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Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology that was followed in the pursuit of the aim

of this study. It describes the research design, duration and locale of the study,

population and participants, materials and procedures and the mode of data analyses

employed.

Research Design

The study utilized ex-post facto design. According to Salkind (2010), ex-post facto

study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the

investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher.

The majority of social research, in context in which it is not possible or acceptable to

manipulate the characteristics of human participants, is based on ex-post facto research

design. In relation to this design, this study assessed the extracurricular activities

participated in by the respondents and their grades obtained one semester ago, thus

requiring ex-post facto design.

According to De Vaus, D.A. (2001) a research design refers to the overall strategy

that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and

logical way, thereby, ensuring that the research problem will be addressed

appropriately; constituing the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of

data.

In this study the researchers used a preliminary survey questionnaire in obtaining


the data to determine who will be included in the actual survey. The researchers wanted

to determine what is the effect of extra-curricular activities in the academic

performance of the Senior High School students without manipulating any of the

variables since the fact (participation in extracurricular studies) had already occurred.

The grades needed in this study are those obtained by the respondents in the previous

semester as well.

Duration and Locale of the Study

The study was conducted in Speaker Eugenio Perez National Agricultural School at

the Roxas Blvd. San Carlos City, Pangasinan.

The school was established in 190_ under its original name San Carlos rural

School. In 19___, it was renamed to its present name in honor of Eugenio Perez, a

native of the old San Carlos town, who was the first-ever Speaker of the House of

Representatives of the Philippine Congress and for several decades, the longest-serving

Speaker

Speaker Eugenio Perez National Agricultural School is the largest school in San

Carlos City, Pangasinan, Philippines in terms of student population. It is, in fact,

classified as a mega-school with over 5000-plus-strong students from Grade 7 to 12.

According to the official enrolment data for School Year 2017-2018 of the school,

SEPNAS has a population of 1,506 Senior High School students. (what about the Junior

high school enrolment? What are the educational thrusts of SEPNAS? Example, does

its curriculum focus on agriculture and technical vocational programs?) This consist of
__ males making up __% of the total SHS student population and __ females, or about

__% of the total SHS student population. These respondents came from (specify the

academic strands from where you took your samples. You may opt to make and present

a table showin the distribution of your respondents per academic strand and section)

Population and Participants

The researchers identified the SHS students of SEPNAS who enrolled in the

academic strands as participants. The participants of this study were purposively

selected in each of the 19 sections of the senior high school department, as a

preliminary selection was conducted to identify only those who have had any

participation in extracurricular activities in the SY 2016-2017 in SEPNAS could qualify

in the study.

The respondents were selected using purposive sampling, particularly by

homogeneous sampling approach where the participants of the preliminary survey who

could provide significant information about the study were chosen to be included in the

actual survey. According to Grossman (2017), purposive sample is a non-probability

sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the objective of a

study. Purposive sampling is also known as selective, or subjective sampling (citation

needed). Homogeneous sampling requires that all selected participants possess the

inclusion criteria set by the researcher, that is, in this research, those senior high school

students of SEPNAS who have participated in at least one extra-curricular activity in


the last semester of school year 2016-2017.

All in all, ____ respondents were recruited, with ____ males ( %) and ____

females ( %).

Materials and Procedures

The survey questionnaire and document analysis are the principal tools in gathering

data. In the use of questionnaire, the respondents answered questions prepared by the

researchers on topics that are related to the research problem.

The questionnaire was constructed by the Grade 12 HUMSS researchers to attain

the objective of determining the effects of participating in any extra-curricular activities

in the selected sections who enrolled in the academic strands. Their research adviser

validated the final draft of the instrument. The face validation required scrutiny of the

instrument to judge if the content of the questionnaire is understandable, accurate and

adequately representative of the objectives of the study that the researchers wanted to

cover. All suggestions and comments to improve the form and substance of the

questionnaire were acknowledged and incorporated into the final form of the

questionnaire. Reliability of the instrument was assumed to have been existent upon

being assured that the instrument was valid (Polit and Beck, 2012).

The data on the academic performance of the students were obtained through

document analysis. The researchers made a formal request of obtaining the final grades

of the selected respondents from the office of the registrar invoking the approval of the

principal for the researchers to conduct the study. The final grades are those from the
previous semester of school year 2016-2017.

The researchers simultaneously drafted a letter that sought the permission from the

School Principal and SHS Coordinator, noted by the adviser of the researchers while

the instrument was in the validation process. Only upon the approval was secured did

the researchers commenced with the respondent recruitment and request for data on

grades.

The selection process of participants had two phases. First is the preliminary

survey, which contains questions asking for their name, grade and section and a filter

question to ascertain whether or not they participated in any extra-curricular activities

in the previous semester of the previous SY 2016-2017. Those who confirmed

participation in any extracurricular activities were then convinced to participate in the

actual survey, where they had to answer a battery of items arranged as aligned with the

problems.

The researchers sought the assistance of the section advisers of the selected

respondents for faster data collection. The research objectives and the procedures on

answering the questionnaire were explained thoroughly.

For the provision on maintaining the privacy of the participants during the

answering of the questionnaires, they were given the option to write or not to write their

names in the survey questionnaires. Before giving the questionnaire, the Grade 12-

HUMSS researchers checked and rechecked the participants’ profile if they were indeed

qualified as research participants. The participants were informed as well of their rights

to autonomy and justice as regards their research participation. All of the rights of the
participants were all well-discussed and the Grade 12-HUMSS made sure that the

research participants understood these all.

The questionnaires were retrieved immediately and the responses were checked for

thoroughness upon submission that ensured 100% return rate. Each questionnaire was

assigned a code that facilitated its efficient tracking and retrieval.

The data gathered were then subjected to data processing where these were coded,

encoded and analyzed.

Data Analysis

To determine the profile of the respondents, frequency distribution which includes

frequency counts, percentage were computed, and the formula of which is presented

below:

(place here the formula of percentage)

Arithmetic mean was also computed to determine the average age with the

following formula:

(place here the formula of arithmetic mean)

The same descriptive statistical procedures were used to answer sub-problem

number two on the extracurricular activities of the participants. Mean was computed for

the mean academic performance.

To determine if there is significant correlation between the variables of the study as

stated in sub-problem number 3, Spearman rho ( ρ) was used. This is a non-parametric

statistical method used when the variables are measured in the categorical and/or
ordinal levels and when the non-probabilistic sampling method used implies that the

results cannot be generalized to the population from where the sample respondents

were sampled (citation needed).

(place here the formula of Spearman rho)

To answer the sub-problem on comparing the outcome variables when the

respondents were compared as to their sociodemographic profiles and other pertinent

attributes, non-parametric chi square test of independence was used.

(Place here the formula of Pearson’s chi square test of independence)

All of the data analyses conducted used a statistical software.

Bibliography:

Polit, D. F. and Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing research: generating and assessing


evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA, USA: Wolters
Kluwer/Lippincoott Williams and wilkins.12th edition.