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Formula Student Design and Manufacturing

Do and Don’t
Illustrated with pictures mostly taken at Formula Student competitions

Claude Rouelle
What makes me qualified to speak about race car design….

I made the same mistakes 1979 Master Thesis


What makes me qualified to speak about race car design….

I made many mistakes Race Car Engineering 1980 to 1997


What makes me qualified to speak about race car design….
And I had a few success
What makes me qualified to speak about race car design….
• Created OptimumG in 1997
• Located in Denver, CO, USA
• Multicultural and multidisciplinary staff
Training Simulation Consulting

Design Judge Formula Student competitions for over 15 years


Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, India, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, USA.
Several Universities course in Europe, USA, Australia and South America
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing
Do and Don’t
Some basic design errors you should and can avoid
Illustrated with pictures mostly taken at Formula Student competitions
2015 and 2016
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Rod end in bending

If this top wishbone would break


Where do you think it would break?

Right here!
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Rod end in bending

What is the solution?

Linkage axis going through


outboard rod end center
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Rod end in bending

Linkage axis going through


outboard rod end

Pull rod axis good


but could have been better
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
The suspension link axis must go through one node of the chassis
Suspension links through the outboard upright point
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Decreased compliances with good design

All these points should be


in the same plane

Reduce
compliances
causes!
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Suspension links axis not through a chassis node
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Suspension links not through a chassis node
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Suspension links not through a chassis node

Determine your suspension points coordinates, then draw you frame,


not the other way around!
The chassis frame is one of the last things you should draw
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Suspension links through a chassis node

Coud have been shorter

Reduce
compliances
causes!
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Unnecessary compliances

Too big distance


Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Decreased compliances with good design

Reduce
compliances
causes!
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Single shear attachment

Big, unnecessary shear forces that will create compliances


Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Double shear attachment

Better forces distribution


Less compliances

Reduce
compliances
causes!
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Rocker attachment not at a chassis node
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Damper / Spring unit attachment not at a chassis node
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Unnecessary big rocker
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Same Rocker Ratio. Lighter

Bigger is not better.


Try to make each part light, stiff, simple and cheap to manufacture
Make it compact.
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Anti Roll Bars are supposed to work in torsion not in bending

Very weak point


Too big distance
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Anti Roll Bars are supposed to work in torsion not in bending
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Anti Roll Bars compliances
ARB bearing cap
not at a chassis node

Single shear

Too big Distance


Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Anti Roll Bars sizes
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Anti Roll Bars unnecessary compliances

Droop link
attachment point
in the middle of
suspension linkage

Single shear
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Anti Roll Bars Design and Installation

Bigger is not better.


Do not start manufacturing anything until all drawings
(including antiroll bars) are finished
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Overcomplicated chassis

2 6 tubes
A
2 Nodes
1
..so close to each other
5

B 3
6

Unnecessary
complicated
Simple Recipe for good frame design:
1. Triangulation everywhere. 2. Minimum amount of tubes and nodes!
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Unnecessary heavy uprights

Heavy Lighter
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Unnecessary long suspension elements

The longer
each suspension element
…. the heavier
…. the more flexible

Think
- Small
- Light
- Stiff
- Smart packaging
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Too Small Toe Base

Way too small toe base Much longer toe base


Cause of huge compliance Less compliance
Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Big, heavy radiator poor efficiency, aerodynamic drag
The fan only sucks
a small portion
of the air going through
of the radiator

The air will follow the


path of a lesser resistance
Low cooling efficiency

Does it need to be that big?


Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
A big radiator is needed….

Because low fan use and no side pod ducting


Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Cooling Efficiency

Light, Efficient, Low Drag!


Formula Student Design and Manufacturing Do and Don’t
Conclusions
Weight is your enemy. Compliance too. Avoid compliances
Make is simple, small and light
Form follows function
Claude Rouelle

Thank you