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Adhesive Manufacturing Processes

Chapter 6: Testing and Quality Assurance

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm Department for Cutting and Joining Manufacturing Processes (tff) University of Kassel, Germany

Quelle: Wikipedia

Adhesive Manufacturing Processes Chapter 6: Testing and Quality Assurance Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm Department
Adhesive Manufacturing Processes Chapter 6: Testing and Quality Assurance Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm Department

Agenda

  • Introduction

  • Destructive Testing Methods

  • Non-Destructive Testing Methods

Agenda  Introduction  Destructive Testing Methods  Non-Destructive Testing Methods 2

2

Agenda  Introduction  Destructive Testing Methods  Non-Destructive Testing Methods 2

Introduction

  • Testing & Quality Assurance is especially important

    • joined elements can either not be reworked or only with much effort

      • Criteria for the selection of a testing method for an adhesively joined bond:

parameters that need to be examined

destructive or non-destructive testing

circumstances under which the test is to be carried out (i.e. production control or individual examination)

  • testing standards and regulations need to be followed

Source: Habenicht

Introduction  Testing & Quality Assurance is especially important  joined elements can either not be

3

Introduction  Testing & Quality Assurance is especially important  joined elements can either not be

Introduction

  • Important aspects for the quality assurance for adhesive bonding:

1.

Planning:

Training measures for employees, Integration of the production of adhesively joined bonds into the construction phase, Development of company-specific regulations or production standards,

Introduction  Important aspects for the quality assurance for adhesive bonding: 1. Planning: Training measures for

Source: Habenicht

Introduction  Important aspects for the quality assurance for adhesive bonding: 1. Planning: Training measures for

4

Introduction  Important aspects for the quality assurance for adhesive bonding: 1. Planning: Training measures for

Introduction

  • 2. Adhesives:

Checking of the supplier´s specifications on the label to avoid confusion

For further identification of the adhesive, viscosity, density and, if necessary, solids content and colour should be examined

Checking of rheological characteristics (i.e. viscosity, thixotropy)

Checking of storing time and temperature If necessary, execution of test samples and tests

  • 3. Joint Elements:

Assessment of the surface quality (how clean, free of grease) Testing of the wetting properties (water drop test) Assessment of roughness Required dimensions, tolerances

Source: Habenicht

Introduction 2. Adhesives: – Checking of the supplier´s specifications on the label to avoid confusion –
Introduction 2. Adhesives: – Checking of the supplier´s specifications on the label to avoid confusion –

5

Introduction 2. Adhesives: – Checking of the supplier´s specifications on the label to avoid confusion –

Introduction

  • 4. Surface Treatment:

Blasting material (size of grains, free of grease (also the supply air) Pureness of the degreasing material Composition, concentration and temperature of the pickling and chemical pretreatment baths Pureness of the rinsing baths

  • 5. Application of the Adhesive:

Preparation of the adhesive Degree of mixture and the relation of the components to each other Pot life, amount, thickness of the layer, adhesive wetting Checking if the system for the application, mixture and dosing functions properly Positioning and fixation of the joint elements

Source: Habenicht

Introduction 4. Surface Treatment: Blasting material (size of grains, free of grease (also the supply air)

6

Introduction 4. Surface Treatment: Blasting material (size of grains, free of grease (also the supply air)

Introduction

  • 6. Environmental Conditions:

Cleanliness in the production halls Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of humidity at the surfaces) Degree of humidity in the air

  • 7. Occupational and Environmental Safety (Disposal, Recycling):

various legal standards, laws and guidelines

  • 8. Documentation:

Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of

Continuous documentation of the parameters that are important for the quality

Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of

Source: Habenicht

Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of
Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of
Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of
Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of
Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of

7

Introduction 6. Environmental Conditions: Cleanliness in the production halls – Temperature, if necessary, climatisation (adsorption of

Introduction

  • Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds

Testing of the Bond

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

if necessary, inclusion of specific circumstances

Destructive Testing

Non-Destructuve

Testing

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion
Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion
Dynamic
Dynamic
Static
Static

Highly Dynamic

Source: Habenicht

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

8

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

Agenda

  • Introduction

  • Destructive Testing Methods

  • Non-Destructive Testing Methods

Agenda  Introduction  Destructive Testing Methods  Non-Destructive Testing Methods 9

9

Agenda  Introduction  Destructive Testing Methods  Non-Destructive Testing Methods 9

Destructive Testing Methods

static short-term stress

  • Shear Stress:

Shear Test

According to DIN EN 1465 (DIN 53283): „Determination of the shear strength of highly strong overlap bonds“

Destructive Testing Methods static short-term stress  Shear Stress: ● Shear Test – According to DIN
Destructive Testing Methods static short-term stress  Shear Stress: ● Shear Test – According to DIN

:Bond Strength, F max :Maximum Force, A: Bond Area)

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing Methods static short-term stress  Shear Stress: ● Shear Test – According to DIN

10

Destructive Testing Methods static short-term stress  Shear Stress: ● Shear Test – According to DIN

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Shear Stress:

Disadvantages:

Influence of the expansion of the joint elements Eccentric fixation

To avoid eccentric stress in testing machines, specimen reinforcement in the fixation area is done (out of the same specimen material)

Field of Application:

Testing method serves to examine the usability and the quality of the adhesive:

When developing and applying the adhesive, When controling the production to ensure the quality When comparing adhesives under chemical and physical stress and influence

Source: Habenicht

11

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Shear Stress: ● Disadvantages: – Influence of the expansion of
Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Shear Stress: ● Disadvantages: – Influence of the expansion of

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Tensile Stress:

Shear Stress and Sliding Behaviour

„Thick“ shear test Implementation according to ISO 11003-2 (before DIN 54451) No bending moment pure shear stress Building elements quite thick

  • Expansion of joint elements is avoided

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Tensile Stress: ● Shear Stress and Sliding Behaviour – „Thick“

12

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Tensile Stress: ● Shear Stress and Sliding Behaviour – „Thick“

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Torsion Shear Stress:

Torsion Shear Stress

according to: ISO 10033-1 and ISO 11003-2

Two pipe sections are twisted longitudinally in opposite directions

Advantage: very homogeneous distribution of the shear stress, eliminates shear and bending stress

Disadvantage: elaborate preparation of the specimen to ensure the

concentricity of the hollow cylinder and the compliance to the defined

thickness of the adhesive layer

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Torsion Shear Stress: ● Torsion Shear Stress – according to:

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Torsion Shear Stress: ● Torsion Shear Stress – according to:

13

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Torsion Shear Stress: ● Torsion Shear Stress – according to:

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Tensile Stress:

according to DIN EN 26922 (DIN 53288) „determination of tensile strength“

stress under normal forces (this means horizontal to the joint surface)

advantages: defined stress ratio and information about adhesion and cohesion behaviour of the bond

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Tensile Stress: ● according to DIN EN 26922 (DIN 53288)
Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Tensile Stress: ● according to DIN EN 26922 (DIN 53288)

14

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Tensile Stress: ● according to DIN EN 26922 (DIN 53288)

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Compression Shear Stress:

according to DIN 54452

determination of shear strength of adhesive rotationally symmetric bond gaps in

axial direction

especially for anaerobic adhesives for shaft-hub-connections

advantages: homogeneous distribution of shear stress

(
(
Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Compression Shear Stress: ● according to DIN 54452 ● determination

: shear strength, F B : breaking strength, A: shearing area, D: bolt diameter, l: case length)

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Compression Shear Stress: ● according to DIN 54452 ● determination
Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Compression Shear Stress: ● according to DIN 54452 ● determination

15

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Compression Shear Stress: ● according to DIN 54452 ● determination

Destructive Testing

static short-term stresssche Kurzzeitbeanspruchungen

  • Torsion Stress:

also mainly for anaerobic adhesives

if the geometry is round, it can be tested flatly (1.) or with a thread (2.):

1. Torsion Strength

apply according to DIN 54455 „ Determination of shear strength of adhesives in a rotationally symmetric joint gap in tangential direction“

Destructive Testing static short-term stresssche Kurzzeitbeanspruchungen  Torsion Stress: ● also mainly for anaerobic adhesives ●
(
(

: torsion shear strength, M B : measured ultimate moment, r: radius of the joint gap, A: shearing area)

Destructive Testing static short-term stresssche Kurzzeitbeanspruchungen  Torsion Stress: ● also mainly for anaerobic adhesives ●

Source: Habenicht

16

Destructive Testing static short-term stresssche Kurzzeitbeanspruchungen  Torsion Stress: ● also mainly for anaerobic adhesives ●
Destructive Testing static short-term stresssche Kurzzeitbeanspruchungen  Torsion Stress: ● also mainly for anaerobic adhesives ●

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Torsion Stress:

if the geometry is round, it can be tested flatly (1.) or with a thread (2.):

2. Breakaway torque

according to DIN 54454 on adhesively joined threads (see picture) serves to compare the security effect of bonded threads the breakaway torque is ascertained from the rotational angle diagram M LB (relative motion between nut and screw)

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Torsion Stress: ● if the geometry is round, it can

Source: Habenicht

17

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Torsion Stress: ● if the geometry is round, it can
Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Torsion Stress: ● if the geometry is round, it can

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Peel Stress:

this stress must be avoided constructively peeling stress is always the worst for a bond examination of adhesion behaviour line loads instead of area loading testing occurs under constant load or constant peel speed

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: this stress must be avoided constructively  peeling

Simple peel stress

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: this stress must be avoided constructively  peeling

18

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: this stress must be avoided constructively  peeling

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Peel Stress:

Four methods for testing:

1. Angle Peel Test:

according to ISO 11339 and DIN EN 28510 „Determination of the resistance of metal bonds to peeling forces that occur horizontally to the joint gap

mainly to compare adhesives or surface pretreatment methods

  • smallest differences in the adhesive and cohesive behaviour can be shown

advantage: easy to apply

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 1. Angle Peel

19

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 1. Angle Peel
Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 1. Angle Peel

Kraft F

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Peel Stress:

Four methods for testing:

1. Angle Peel Test:

result of the test: peel diagram

high force at the beginningjoint elements have to be deformed first (absolute peeling resistance)

continuous peeling (relative peeling resistance)

  • 30 90% of the length of the diagram is necessary to show the inhomogeneity of a bond

elastic adhesive layers

  • higher peel resistance than brittle layers

Kraft F Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 1.

Example of a

peeling diagram

Middle separating force F m

Length of

diagram

20

Kraft F Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 1.

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Peel Stress:

Four methods for testing:

  • 2. RollerPeel Test:

according to DIN EN 1464, ISO 4578

thin sheet is peeled under a constand bending radius (advantage: contant angle)

Peeling resistance is also taken from the force- path diagram (see testing method of before)

thickness of sheet: 0,5mm +/- 0,1mm

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 2. RollerPeel Test:
Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 2. RollerPeel Test:

21

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 2. RollerPeel Test:

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Peel Stress:

Four methods for testing:

3. Increasing drum peel stress:

according to ASTM D 1781-98 thin sheet is bonded to a solid plate this sheet is unwound over a rotating drum documentation through diagram and determination of peel speed advantage: peel angle is constant

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 3. Increasing drum

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 3. Increasing drum

22

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 3. Increasing drum

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Peel Stress:

Four methods for testing:

4. Foil Peel Test:

according to DIN EN 28510 specifically for adhesion strength a 0,1 0,15mm thick metal foil is bonded to a metal plate peeling at an angle of 180° peel radius very small cracks are brought upon forcefully in the boundary layers boundary layers can be examined intensively (i.e. microscopically)

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 4. Foil Peel

23

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Peel Stress: ● Four methods for testing: 4. Foil Peel

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Split Stress:

Extension to peel tests

  • the construction elements are thicker therefore „split“ Two main split tests:

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Stress: ● Extension to peel tests  the construction

1. Bending-Peel-Test:

according to DIN 54461 especially for synthetic-metal bonds

  • adhesion behaviour can be examined

a 12mm thick steel sheet is bonded to a 4mm thick plastic

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Stress: ● Extension to peel tests  the construction
tearing force path Kraft F
tearing
force
path
Kraft
F

24

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Stress: ● Extension to peel tests  the construction

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Split Stress:

Two main split tests:

2. Wedge Test:

was developed by Boeing for surface-treated aluminium sheets standardised in DIN 65448 joint elements are held on one side (picture)

100 bis 150
100 bis 150

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Stress: ● Two main split tests: 2. Wedge Test:

Sheet-thickness:

example:

Aluminium 3,2mm

Titanium 2,0mm

25

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Stress: ● Two main split tests: 2. Wedge Test:

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Split Sress:

Two main split testing methods:

2. Wedge Test:

wedge is brought into adhesive layer crach occurs (up to l 0 ) then a specimen is brought into a climatic chamber with the wegde still in (i.e. 75 min. at 50 °C and 95% rel. F.) the advance of the crack is measured in relation to the time (from l 0 to l 1 ) advantage: influence of ageing processes can be examined

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Sress: ● Two main split testing methods: 2. Wedge

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Sress: ● Two main split testing methods: 2. Wedge

26

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Sress: ● Two main split testing methods: 2. Wedge

Destructive Testing

static short-term stress

  • Split Stress:

2. Wedge Test:

further advantage: different surface treatments can be compared

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Stress: 2. Wedge Test: – further advantage: different surface
degrease d pickled + chromic acid anodisation blasted pickled pickled + Phosphoric acid anodisation Time Rissverlängerung
degrease
d
pickled + chromic acid anodisation
blasted
pickled
pickled + Phosphoric acid anodisation
Time
Rissverlängerung

t

27

Destructive Testing static short-term stress  Split Stress: 2. Wedge Test: – further advantage: different surface

Destructive Testing

Static & dynamic long-term stress

Static long-term stress of practical interest

adhesive layers tend to creep

if deformation possibilities are exceeded, the bond can break

Creep Strength:

resting stress on a bonding surface A under the impact of force F

  • after the period of time t has ended, the bonded elements break apart (creep)

for the fatigue strength this means: (t: time until the separation always shown) ● Creep Resistance:
for the fatigue strength this means:
(t: time until the separation always shown)
● Creep Resistance:
– no separation of joint elements (no creeping)
Zeitstandfestigkeit
this means:
(
)
Dauerstandfestigkeit
Source: Habenicht
time until break
Belastung
F

28

Destructive Testing Static & dynamic long-term stress ● Static long-term stress of practical interest ● adhesive
Destructive Testing Static & dynamic long-term stress ● Static long-term stress of practical interest ● adhesive

Destructive Testing

Static & dynamic long-term stress

  • Testing of the Creep Strength:

according to DIN 53284

to „determine the creep strength and the creep resistance of

overlap bonds in resting shear stress“

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing Static & dynamic long-term stress  Testing of the Creep Strength: ● according to
Destructive Testing Static & dynamic long-term stress  Testing of the Creep Strength: ● according to

29

Destructive Testing Static & dynamic long-term stress  Testing of the Creep Strength: ● according to

Introduction

  • Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds

Testing of Bonds

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of Bonds if necessary, inclusion of

if necessary, inclusion of

specific circumstances

Destructive Testing

Non-Destructive

Testing

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of Bonds if necessary, inclusion of
Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of Bonds if necessary, inclusion of
Dynamic
Dynamic
Static
Static

Highly Dynamic

Source: Habenicht

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of Bonds if necessary, inclusion of

30

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of Bonds if necessary, inclusion of

Destructive Testing

dynamic and highly dynamic stress

Impact-Peel-Test

according to DIN EN ISO 11343 speed of over 3 m/s often in combination with metal substrates

usage in car industry, as the crash characteristics can be examined in the laboratory

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Impact-Peel-Test  according to DIN EN ISO 11343 
Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Impact-Peel-Test  according to DIN EN ISO 11343 
Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Impact-Peel-Test  according to DIN EN ISO 11343 

31

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Impact-Peel-Test  according to DIN EN ISO 11343 

Destructive Testing

dynamic and highly dynamic stress

Impact-Peel-Test

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Impact-Peel-Test 32
Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Impact-Peel-Test 32

32

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Impact-Peel-Test 32

Destructive Testing

dynamic and highly dynamic stress

Quick Tear Test

different geometries of the specimens possible

in bonding technology, U- profiles are used that are connected at the head piece

very high speeds of up to 20 m/s

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Quick Tear Test  different geometries of the specimens
Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Quick Tear Test  different geometries of the specimens

Source: Keuerleber (2006): Bestimmung des Elastizitätsmoduls von Kunststoffen bei hohen Dehnraten am Beispiel von PP. Stuttgart, 2006.

33

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Quick Tear Test  different geometries of the specimens

Destructive Testing

dynamic and highly dynamic stress

Drop Test

falling height up to 15 m speed rates up to 16 m/s when testing adhesive bonds, double hat profiles are normally used

energy of the hit is regulated through the fall mass and height

force measurement through plate in ground and speed measurement through light barrier

can be combined with Impact-Peel- Prüfung

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Drop Test  falling height up to 15 m
Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Drop Test  falling height up to 15 m
Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Drop Test  falling height up to 15 m

34

Destructive Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Drop Test  falling height up to 15 m

Destructiv Testing

dynamic and highly dynamic stress

Drop Test

brittle epoxy resin adhesive

crash-modified epoxy resin adhesive

brittle epoxy resin adhesive crash-modified epoxy resin adhesive
brittle epoxy resin adhesive crash-modified epoxy resin adhesive

Source: Droste (2006): Crash stable adhesives in application and simulation. LS-DYNA Anwenderforum, Ulm ,2006.

35

Destructiv Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Drop Test brittle epoxy resin adhesive crash-modified epoxy resin
Destructiv Testing dynamic and highly dynamic stress Drop Test brittle epoxy resin adhesive crash-modified epoxy resin

Introduction

  • Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds

Testing of the Bond

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

if necessary, inclusion of specific circumstances

Destructive Testing

Non-Destructive

Testing

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion
Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion
Dynamic
Dynamic
Static
Static

Highly Dynamic

Source: Habenicht

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

36

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

Destructive Testing Methods

long-term stress under ageing influence

  • In General:

normal circumstances for bonds are rather rare

tests under different environmental conditions

standardised testing bonds are exposed to certain circumstances and then tested

not aged (specimens for comparison) and aged specimens are compared

a decrease in hardness is (often) established

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing Methods long-term stress under ageing influence  In General: ● normal circumstances for bonds

37

Destructive Testing Methods long-term stress under ageing influence  In General: ● normal circumstances for bonds

Destructive Tests

long-term stress under ageing influence

  • In General:

climatic tests are a compromise between the

shortest period of time and a system that is as

close to reality as possible

the results should alwas be examined critically

Graphic comparison:

Egg: 5min at 100C° breakfast egg

Egg: 28 days at 37C° chick

Destructive Tests long-term stress under ageing influence  In General: ● climatic tests are a compromise

Source: Habenicht und blog.essen-und-trinken.de

Destructive Tests long-term stress under ageing influence  In General: ● climatic tests are a compromise

38

Destructive Tests long-term stress under ageing influence  In General: ● climatic tests are a compromise
Destructive Tests long-term stress under ageing influence  In General: ● climatic tests are a compromise

Destructive Testing

long-term stress under ageing influences

  • Three forms of stress in short-time tests:

1.

Humidity

diffusion of moisture into the polymer layer (can take up to 5% of water)

  • is often increased through heat (DIN 50017)

air humidity between 0 % and 100 %

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Three forms of stress in short-time tests: 1.

39

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Three forms of stress in short-time tests: 1.

Destructive Testing

long-term stress under ageing influences

  • Three forms of stress in short-time tests:

    • 2. Stress through corrosive media:

especiall strong influence through humidity and corrosion i.e. according to DIN 50021: „salt spray test“ bond is sprayed with salt for several hours

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Three forms of stress in short-time tests: 2.

Source: Habenicht und www.sulzer.com

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Three forms of stress in short-time tests: 2.

40

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Three forms of stress in short-time tests: 2.

Destructive Testing

long-term stress under ageing influence

  • Three forms of stress in short-time tests:

3.

Temperature:

change of temperature as in reality simulated in the laboratory

  • -40 C° to 80 C°

cooling down is critical:

  • the humidity diffuses into the adhesively joined bond as it expands (at low temperatures, or frost)

  • a type of „dynamical“ stress occurs (constantly changing temperatures)

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influence  Three forms of stress in short-time tests: 3.

41

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influence  Three forms of stress in short-time tests: 3.

Destructive Testing

long-term stress under ageing influences

  • Selection of Ageing Tests:

standardised tests have been developed especially in the car industry

specific varnish systems have been developed

a. VW P-1200 Test:

climate-change test (high humidity without strong corrosion)

4 hs 80 °C, 95% rel.F. & cooling down 2 hs to 40 °C then 4 hs stay at 40 °C

then heating up 2 hs to 80 °C, 95% rel.F. time altogether (30-90 days)

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Selection of Ageing Tests: ● standardised tests have

42

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Selection of Ageing Tests: ● standardised tests have

Destructive Testing

long-term stress under ageing influences

  • Selection of Ageing Tests:

b. VDA exchange test:

24 hs salt spraying test according to DIN 50021, 6 hs sweat water test according to DIN 50017, 3 hs storage at room temperature 6 hs storage at 100 °C, 2 hs storage at room temperature, 5 hs storag at 30°C, 66 hs storage at room temperature

changing climate test chamber

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Selection of Ageing Tests: b. VDA exchange test:
  • strong changes in temperature with quite high stresses (is according real use in 6 to 10

years)

Source: Habenicht und www.vlm-labtec.com

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Selection of Ageing Tests: b. VDA exchange test:

43

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Selection of Ageing Tests: b. VDA exchange test:

Destructive Testing

long-term stress under ageing influences

  • Selection of ageing tests:

c. Cataplasma-Test:

difference to other testing methods: corrosion products are not separated closed atmosphere

bonding specimen and a water-soaked piece of cotton are wrapped into an aluminium foil and additionally into an air-tight polyethylene foil

testing cyclus: 21 days storage at 70 °C and then 16 hs storage at 30 °C

after that the bonding strength can be determined with this testing method

Source: Habenicht

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Selection of ageing tests: c. Cataplasma-Test: – difference

44

Destructive Testing long-term stress under ageing influences  Selection of ageing tests: c. Cataplasma-Test: – difference

Agenda

  • Introduction

  • Destructive Testing

  • Non-Destructive Testing

Agenda  Introduction  Destructive Testing  Non-Destructive Testing 45

45

Agenda  Introduction  Destructive Testing  Non-Destructive Testing 45

Introduction

  • Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds

Testing of the Bond

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

if necessary, inclusion of

specific circumstances

Destructive Testing

Non-Destructive

Testing

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion
Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion
Dynamic
Dynamic
Static
Static

Highly Dynamic

Source: Habenicht

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

46

Introduction  Classification of the Testing Methods for Bonds Testing of the Bond if necessary, inclusion

Exclusion of NDT - Methods

Non-Destructive Testing Methods

Penetrating Magnetical- Mechanical Chemical- Visual Thermical electric Vibration electrical Radiation
Penetrating
Magnetical-
Mechanical
Chemical-
Visual
Thermical
electric
Vibration
electrical
Radiation

X-ray

Microwaves

Metalic joint

elements

disturb

the radiation

Neutronen- Radiographie Terahertz Röntgen / CT

Eddy Current Alternating Current

Adhesive not

electrical or

magetical

conductive

Ultraschall
Ultraschall

Passive / Aktive Thermography

Colour Intrusion

Method

CCD-Camera

Light-Section

Speckle-Interf.

Moiré-Method

FTIR

Laser Scanning

Bonding seam not visible

Bonding seams

not

visible

Shearografie

47

Exclusion of NDT - Methods Non-Destructive Testing Methods Penetrating Magnetical- Mechanical Chemical- Visual Thermical electric Vibration
Exclusion of NDT - Methods Non-Destructive Testing Methods Penetrating Magnetical- Mechanical Chemical- Visual Thermical electric Vibration

Method of Active Thermography

Optical Radiation Mechanical Stress Anregungs- quelle IR-Kamera Mess- und Steuerrechner Halogen , Laser, Ultrasound LED, Flaslight
Optical Radiation
Mechanical Stress
Anregungs-
quelle
IR-Kamera
Mess- und
Steuerrechner
Halogen , Laser,
Ultrasound
LED, Flaslight
Steuerung der
Anregungsenergie
Conduction
Induction
Anregung
Thermische
Welle
Defekt
Induced Eddy
Bauteil
Hot, Cold Air
Current
Anregung eines
instationären
Wärmetransports im Bauteil
Imperfektionen (Fehlstellen,
Grenzflächen) erzeugen
lokale Änderung des
Wärmeflusses
Aufzeichnung der von der
Körperoberflächen
abgestrahlten Energie durch
eine Infrarotkamera
Auswertung der lokalen
transienten (zeitabhängigen)
Temperaturänderungen der
Bauteiloberfläche
48
[Source: Srajbr, Böhm et al. – Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung geklebter Bauteile]

Ultrasound Shearographie

  • Delaminationen in CfK- Sandwichstructures

Example: Exmanination of aviation structures

Ultrasound Shearographie  Delaminationen in CfK- Sandwichstructures Example: Exmanination of aviation structures Piezo-Shaker with vacuum suction
Ultrasound Shearographie  Delaminationen in CfK- Sandwichstructures Example: Exmanination of aviation structures Piezo-Shaker with vacuum suction
Ultrasound Shearographie  Delaminationen in CfK- Sandwichstructures Example: Exmanination of aviation structures Piezo-Shaker with vacuum suction
Ultrasound Shearographie  Delaminationen in CfK- Sandwichstructures Example: Exmanination of aviation structures Piezo-Shaker with vacuum suction

Piezo-Shaker with vacuum suction cup

[Source: isi-sys GmbH]

49

Ultrasound Shearographie  Delaminationen in CfK- Sandwichstructures Example: Exmanination of aviation structures Piezo-Shaker with vacuum suction