8 seconds. .07 .07

.05 1 .05
.04 .04

.03 .03

Dog leg curve - 10 times base current at 2 seconds. .02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7

Main curve - 25 times base current at 2 seconds. For


CURRENT (A)

T IME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage By


No.
1. M15
CT R=

Comment Date

8
Conductor Damage Curves
Copper Conductor Damage Curves ACSR Conductor Damage Curves
(2/0 damage at 1500A @ 100sec.) (2/0 damage at 900A @ 100sec.)

10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7 10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7


1000 1000 1000 1000
700 1. M15-515 Phase INST INST TD=1.000 700 700 1. M15-515 Phase INST INST TD=1.000 700
CTR=160 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s CTR=160 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
500 500 500 500
400 400 400 400
300 300 300 300

200 200 200 200

100 100 100 100


70 70 70 70

50 50 50 50
40 40 40 40
30 30 30 30

20 20 20 20

A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=355107.0 cmils


S 10 10 S 10 10
E Conductor ACSR
E
C 7 7 C 7 336.4 ACSR 7
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.14040 A=105500.0 cmils O 5
O 5 Conductor Copper (bare) AWG Size 2/0 5 5
N 4 N 4 B. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=167800.0 cmils 4
2/0 Copper 4 D
D 3 Conductor ACSR AWG Size 4/0 3
3 3 S 4/0 ACSR
S
B. Conductor damage curve. k=0.14040 A=83690.0 cmils 2 2
2 Conductor Copper (bare) AWG Size 1/0 2 C. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=105500.0 cmils
1/0 Copper Conductor ACSR AWG Size 2/0
2/0 ACSR
1 1
1 1
C. Conductor damage curve. k=0.14040 A=52630.0 cmils
.7 D. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=83690.0 cmils .7
.7 Conductor Copper (bare) AWG Size 2 .7 Conductor ACSR AWG Size 1/0
#2 Copper .5 .5
.5 .5 1/0 ACSR
.4 .4
.4 .4
D. Conductor damage curve. k=0.14040 A=33100.0 cmils .3 E. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=52630.0 cmils .3
.3 .3
Conductor Copper (bare) AWG Size 4 Conductor ACSR AWG Size 2
#4 Copper .2 .2
.2 .2 #2 ACSR

E. Conductor damage curve. k=0.14040 A=20820.0 cmils .1 F. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=33100.0 cmils F E DC B A.1
.1 Conductor Copper (bare) AWG Size 6 E D C B A .1 Conductor ACSR AWG Size 4
#6 Copper .07 #4 ACSR .07
.07 .07
.05 1 .05
.05 1 .05 .04 .04
.04 .04
.03 .03
.03 .03
.02 .02
.02 .02

.01 .01
.01 .01 10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7 CURRENT (A)
CURRENT (A)
TIME-CURRENT CURVES @Voltage 13.8 kV By DLH
TIME-CURRENT CURVES @Voltage 13.8 kV By DLH
For ACSR Conductor Damage Curves No.
For Copper Conductor Damage Curves No.
Comment Date 12/13/05
Comment Date 12/13/05 9
Conductor Ampacities

Conductor at 25°C ambient taken from the Westinghouse Transmission & Distribution book.

ACSR Copper
Ampacity Ratings Ampacity Ratings

Conductor Rating Conductor Rating


556 730
336.4 530 2/0 360
4/0 340 1/0 310
2/0 270 #2 230
1/0 230 #4 170
#2 180 #6 120
#4 140

10
Conductor Protection Graph
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 700
1
500
400
500
400
Comparing a 140T fuse versus a
300 300
#4 ACSR Damage curve.
200 200
The 140T won’t protect the
100
1. Moscow 515 Kear 140T Kearney 140T
Total clear.
100 conductor below about
70 70

50 50
550 amps where the curves cross.
40 40
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=33100.0 cmils
30 Conductor ACSR AWG Size 4 30

20 20

S 10 10
E
C
O 7 7
N
D 5 5
S 4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

.7 .7

.5 .5
.4 .4

.3 .3

.2 .2

.1 A .1

.07 .07

.05 .05
.04 .04

.03 .03

.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

#4 ACSR & 140T


For Aspen File: HORS M15 EXP.olr
TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By
No.
Protection
11
Comment Date 3/06
Transformer Protection using
115 kV Fuses

12
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

Transformer Protection using 700


2
700

500 500

115 kV Fuses 400

300 6
400

300
A. Transf. damage curve. 7.50 MVA. Category 3
Base I=313.78 A. Z= 7.3 percent.
200 Rockford 13.8kV - ROCKFORD115 115.kV 1 T 200

Used at smaller substations up to 7.5 MVA 100 100

transformer due to low cost of protection. 70 70

Other advantages are: 50


40
5
50
40

- Low maintenance 30

20
STATION TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
4
30

20
2. SMD-2B 65E VERY SLOW 176-19-065
- Panel house & station battery not required Minimum melt.
H=8.33

S 10 FEEDER VCR PROTECTION 10


E
C 4. LAT RP4211 51P CO-11 CO-11 TD=2.000
O 7 CTR=500/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.5043s 7
N
D 5 5. LAT RP4211 51N CO-11 CO-11 TD=4.000 5
There are also several disadvantages to S 4 CTR=500/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=1.0192s 4

3 3. LAT RP4211 50P CO-11 INST TD=1.000 3


using fuses however which are: 2
CTR=500/5 Pickup=3.5A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
1. LAT RP4211 50N CO-11 INST TD=1.000 A 2

• Low interrupting rating from 1,200A (for CTR=500/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE

some older models) up to 10,000A at 115 kV. 1

.7
6. LAT RP4211 FUSE S&C Link 65T
Total clear.
1

.7

By contrast a circuit switcher can have a rating .5 .5


.4 .4

of 25KAIC and our breakers have normally .3 .3

40KAIC. .2 .2

• The fuses we generally use are rated to blow .1 .1

within 5 minutes at twice their nameplate .07 .07

.05 1 3 .05
rating. Thus, a 65 amp fuse will blow at 130 .04 .04

.03 .03
amps. This compromises the amount of .02 .02

overload we can carry in an emergency and


still provide good sensitivity for faults. .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000
CURRENT (A)
2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
.01

ROK 451R2 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 KV By JDH


For ROK FDR 451, BUS FAULTS: 3LG=3580A, SLG=3782A, L-L=3100A No.
Comment ASPEN FILE: ROK NEW XFMR (2005 BASE).OLR Date 2-13-07
13
Transformer Protection using 115 kV Fuses - continued
• The fuse time current characteristic (TCC) is fixed (although you can buy a standard, slow
or very slow speed ratio which are different inverse curves).
• The sensitivity to detect lo-side SLG faults isn’t as good as using a relay on a circuit
switcher or breaker. This is because we use DELTA/WYE connected transformers so the
phase current on the 115 kV is reduced by the √3 as opposed to a three phase fault.
• Some fuses can be damaged and then blow later at some high load point.
• When only one 115 kV fuse blows, it subjects the customer to low distribution voltages.
For example the phase to neutral distribution voltages on two phases on the 13.8 kV become
50% of normal. A a

1.0 PU

B b
0.5 PU 0.5 PU

C c

• No indication of faulted zone (transformer, bus or feeder).

14
Transformer Protection using a Circuit Switcher
Showing Avista’s present standard using Microprocessor relays.

13.8kV 115kV

15
Transformer Protection using a Circuit Switcher
Showing Avista’s old standard using Electromechanical relays.

16
Transformer Protection using a Circuit Switcher

10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7


1000 1000

Some advantages to this over fuses are: 700

500
11
700

500


400 400

Higher interrupting. 300 300


A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=133100.0 cmils


Conductor ACSR AWG Size 2/0
200 FEEDER 251 SMALLEST CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT 200

Relays can be set to operate faster B. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3
Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.

and with better sensitivity than 100

70
IDAHO RD 12/16/20 MVA XFMR 100

70

fuses. 50
40
50
40


30 30

Three phase operation. 20


TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
HI-SIDE CT'S
1. IDR A-777 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200
9
3

5
4 20


CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s 10

Provide better coordination with S 10


H=8.33
2. IDR A-777 51G 351 SEL-VI TD=1.000
CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.A No inst. TP@5=0.258s
H=8.33
10
E

downstream devices. C
O
N
D
7

5
4. IDR A-777 51Q 351 SEL-EI TD=4.200
CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.3A No inst. TP@5=1.1401s
H=8.33
LO-SIDE CT'S
7 7

5
S 4 3. IDR A-777 51N 351 SEL-EI TD=5.700 4
1
CTR=1200/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.5473s
2
3 3
5. IDR A-777 51Q 587 W2 SEL-EI TD=4.300

Some disadvantages would be: 2


CTR=1200/5 Pickup=5.4A No inst. TP@5=1.1672s B 2

• Higher cost.
STATION VCB 251 PROTECTION
1 1
7. IDR 251 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s


.7 .7

Higher maintenance. .5
.4
6. IDR 251 50P 351S INST TD=1.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s .5
.4


9. IDR 251 51G 351S SEL-EI TD=3.900

Requires a substation battery, panel .3

.2
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.0587s

8. IDR 251 50G 351S INST TD=1.000


.3

.2

house and relaying. CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

10. IDR 251 51Q 351S SEL-EI TD=3.500


.1 CTR=800/5 Pickup=5.2A No inst. TP@5=0.9501s A .1

Transformer requires CT’s. .07


MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE
.07

.05 8 6 .05
MINIMUM FAULT TO DETECT:
.04 3LG=2460A, SLG=1833A, L-L=2130A .04

.03 11. 251 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T .03


Total clear.

.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

IDR FEEDER 251 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH


For Idaho Rd Feeder 251 in Idaho Rd PHASE 1 2007base.olr No.
Comment At Sub: 3LG=5667A, SLG=5863A, L-L=4909A Date 11-25-2008

17
Transformer Protection using a Breaker

This is very similar to using a circuit switcher with a couple of advantages such as:
• Higher interrupting – 40kAIC for the one shown below.
• Somewhat faster tripping than a circuit switcher (3 cycles vs. 6 – 8 cycles).
• Possibly less maintenance than a circuit switcher.
• The CT’s would be located on the breaker so it would interrupt faults on the bus section up to
the transformer plus the transformer high side bushings.

18
Relay Overcurrent Curves
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 700 SEL Various Relay Overcurrent Curves.


500 500
400 400 Extremely Inverse – steepest
300 300

200 200
Very Inverse
Inverse
100 100

70 1 70
Moderately Inverse
50
40
1. EXTREMELY INVERSE SEL-EI TD=15.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=4.0718s
50
40
Short Time Inverse – least steep
30 30

20 5 20
5. VERY INVERSE SEL-VI TD=6.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=1.5478s The five curves shown here have the same
S
E
C
10

7
2 10

7
pickup settings , but different time dial
O
N
D
S
5
4
2. INVERSE SEL-I TD=2.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.8558s
5
4
settings.
3 3

3
2
These are basically the same as various E-M
1 3. MODERATELY INVERSE SEL-2xx-MI TD=1.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.324s
1 relays.
.7 .7

.5 .5
4
.4

.3
.4

.3
Avista uses mostly extremely inverse on
.2
4. SHORT TIME INVERSE SEL-STI TD=1.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.1072s
.2
feeders to match the fuse curves.
.1 .1

.07 .07

.05 .05
.04 .04

.03 .03

.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage By


For
Comment
No.
Date 19
Relay Overcurrent Curves - Pickups & Time Dials
Pickup
- the current at which the relay will operate to trip the breaker.
- also known as “tap” from the electromechanical relay days
-expressed in terms of the ratio of the current transformer (CTR) that the relay is connected to,
- e.g., a relay with a CTR of 120 and a pickup (or tap) of 4 will operate to trip the breaker at 480
amps 10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 700
11
500 500

Time dial 400

300
400

300
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=133100.0 cmils

- at what time delay will the relay operate to 200


Conductor ACSR AWG Size 2/0
FEEDER 251 SMALLEST CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT

B. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3


200

Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.

trip the breaker 100

70
IDAHO RD 12/16/20 MVA XFMR 100

70

- the larger time dial means more time delay 50


40
50
40

30 30
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION

- also known as “lever” from the


3
HI-SIDE CT'S
20 1. IDR A-777 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200 5
4 20
9
CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s 10
H=8.33

electromechanical relay days S


E
C
10
2. IDR A-777 51G 351 SEL-VI TD=1.000
CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.A No inst. TP@5=0.258s
H=8.33
4. IDR A-777 51Q 351 SEL-EI TD=4.200
10

O 7 CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.3A No inst. TP@5=1.1401s 7 7

- Instantaneous elements have a “time dial” N


D
S
5
4
H=8.33
LO-SIDE CT'S
3. IDR A-777 51N 351 SEL-EI TD=5.700
CTR=1200/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.5473s
1
5
4
2

of 1 and operate at 0.05 seconds. 3

2
5. IDR A-777 51Q 587 W2 SEL-EI TD=4.300
CTR=1200/5 Pickup=5.4A No inst. TP@5=1.1672s B
3

- Instantaneous curves are shown as a flat 1


STATION VCB 251 PROTECTION
7. IDR 251 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
1
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s

horizontal line starting at the left at the .7

.5
.4
6. IDR 251 50P 351S INST TD=1.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
.7

.5
.4

pickup value and plotted at 0.05 seconds. .3

.2
9. IDR 251 51G 351S SEL-EI TD=3.900
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.0587s

8. IDR 251 50G 351S INST TD=1.000


.3

.2
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

10. IDR 251 51Q 351S SEL-EI TD=3.500


.1 CTR=800/5 Pickup=5.2A No inst. TP@5=0.9501s A .1

.07 .07
MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE
.05 8 6 .05
MINIMUM FAULT TO DETECT:
.04 3LG=2460A, SLG=1833A, L-L=2130A .04

.03 11. 251 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T .03


Total clear.

.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

IDR FEEDER 251 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH


For Idaho Rd Feeder 251 in Idaho Rd PHASE 1 2007base.olr
Comment At Sub: 3LG=5667A, SLG=5863A, L-L=4909A
No.
Date 11-25-2008 20
Relay Overcurrent Curves - Example of Different Pickup & Time Dial Settings

Same Time Dial = 9 Same Pickup = 960 Amps


Right curve picks up at 960 Amps Top curve Time Dial = 15
Left curve picks up at 320Amps Bottom curve Time Dial = 2
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7 10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000 1000 1000

700 700 700 700

500 500 500 500


400 400 400 400

300 300 300 300

200 200 200 200

100 1. EXT INV 1 SEL-EI TD=9.000 100 100 1. EXT INV 1 SEL-EI TD=15.000 100
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=2.4431s CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=4.0718s
70 70 70 1 70
2. ~EXT INV 1 SEL-EI TD=9.000 2. ~EXT INV 1 SEL-EI TD=12.000 2
50 CTR=800/5 Pickup=5.A No inst. TP@5=2.4431s 50 50 50
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=3.2574s
40 5 4 3 2 1 40 40 3 40

30 30 30 30
3. ~EXT INV 2 SEL-EI TD=9.000 3. ~EXT INV 2 SEL-EI TD=9.000 4
CTR=800/5 Pickup=4.A No inst. TP@5=2.4431s CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=2.4431s
20 20 20 20

4. ~EXT INV 3 SEL-EI TD=9.000 4. ~EXT INV 3 SEL-EI TD=6.000


CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=2.4431s CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=1.6287s
S 10 10 S 10 10
E E 5
C C
O 7 7 7 5. ~EXT INV 4 SEL-EI TD=2.000 7
5. ~EXT INV 4 SEL-EI TD=9.000 O
N N CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.5429s
CTR=800/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=2.4431s
D 5 5 D 5 5
S 4 4 S 4 4

3 3 3 3

2 2 2 2

1 1 1 1

.7 .7 .7 .7

.5 .5 .5 .5
.4 .4 .4 .4

.3 .3 .3 .3

.2 .2 .2 .2

.1 .1 .1 .1

.07 .07 .07 .07

.05 .05 .05 .05


.04 .04 .04 .04
.03 .03 .03 .03

.02 .02 .02 .02

.01 .01 .01 .01


10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7 10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A) CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage By TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage By


For No.
Comment Date
For
Comment
No.
Date 21
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 700

500 A. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3 500


400
Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.4 percent.
INDIAN TRAIL 12/16/20 MVA XFMR
400 Microprocessor relays have different
300 300

200
B. Conductor damage curve. k=0.06710 A=556000.0 cmils
Conductor AAC
556 kCMil AAC
200 types of curves based on the type of
100 100
fault current being measured:
70 70

50 50
40 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION 40
1. INT A-742 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=10.000 1
30 30

20
CTR=600/5 Pickup=0.8A No inst. TP@5=2.5797s
H=8.33
20
Transformer relay curves
5
5. INT A-742 51G 351 SEL-VI TD=5.000

S 10
CTR=600/5 Pickup=0.8A No inst. TP@5=1.2898s
H=8.33
10
51P – phase time overcurrent
6
E
C 7
O
N
6. INT A-742 51Q 351 SEL-VI TD=3.000
CTR=600/5 Pickup=0.8A No inst. TP@5=0.7739s 2
7
51N or 51G – ground time overcurrent
D 5 H=8.33 5
S 4 4

3 3 3 51Q – negative sequence time overcurrent


STATION VCB 12F1 PROTECTION A
2 2
2. INT 12F1 51P 351S SEL-VI TD=1.800
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.4643s 4

1 1

.7 3. INT 12F1 51G 351S SEL-VI TD=0.900 .7

.5
.4
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.2322s
.5
.4
Feeder relay curves
.3
4. INT 12F1 51Q 351S SEL-VI TD=0.500
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.129s
.3
51P – phase time overcurrent
.2 .2

51N or 51G – ground time overcurrent


.1 .1 B

.07 .07 51Q – negative sequence time overcurrent


.05 .05
.04 .04

.03 .03

.02 .02
This brings us to a brief discussion of:
.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

INT 12F1 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH


For Indian Trail feeder 12F1 in INT 2007base.olr No.
Comment AT SUB: 3LG= 5719A, LL=4951A, SLG= 5880A Date 1-29-08

22
Symmetrical Components

Symmetrical Components for Power Systems Engineering,


J. Lewis Blackburn,

There are three sets of independent components in a three-phase


system: positive, negative and zero for both current and voltage.
Positive sequence voltages (Figure 1) are supplied by generators
within the system and are always present. A second set of balanced
phasors are also equal in magnitude and displaced 120 degrees
apart, but display a counter-clockwise rotation sequence of A-C-B
(Figure 2), which represents a negative sequence. The final set of
balanced phasors is equal in magnitude and in phase with each
other, however since there is no rotation sequence (Figure 3) this is
known as a zero sequence.
23
Symmetrical Components
Examples of three 13.8kV faults showing the current distribution through a
Delta-Wye high-lead-low transformer bank :

Three phase (3LG) fault - Positive sequence currents – for setting phase elements in relays.
Phase -Phase (L-L) fault - Negative sequence currents – for setting negative sequence elements in relays.
Single phase (1LG or SLG) fault - Zero sequence currents – for setting ground elements in relays.

Symmetrical Components Notation:


Positive Sequence current = I + = I1
Negative Sequence current = I - = I2
Zero Sequence current = I 0 = I0

Phase Current notation:


IA – High side Amps
Ia – Low side Amps

8.33= 115/13.8 = transformer Voltage (turns)


Phasor diagram from Fault-study Software. ratio

24
Symmetrical Components – Positive Sequence, 3LG 13.8 kV Fault
You have only positive sequence voltage and current since the system is balanced.

A a
R R

B b

C c
IA = 619 ∠-88° Ia = 5158 ∠-118°
IB = 619 ∠ 152° Ib = 5158 ∠ 122°
Phase currents and voltages for the 115kV side.
IC = 619 ∠ 32° Ic = 5158 ∠ 2°
Phase current = Sequence current
That is; Ia = I+.
IA = Ia / 8.33 = 5158A / 8.33
IA = 619A

25
Symmetrical Components – Negative Sequence, L-L 13.8 kV Fault
A a
R R

B b

C c

IA = 309 ∠-28° Ia = 0 ∠ 0°
IB = 619 ∠ 152° Ib = 4467 ∠ 152° 115kV side sequence currents and voltages
IC = 309 ∠-28° Ic = 4467 ∠-28°

3LG 13.8kV fault = 5158A,


Ib=Ic=4467 A, 4467/5158 = 86.6%=√3/2
IB3LG = IBLL = 619A
IA & IC = IB or Ia & Ic = Ib
I2 = the phase current/√3 = 4467/√3 = 2579

Digital relays 50Q/51Q elements set using 3I2.


3I2 = Ib x √3 = 4467 x 1.732 = 7737,
13.8kV side sequence currents and voltages

26
Symmetrical Components – Zero Sequence, 1LG 13.8 kV Fault
A a
R R

B b

C c
IA = 370 ∠-118° Ia=3I0=5346 ∠-118°
IB = 0 ∠ 0° Ib = 0 ∠ 0°
115kV side sequence currents and voltages
IC = 370 ∠ 62° Ic = 0 ∠ 0°
Ia = 3Va/(Z1 + Z2 + Z0)

3I0 is the sum of the 3 phase currents and since Ib & Ic


= 0, then 3I0 = Ia. This means the phase and ground
overcurrent relays on the feeder breaker see the same
amount of current.
5346/(8.33*√3) = 370 amps. So the high side phase
current is the √3 less as compared to the 3Ø fault.

Digital relays ground elements set using 3I0.


13.8kV side sequence currents and voltages

27
Symmetrical Components - Summary of 13.8 kV Faults
If you have a Delta-Wye transformer bank, and you know the voltage ratio and secondary phase
current values for 13.8kV 3LG (5158) and SLG (5346) faults, you can find the rest:

3LG – positive sequence current


IA = 619 Ia = 5158 5158 / 8.33 = 619 Ia = 5158 = I1
IB = 619 Ib = 5158
IC = 619 Ic = 5158
L-L – negative sequence current
IA = 309 Ia = 0 5158 x √3/2 = 4467 Ib x √3 = 7737 = 3I2
IB = 619 Ib = 4467 4467/(8.33x √3) = 309
IC = 309 Ic = 4467 309 x 2 = 619

SLG – zero sequence current


IA = 370 Ia=5346 5346/(8.33x√3) = 370 Ia = 5346 = 3I0
IB = 0 Ib = 0
IC = 370 Ic = 0

28
Symmetrical Components - Summary of 13.8 kV Faults

You’ve heard of a Line-to-Line fault, how about an “Antler-to-Antler” fault?

29
Electromechanical Relays
used on Distribution Feeders

Avista’s standard distribution relay


package (until the mid-1990’s) included
the following:

3 phase 50/51 CO-11 relays,

1 reclosing relay

1 ground 50/51 CO-11 relay

30
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

Electromechanical Relays 700


1
700

used on Distribution Feeders 500


400

300
500
400

300
6

200 200

Objectives: 100 100

− Protect the feeder conductor


A. Transf. damage curve. 7.50 MVA. Category 3
70 Base I=313.78 A. Z= 6.9 percent. 70
Latah Jct 13.8kV - LATAHJCT115 115.kV T

− Detect as low a fault current as


50 50
40 40
B. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=105500.0 cmils
30 Conductor ACSR AWG Size 1/0 30
possible (PU = 50% EOL fault amps) 20
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION 5
20

− Other than 51P, set pickup and time


1. SMD-2B 65E VERY SLOW 176-19-065
Minimum melt. 3
H=8.33
S
dial as low as possible and still have E
C
10

7
FEEDER VCB PROTECTION
3. LAT421 51P CO-9 CO-9 TD=1.900
10

7
O CTR=600/5 Pickup=4.A No inst. TP@5=0.4618s
minimum Coordinating Time Interval N
D
S
5
4
5. LAT421 51N CO-9 CO-9 TD=3.000
CTR=600/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.7228s
5
4

(CTI) to next device. CTI is minimum 3


2. LAT421 50P CO-9 INST TD=1.000
3

CTR=600/5 Pickup=4.6A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

time between operation of adjacent 2


4. LAT421 50N CO-9 INST TD=1.000
CTR=600/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
A 2

devices. 1 1

− Carry normal maximum load (phase .7

.5
MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE

6. LAT421 FUSE S&C Link100T


.7

.5
Total clear.
overcurrent only). .4 .4

− Pickup the feeder in a cold load


.3 .3

.2 .2

condition (≅ 2 times maximum normal


.1 B .1

load) or pickup ½ of the next feeder .07 .07

load· .05
.04
4 2 .05
.04

.03 .03

.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 KV By


For No.
Comment Date

31
Electromechanical Relays
used on Distribution Feeders

Pickup setting criteria of 2/1 ratio of “end of line” fault duty / pickup
- ensures that the relay will “see” the fault and operate when needed.

FEEDER SETTINGS
51P = 2000 / 2 = 1000 A
51N = 1000 / 2 = 500 A

13 kV BUS

MIN FAULT
3LG = 2000 A
1LG = 1000 A
32
Electromechanical Relays
used on Distribution Feeders

FEEDER SETTINGS MIDLINE SETTINGS


51P = 2000 / 2 = 1000 A 51P = 1000 / 2 = 500 A
51N = 1000 / 2 = 500 A 51N = 500 / 2 = 250 A

13 kV BUS

FAULT at MIDLINE
3LG = 2000 A
1LG = 1000 A

MIN FAULT at END OF LINE


3LG = 1000 A
1LG = 500 A

33
Electromechanical Relays
used on Distribution Feeders

500A FEEDER SETTINGS


51P = 960 A
51N = 480 A

13 kV BUS
SECTION
LOAD = 500 A

34
Electromechanical Relays
used on Distribution Feeders

500A FEEDER SETTINGS


51P = 960 A
51N = 480 A N.O.
13 kV BUS
SECTION SECTION
LOAD = 500 A LOAD = 250 A
SECTION
LOAD = 250 A

35
Electromechanical Relays
used on Distribution Feeders

Reclosing

• Most overhead feeders also use reclosing capability to automatically re-energize the feeder
for temporary faults. Most distribution reclosing relays have the capability of providing up to three
or four recloses.
-- Avista uses either one fast or one fast and one time delayed reclose to lockout.
• The reclosing relay also provides a reset time generally adjustable from about 10 seconds to
three minutes. This means if we run through the reclosing sequence and trip again within the reset
time, the reclosing relay will lockout and the breaker will have to be closed by manual means. The
time to reset from the lockout position is 3 to 6 seconds for EM reclosing relays.
-- Avista uses reset times ranging from 90 to 180 seconds.
• Lockout only for faults within the protected zone. That is; won’t lockout for faults beyond
fuses, line reclosers etc.
• Most distribution reclosing relays also have the capability of blocking instantaneous tripping.
-- Avista normally blocks the INST tripping after the first trip to provide for a Fuse Protecting
Scheme.

36
Electromechanical Relays
used on Distribution Feeders

Reclosing – Sequence shown for a permanent fault

13 kV BUS

RECLOSING SEQUENCE

Closed
Open
0.5" 12" LOCKOUT

RESET = 120"
(INST Blocked during Reset Time)

37
Distribution Fusing – Fuse Protection/Saving Scheme

10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7


1000 1000

700 700
2
500 500
400 400

300 300

200 200

Fault on fused lateral on an overhead feeder: 100 100

- Station or midline 51 element back up fuse. 70 70

50 50
1
- Station or midline 50 element protects fuse. 40

30
40

30

20 20

During fault: S
E
10 10

• Trip and clear the fault at the station (or line


C
O 7 7
N
D 5 5
S 4 4
recloser) by the instantaneous trip before the fuse 3 3

is damaged for a lateral fault. 2 2

• Reclose the breaker. That way if the fault were 1

.7
STATION FEEDER RELAYING
1. M15 515 GND TIME CO-11 TD=4.000
CTR=160 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.0192s
1

.7

temporary the feeder is completely re-energized .5


.4
3. M15 50N CO-11 INST TD=1.000
CTR=160 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s .5
.4

and back to normal. .3


MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE

2. Moscow 515 Kear 140T Kearney 140T


.3

• During the reclose the reclosing relay has to


.2 Total clear. .2

.1 .1
block the instantaneous trip from tripping again. .07 .07

That way, if the fault still exists you force the .05
.04
3 .05
.04

.03 .03

time delay trip and the fuse will blow before you .02 .02

trip the feeder again thus isolating the fault and .01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7

re-energizing most of the customers. M15 515 51N to 140T


CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By Protection

• Of course if the fault were on the main trunk For


Comment
Aspen File: HORS M15 EXP.olr No.
Date 3/06

the breaker will trip to lockout. 38


Distribution Fusing – Fuse Protection for Temporary Faults
1000
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000
Shows the maximum fault current for which
700 700

500
1
500
S&C type T fuses can still be protected by a
400 400

300 2 3 300 recloser/breaker instantaneous trip for


200 200
temporary faults (minimum melt curve at 0.1
100 100 seconds):
70

50
70

50
6T – 120 amps
40

30
40

30
8T – 160 amps
20 20 10T – 225 amps
S 10
1. BR1 S&C 140T S&C Link140T
Minimum melt. 10
12T – 300 amps
E
C
O
N
7 7 15T – 390 amps
5 5
D
S 4 3. M15 515 S&C 80T S&C Link 80T
Minimum melt.
4 20T – 500 amps
3 3

2 2
25T – 640 amps
2. ENDTAP S&C 40T S&C Link 40T
Minimum melt. 30T – 800 amps
1 1

.7 .7
40T – 1040 amps
.5
.4
.5
.4
50T – 1300 amps
.3 .3
65T – 1650 amps
.2 .2

80T – 2050 amps


.1 .1
100T – 2650 amps
.07 .07

.05 .05 140T – 3500 amps


.04 .04

.03 .03 200T – 5500 amps


.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage By


For
Comment
No.
Date 39
Distribution Fusing – Fuse to Fuse Coordination

NOTE: These values were taken from the S&C data bulletin 350-170 of March 28, 1988 based on no
preloading and then preloading of the source side fuse link. Preloading is defined as the source side
fuse carrying load amps equal to it’s rating prior to the fault. This means there was prior heating of
that fuse so it doesn’t take as long to blow for a given fault.
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 700
2
500 500
400 400

300 1 300

200 200

100 100
1. T FUSE S&C Link100T
Minimum melt.
70 70
2. 251 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T
50 Total clear. 50
40 40

30 30

20 20

S 10 10
E
C
O 7 7
N
D 5 5
S 4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

.7 .7

.5 .5
.4 .4

.3 .3

.2 .2

.1 .1

.07 .07

.05 .05
.04 .04

.03 .03

.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage By


For No.
Comment Date
40
Distribution Fusing – S&C T-Fuse Current Ratings

Typical continuous and 8 hour emergency rating of the S&C T rated silver fuse links plus the 140T
and 200T.

10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7


1000 1000

700 700
1
500 500
400 400

300 300

200 200

100 100

70 70

50 50
40 40

30 30

20 20

1. BR1 S&C 140T S&C Link140T


S 10 Minimum melt. 10
E
C
O 7 7
N
D 5 5
S 4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1

.7 .7

.5 .5
.4 .4

.3 .3

.2 .2

.1 .1

.07 .07

.05 .05
.04 .04

.03 .03

.02 .02

General Rule: Fuse Blows at 2X Rating in 5 Minutes .01 .01


10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

T IME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage By


For No.
Comment Date

41
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 5 1000

Coordinating Time Intervals 700

500
4
700

500
400 400

300 6 300
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.06710 A=556000.0 cmils
Conductor AAC
200 FEEDER 252 SMALLEST CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT 200

B. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3


Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.
100 IDAHO RD 12/16/20 MVA XFMR 100

70 70

50 50
40 40

30 30
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
HI-SIDE CT'S
20 1. IDR A-777 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200 20
CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s
Ia= 679.8A (5.7 sec A) T= 0.78s H=8.33

S 10 10
E
Typical Coordinating Time Intervals (CTI) C
O 7
STATION VCB 252 PROTECTION
2 7
N
that Avista generally uses between protective D
S
5
4
2. IDR 252 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s 1
5
4
Ia= 5665.9A (35.4 sec A) T= 0.30s
devices. 3
3. IDR 252 50G 351S INST TD=1.000
3

Other utilities may use different times. 2 CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
3Io= 0.0A (0.0 sec A) T=9999s
5f B 2

MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE

1 4. 252 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T 1


Total clear. FAULT DESCRIPTION:

DEVICES: CTI .7
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.09s
MIDLINE OCR
Bus Fault on: 0 IDR 252 13.8 kV 3LG
.7

.5 .5
(Sec.) .4
5. Phase unit of recloser MID LINE OCR
Fast: ME-341-B Mult=0.2 .4
Slow: ME-305-A Add=1000.
Relay – Fuse Total Clear 0.2 .3 Ia= 5665.9A T(Fast)= 0.03s

MAXIMUM MIDLINE FUSE


.3

.2 .2
Relay – Series Trip Recloser 0.4 6. T FUSE S&C Link 50T
Minimum melt.
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.01s
Relay – Relayed Line Recloser 0.3 .1 .1 A

Lo Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .07 .07

.05 .05
Hi Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .04 .04

Xfmr Fuse Min Melt – Feeder Relay 0.4 .03 .03

.02 .02

Fault I=5665.9 A
.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

HORS 2010 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH


For Idaho Rd Feeder 252 in Idaho Rd PHASE 1 2007base.olr No.
Comment At Sub: 3LG=5667A, SLG=5863A, L-L=4909A Date 11-25-2008

42
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 5 1000

Coordinating Time Intervals 700

500
4
700

500
400 400

300 6 300
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.06710 A=556000.0 cmils
Conductor AAC
200 FEEDER 252 SMALLEST CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT 200

B. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3


Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.
100 IDAHO RD 12/16/20 MVA XFMR 100

70 70

50 50
40 40

30 30
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
HI-SIDE CT'S
20 1. IDR A-777 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200 20
CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s
Ia= 679.8A (5.7 sec A) T= 0.78s H=8.33

S 10 10
E
Typical Coordinating Time Intervals (CTI) C
O 7
STATION VCB 252 PROTECTION
2 7
N
that Avista generally uses between protective D
S
5
4
2. IDR 252 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s 1
5
4
Ia= 5665.9A (35.4 sec A) T= 0.30s
devices. 3
3. IDR 252 50G 351S INST TD=1.000
3

Other utilities may use different times. 2 CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
3Io= 0.0A (0.0 sec A) T=9999s
5f B 2

MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE

1 4. 252 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T 1


Total clear. FAULT DESCRIPTION:

DEVICES: CTI .7
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.09s
MIDLINE OCR
Bus Fault on: 0 IDR 252 13.8 kV 3LG
.7

.5 .5
(Sec.) .4
5. Phase unit of recloser MID LINE OCR
Fast: ME-341-B Mult=0.2 .4
Slow: ME-305-A Add=1000.
Relay – Fuse Total Clear 0.2 .3 Ia= 5665.9A T(Fast)= 0.03s

MAXIMUM MIDLINE FUSE


.3

.2 .2
Relay – Series Trip Recloser 0.4 6. T FUSE S&C Link 50T
Minimum melt.
Ia= 5665.9A T= 0.01s
Relay – Relayed Line Recloser 0.3 .1 .1 A

Lo Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .07 .07

.05 .05
Hi Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .04 .04

Xfmr Fuse Min Melt – Feeder Relay 0.4 .03 .03

.02 .02

Fault I=5665.9 A
.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

HORS 2010 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH


For Idaho Rd Feeder 252 in Idaho Rd PHASE 1 2007base.olr No.
Comment At Sub: 3LG=5667A, SLG=5863A, L-L=4909A Date 11-25-2008

43
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=133100.0 cmils 700


Conductor ACSR AWG Size 2/0

Coordinating Time Intervals 500


400 RATHDRUM FDR 231 PROTECTION

300
19. RAT 231 51P CO-11 CO-11 TD=1.800
17 18
MIDLINE C390 FED FROM RAT 231 - MINIMUM CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT

B. Conductor damage curve. k=0.06710 A=556000.0 cmils


500
400

300
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4533s Conductor AAC
MIDLINE C390 FED FROM HUE 142 - MINIMUM CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT
200 16. RAT 231 50P CO-11 INST TD=1.000 200
CTR=800/5 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

15. RAT 231 51N CO-11 CO-11 TD=5.000


CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.3192s
100 100

14. RAT 231 50N CO-11 INST TD=1.000 13


70 CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s 70
15
50 50
40 HUETTER FDR 142 PROTECTION 40
RECLOSE IS 1SEC, 12 SEC, LO, 180 SEC RESET
30 6. HUE 142 51P 251 SEL-EI TD=1.500 30
CTR=160 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s

20 19 20
5. HUE 142 50P 251 INST TD=1.000 1
4 10 11
CTR=160 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s 8

10. HUE 142 51N 251 SEL-EI TD=4.000


S 10 CTR=160 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.0858s 10
E
C
O 7 9. HUE 142 50N 251 INST TD=1.000 6 7

Typical Coordinating Time Intervals (CTI) N


D
S
5
CTR=160 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

11. HUE 142 51Q 251 SEL-EI TD=4.000


5

that Avista generally uses between protective 4

3
CTR=160 Pickup=5.2A No inst. TP@5=1.0858s 4

3
HUE 142 MID C270R PROTECTION
devices. 2
CALLED "HUE 142 LINE" IN POWERBASE
RECLOSE IS 1SEC, 12SEC, LO, 120 SEC RESET 2

Other utilities may use different times. 8. HUE ML C270R 51P CO-11 TD=1.500
CTR=400/5 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.3766s

1 7. HUE ML C270R 50P INST TD=1.000 1


CTR=400/5 Pickup=8.1A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
.7 .7
13. HUE ML C270R 51N CO-11 TD=7.000

DEVICES: CTI .5
CTR=400/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.8052s
.5
.4 12. HUE ML C270R 50N INST TD=1.000 .4
(Sec.) .3
CTR=400/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
.3

Relay – Fuse Total Clear 0.2 .2


MIDLINE 390R PROTECTION
1. C390R MID 51P CO-9 CO-9 TD=2.500 .2
CTR=300/5 Pickup=5.A No inst. TP@5=0.6037s

Relay – Series Trip Recloser 0.4 2. C390R MID 50P CO-9 INST TD=1.000
CTR=300/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
.1 A .1 B
Relay – Relayed Line Recloser 0.3 .07 4. C390R MID 51N CO-9 CO-9 TD=2.500 .07
CTR=300/5 Pickup=5.A No inst. TP@5=0.6037s
Lo Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .05
3. C390R MID 50N CO-9 INST TD=1.000
12 3 2 9
14 7 5
16 .05
.04 CTR=300/5 Pickup=5.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s .04
Hi Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .03 .03
LARGEST DOWNSTREAM FUSE FROM 390R MIDLINE

Xfmr Fuse Min Melt – Feeder Relay 0.4 .02


17. HUE 142 FUSE S&C Link 65T
Total clear. .02

18. RAT 231 FUSE S&C Link100T


Total clear.
.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

RAT 231 MID C390R TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH


For Huetter feeder 142 (2008) Rat feeder 231 (2009+) Midline Recloser C390R No.
Comment Saved in: HUE142-RAT231 MID C390R 2007base.olr Date 2-25-08

44
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 700
11
500 500

Coordinating Time Intervals 400

300
400

300
A. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=133100.0 cmils
Conductor ACSR AWG Size 2/0
200 FEEDER 251 SMALLEST CONDUCTOR TO PROTECT 200

B. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3


Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.2 percent.
100 IDAHO RD 12/16/20 MVA XFMR 100

70 70

50 50
40 40

30 30
TRANSFORMER PROTECTION 3
HI-SIDE CT'S
20 1. IDR A-777 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200 5
4 20
9
CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s 10
H=8.33
2. IDR A-777 51G 351 SEL-VI TD=1.000
S 10 CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.A No inst. TP@5=0.258s 10
E H=8.33
C 4. IDR A-777 51Q 351 SEL-EI TD=4.200
7 CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.3A No inst. TP@5=1.1401s 7 7
O
N H=8.33
5 LO-SIDE CT'S 5
Typical Coordinating Time Intervals (CTI) D
S 4 3. IDR A-777 51N 351 SEL-EI TD=5.700
CTR=1200/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.5473s
1 4
2
that Avista generally uses between protective 3
5. IDR A-777 51Q 587 W2 SEL-EI TD=4.300
CTR=1200/5 Pickup=5.4A No inst. TP@5=1.1672s
3

2 B 2
devices.
Other utilities may use different times. 1
STATION VCB 251 PROTECTION
7. IDR 251 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
1
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s
.7 .7
6. IDR 251 50P 351S INST TD=1.000
.5 CTR=800/5 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s .5

DEVICES: CTI .4
9. IDR 251 51G 351S SEL-EI TD=3.900
.4

.3 .3
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.0587s
(Sec.) .2 8. IDR 251 50G 351S INST TD=1.000 .2

Relay – Fuse Total Clear 0.2 CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

10. IDR 251 51Q 351S SEL-EI TD=3.500


Relay – Series Trip Recloser 0.4 .1 CTR=800/5 Pickup=5.2A No inst. TP@5=0.9501s A .1

.07 .07
Relay – Relayed Line Recloser 0.3 .05
MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE
8 6 .05
MINIMUM FAULT TO DETECT:
Lo Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .04 3LG=2460A, SLG=1833A, L-L=2130A
11. 251 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T
.04

.03 .03

Hi Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .02


Total clear.

.02

Xfmr Fuse Min Melt – Feeder Relay 0.4


.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

IDR FEEDER 251 TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH


For Idaho Rd Feeder 251 in Idaho Rd PHASE 1 2007base.olr No.
Comment At Sub: 3LG=5667A, SLG=5863A, L-L=4909A Date 11-25-2008

45
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000

700 700
1

Coordinating Time Intervals 500


400

300
500
400

300
6

200 200

100 100
A. Transf. damage curve. 7.50 MVA. Category 3
70 Base I=313.78 A. Z= 6.9 percent. 70
Latah Jct 13.8kV - LATAHJCT115 115.kV T
50 50
40 40
B. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=105500.0 cmils
30 Conductor ACSR AWG Size 1/0 30

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION 5
20 20
1. SMD-2B 65E VERY SLOW 176-19-065
Minimum melt. 3
H=8.33
S 10 FEEDER VCB PROTECTION 10
E
C 3. LAT421 51P CO-9 CO-9 TD=1.900
O 7 7
Typical Coordinating Time Intervals (CTI) N
D 5
CTR=600/5 Pickup=4.A No inst. TP@5=0.4618s

5. LAT421 51N CO-9 CO-9 TD=3.000


5
S
that Avista generally uses between protective 4

3
CTR=600/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.7228s 4

3
2. LAT421 50P CO-9 INST TD=1.000
devices. 2
CTR=600/5 Pickup=4.6A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
A 2

Other utilities may use different times. 4. LAT421 50N CO-9 INST TD=1.000
CTR=600/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

1 1

.7 MAXIMUM FEEDER FUSE .7

DEVICES: CTI .5
6. LAT421 FUSE S&C Link100T
Total clear.
.5
.4 .4
(Sec.) .3 .3

Relay – Fuse Total Clear 0.2 .2 .2

Relay – Series Trip Recloser 0.4


B
Relay – Relayed Line Recloser 0.3 .1 .1

.07 .07
Lo Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .05 4 2 .05

Hi Side Xfmr Relay – Feeder Relay 0.4 .04

.03
.04

.03

Xfmr Fuse Min Melt – Feeder Relay 0.4 .02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 KV By


For No.
Comment Date

46
1
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000
700 700
500 1. Moscow515 Kear 140T Kearney140T 500
Coordinating Time Intervals 400
300
Minimummelt.
I= 5158.1A T= 0.10s
400
300

200 2. M15-515 Phase Time CO-11 TD=1.500 200


CTR=160 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.3766s
I= 5158.1A (32.2 sec A) T= 0.33s
100 100
70 3. M15 A-172 Phase CO- 9 TD=1.500 70
50 CTR=120 Pickup=2.A Inst=1200A TP@5=0.3605s 50
3LG Fault Coordination 40
30
I= 619.0A (5.2 sec A) T= 1.03s H=8.33
40
30
Example: 20
2
20

S 10 10
E 3
Top – Ckt Swr w/ Phase E-M relay C 7 7
O 5 5
N 4 4
D
3 3
S
----- 0.4 sec. ------ 2 2

1 1
Middle - E-M Phase relay for a 500 .7 .7

Amp Feeder .5
.4
.5
.4
.3 .3
.2 .2
----- 0.2 sec. ------
.1 .1
.07 .07
Bottom – 140T Feeder Fuse (Total .05 .05
.04 .04
Clear) .03 FAULT DESCRIPTION: .03
Close-In Fault on: 0 MoscowCity#2 13.8kV - 0 BUS1 TAP 13.8kV 1L 3LG
.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @Voltage 13.8 kV By DLH


For M15 A-172 CS with fdr 515 with Kearney140T Fuse No.
Comment Three Phase Fault Date 12/12/05
47
1
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000
700 700
1. Moscow 515 Kear 140T Kearney140T
500 500
Coordinating Time Intervals 400
300
Minimummelt.
I=5346.4A T= 0.09s 400
300
2. M15 515 GND TIME CO-11 TD=4.000
200 CTR=160 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.0192s 200
I= 5346.5A (33.4 sec A) T= 0.29s
3. M15-515 Phase Time CO-11 TD=1.500
100 CTR=160 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.3766s 100
I= 5346.4A (33.4 sec A) T= 0.31s
70 70
50 50
SLG Fault Coordination 40
30
2 4 4. M15 A-172 GND TIME CO-11 TD=4.000
CTR=240 Pickup=4.A No inst. TP@5=1.0192s
40
30
I= 5346.5A (22.3 sec A) T= 0.83s
Example: 20
3
20

S 10 10
E
Top – Ckt Swr w/ E-M Phase relay C 7 7
O 5 5
N 4 4
D
3 3
S
----- 0.4 sec. ------ 2 2

1 1
Middle - E-M relays (Phase & .7 .7

Ground) for a 500 Amp Feeder .5


.4
.5
.4
.3 .3
.2 .2
----- 0.2 sec. ------
.1 .1
.07 .07
Bottom – 140T Feeder Fuse (Total .05 .05
.04 .04
Clear) .03 .03

.02 FAULT DESCRIPTION: .02


Close-In Fault on: 0 MoscowCity#2 13.8kV - 0 BUS1 TAP 13.8kV 1L 1LG Type=A

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @Voltage 13.8 kV By DLH


For MoscowCS with fdr 515 with 140T fuses No.
Comment Single Line to Ground Fault Date 12/12/05
48
1
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
1000 1000
700 700
1. Moscow515 Kear 140T Kearney140T
500 Minimummelt. 500
Coordinating Time Intervals 400
300
I= 4467.0A T= 0.12s 400
300
2. M15-515 Phase Time CO-11 TD=1.500
200 CTR=160 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.3766s 200
I= 4467.0A (27.9 sec A) T= 0.43s

100 3. M15 A-172 Phase CO- 9 TD=1.500 100


CTR=120 Pickup=2.A Inst=1200A TP@5=0.3605s
70 I= 619.0A (5.2 sec A) T= 1.03s H=8.33 70

L-L Fault Coordination 50


40
50
40
30 30
Example: 20 20
2

S 10 10
E 3
Top – Ckt Swr w/ E-M relay C 7
O 5
7
5
N 4 4
D
3 3
S
----- 0.4 sec. ------ 2 2

1 1
Middle - E-M (Phase) relay for a 500 .7 .7

Amp Feeder .5
.4
.5
.4
.3 .3
.2 .2
----- 0.2 sec. ------
.1 .1
.07 .07
Bottom – 140T Feeder Fuse (Total .05 .05
.04 .04
Clear) .03
FAULT DESCRIPTION:
.03

.02 Close-In Fault on: 0 MoscowCity#2 13.8kV - 0 BUS1 TAP 13.8kV 1L LL Type=B-C .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

TIME-CURRENT CURVES @Voltage 13.8 kV By DLH


For MoscowCS A-172 with fdr 515 with 140T Fuse No.
Comment Line to Line Fault Date
49
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7

The Final Product 1000

700
17
1000

700
5

500 A. Transf. damage curve. 12.00 MVA. Category 3 500


TRANSFORMER PROTECTION Base I=502.00 A. Z= 8.4 percent.
400 400

An example of a completed 13.8kV 300


1. INT A-742 51P 351 SEL-VI TD=1.200
CTR=600/5 Pickup=2.A No inst. TP@5=0.3096s
H=8.33
INDIAN TRAIL 12/16/20 MVA XFMR

B. Conductor damage curve. k=0.14040 A=52630.0 cmils


Conductor Copper (bare) AWG Size 2
300

2. INT A-742 51G 351 SEL-VI TD=1.000 NORTH BRANCH SMALLEST TRUNK CONDUCTOR

Feeder Coordination Study with 20 200 CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.A No inst. TP@5=0.258s


H=8.33
4. INT A-742 51Q 351 SEL-EI TD=4.200
C. Conductor damage curve. k=0.04704 A=350000.0 cmils
Cable XLPE 90C/250C
EAST BRANCH SMALLEST TRUNK CONDUCTOR - 350 CN15
200

CTR=600/5 Pickup=1.3A No inst. TP@5=1.1401s

Time-Current Curves representing: 100


H=8.33

3. INT A-742 51N 351 SEL-EI TD=5.600


CTR=1200/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.5201s
D. Conductor damage curve. k=0.08620 A=105500.0 cmils
Conductor ACSR AWG Size 2/0
WEST BRANCH SMALLEST TRUNK CONDUCTOR
100

70 70
11. INT A-742 51Q 587 W2 SEL-EI TD=4.300
50 CTR=1200/5 Pickup=5.4A No inst. TP@5=1.1672s 50

40 STATION VCB 12F2 PROTECTION 40

Instantaneous & Time-Delay Curves 30


7. INT 12F2 51P 351S SEL-EI TD=1.500
CTR=800/5 Pickup=6.A No inst. TP@5=0.4072s
3
30

6. INT 12F2 50P 351S INST TD=1.000 11

for the: 20 CTR=800/5 Pickup=7.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s

9. INT 12F2 51G 351S SEL-EI TD=3.900


15
9 9&
15
16
10
11
4 &4 20

CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=1.0587s

- Transformer high side protection, S


E
C
O
10
8. INT 12F2 50G 351S INST TD=1.000
CTR=800/5 Pickup=3.A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
13

7
10

7 7
N

- Transformer low side protection, D


S 5

4
10. INT 12F2 51Q 351S SEL-EI TD=3.500
CTR=800/5 Pickup=5.2A No inst. TP@5=0.9501s
1
5

- Station feeder breaker protection, 3


12F2 MIDLINE 466R PROTECTION
13. F2 MID 466R 51P 351R SEL-EI TD=2.300
CTR=500/1 Pickup=1.44A No inst. TP@5=0.6243s
2
3

- Midline feeder breaker protection. 2


12. F2 MID 466R 50P 351R INST TD=1.000
CTR=500/1 Pickup=1.68A No inst. TP@5=0.048s
2

15. F2 MID 466R 51G 351R SEL-EI TD=4.200


1 CTR=500/1 Pickup=0.89A No inst. TP@5=1.1401s 1

14. F2 MID 466R 50G 351R INST TD=1.000


.7 CTR=500/1 Pickup=0.89A No inst. TP@5=0.048s .7

Two Fuses .5

.4
16. F2 MID 466R 51Q 351R SEL-EI TD=3.800
CTR=500/1 Pickup=1.54A No inst. TP@5=1.0315s
.5

.4

.3 .3

.2 .2

Transformer Damage Curve EAST BRANCH - FEEDER MAXIMUM FUSE


FAULT DUTY AT 150E; 3LG=2318, LL=2008, SLG=1684
.1 B D C .1
5. INT F2 150E FUSE SMU-20_150E
Total clear.
.07 .07
WEST OR NORTH BRANCH - FEEDER MAXIMUM FUSE

Three Conductor Damage Curves .05

.04
FAULT DUTY AT 140T - WHEN FED FROM WEST MID 466R
3LG=2093, LL=1813, SLG=1520
FAULT DUTY AT 140T - WHEN FED FROM NORTH (N.O. PT)
148 12 6 .05

.04
3LG=1932, LL=1673, SLG=1388
.03 17. INT F2 140T FUSE stn S&C Link140T .03
Total clear.

.02 .02

.01 .01
10 2 3 4 5 7 100 2 3 4 5 7 1000 2 3 4 5 7 10000 2 3 4 5 7
CURRENT (A)

INT 12F2 & MID 466R TIME-CURRENT CURVES @ Voltage 13.8 kV By JDH
For Indian Trail feeder 12F2 and 12F2 Midline 466R in INT 2007base.olr No.
Comment AT SUB: 3LG= 5719A, LL=4951A, SLG= 5880A Date 1-29-08

50
IEEE Device Designations commonly used in Distribution Protection

Avista sometimes adds letters to these such as F for feeders, T for transformers, B for bus and BF for
breaker failure.

2 – Time delay relay. 52/a – Circuit breaker auxiliary switch closed


27 – Undervoltage relay. when the breaker is closed.
43 – Manual transfer or selective device. 52/b – Circuit breaker auxiliary switch closed
We use these for cutting in and out when the breaker is open.
instantaneous overcurrent relays, 59 – Overvoltage relay.
reclosing relays etc. 62 – Time Delay relay
50 (or 50P) – Instantaneous overcurrent 63 – Sudden pressure relay.
phase relay. 79 – AC Reclosing relay.
50N (or 50G) – Instantaneous overcurrent 81 – Frequency relay.
ground (or neutral) relay. 86 – Lock out relay which has several contacts.
50Q – Instantaneous Negative Sequence Avista uses 86T for a transformer lockout,
overcurrent relay. 86B for a bus lockout etc.
51 (or 51P) – Time delay overcurrent phase 87 – Differential relay.
relay. 94 – Auxiliary tripping relay.
51N (or 51G) – Time delay overcurrent
ground (or neutral) relay.
51Q – Time delay Negative Sequence
overcurrent relay.
52 – AC circuit breaker.
51
Mike’s Turn

52
Distribution Transformer
Electromechanical Relays

Criteria (for outdoor bus arrangement, not switchgear)

ƒ Protect the Transformer from thermal damage


- Refer to Damage Curves

ƒ Backup feeder protection (as much as possible)


- Sensitivity is limited because load is higher

ƒ Coordinate with downstream devices (feeder relays)

ƒ Carry normal maximum load (phase only)

ƒ Pick up Cold Load after outages

53
Distribution Transformer
Electromechanical Relays - Setting Criteria

Relays:
ƒ 3 High Side Phase Overcurrent (with time and instantaneous elements)
ƒ 1 Low Side Ground Overcurrent (with time and instantaneous elements)
ƒ Sudden Pressure Relay

54
Distribution Transformer
Electromechanical Relays - Setting Criteria
Phase Overcurrent Settings – Current measured on 115kV side
ƒ 51P Pickup (time overcurrent)
ƒ Don’t trip for load or cold load pickup (use 2.4 * highest MVA rating)
ƒ Ends up being higher than the feeder phase element pickup
ƒ Example: 12/16/20 MVA unit would use 2.4*20*5 = 240 amps (1940A low side)

ƒ51P Time Lever (time dial)


ƒ Coordinate with feeder relays for maximum fault (close in feeder fault)
ƒ CTI is 0.4 seconds
ƒ Worst coordination case: Ø-Ø on low side (discrepancy due to delta/wye conn.)
ƒ Multiple feeder load can make the transformer relay operate faster

ƒ50P Pickup (instantaneous overcurrent)


ƒ Must not trip for feeder faults Æ set at 170% of low side bus fault
ƒ Accounts for DC offset
55
Distribution Transformer
Electromechanical Relays - Setting Criteria

Ground Overcurrent Settings – Current measured on 13.8 kV side


ƒ 51N Pickup (time overcurrent)
ƒ Set to same sensitivity as feeder phase relay (in case the feeder ground relay is failed)
ƒ This setting is higher than the feeder ground, so we lose some sensitivity for backup

ƒ51N Time Lever (time dial)


ƒ Coordinate with feeder relays for ground faults
ƒ CTI is 0.4 seconds

ƒ50N Pickup (instantaneous overcurrent)


ƒ DO NOT USE!!!!

56
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Advantages:

ƒ More precise TAP settings

ƒ More Relay Elements

ƒ Programmable Logic / Buttons

ƒ Lower burden to CT

ƒ Event Reports!!!!!!!!!

ƒ Remote Communications

ƒ Coordinate with like elements


(faster)

ƒ More Settings
Microprocessor Relay
57
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Elements We Set:
ƒ 51P
ƒ 50P
ƒ 50P2 (FTB)
ƒ 51G
ƒ 50G (115kV)
ƒ 51N (13.8kV)
ƒ 50N1 (FTB)

FTB = Fast Trip Block (feeder relays must be Microprocessor)

58
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Transformer Phase Overcurrent Settings - Current measured on 115kV Side


ƒ 51P - Phase Time Overcurrent Pickup
ƒ Set to 240% of nameplate (same as EM relay)
ƒ 51P Time Dial
ƒ Set to coordinate with feeder’s fastest element for each fault
ƒ CTI is still 0.4 seconds

ƒ 50P1 – Phase instantaneous #1 Pickup


ƒ Direct Trip
ƒ Set to 130% of max 13.8 kV fault (vs. 170% with EM relay)

ƒ 50P2 – Phase instantaneous pickup for Fast Trip Block scheme


ƒ Set above transformer inrush
ƒ 4 Cycle time delay
59
ƒ Blocked if any feeder overcurrent elements are picked up
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Transformer Ground Overcurrent Settings - Current calculated from 115kV CTs


ƒ 51G - Ground Time Overcurrent Pickup
ƒ Set very low (will not see low side ground faults due to transformer
connection). Usually 120 Amps.
ƒ 51GTime Dial
ƒ Set very low

ƒ 50G1 – Ground Instantaneous #1 Pickup


ƒ Set very low. Usually 120 Amps.

Symmetrical
Components!
60
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Transformer Neutral Overcurrent Settings - Current measured by neutral CT or


calculated from 13.8kV CTs.
ƒ 51N - Ground Time Overcurrent Pickup
ƒ Set slightly higher than feeder ground pickup (about 1.3 times)
ƒ 51NTime Dial
ƒ Set to coordinate with feeder ground
ƒ CTI is 0.4 seconds

ƒ 50N1 – Ground Instantaneous for Fast Trip Block


ƒ Set slightly above the feeder ground instantaneous pickup
ƒ Time Delay by 4 cycles
ƒ Blocked if Feeder overcurrent elements are picked up

61
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

ƒ Inrush – The current seen when


energizing a transformer.
ƒ Need to account for inrush when using
instantaneous elements (regular or FTB).
ƒ Inrush can be approximately 8 times the
nameplate of a transformer.

Note that the microprocessor relay only responds to the 60 HZ fundamental and that this
fundamental portion of inrush current is ≅ 60% of the total. So to calculate a setting, we could use
the 8 times rule of thumb along with the 60% value. For a 12/16/20 MVA transformer, the
expected inrush would be 8*12*5*0.6 = 288 amps. We set a little above this number (360 Amps).

62
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Transformer inrush UNFILTERED Transformer inrush FILTERED current


current. The peak current is about 1800 (filtered by digital filters to show
amps. basically only 60 HZ). Peak is about
700 amps.

63
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays
Elements We Set:
Microprocessor Feeder Relay ƒ 51P
ƒ Overcurrent ƒ 50P
ƒ Reclosing ƒ 51G
ƒ Fast Trip Block Output ƒ 50G
ƒ Breaker Failure Output ƒ 51Q

64
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Feeder Phase Overcurrent Settings


ƒ 51P - Phase Time Overcurrent Pickup
ƒ Set above load and cold load (960 Amps for 500 Amp feeder)
ƒ Same as EM pickup
ƒ 51P Time Dial
ƒ Same as EM relay (coordinate with downstream protection with CTI)
ƒ Select a curve

ƒ 50P – Phase instantaneous Pickup


ƒ Set the same as the 51P pickup (960 Amps)

65
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Feeder Ground Overcurrent Settings


ƒ 51G - Phase Time Overcurrent Pickup
ƒ Same as EM pickup which is 480 Amps
ƒ 51G Time Dial
ƒ Same as EM relay (coordinate with downstream protection)
ƒ Select a curve

ƒ 50G – Phase instantaneous Pickup


ƒ Set the same as the 51G pickup

66
Distribution Transformer & Feeder Protection
with Microprocessor Relays

Feeder Negative Sequence Overcurrent Settings


ƒ 51Q - Negative Sequence Time Overcurrent Pickup
ƒ Set with equivalent sensitivity as the ground element (not affected by load)
ƒ Coordinate with downstream protection
ƒ 51Q Time Dial
ƒ Same as EM relay (coordinate with downstream protection)
ƒ Select a curve

ƒ 50Q – Negative Sequence instantaneous Pickup


ƒ DON’T USE!!!!!
ƒ Contributions from motors during external faults could trip this

67
Transformer Differential Protection

• The differential relay is connected to both the high and low side transformer BCT’s.

• EM Differential Relay
Since the distribution transformer is connected delta – wye the transformer CT’s
have to be set wye – delta to compensate for the phase shift.

68
Transformer Differential Protection – External Fault
PRI I
SEC I
CURRENT FLOW THROUGH AN E/M 87 DIFFERENTIAL
RELAY FOR AN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FAULT
CT POLARITY MARK

BCT'S
87 EXTERNAL FAULT
R1 THE SECONDARY CURRENTS FLOW THROUGH BOTH
RESTRAINT COILS IN THE SAME DIRECTION AND THEN
CIRCULATE BACK THROUGH THE CT'S. THEY DO NOT
FLOW THROUGH THE OPERATE COIL

87
OP

87
R2

BCT'S

PRI I SEC I

69
Transformer Differential Protection – Internal Fault
PRI I

SEC I

CT POLARITY MARK

BCT'S 87
R1

87 INTERNAL FAULT
OP THE SECONDARY CURRENTS FLOW THROUGH BOTH
RESTRAINT COILS IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS, ADD
AND THEN FLOW THROUGH THE OPERATE COIL AND
87 BACK TO THE RESPECTIVE CT'S
R2

BCT'S

SEC I

PRI I

70
HANDOUT
MOSCOW FEEDER 515 PROTECTION EXAMPLE

• Where do we start the protection design?


– Gather Information:
• The feeder rating is 500 Amps.
• The fault duty at the bus is 5,188 for a 3Ø fault and 5,346 for a SLG

71
Where do we start (Cont’d)

• What other information do we have/need?


– This feeder already has a line recloser and the Field Engineer
wants to keep the same location. Reason for coordination was
replacing the older recloser with a newer relayed recloser.
– We then have to run feeder fault studies (normally done by a
Distribution Engineer) and look at the feeder configuration so we
know what fusing and relay settings to use.
– We then generally start near the end of the feeder and work back
towards the substation. A lot of times though we have to go back
and forth because our first choice of a fuse size may not work
correctly when we figure out the protection towards the substation
and we have to make compromises.

72
How do we proceed?

• At each coordination point


– Temporary Faults - From Table 1
• What can a fuse be protected up to
– Fuse-to-Fuse Coordination - From Table 2
• What will coordinate with the downstream device
– Fuse Loading – From Table 3
• Are we above the fuse rating
– Conductor Protection - From Table 7
• minimum conductor that can be protected by the feeder settings or
fuse
– Fault Detection
• Can we detect the fault by our 2:1 margin

73
Begin at the END

• NOTE: The actual Moscow feeder 515 does not look


exactly like this even though the substation and line
recloser settings we will arrive at are the actual settings.
• POINT 8: This is a customers load and we are using 3-250 KVA
transformers to serve the load. The full load of this size of bank is 31.4
amps. The Avista transformer fusing standard says to use a 65T on this
transformer so that’s what we’ll choose.
• POINT 7: This is the end of a 3Ø lateral and the fault duty is: 3Ø = 322
amps and SLG = 271 amps

74
POINT 6B:
• What we know:
– 3Ø lateral feeding to a 65T at the end
– #4 ACSR exists.

• Coordination:
– Temporary Faults - From Table 1 we see that an 80T fuse can be protected up to
2,050 amps for temporary faults and the 3Ø fault is 1,907 amps so we could choose
an 80T or higher from that standpoint
– Fuse-to-Fuse Coordination – From Table 2, we see that we need an 80T, or larger,
fuse to coordinate with the downstream 65T fuses (at fault duties < 1400A
w/preload)
– Conductor Protection - From Table 7 we see that #4 ACSR can be protected by a
100T or smaller fuse
– Fault Detection - Under the Relay Setting Criteria we want to detect the minimum
end fault with a 2:1 margin. The SLG is 463 so the maximum fuse we could use
would be: 463/2 (2:1 margin) = 231 amps so the largest fuse we could use is 231/2
(blows at twice the rating) = 115 so we could use a 100T or smaller fuse for this
criteria
– Loading – Assume the load at the end is all there is so no need to worry
75
Point 6B - So what fuse size should we use?

• 80T

76
POINT 5 – Midline Recloser:
• What we know:
– 3Ø line of #4 ACSR feeding to point 6
– 3LG = 3453 A, 1LG = 2762 A
• Coordination:
– Temporary Faults - The fault duties at the recloser are: 3Ø = 3,453 amps
and SLG = 2,762. We will assume we have a fused lateral just beyond
the line recloser and we want to protect it for temporary faults. From
Table 1 we see that we can protect a 100T fuse up to 2,650 and a 140T up
to 3,500 amps. Therefore, from this standpoint we could use a 140T fuse
beyond the recloser
– Conductor Protection - From Table 7 we see that #4 ACSR can be protected by a
100T or smaller fuse. That means that we won’t be able to set the line recloser to
coordinate with a 140T and still protect the conductor. Therefore, we have to
compromise and we will sacrifice the fuse protection for temporary faults in order
to gain protection for the conductor. NOTE: This normally isn’t too bad because
most faults are SLG and are somewhat less than the calculated value because of
fault resistance and distance to the fault out on the lateral
– Coordination – We will try and coordinate with a 100T fuse and still protect the #4
ACSR conductor. Once we determine the overcurrent pickup values, we will
choose a Time Lever to provide 0.2 seconds (see Table 6) coordination with the
fuse and then will recheck to determine if we are satisfied with the conductor 77
protection
POINT 5 (Cont’d):
1. Fault Detection & Loading - The loading information we obtained from the
Distribution Group is 84 amps normal and cold load ≅ 2 times = 168 amps.
Therefore, we can set the phase PU at?
• 200 amps which would carry the load and pick it up cold load.
• However, #4 ACSR can carry around 140 amps (see Table 4) so we would probably
want to set about 300 amps to allow for load growth. NOTE: We do not set the phase
overcurrent to protect the conductor from normal or emergency loading
2. The Ø-Ø fault at point 6 is 0.866*1907 = 1,651 so our margin to detect that fault
would be 1651/300 = 5.5:1 so no problem with the 300 amps Ø PU from that
standpoint (used Ø-Ø because it’s the minimum multi phase fault)
3. SLG Fault Detection – The SLG at point 6 is 1,492 so we could set the ground
up to 1492/2 = 745 amps and still detect the fault. However, our criteria says to
set as low as possible and still coordinate with the largest downstream device
and from above we’re trying to use a 100T. Again this is 300 amps so in this
case the ground PU will be set the same as the phase
4. Instantaneous Units – The phase instantaneous will be set at 350 A and the
ground instantaneous unit will be set at 300 A. Note that they can’t reach all the
way to point 7 so they can’t protect the point 6C fuse from temporary faults
occurring near the end of the lateral
78
POINT 3C:
• What we know:
– The fault duty at point 3 is: 3Ø = 3,699 amps and the SLG is 3,060
– #4 ACSR 3Ø trunk feeding to the line recloser with a SLG of 2,762 amps

• Coordination:
1. Temporary Faults - From Table 1 we see that a 140T fuse can be protected up to
3,500 amps for temporary faults and the 3Ø fault is 3,699 amps. This again
appears to indicate we would want to use a 200T fuse
2. Coordination – We set the line recloser up to coordinate with a 100T fuse so we
wouldn’t be able to coordinate with the recloser by using a 140T so this would
indicate we need a 200T
3. Conductor Protection - From Table 7 we see that #4 ACSR requires a 100T fuse
or smaller to be protected. OOPS
4. The above coordination and conductor protection dilemma means that we can’t
solve this problem by fusing this lateral. We also can’t remove the fuse because
the substation setting of 960 A can’t protect the conductor either.

79
Point 3C - Solutions?

• Move Recloser
• Reconductor

80
POINT 1:
• What we know:
– This is a 500 amp feeder so must set to carry load. NOTE: The load is 325
amps and cold load 650
– The fault duty at point 1 is: 3Ø = 5,158 amps and SLG = 5,346
– We want a Fuse Protection Scheme.

• Coordination:
1. Temporary Faults – We have decided that a 140T fuse is the maximum fuse we
will use on the feeder even though it can’t be protected at the maximum fault
duties.
2. Coordination – We will coordinate with a 140T fuse at the maximum SLG fault
duty of 5,346 amps with 0.2 seconds coordination time per Table 6. We will
also coordinate with the line recloser settings with 0.3 seconds coordination time
again per Table 6
3. Conductor Protection – The main trunk is 556 ACSR and from Table 7 a 500
amp feeder setting of 960 A can protect 1/0 ACSR or higher so no problem
since all laterals are fused.

81
POINT 1 (Cont’d):
4. Fault Detection & Loading – We will set the phase pickup to carry 500 amps
normally plus pick up cold load so will set at 960 amps.
• The Ø-Ø fault at point 5 is 0.866*3453 = 2990 so our margin to detect that
fault would be 2990/960 = 3.1:1 so no problem
• SLG Fault Detection – Again per our criteria we will set as low as possible
and still coordinate with the maximum downstream devices with the same
coordination times as above
• The SLG at point 5 is 2,762 so our margin to detect that fault is: 2762/480 =
5.7:1 so no problem
• Instantaneous Units – The phase instantaneous will be set at 1,120A and
the ground instantaneous unit will be set at 480 A

82
Questions?

83