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Advances in Dental Anthropology, pages 13-31

@ 1991 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Scoring Procedures for Key Morphological

Traits of the Permanent Dentition:
The Arizona State University Dental
Anthropology System
Christy G. Turner II, Christian R. Nichol, and G. Richard Scott

Deparcmencof Anthro]>olo Ari2ona ScaceUnz'versity,Tempe, An.zona85287 (C.G. T. , C. R.N. ) ; Deporcmencof

Anthro Universz`tyof A F~ A 99701 CG.R.S)

INTRODUCTION dards for the observation of dental morphological

variants in the permanent dentition has continued at
The observation of a dental morphological charac- the Dental Anthropology Laboratory of Arizona State
teristic in a manner other than by the presence/ab- University. The result of this work is the Arizona
sence dichotomy is first seen in Aleg Hrdlika's State University Dental Anthropology System.
(1920) work on incisor shoveling. To be sure, other The intention of the Dahlberg and ASU standards
early workers discussed gradations in tooth form, but is to permit observation beyond the presence/absence
as rightfully criticized by Hrdlika, they examined dichotomy, and at the same time, to promote repli-
the form of the whole tooth rather than focusing upon cability of results between observers. The theory be-
individual anatomical variants. In his classic paper hind the development of these standards is to devise
on the shovel-shaped tooth, Hrdli&a (1920) notes a plaque which gives physical representations of min-
that the characteristic, when present, takes on differ- imal and maximal trait expression and various gra-
ent forms ranging from minimal to maximal expres- dations between these two points. In selecting the
sion, and he gives descriptions and photographs to representatives of these grades, the developer should
aid others in making the same sort of observations. have the intention of making the finest level distinc-
The next phase in the development of standardized tions possible that can be repeated accurately. The
technique for the observation of dental morphology class intervals between the grades of a standard should
was the work of A.A. Dahlberg beginning in the late be approximately equal. More than 5, but less than 10
19408. Not only did he develop graded standards for grades of occurrence is ideal for most characters.
a large array of characteristics, but he made the im- Dental anatomy textbooks describe many more
portant step of devising plaster plaques which could features than those used in the ASU Dental Anthro-
be distributed to other workers in the field (Dahlberg, pology System. The traits used in this system have
1956). Some of the standards represented in the been selected for standardized study because they are
Dahlberg series include plaques for shoveling, dou- those most easily and reliably observed, most persist
ble-shoveling, the hypocone, Carabelli's trait/cusp, for many years in dentally harsh lifeways (usually the
and the protostylid. During the early 19608, Hanihara case with archaeologically derived samples), most
(1961) developed observation standards for various have low or no sex dimorphism, the fossil record has
characteristics of the deciduous dentition. shown that (whatever their adaptive value) they
As Dahlberg (1956) has stated, his standards were evolve very slowly and, altogether, these traits pow-
not intended to be the final word on this subject. erfully characterize populations for affinity studies.
With this in mind, work on the development of Stan- Furthermore, this battery of characters provides the

14 Turner et al.

Fig. 1. Shoveling plaque, upper lateral incisors.

maximum information with a minimum of observa- rotated. The other is straight. No subclasses are rec-
tion time and cost. These and other reasons for the ognized.
use of dental morphology in anthropological research 3. Straight: Both teeth form a straight labial sur-
are extensively discussed by Scott and Turner face, or follow the curvature of the dental arcade.
(1988). 4. Counter-winging.~ One or both teeth are rotated
The following is a description of the scoring pro- distolingually.
cedures in the current ASU Dental Anthropology
System. For each character in the system, the name
Comments. Because the mesiolingual rotation of
of the trait, the teeth on which it may be observed, a
both of the incisors is thought to be the result of a
definition or locational comment, the name(s) of the
genetic system, and mesiolingual rotation of a single
developer(s) and reference (if any) of the procedure,
incisor or distolingual rotation of one or both incisors
the name of the standard reference plaque (if any),
seems to be caused by tooth crowding, the status of
the scoring categories, and any additional comments
both antimeres must be considered, when possible.
to aid in the use of the trait or procedure are given.
Judgment is required if winging is present and there
Space limits illustrating all traits, but a few examples
is crowding of adjacent teeth.
are provided. A complete set of plaques can be ob-
tained at cost from the senior author. The plaques
should be used for making observations, not the pho- Shoveling
tographs in this article, so that a three-dimensional Upper incisors, canine, and lower incisors. The
appreciation of the characters may be obtained. presence of lingual marginal ridges. Scaling of this
feature was first proposed by Hrdlika (1920), a
MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE plaque developed by Dahlberg (1956), and an ex-
CROWNS AND ROOTS panded classification developed by Scott (1973).
W.rngmg Reference plaques: UIl-ASU UIl shovel; UI2,
UC--ASU UI2 shovel; LII, LI2-ASU LI shovel.
Upper central incisor. Rotation of the upper central
Figure 1 shows the UI2 shovel plaque. Scoring (UIl,
incisors is a character discussed by Enoki and Dahl-
berg (1958). Their procedure as modified by Turner UI2, UC):
(1970) is followed (no reference plaque). The scoring
is as follows: 0. None: Lingual surface is essentially flat.
I. Faint.' Very slight elevations of vestal and di-
I. Bilateral winging: Central incisors are rotated stal aspects of lingual surface can be seen and
mesiolingually, giving a V-shaped appearance when palpated.
viewed from the occlusal surface. When the angle 2. Trace.- Elevations are easily seen. This grade is
formed is greater than 20 degrees, it is classed as IA; probably considered minimal expression by
when less than 20 degrees, IB. most observers.
2. Unilateral winging: Only one of the incisors is 3. Semzs~hovel.' Stronger ridging is present and
Scoring Procedures for Dental Traits IS

Fig. 2. Double-shoveling plaque, upper incisors.

there is a tendency for ridge convergence at the Comments. The medial two-thirds of the tooth,
cingulum. rather than the margins, should be observed to avoid
4. Semi.shovel.' Convergence and ridging are false impressions which can result from the presence
stronger than in grade 3. of shoveling or double-shoveling. Ideally, labial con-
5. Shovel.' Strong development of ridges, which vexity should be assessed at a location approximately
almost contact at the cingulum. one-third of the way down from the occlusal surface,
6. Marked shovel.' Strongest development. Mesial or two-thirds of the distance up from the crown-root
and distal lingual ridges are sometimes in con- junction. Labial convexity is inversely correlated
tact at the cingulum. with double-shoveling. These two traits should not
7. (U/2 only) Barrel` Expression exceeds grade 6. be used together when a study assumes independent
To be considered barrel-shaped, the form traits. While designed for the central incisor, the
should not result from a hypertrophied tuber- plaque may also be used successfully for the lateral
culum dentale. incisor.
Upper incisors, canine, first premolar, and lower
Comments. This scaling approximates that of
incisors. The presence of labial marginal ridges. A
HrdliCka as: ASU 0 - Hrdlieka none; I-2 = trace;
standard reference was developed by Dahlberg
3-4 = semishovel; 5-6 = shovel. Because shov-
(1956). ASU procedure developed by Turner and
eling correlates on all incisors and the upper canine,
Laidler Dowda in 1979. Reference plaque: ASU UIl
only one tooth should be used in characterizing pop-
double-shovel. Figure 2 shows the UI double-shovel
ulations. The upper central incisor is preferred. The
three plaques can be employed for studying the gen- plaque. Scoring:
eral shoveling field effect. O. None: Labial surface is smooth.
1.Faint: Mesial and distal ridging can be seen in
labial Convexity strong contrasting light. Distal ridge may be
Upper incisors. The labial surface of the upper absent in this and stronger grades.
incisors, when viewed from the occlusal aspect, can 2. Trace.' Ridging is more easily seen and pal-
range from being essentially flat to showing a pated.
marked degree of convexity. Procedure developed by 3. Semi-double-shovel' Ridging can be readily
Nichol et al. (1984). Reference plaque: ASU UIl palpated.
labial curvature. Scoring: 4. Double-shovel' Riding is pronounced on at
least one-half of the total crown height.
5. Pronounced double-shovel: Ridging is very
0. Labial surface is flat.
prominent and may occur from the occlusal
I. Labial surface exhibits trace convexity.
surface to the crown-root junction.
2. Labial surface exhibits weak convexity.
6.Extreme double-shovel.
3. Labial surface exhibits moderate convexity.
4. Labial surface exhibits pronounced convexity. Comments. Judgment about double-shoveling pres-
16 Turner et al.

once can only~be made safely for grade 6 on heavily combination of ASU UIl t.d. and ASU UC distal
worn teeth. The UIl plaque can be used for the upper accessory ridge. Scoring:
lateral incisor, canine, first premolar, and lower in-
cisors. Although the correspondence in form is not 0. No expression. Cingular region of the lingual
particularly good, the strength of ridging can usually surface is smooth. Ignore any shoveling pres-
be assessed without difficulty. ence.
Intemlption Groove I. Faint ridging. Matches grade 1 of the ASU UIl
t.d. plaque.
Upper incisors. Grooves which cross the cingu-
2. Trace ridging. Matches grade 2 of the ASU UIl
lum, and often continue down the root, are occasion-
t.d. plaque.
ally seen on the upper incisors (more frequently on
3. Strong ridging. Matches grade 3 of the ASU
the lateral incisor than on the central). The morpho-
UIl t.d. plaque.
genesis of these grooves is not understood, but they
4. Pronounced ridging. Matches grade 4 of the
seem to be related to the tuberculum dentale. First
ASU UIl t.d. plaque.
systematically studied by Turner (1967). No refer-
5-. A weakly developed cuspule is attached to ei-
ence plaque. Scoring:
ther the mesio- or distolingual marginal ridge.
Cuspule apex is not free. Not represented on a
0. None. The mesial, distal, and medial areas
plaque. Interpolate between ASU UIl t.d.
of the lingual surface of the incisor are
grade 4 and the tuberculum dentale found on
smooth, continuous, and not disrupted by
ASU UC DAR grade 4.
any vertical to near-horizontal groove.
5. Weakly developed cuspule with a free apex.
M. An interruption groove occurs on the mesi- Size corresponds approximately with ASU UC
olingual border. DAR grade 4 tuberculum denude.
D. An interruption groove occurs on the disto- 6. Strong cusp with a free apex. Size is equal to or
lingual border. greater than the ASU UC DAR grade 5 tuber-
MD. Grooves occur on both the mesio- and dis- culum denude.
tolingual borders.
Med. A groove occurs in the medial area of the Comments. Ridge strength, not number of ridges, is
assessed in grades I-4. Only one of the thre~eteeth
should be used for population characterization. The
Comments. Because the location of most interrup
center of the tuberculum dentale morphogenetic
tion grooves is near the crown base, they can usually
field, and most trait variation, seems to be at the
be scored on heavily worn teeth. However, they are
lateral incisor. This tooth is preferred for population
probably often obscured by gingival tissue in the liv-
descnp~tive purposes.
ing. Therefore, considerable judgment should be ex-
ercised in their use for characterizing living popula- Canine Mesial Ridge
tions, especially if children are included.
Upper canine. Normally, the mesiolingual mar-
Tubercu]lum Dentale ginal ridge of the upper canine is similar in size to the
Upper incisors and canine. This feature occurs in distolingual marginal ridge. Occasionally, the mesial
the cingular region of the lingual surface of the upper ridge is larger than the distal, and, in pronounced
incisors and canine. (Tubercles may also appear on cases, it possesses a distal deflection approximately
the lower canine, but these are not currently consid- two-thirds of the way down from the occlusal surface
ered in the ASU system.) This feature can take the due to its attachment to the tuberculum denude. This
form of ridges on the lingual surface (referred to as extreme form occurs with some frequency among
mediolingual ridges) or various degrees of expression Africans (especially Bushmen) and has been called
of a cusp (known on the canine as the canine tufier- the Bushman canine by Morris (1975). In keeping
cle). Several attempts have been made to classify with all other trait names, which do not have ethnic
tuberculum denude variation. None, including the labels, an anatomical name has been assigned. Scale
developed by Turner and Dale Klausner in 1979.
one presented here, has been fully satisfactory, and
Reference plaque: ASU UC mesial ridge. Scoring:
much within and between-observer error has been
found (Nichol and Turner, 1986). Reference plaques:
UIl--ASU UIl tuberculum dentale; U12, UC- 0. Mesial and distal lingual ridges are the same
Scoring Procedures for Dental Traits 17

Fig. 3. Distal accessory ridge plaque, upper canines. Note that there is no grade I , which usually can be seen only on
unempted teeth.

size. Neither is attached to the tuberculum den- 4. Distal accessory ridge is strongly developed.
ude if present. 5. Distal accessory ridge is very pronounced.
l. Mesiolingual ridge is larger than the distolin-
gual, and is wea}dy attached to the tuberculum Comments. Because there is no dentin involvement
dentale. in this trait, it can be worn off without leaving any
2. Mesiolingual ridge is larger than the distolin- trace of its having been present. For population stud-
gual, and is moderately attached to the tuber- ies, use scores of children and young adults. This
culum dentale. trait appears to be the most sexually dimorphic fea-
3. Morriss type form~ Mesiolingual ridge is much ture of the human dentition. Observers may not wish
larger than the distolingual, and is fully incor- to pool sexes in population studies where sex ratios
porated into the tuberculum denude. among samples are unequal.
Premolar Mesial and Distal Accessory Cusps
Comments. The canine lingual surface morphology Upper premolars. Small accessory cusps are some-
of grade 3 appears strongly asymmetrical when times seen at the mesial and/or distal ends of the
viewed from the lingual aspect. This trait infre- sagittal grooves of the upper premolars. These cusps
quently exhibits symmetrical expression on antim- are defined by a strong separation from both the buc-
eres. cal and lingual cusps. What may appear as a very
Canine Distal Accessory Ridge small accessory cusp but is still attached to either the
buccal or lingual cusps, should not be considered as
Upper and lower canines. Occurs in the distolin- an accessory cusp. Procedure proposed by Turner
gual fossa between the tooth apex and the distolin- (1967). No reference plaque. Scoring:
gual marginal ridge. Standards developed and dis-
cussed by Scott (1973, 1977). Reference plaques: O. No accessory cusps occur.
UC-ASU UC DAR, LC-ASU LC DAR. Figure 3 1. Mesial and/or distal accessory cusps are
shows the UC distal accessory ridge plaque. Scoring: present.

Comment. Because no apparent dentin involvement

O. Distal accessory ridge is absent. occurs, observations should be limited to younger
l. Distal accessory ridge is very faint. (No exam- individuals.
ple of grade I appears on the UC plaque, in-
terpolation required) Tricusped Premolars
2. Distal accessory ridge is wealdy developed. Upper premolars. An upper premolar with three
3. Distal accessory ridge is moderately devel- cusps is a rare variant (1/8,OOfl teeth) observed in
oped. southwestern U.S. Indians but among almost no
18 Turner et al.

other peoples of the world. No reference plaque. 5. Metacone is very large (equal in size to a large
Scoring: Ml hypocone).

O. Extra distal cusp (hypocone) is absent. Comments. The present plaque was developed spe-
I. Hypocone is present. Its size equals that of the cificafly for the third molar but works reasonably
normal lingual cusp. well for the other molars if form is ignored and only
size is considered. The grade 3.5 was inserted (but
Comment. One specimen (UARK Upper Nodena not added to plaque) after field testing revealed the
256) has been found that has the hypocone and a need for a full interval grade. The designation 3.5
crown configuration like the following trait (Turner, does not mean that the interval is less than the other
personal observation). grades; it was added in this manner so as not to
change computer files of hundreds of earlier obser-
Distosagittal Ridge vations by Turner. Observers beginning work with
Upper first premolar. A trait first defined and the current classification may wish to renumber
termed Uto-Aztecan premolar by D.H. Morris et al. grades 4 and 5 as 5 and 6, respectively, and to label
(1978). It occurs when a pronounced ridge from the the inserted grade as 4 rather than 3.5.
apex of the buccal cusp extends to the distal occlusal Hypocone
border at or near the sagittal sulcus. There is also a
Upper molars. The distolingual cusp or cusp 4.
mesial rotation of the buccal surface and a buccolin-
Absence and severely reduced forms of this cusp are
Baal expansion of the buccal cusp. It is possible that
more common on Ml and (especially) M2 than the
the distosagittal ridge is an intermediate or weak ex-
same forms of the metacone. Plaque developed by
pression of the very rare three-cusped premolar de-
larson (1978) and modified by Turner and Scott in
fined above. Given the rarity of these two characters,
1975. Reference plaque: ASU UM hypocone. Scor-
it is not possible to determine if they do represent
parts of a continuum and in fact should be combined.
Example given on ASU Uto-Aztecan premolar. Scor-
ing: O. No hypocone. Site is smooth.
1. Faint ridging present at the site.
2. Faint cuspule present.
O. Normal premolar form occurs~
3. Small cusp present.
1. Distosagittal ridge is present.
3.5. Moderate-sized cusp present.
4. large cusp present.
Comment. Originally discovered among Uto- 5. Very large cusp present.
Aztecan speaking peoples of the southwestern United
States. Now known to occur in many other Amerin-
Comments. As with the metacone, a full interval
dian populations but nowhere else in the world.
grade had to be added to the plaque after develop-
Metacone ment, again labeled 3.5. The plaque works well with
the first and second molars, but judgement is re-
Upper molars. The distobuccal cusp or cusp 3.
quired for the third molar because many distal acces-
Absence and weaker forms of expression are ex-
sory cuspules can be present, and cusp 5 can be
tremely rare for Ml and M2, but do occasionally
larger than the hypocone. Identifying homologous
occur on M3. Plaque developed by Turner and Diane
distal cusps on the third molar can be difficult. Cor-
Kaschner in 1978. Reference plaque: ASU UM meta-
respondence between the categories of this standard
cone. Scoring:
and the Dahlberg (1951) 4, 4- , 3 + , 3 standard for
hypocone reduction are given in Turner (1979).
O. Metacone is absent.
1. An attached ridge is present at the metacone Cusp 5 (Metaconule)
site, but there is no free apex. Upper molars. A fifth cusp, the metaconule, may
2. A faint cuspule with a free apex is present. occasionally be present in the distal fovea of the up-
3. Weak cusp is present. per molars between the metacone and hypocone.
3.5. An intermediate-sized cusp is present (not This trait has been discussed and scaled (no plaque)
shown on plaque, interpolation necessary). by Harris (1977; Harris and Bairn, 1980). The ASU
4. Metacone is large. scaling is similar to that of Harris. Plaque developed
Scoring Procedures for Dental Traits 19

large by Turner and Richard Warner in 1977. Reference third molar. The parastyle may also occur on the
plaque: ASU UM cusp 5. Scoring: other molars in the same location. A similar structure
can also be found on the buccal surface of cusp 3 on
'spe- 0. Site of cusp 5 is smooth, there being only a any molar, suggesting either that the position of the
[ably single distal groove present separating cusps 3 parastyle is not morphogenetically fixed, or an inde-
only and 4. pendent feature is being confused with the parastyle.
(but I. Faint cuspule is present. Given the rarity of the parastyle, any expression on
1 the 2. Trace cuspule present. the buccal surface is scored. Plaque developed by
t 3.5 3. Small cuspule present. Joseph F. Katich and Turner in 1974. Reference
)ther 4. Small cusp present. plaque: ASU UM parastyle. Scoring:
)tto 5. Medium-sized cusp present.
:>ser- 0. The buccal surfaces of cusps 2 and 3 are
with Comments. When present, cusp 5 usually has two smooth.
nber adjacent distal grooves. On a worn tooth, double- I.A pit is present in or near the buccal groove
Label grooving can be used to identify that cusp 5 had been between cusps 2 and 3.
present. However, this means of identification 2. A small cusp with an attached apex is present.
should not be used for the third molar, where multi- 3. A medium-sized cusp with a free apex is
ple distal grooves are common, even in the absence present.
p 4. of any cusps. 4. A large cusp with a free apex is present.
J are
5. A very large cusp with a free apex is present.
i the Carabelli's Trait
This form usually involves the buccal surface
d by Upper molars. Occurs on the lingual surface of the of both cusps 2 and 3.
,ttin mesiolingual cusp (the protocone or cusp 1) of the 6. An effectively free peg-shaped crown attached
icor- upper molars. Plaque developed by Dahlberg (1956). to the root of the third molar is present. This
Reference plaque: Zoner Laboratory UM Carabelli condition is extremely rare, and is not shown
cusp. Scoring: on the plaque.

0. The mesiolingual aspect of cusp I is smooth. Enamel Extensions

1.A groove is present. Upper premolars and molars. Projections of the
2.A pit is present. enamel border in an apical direction. First scored and
3.A small Y-shaped depression is present. classified by Pedersen (1949). His classification is
4. A large Y-shaped depression is present. followed with minor modification. No reference
5. A small cusp without a free apex occurs. The plaque. Scoring:
distal border of the cusp does not contact the
"val lingual groove separating cusps I and 4.
0. Enamel border is straight, or rarely curved to-
,lop- 6. A medium-sized cusp with an attached apex
wards the crown. Score any extension not at-
with making contact with the medial lingual groove
tached to the crown as absent.
i re- is present.
I. A faint, approximately 1.0-mm-long extension
:ces- 7. A large free cusp is present.
projecting toward and along the root.
abe 2. A medium-sized, approximately 2.0-mm-long
gens Comments. This classification assigns numbers to extension.
Cor- the lettered categories of Dahlberg's plaque. The 3. A lengthy extension, generally >4.0 mm in
dard plaque works well for all three molars. A pit can length is present. It may extend all the way to
i for occur in the medial lingual groove (differing from the the root bifurcation on molar teeth.
mesiolingual position of the pit of grade 2), which is
suspected of being related to Carabelli's trait. This
pit has not yet been incorporated into the Carabelli's Comment. Any of these four grades may have an
may trait standard. enamel pearl present at or near the site of the exten-
!:up sion, even when there is no extension. Pearls are not
one. Parastyle scored in the ASU system because intersample com-
que) Upper molars. One of the paramolar cusps of Bolk parability would require that all molar root surfaces
\ SU (1916). It is most common on the buccal surface of be examined- an impossibility for most dental se-
:)fjed the mesiobuccal cusp (the paracone or cusp 2) of the ries. Premolar enamel extensions almost never ex-
20 Turner et al.

ceed grade 2. They are almost always on roots with 2. Two roots: Separate roots are greater than one-
strong buccal developmental groove expression. quarter to one-third of the total root length.
Enamel extensions can also occur on the lingual sur- Length determination should take into account
face. The upper first molar is the key site. If the bending which is common on third molars.
enamel extension is discontinuous or interrupted, 3. Three roots.' Length defined as in grade 2.
only the portion in contact with the crown is scored 4. Four roots.' Length defined as in grade 2.
for length.
Radical Number
Premolar Root Number
All teeth. In cross section, a root may be single
Upper premolars. The upper premolars are usually
and lack any developmental grooving. More often, a
single-rooted. When two roots are present there is
single-rooted tooth will exhibit developmental
normally a buccal and a lingual root. Three roots
grooves which partition the cross-sectional area into
result from the bifurcation of the buccal root. When
two or more "unseparated rootlike divisions termed
multiple roots occur, they are usually on the first
radicals. First defined by Turner (1967). No refer-
premolar. Multiple-rooted upper incisors and canines
ence plaque. Scoring:
have not been found in more than 15,000 observed
individuals. The upper first premolar is the key site. I. One radical: No developmental grooves.
Procedure defined by Turner (1967, 1981). No ref- 2. Two radicals.' Two developmental grooves or
erence plaque. Scoring: two round roots with no developmental
I. One root: Tip may be bifurcated (bd). 3. Three radicals.' Three developmental grooves
2. Two roots.' Separate roots must be greater than or one round root with no developmental
one-quarter to one-third of the total root length. grooves and one root with two developmental
3. Three roots.' Length defined as in grade 2. grooves.
4. Four radicals.' Continuation of above with var-
Comment. Root number can often be scored when ious root number and developmental groove
teeth are missing by simply counting the number of combinations.
complete sockets. Root number can sometimes be 5. Five radicals.' Continuation of above.
determined for molars that are loose in their sockets, 6. Six radicals: Continuation of above.
but cannot be easily removed, by lifting the tooth as 7. Seven radicals.' Continuation of above.
much as possible and then shining a small flashlight 8.Eight radicals: Continuation of above.
on the root area, where, if root separation occurs near
Comments. More than eight radicals may occur on a
the crown-root junction, white light will pass
multi-rooted molar. Radical number has not been
through the interroot space. Practice on teeth that can
found to show much variation except on molar teeth.
be removed from their sockets is strongly recom-
Definitions given here apply to all teeth. Radical as-
mended for this flashlight procedure in order to ex-
sessment should not be done when there is extensive
perience what is obstructed and unobstructed passage
cement. In some cases of hypercementosis, even root
of light.
numbers cannot be identified with certainty.
Upper Molar Root Number
Peg-Shaped Incisor
Upper molars. The upper first molar usually has
three roots. The greatest variation in root number
Upper lateral incisor. Defined by various workers
occurs on the second molar, the key site. The third
as a tooth which is very reduced in size and lacking
molar usually has one or two roots; rarely, five or
the normal crown morphology, being instead peg-
more third molar roots are present. This unusual con-
shaped. A continuum probably exists that ends with
dition seems to be associated with developmental
congenital absence of the tooth, the peg form being
problems where hypo- or hyperplastic crowns form
near the absence threshold. Standardization by
and excess cusp numbers and/or other anomalies ex-
Turner. No reference plaque. Scoring:
ist. Procedure defined by Turner (1967). No refer-
ence plaque. Scoring: 0. Normal sized incisor.
1. Incisor reduced in size, but having normal
I. One root: Tip may be bifurcated with deeply crown form.
'mset developmental grooves. 2. Peg-shaped incisor as defined above.
Scoring Procedures for Dental Traits 21

t one- Peg-sfrnped Molar studied by Montagu (1940). Skeletal reports vary in

ngth. Upper third molar. Recognized by many workers their use of X-ray equipment. Their comparability,
count therefore, is low. Here, no X-ray films are suggested
as a small tooth lacking the appropriate crown mor-
rs. because many studies are too far-ranging to make
phology. As with the lateral incisor, a continuum
2. ending in congenital absence, with the peg~shaped X-ray films time and cost effective or standard X-ray
form being near the absence threshold, probably ex- procedures possible. No reference plaque. Scoring:
ists. Usage defined by Turner. No reference plaque.
Scoring: 0. Tooth is present. Any degree of visible impac-
"angle tion is considered as present.
ten, a 0. Full-sized crown with normal third molar mor- I. Tooth is congenitally absent. No sign of tooth.
xental phology.
a into 1. Molar reduced in size to 7- to 10-mm bucco-
rmed Comments. Congenital absence should be consid-
lingual diameter. Form is near normal or some-
ered only in adult individuals who are older than
refer- what shriveled' '
17-20 years, as determined by basisphenoid syn-
2. Molar is <7 mm in buccolingual diameter. chondrosis or other dentally independent growth
Crown is peg or cone-shaped with rarely more
events (Ufxelaker, 1984). When congenital absence is
than two rounded cusps lacking any secondary
'es or suspected in adults for upper or lower third molars,
morphology. Root is simple and single.
xental the distal surface of the existing second molars
should be inspected with a 10 x hand lens for wear
Jones Comment. Peg-shaped upper third molars can easily facets that would indicate antemortem third molar
xental be identified from socket size and circular form if presence. Gaps at the incisor or premolar sites usu-
xental tooth has been lost postmortem. ally indicate antemortem loss. This method does
Odonwme leave the possibility that totally nonerupted teeth will
1 var- be misidentified as congenitally absent. In large stud-
roove Upper and lower premolars. Recognized by Ped-
ies, this potential source of error may be acceptable
ersen (1949) and defined by Alexandersen (1970) as due to cost and time considerations.
any pin-sized, spike-shaped enamel and dentin pro-
jection occurring on the premolar occlusal surface.
Premolar Lingual Cusp Variaffon
No reference plaque. Scoring:
Lower premolars. Various procedures have been
developed to classify the considerable variation in
0. Odontome not present.
r on a lower premolar crowns (e.g., Pedersen, 1949;Kmus
I. Odontome present.
been and Farr, 1953). The procedure in the ASU system
teeth. considers only the number of lingual cusps and their
Comments. Because odontomes usually have a den- relative size. Procedures developed by Scott (1973)
tin component, they can be recognized as having with slight modification. Reference plaques: LPI-
been present by a circular light brown dentin expo- ASU LPI cusp; LP2--ASU LP2 cusp. Scoring:
sure even after these fragile structures break off.
Moreover, because they often occur in or near the A. No lingual cusp: A n'dge may be present that
sagittal sulcus, they can be identified even in premo- suggests a much reduced structure without a
lars with moderate cusp wear. Once a premolar has free tip, but it is scored as cusp absent. Grade A
worn to the extent that normal dentin is visible on the was added after plaque production began when it
eking buccal cusp, it should be scored as missing data. was realized that lingual cusps can be absent.
peg- Because of their rarity, it is suggested that their fre-
quency be determined by a "tooth count ' rather than 0. One lingual cusp: Size and form may vary a
; with
an "individual count' basis. Odontomes are only great deal but tip can be seen.
rarely found on other teeth. All premolar crown sur- 1. One or two lingual cusps: This indecisive class
n by
faces should be inspected with a 10 x hand lens. should not be used for worn teeth. It is better to
score such teeth as missing data.
Congenital Absence 2. Two Lingual cusps: Mesial cusp is much larger
>final Upper lateral and lower central incisors, upper and than distal cusp.
lower second premolars, and upper and lower third 3. Two Lingual cusps: Mesial cusp is larger than
molars. Congenital absence was first extensively distal cusp.
22 Turner et al.

Fig. 4. Anterior fovea plaque, lower fm;t molars.

4. Two lingual cusps: Mesial and distal cusps are considered to be taxonomically significant by
equal in size. Hrdlika (1924). Variation standardized by Turner
5. Two lingual cusps: Distal cusp is larger than and Shawn-Mari Chilton in 1979. Reference plaque:
mesial cusp. ASU LMI anterior fovea. Figure 4 shows the LMI
6. Two lingual cusps: Distal cusp is much larger anterior fovea plaque. Scoring:
than mesial cusp.
7. Two lingual cusps: Distal cusp is very much 0. Anterior fovea is absent. The sulcus between
larger than mesial cusp. With wear, this class cusps I and 2 continues without interruption
can be confused with grade 0. When in doubt, from the center of the occlusal surface to the
score individual as missing data. mesial border.
8. Three lingual cusps.' Each is about the same 1. A weak ridge connects the mesial aspects of
size. cusps I and 2 producing a faint groove.
9. Three Lingual cusps: Mesial cusp is much 2. The connecting ridge is larger and the resulting
larger than medial and/or distal cusp. With groove deeper than in grade I .
wear, grade 9 can be confused with grade 3. 3. Groove is longer than in grade 2.
When in doubt, score individual as missing 4. Groove is very long and mesial ridge is robust.

Comments. This classification of premolar crown Comments. Due to the early eruption of the first
variation is very sensitive to wear. Careful judgment molar, it is almost always very worn, even in young
is needed so as not to misidentify a given tooth. If a adults. Scoring such individuals is hazardous, espe-
worker is not experienced in side identification, loose cially for grades 0-2. It is recommended that anterior
teeth should not be scored. A useful rule for side fovea observations be limited in nonindustrial indi-
determination is that the root tip is usually deflected viduals to those whose age is less than 12 years.
distally, it usually has stronger developmental groov- Caries can rapidly obliterate the anterior fovea site.
ing on its mesial border, and the buccal cusp is al- Readers concerned about the dental morphology of
most always larger and morphologically more com- fossil hominids instead of subfossil or recent popu-
plex than the lingual cusp. Odontomes are not lations should also score anterior fovea for the third
considered in this classification. The second premo- molar. It is the senior author's impression that this
lar is considered the key tooth for this variation and trait is many times more common in Pleistocene third
is easier to score. molars than in those of more recent populations.

Antenor Fovea ~Groove Pattern

Lower fxrst molar. Located on the anterior occlusal Lower molars. Well defined studies of the lower
surface, this feature, termed precuspidal fossa, was molar groove pauern begin with Gregory (1916),
Scoring Procedures for Dental Traits 23

were expanded by Hellman (1928), and culminate in O. Deflecting wrinkle is absent. Medial ridge of
the three class system developed by Jorgensen cusp 2 is straight.
(1955). No reference plaque. Scoring: I. Cusp 2 medial ridge is straight, but shows a
midpoint constriction.
Y. Cusps 2 and 3 are in contact. 2. Medial ridge is deflected distally, but does not
+. Cusps 1-4 are in contact. make contact with cusp 4.
X. Cusps I and 4 are in contact. 3. Medial ridge is deflected distally forming an
L-shaped ridge. The medial ridge contacts cusp
Comments. Groove pattern should always be deter- 4.
mined with the aid of a IO x hand lens. Even with
advanced attrition, groove pattern is often recogniz- Comments. The deflecting wrinkle seldom occurs
able. Caries can obliterate the pattern site quickly, on the second or third molars. Because there is no
and plaster dental casts may be very unreliable. On apparent dentin involvement in this trait, it is difficult
third molars with many supernumerary cusps and hy- to score on teeth of individuals much older than 12
poplastic form, groove pattern determination is dif- years of age due to wear.
ficult. The lower second molar has the greatest
Distal Trigonid Crest
amount of interpopulation variation, thus making it
the key tooth to score if time does not permit all three Lower molars. A ridge or loph that bridges cusps
to be studied. D.H. Morris (1970) made the obser- I and 2. It is rare in the permanent molars. When
ant by present, it is usually on the first molar. Hrdlika
vation that groove pattern can be affected by the
Turner (1924) studied this feature and found it to be useful
deflecting wrinkle, which should also be studied for
plaque: for comparative purposes. A trait occurrence plaque
correlation purposes.
le LMI was developed for deciduous teeth by Hanifiara
(1961). No reference plaque for permanent molars.
Cusp Number Scoring:
)etween Lower molars. The pioneering work on molar
Tuption cusp number was by Gregory (1916). Only slight 0. Absent: Distal borders of cusps I and 2 are not
to the modification is made to his classification in the ASU connected by a crest or loph.
system (Turner, 1967). No reference plaque. Scor- I. Present.- Distal borders are connected by a
)ects of ing: ridge.

ul6ng 4. Cusps 1-4 (I, protoconid; 2, metaconid; 3, hy- Comments. Hanihara's deciduous molar plaque can
poconid, 4, entoconid) are present. be used to help identify the trait on the permanent
5. Cusp 5 (hypoconulid) is also present. molars. To be considered present, it should appear as
robust. 6. Cusp 6 (entoconulid) is also present. one of the two examples on the plaque. Note that the
example on the right is somewhat obscured by the
Comments. Score cusps as present regardless of presence of a pronounced deflecting wrinkle. This
,he first
size. Do not confuse cusp 7, which is not used in this trait is difficult to score, even with only grade I wear
1 young
classification, with cusps 2 or 4. Cusp 7 is not used (some dentin exposure), and unreliably identified
s, espe-
in this classification to avoid confusion of ~cusp ho- with grade 2 wear (cusps worn off).
mologies (i.e. , counting six cusps on a tooth that has
,al indi- Protostylid
a cusp 7, but no cusp 6). If cusp 5 exists, but pres-
years. Lower molars. A paramolar cusp found on the
ence of cusp 6 is uncertain, score tooth as having
'ea site. buccal surface of cusp 1. It is normally associated
more than 4 cusps so that a 4/>4 dichotomy can be
'logy of with the buccal groove separating cusps 1 and 3. The
used for comparative purposes. Note: cusp 3 can be
It popu- protostylid is most common on the first and third
very small in third molars.
he third molars. Standard developed by Dahlberg (1956).
hat this Reference plaque: Zoner Laboratory LM protostylid.
ne third Deffecting Wrinkle Scoring:
ons. Lower first molar. The form of variation of the
medial ridge on cusp 2. First recognized by Weiden- O. No expression of any sort. Buccal surface is
reich (1937), variation was standardized by Richard smooth.
e lower Seybert and Turner in 1975. Reference plaque: ASU 1. A pit occurs in the buccal groove.
(1916), LM deflecting wrinkle. Scoring: 2. Buccal groove is curved distally.
24 Turner et al.

3. A faint secondary groove extends mesially O. Cusp 6 is absent.

from the buccal groove. I. Cusp 6 is much smaller than cusp 5.
4. Secondary groove is slightly more pronounced. 2. Cusp 6 is smaller than cusp 5.
5. Secondary groove is stronger and can be easily 3. Cusp 6 is equal in size to cusp 5.
seen. 4. Cusp 6 is larger than cusp 5.
6. Secondary groove extends across most of the 5. Cusp 6 is much larger than cusp 5.
buccal surface of cusp 1. This is considered a
weak or small cusp. Comment. There is no way of knowing whether a
7. A cusp with a free apex occurs. single distal cusp is 5 or 6. This procedure requires
that there be two distal cusps to define cusp 6.
Comments. The buccal pit (grade I) is frequently Cusp 7
the site of dental caries in agricultural populations. If
Lower molars. Cusp 7, the metaconulid or tuber-
the pit can be identified in a carious molar, score
culum intermedium, occurs in the lingual groove be-
appropriately. However, if caries has destroyed the
tween cusps 2 and 4 of the lower molars, most com-
protostylid site, no observation can be made even
monly on the first molar. Standard developed by
though it is very likely that a pit had been present.
Also, the buccal pit is often filled by dentists as a Turner (1970). Reference plaque: ASU LM cusp 7.
preventive measure, making identification difficult in Scoring:
dental casts of living people. Not scoring such indi-
viduals will cause some underreporting of protostylid O. No occurrence of cusp 7.
occurrence. I. Faint cusp is present. Two weak lingual
grooves are present instead of one.
Cusp 5 IA. A faint tipless cusp 7 occurs displaced as a
Lower molars. Cusp 5, or the hypoconulid, occurs bulge on the lingual surface of cusp 2.
on the distal occlusal aspect of the lower molars. It is 2. Cusp 7 is small.
graded in terms of size only in the absence of cusp 6. 3. Cusp 7 is medium sized.
Standard developed by Turner and Richard Warner in 4. Cusp 7 is large.
1977. Reference plaque: ASU LM cusp 5. Scoring:
Comments. Because of its lingual position and the
nature of upper and lower molar occlusal contact,
0. No occurrence of cusp 5. The molar has only 4 cusp 7 can be commonly identified and graded even
cusps (cusps 1-4) . in molars with the main cusps worn off (grade 2
1. Cusp 5 is present and very small.
wear). Cusp 7 is never considered in determining
2. Cusp 5 is small.
lower molar cusp number, only cusps 1-6 are in-
3. Cusp 5 is medium-sized.
4. Cusp 5 is large.
5. Cusp 5 is very large. Canine Root Number
Lower canine. The mandibular canine can have
Comment. There is no way to know if a single distal one or two roots. Standardization by Turner (1967).
cusp is number 5 or 6. If single, assume cusp 5 as 6 No reference plaque. Scoring:
seems to be a supernumerary cusp. Others (Bigger-
staff, 1969) have considered the development of the 1. One root.
distal fovea a part of the hypoconulid range of ex- 2. Two roots, free for more than one-quarter to
pression. We do not currently consider the expression one-third of the total lingual root length.
of the distal fovea in the ASU system.
Comment. When a second mot is present it is usu-
Cusp 6 ally small, conical in form, and present on the lingual
Lower molars. Cusp 6, the entoconulid or tuber- aspect.
culum sextum, occurs in the distal fovea of the lower
molars lingual to cusp 5. It is scored by size relative Tomes's Root
to cusp 5. Standard developed by Turner (1970). Lower first premolar. Tomes (1923) was the first
Reference plaque: ASU LM cusp 6. Scoring: to draw attention to this condition where the mesial
Scoring Procedures for Dental Traits 25

beth a

,r tuber-
love be-
)st com-
. . . , ~, ". . , .
)ped by
cusp 7. Fig. 5. Root form plaque, lower first premolars.

mot surfaces are deeply grooved. As now known, 1. One root: Root tip may be bifurcated. If tips
lingual this anomaly is part of a morphogenetic continuum are free for more than one-fourth to one-third of
from a single to a double-rooted tooth. Standardized the total root length, score as two roots. The
ed as a variation scale developed by Turner and Stephen first molar root will usually be U-shaped in
Herzog in 1979. Reference plaque: ASU LPI Root cross section with a deep developmental groove
Form. Figure 5 shows the LPI root variation plaque. in the lingual surface. In the second and third
Scoring: molar roots, a single deep lingual, or deep lin-
gual and buccal developmental grooves can oc-
O. Developmental grooving is absent or, if cur.
and the present, shallow with rounded rather than V- 2. Two roots.` Two separate roots exist for at least
::ontact, shaped indentation. one-fourth to one-third of the total root length.
ed even I.Developmental groove is present and has a A strong distolingual radical is likely an unat-
ade 2 shallow V-shaped cross-section. tached supernumerary third mot.
mining 2.Developmental groove is present and has a 3. Three roots.' A third (supernumerary) root is
arein- moderately deep V-shaped cross section. present on the distolingual aspect. It may be
3.Developmental groove is present, V shaped, very small but is usually about one-third the
and deep. Groove extends at least one-third of size of the normal distal mot.
the total root length. Comments. A single-rooted first molar can occur as
n have 4.Developmental grooving is deeply invaginated indicated above, apparently because of the failure of
(1967). on both the mesial and distal borders. complete separation of a double-rooted condition.
5. Two free roots are present. They are separate The rule to follow for all molars is that, when no light
for at least one-fourth to one-third of the total can be seen between incompletely separated mesial
mot length. and distal roots, the tooth should be considered single
aner to rooted. Even if the root tips are united, light through
x. Comment. Tomess anomalous root is equivalent to the middle of the root defines a two-rooted molar.
grades 3 and 4 of this classification. Use of a three volt pen light is recommended. Occa-
is usu- sionally, one will find a lower first or third molar that
lingual lower Molar Root Number has the one root form, but also possesses the super-
Lower molars. The lower molars can have one to numerary third distal root. In such cases, the tooth is
three roots. The history of studies on lower first mo- scored as having two roots, even though this may be
lar root number are reviewed in Turner (1971). Vari- homologically erroneous. If cementosis is excessive,
be first ation standardized by Turner (1967). No reference the individual should be scored as "missing data.
mesial plaque. Scoring: The third molar may have so much developmental

26 Turner et al.

noise, in the form of hypercementosis, bent roots, 2. Medium: Elevation is 2-5 mm.
and hypoplasia, that the scoring of root number is 3. Marked.` Elevation is >5 mm.
difficult and susceptible to error.

Torsomolar Angle Comment. Toms is scored by size, regardless of de-

gree of bilateral asymmetry. Score the strongest ex-
Lower third molar. This condition occurs when the
pression. As with the palatine toms, use only adults
third molar has rotated lingually or buccally relative
for comparative purposes. The most marked degrees
to a line drawn through the middle of the first and
of expression known occur in Eskimos. These may
second molars. The torsomolar angle was first rec-
be so large that bony contact almost occurs near the
ognized as common in American Indians, and de-
fined by Neiberger (1978). Procedure:
Lay a small transparent protractor on the lower Rocker Jaw
third molar and measure its rotation relative to a
baseline formed from the middle of the first and sec- Curvature of the inferior surface of the horizontal
ond molars. Without rotation, the angle is 0 degrees. ramus of the mandible. Standard developed by
If rotation is present, record it by degree, tooth, and Turner. No reference plaque. Scoring:
direction (buccal or lingual). Torsomolar angle
should not be measured when a tooth is impacted, or 0. Absent: Lower jaw does not rock back and
if there has been possible positional shift (mesial forth when set on a flat surface because the
drift) due to antemortem loss of the first or second projections formed by the chin and distal bor-
molar. ders of the ascending rami form a tripod.
1. Almost rocker: The lower border of the hori-
OTHER FEATURES zontal ramus is sufficiently curved to make the
Palatine Toms jaw unstable when placed on a flat surface.
A linear exostosis that can develop along part or all Such a mandible will rock for about I sec.
of the palatine suture. Standard developed by Turner. 2. Rocker: Horizontal ramus is so convexly
No reference plaque. Scoring: curved that the mandible will rock back and
forth on a flat surface for several seconds.

0. Torus is absent: Palate is smooth.

I. Trace.' Toms is elevated about 1-2 mm. Comment. As with the tori, rocker jaw is an age-
2. Medium.' Toms is more extensive, elevated 2-5 dependent condition. Only adults should be used for
mm. comparative purposes.
3. Marked.' Toms is elevated more than 5 mm.
4. Very marked: Toms may be 10 mm high and Tooth Status
10-20 mm wide. This degree of development All teeth. It is useful to make observations of the
is seldom encountered outside of Arctic popu- presence/absence status and degree of attrition of all
lations, and even there it is rare. teeth, not only for the intrinsic value of the informa-
tion, but for cross-checking of data after recording
Comment. Toms can be recorded regardless of in- and before analysis. Obviously, data recorded for
dividual age, but for comparative purposes, one teeth that are missing must be in error. Traits suscep-
should use only adults since the toms is age depen- tible to obliteration by wear have been mentioned,
dent. and in some cases, the wear grade at or above which
trait observation should not be made is noted. When
Mandibular Torus a tooth is present, scoring is as follows:
Nodular bony exostoses that can develop on the
lingual aspect of the lower jaw in the canine and 0. No wear. This occurs only in unerupted or
premolar region. Standard developed by N.T. Morris erupting teeth.
(1970). No reference plaque. Scoring: O-1. Wear facets can be seen with a 10 x hand lens
on one or more cusp occlusal planes.
0. Absent: No elevation can be palpated. I. Dentin is exposed on one or more cusps. Al-
1. Trace.' An elevation can be palpated but not most always occurs earlier in incisors than in
easily seen. postincisor teeth.
Scormg Procedures for Dental Traits 27

2. Cusps worn off. Incisors are graded as 2 if have localized infection, such as pockets of bone loss
most of the crown mass is gone. adjacent to one or a few teeth, or the bone loss can be
3. Exposed pulp. Incisor crowns usually worn generalized, affecting most or all teeth. Procedure
off. defined by Turner (1979). Scoring:
dless of de- 4. Root stump is functional. All or most of the
rongest ex- enamel is worn off. None: No identifiable bone loss. Alveolar tooth
only adults border is hard and smooth. Root exposure does not
<ed degrees exceed I-3 mm dependent on age. Note that supere-
These may Other notations used if wear status cannot be
ruption can occur with as much as one-third of the
Jrs near the scored:
entire root length being exposed without any indica-
tion of alveolar bone loss, necrosis, or pocketing.
A. Antemortem loss: Socket is partly or fully
Pockets. One to thre~e teeth may have localized
filled in.
alveolar bone loss. Pockets vary in size. Remainder
C. Congenital absence: This indicator is never
!:horizontal of alveolar bone is smooth. Record affected teeth.
used for subadults, as defined by third molar
'eloped by Generalized, slight.' Periodontal disease affects
eruption or basis~phenoid suture closure. A con-
many teeth with 3-5 mm of exposed root plus pos-
genital absence score of I should be given for
sible alveolar border pitting. Pockets usually occur as
those teeth in which that feature is recorded.
; back and well.
I. /mpacted.- Usually third molars or second pre-
ecause the Generalized, medium.~ There is 4-5 mm of `root
distal bor- exposure, alveolar border is usually ragged, and deep
P. Postmortem loss.' Socket is open and smooth
ripod. pockets can occur.
and shows no sign of filling or resorption.
)f the bori-
Generalized, marked.' More than 50% of the root
U. Unerupted.' Tooth is present but unerupted.
c make the is exposed in many teeth. Alveolar border is severely
Missing data. Site not available for scoring.
at surface. eroded. Pocket depth and form easily grade into the
t I sec. Comments. Intermediate wear grades of I-2, 2-3, appearance of an abscess. Because bone loss is usu-
convexly ally not uniform, generalized amount is estimated on
and 3-4 can be used where appropriate. Scores of A,
;: back and an average state of one or both jaws.
P, U, I, and 0-4 equal presence for congenital ab-
onds. sence considerations. Comment. Deep pockets in an advanced case of pe-
riodontal disease cannot be differentiated from ab-
scesses. An abscess is defined as any perforation of
is an age Caries
the alveolar bone that exits from a root socket. Any
oe used for All teeth. A tooth is considered carious if the le- shallow to deep necrotic area without a perforation is
sion has an irregular border and discolored, easily called a periodontal pocket. Score periodontal dis-
removed, necrotic dentin at the lesion site. An oc- ease according to bone loss, regardless if there has
clusal pit with a hard polished interior and usually been postinfective healing.
ions of the hemispherical shape is not considered carious. Such
ition of all occlusal pits are rare, and, when observed, occur
chiefly in Arctic populations. The same sort of oc.. Cultural Treatment
Le informa-
' recording clusal pits have been found in sea oner molars. Pro- Anterior teeth are sometimes modified or removed
corded for cedure defined by Kon~tzer (1977). Procedure: according to various cultural practices and customs
dis suscep- Caries are scored by location on a tooth with nine (see also Chapter 20, this volume). Categories to look
nentioned, possible sites: Occlusal (Oc), mesial (M), distal (D), for are as follows:
,one which buccal (B), lingual (L), and combinations of occlusal
led. When and the other four surfaces, i.e. , mesio-occlusal A. Tooth removal or ablation: Seldom found in
(MO). All carious sites on a tooth are recorded. individuals less than 12 years of age. Ablation
Comment. If a crown is totally destroyed by caries, can be certain if gaps occur or if there is strong
leaving only a necrotic root stump, the slams for such differential wear in opposing upper or lower
:rnpted or a tooth is scored as 4 (root stump functional), and teeth. To be certain that ablation and not trauma
caries is scored as occlusal (Oc). is the cause of missing teeth, a population pat-
hand lens
tern must exist.
Abscessing and Periodontal Disease B. Filing.. Teeth may be filed to a point, have their
cusps. Al-
Alveolar bone loss is correlated with soft tissue labial surface filed f lat or depressed, or be dec-
periodontal disease. The diseased individual can orated with incised hues. Filed or chipped
28 Turner et al.

notches at the tooth corners may occur along times deeply so, and sometimes with raised
with other treatment. borders.
C. Staining.- In betel-chewing regions of eastern 3. Severe.- More than one-half of the TMJ area is
Asia and the Pacific, crania are frequently en- pitted, eroded, and raised borders may be sub-
countered with red-brown stained teeth. This is stantial. Eburnation may be present.
unintentional treatment, whereas intentionally
black-stained teeth are found in the same re- Comments. TMJ damage can be observed in an ef-
gion. Use of tobacco stains teeth; but it is fort to account for the bilateral asymmetry in tooth
black-brown in color. wear that occurs in many individuals, and as a sec-
D. Inlaying.' Cup-shaped holes can be drilled into ondary source of information on stress arising from
the enamel of an incisors labial surface fol- tooth-use activity. TMJ damage is age-dependent.
lowed by the insertion of various decorative Therefore, inter-group comparisons should be lim-
materials like gold, pyrite, or turquoise. ited to adults.
E. C/eaning striations.. Abrasives like pumice
mixed with charcoal will scratch enamel. Such
cleaning or brushing striations can easily be
seen on labial and buccal surfaces with a lox A typical ASU Dental Anthropology Laboratory
hand lens. Excessive brushing can leave data form is shown in Figure 6. All teeth are ob-
notches on buccal surfaces, usually at the served and noted for the various features on the data
crown-root junction. Toothpick grooves can be form. Except for the caries rows where empty boxes
found on buccal surfaces, but more often on are used to signify that no carious lesions are present,
distal or mesial root surfaces at or near the it is our procedure to leave boxes unfilled where ob-
crown-root junction. servations are not possible, regardless of the indi-
cated tooth status. For example, the upper canines
Crown Chipping might be present, but no observation could be made
Exfoliation or pressure chips are indicative of var- for the distal accessory ridge (C d.a.r.) because of
ious tooth use activities (Turner and Cadien, 1969). wear.
When less than ten teeth are chipped, each is scored. The data form illustrated in Figure 6 was slightly
If chipping is present on the majority of teeth regard- modified after the text of this article was written.
less of number, it is identified as generalized. Minor Only three changes were made: (1) supernumerary or
flaking of marginal enamel in teeth with grade 2 or 3 extra teeth have been added to the observation sched-
wear is not considered as crown chipping. ule; (2) new variants are formally searched for; and
(3) hypoplasia will be scored in the future when a
Other Treatment standard reference plaque has been completed and
A category used for any tooth modification that is tested for reliability.
not listed under cultural treatment. An example of No box is reserved for the extremely rare tri-
other treatment is a newly recognized wear pattern cusped upper premolars. When these occur, we in-
that Turner and Machado (1983) termed LSAMAT dicate them as present by placing an asterisk in the P
(lingual surface attrition of maxillary anterior teeth). m & d boxes. The single box for lower incisor shov-
Such treatment or conditions should be scored per eling is used for scoring only the lower central inci-
tooth. sors. Congenital absence is redundantly scored
(status lines and boxes) in this system. Upper incisor
Temporo-mandibular Joint Damage
labial convexity was not being observed at the time
Osteoarthritic damage/destruction can affect the of the design of this form.
articular surface of the temporalo-mandibular joints While observations are made for each trait on both
(TMJ). Categories defined by Turner in 1980. Scor- the right and left antimeres, when grouping observa-
ing: tions for population comparisons, individuals (not
teeth) are counted. Several different methods may be
O. No damage: TMJ surface is smooth and unpxt`- used to arrive at a single score for a traxt~for an
ted. individual. However, we recommend the individual
1. Slight.' One-fourth of the TMJ surface is pined. count method of Turner and Scott (1977). This
2. Medium.' More than one-fourth but less than method makes the assumptions that there is only a
one-half of the TMJ surface is pitted, some- single genotype for any specific trait, and that, when
ith raised

dJ area is
ly be sub-

I in an ef-
t in tooth
as a sec-
sing from
;J be lim-

h are ob-
n the data
pty boxes
e present,
"here ob-
the indi-
:r canines
I be made
ecause of

IS slightly
s written.
merary or
on sched-
i for; and
e when a
'leted and

rare tri-
tr, we in-
k in the P
isor shov-
ntral inci-
y scored
er incisor
t the time

,it on both
luals (not
is may be
nt for an
77). fhis
is only a
hat, when
Turner et af.

Isyrnmetry is present, the antimere exhibiting the logic and familial analysis of a molar cusp in humans.
eater degree of trait expression is the more accurate Am J Phys Anthropol 53 349-358.
Hellman M (1928): Racial characters in the human denti-
ndicator of the genotype. Therefore, the score used
tion. Proc Am Phil Soc 67 157-164.
or the individual is the highest grade of expression Hrdlika A (1920): Shovel-shaped teeth. Am J Phys An-
,bserved between the two sides. This method maxi- thropol 3 429-465.
nizes the sample size over a method where only one Hrdl A (1924): New data on the teeth of early man and
certain fossil European apes. Am J Phys Anthropol 7
r the other antimere is used. The operational char-
ctefisties of this method are discussed in greater Jorgensen KD (1955): The Dryopithecus pattern in recent
letail in Scott (1980). Recording of the scores for Danes and Dutchmen. J Dent Res 34 195-208.
both anfimeres is important for asymmetry studies. Koritzer RT (1977): An anthropological approach to the
study of dental pathology. In Dahlberg AA, amber TM
(eds): .Orofacial Growth and Development." The
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Hague: Mouton, pp 283-299.
The ASU methodology was initially aided by a Kraus BS, Furr M (1953): Lower first premolars. J Dent
Res 32 554-564.
ant from the Weaner-Gren Foundation. Several
Larson MA (1978): "Dental morphology of the Gran Qui-
tudents have contributed directly to the system. vim Indians." MA thesis, Arizona State University,
`hese individuals are identified in the descriptions Tempe.
or each trait. We wish to especially thank Roy A. Montagu MFA (1940): The significance of the variability of
Sames, physical anthropology technician, who for the upper lateral incisor teeth in man. Hum Biol 12 323-
ninny years has helped immensely with the develop-
Morris DH (1970): "On deflecting wrinkles and the Dryo-
aent, production, and distribution of the ASU pithecus pattern in human mandibular molars. Am J
laques. The ASU Department of Anthropology has Phys Anthropol 32 97-104.
Iso been very supportive of this activity, as has Al- Morris DH (1975): Bushmen maxillary canine polymor-
phism. S Afr J Sci 71 333-335.
ert A. Dahlberg.
Morris DH, Dahlberg AA , Glasstone-Hughes S (1978): The
Uto-Aztecan premolar: The anthropology of a dental
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Gran Qui-

riabilify of
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the Dryo-
s." Am J


1978): The
f a dental
|don: Aca-


n mandib-

Am J Phys

: Variation
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mo Denti-

ic study of
ing South-
te Univer-

a, associa-
stal acces-

elks trait.

ogy. Anna

HW (ed).

ued at the