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Our Coastal Waters

A Guide to Sustainability Messaging


for Pacific Northwest Audiences
Contributors
Research Lead
Author & Designer
Emily Kastner

Researcher Researcher
Jeannette Magsino Don Hahn

Special Thanks:
Daniel Kastner, Photography
Alex Stonehill, Content Review
Kate Hourihan, Design Review
Victoria Pinheiro, Technical Review
Nereus Program, Project Sponsor
Table of Contents Overview ............................................................................................................ 1

6 Strategies Environmental Groups Can Use


to Communicate with Local Audiences ............................. 4

Perceived Urgency ............................................................................. 5

Attentional Capacity .......................................................................... 7

Firsthand Experience ....................................................................... 8

Accountability ...................................................................................... 10

Accessibility ........................................................................................... 12

Convenience ........................................................................................ 13

How Do Community Members Interact with,


Relate to & Benefit from Coastal Waters? ..................... 15

How Do Community Members Describe the


Health of Coastal Waters & Resulting Impacts?...... 23

How Do Audiences Frame Ocean Health,


Accountability & Involvement in Change? ...................... 31

Appendix ........................................................................................................ 40
Overview
State of the Sound In the lifetimes of our grandchildren, some of the most
dramatic predictions about climate change will blur
into reality. It’s already begun. Sea level increased
approximately eight inches between 1900 and 2008. 1
That rise is expected to triple by 2100 in the Puget
Sound.

Small changes yield monumental impacts over time.


The steady acidification of coastal waters has
rendered habitats hostile to some of the very species
that define our region — from orcas to oysters. These
are just a few troubling statistics to illustrate the array
of problems threatening to fell entire ecosystems.

1 Adapting to Change: Climate Impacts and Innovation in Puget Sound,


University of Washington Climate Impacts Group

1
Purpose
Cull insights from local
In producing this work, our goals were two-fold: 1)
listen and synthesize insights from community
communities members, and based on those themes 2) create a
guide that could be leveraged by PNW organizations to
communicate effectively with local audiences about the
health of coastal waters.

The best communication initiatives are grounded in


data.

We undertook a quantitative and qualitative approach


to uncover broad insights that could be corroborated
by detail. We hope local groups can leverage the
analysis, quotes, and data captured herein to more
meaningfully connect with resident communities and
drive positive change.

See the Appendix (p. 41-43) for a deeper dive into our
approach and a profile of the audience surveyed.

2
Head Start
Why use this guide Use this guide to build smarter, public-facing campaigns
based on primary feedback from local audiences.

Consult it when:

Building a Messaging Campaign


+ Review survey results for inspiration about
themes that resonate with local audiences.
+ Read focus group quotes for insight into audience
vocabulary about ocean sustainability, and tailor
communication to that level of understanding.
+ Explore focus group quotes to align proposed
initiatives with issues important to local audiences.
+ Review the complete guide when conceptualizing a
campaign to compile a list of topics that may appeal
to local audiences.
Choosing a Distribution Strategy
+ Review how audiences say they prefer to consume
science content and distribute your content on
those channels.

3
6 Strategies Environmental Groups
Can Use to Communicate with
Local Audiences
4
1. Perceived Humans prioritize. Making critical choices about what
problems to tackle and when is baked into our

Urgency
evolutionary fabric. It has helped us survive — run or
forage, rest or retreat.

Show audiences how today’s actions impact the


Takeaway: Make the need health of coastal waters tomorrow.

for change feel immediate


Focus group participants described the compulsion to
for audiences. act when confronted with critical situations.

“Every time there was an oil spill in the Gulf,


that's always kind of triggered me to want
to help do something to clean the water.”
— Gary

“I think if people got more actionable


information, like if you eat this kind of fish at
the current rate you're eating it, you won't
be able to in 15 years.”
— Rob

5
Immediate Action
“If there is a huge meteor that was speeding towards the earth,
someone's going to come up with something. That's the way
that humanity is, and unfortunately we're not quite to the point, I
feel, with our oceans that there is a pressing need, a tangible
thing that is going to happen. Slow change means that you
don't see the change.”
— Shannon, focus group participant

6
2. Attentional
Capacity
Takeaway: Focus key Participants in our community listening sessions
mentioned feeling overwhelmed by the amount of critical
information and actions information covered in the news cycle. Many mentioned
for audiences. the inability to focus on environmental issues amid such
media saturation. Connect campaigns to audience


members’ instincts for self-preservation so that they cut
through other news coverage.

“I think that there's just so much going on in


our society nowadays...whether it be human
rights, race, guns. There's so much that just
has the spotlight right now.”
— Ashley

7
3. Firsthand A number of focus group participants described how


visualizing and interacting with the problem face-to-face

Experience
increases its relevance and acts as a powerful incentive
to take action.

Takeaway: Help audiences “When the people can see it, it becomes
confront the problem directly. more real. When you see the trash hitting
the rocks instead of just the water or maybe
some seaweed, then it becomes more of a
reality that something needs to be done. Or
even just seeing the rainbow colored oil
floating on the water. It makes people more


aware when they see it and then when they
can just keep going day-to-day and pretend
nothing's wrong.”— Gary

“I think because there isn't anything that's


been pressing that's happening to the
ocean and the Pacific Northwest right now,
it hasn't dominated the news. It's always
there. We didn't find like a huge garbage
barge outside of Vashon Island. There hasn't
been an oil spill outside of, like you know,
Alki beach, there hasn't been any. It's just
always been there.”
— Dwayne

8
Small Changes Add Up
“You're not going to see the tiny changes that are being made
every day. It's like when you are with someone every day, you
don't notice them aging...or gaining weight or losing weight, but
then when you don't see someone for a year or two, you notice
they've changed.”
— Ashley, focus group participant

9
4. Accountability
Takeaway: Form social We asked focus group members to reflect on instances
when they took action around a problem in their
networks of change communities. Participants described how existing
relationships with others taking social action compelled
them to partner and increase their own involvement. How
could the next generation of sustainability campaigns
leverage existing relationships within communities to


create a layer of social accountability to both friends and
the cause?

“People learn more about what was going


on because there are faces and names that
people know. And so if they see that this
person is supporting this issue and
vocalizing on it, people are more likely to
listen to that than someone trying to get my
signature out at Trader Joe's.”
— Ashley

10
Weight of Personal Outreach
“The impact that somebody calling somebody else on the
phone, and not texting on the phone, and saying, ‘Hey, there is
something that I care about, and I want you to care about it
too,’ is far more poignant than people standing outside trying to
get signatures on the Quad, more poignant than social media
campaigns. It's more poignant then literally any other form of
communication. I am huge advocate of personal
communication.”
— Shannon, focus group participant

11
5. Accessibility
Takeaway: Bring volunteer
opportunities to your audience. Some focus group members described difficulty
getting involved with ocean sustainability initiatives
locally. Promotion facilitates awareness, and
awareness drives action.


One participant reflected on her recent volunteerism for
a local food bank:

“It wasn't my first choice of where I wanted


to volunteer, and it was just the easiest thing
to find. [...] I can list off like 10 or 20
different food banks in Seattle area, and I
don't know any ocean awareness, ocean
health volunteer things. So they're just
harder to find, unless you know where
you're looking.”
— Ashley

12
6. Convenience As several focus group participants recognized,


arguments related to sustainability and climate change

Takeaway: Enable can be polarizing for audiences.

community members to fold


action and change into their “When you try to make moral arguments
or economic arguments, you know it's
existing routine. going to cost ten trillion dollars to do
this, or we don't have the money for that,
or 150 scientists say this, well one doesn't
say it. It's easy for people to get lost in
the noise and make it ideological.”
— Rob

Summarize and communicate the simple lifestyle


adjustments community members can adopt to
contribute to meaningful change long-term.


“When it's easy, people will do it.”
— Shannon

“Any time I see carbon footprint offset


on a bill, I'll go ahead and check that
box.”
— Gary
13
What’s Next?
Quick content preview Insights for the first section were culled from broad
themes discovered throughout our qualitative and
quantitative research. We presented them first to make
the time you invested reading this guide immediately
actionable. Continue on for a more detailed break down
of the research, including learnings like:

+ Top three benefits of living near coastal waters


that respondents articulated
+ How often respondents report eating seafood
+ Emotions audience members identified when
thinking about coastal waters
+ Where respondents report consuming
science content
+ More...

14
How Do Community Members
Interact with, Relate to & Benefit
from Coastal Waters?
15
Embracing Our
Coastline
39% of Washington Another 30% do so at least yearly.

residents surveyed visit Puget Top 3 Benefits of Living Near Coastal Waters
Identified by Surveyed Respondents
Sound beaches or the coast at + Positive mental/physical health effects
least every few months. + Accessibility to fresh seafood
+ Proximity to recreational water sports/activities

Use This Finding


When presenting a climate impacts argument,
consider framing it in relation to one of the
above benefits, so it is immediately relevant to
attitudes held by the local audience.

Respondents aged 18-49 identified “proximity to


recreational water sports/activities (boating, fishing,
ect.)” as their primary benefit, while respondents
aged 50+ identified “accessibility to fresh seafood.”

16
Residents Speak
What are your favorite benefits of living near coastal waters?

Positive mental/physical
health effects 61%

Accessibility to
fresh seafood 59%

Proximity to recreational
water sports/activities 57%

Weather patterns
41%

I was raised here.


31%

Other
13%

Job opportunities
8%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

17
Seafood
Consumption
Approximately 75% of survey Top Reasons to Eat Seafood

respondents eat seafood + Like the taste, 80%


+ Nutritional value, 71%
at least a few days a month.

“I like eating local, and the local seafood


here is great.”
— Survey respondent from Seattle

Surveyed women were more likely to report abstaining


from consuming seafood. (12% of female respondents
compared to 1% of male respondents)

18
Relational The connection between coastal waters and
emotional/physical well-being was supported by

Well-Being
insights from the focus group series. Focus group
participants described the effect of interacting with
coastal waters as contemplative and serene. One
participant described the peace found sitting by the
61% of survey respondents Pacific Ocean during college, and another reflected on
the awe she experienced encountering a mother and
identified positive mental/


child whale pair while scuba diving. A third participant
physical health benefits as a described being near coastal waters as a “renewal.”

top advantage to living


near/accessing coastal waters. “I think it's just the experience of being
able to walk at the edge of the ocean and
the rhythm of the waves and just the
grounding to be that close. It's very
common. I totally empathize with that
natural rhythm that's found in nature.”
— Ann, focus group participant

19
Serenity
How does life with an When asked about the impacts of irreversible ocean
damage, 11 out of 26 written answers by survey
unhealthy ocean impact respondents mentioned well-being, quality of life,
and emotional/mental/spiritual health. Examples
mental well-being? below:

+ “A sense of being” — Seattle resident


+ “My heart and inner well being” — Mercer Island
resident


+ “Spiritual and emotional devastation” — Seattle
resident

“I've always been drawn to the ocean


because it gives me some perspective. It
lets you know a little bit about your place
in the universe when you look at
something so vast. And that comes from a
kid that's lived inland probably up until his
early twenties.”
— Rob, focus group participant

20
Life History
Significance of water in Both prompted and unprompted, focus group
participants invoked life experiences when discussing
oral autobiography their relationship with coastal waters. Frequently
mentioned were the impact of growing up around


water, seeing it as a source of life, and learning to
respect it from a young age.

“I remember there are pictures of me as


pre-schooler going and learning about
tide pools, and I remember going and
turning over rocks and catching small
crabs and looking at them and then


putting it back because that's what I was
taught to do.”
— Shannon

“I've grown up near water, I grew up in


Texas and the Gulf coast. I then moved to
Chicago on Lake Michigan, and now I've
moved here this last August. So I've always
been close to water and seeing the
different types of impact that we have on
the water.”
— Gary
21
Sense of Place
How coastal waters In three out of four focus group sessions, participants
raised the influence of coastal waters on local
shape identity identity. One resident even described use of the
Puget Sound in naming artifacts throughout the


community, from the Sounders (sports team) to the
Sounder Train (transportation).

“It's just inseparably linked with the sense


of identity of this, of this region,
mountains and water. [...] It's just the
Sound, the power of the ocean, and the
feeling of being inconsequential in the
face of such an enormous natural force.”
— Ann

Use This Finding


Audience members demonstrate a deep affinity
with water as evidenced by descriptions of place
and mental well-being in recounting their life
histories. Consider how to appeal to this human
desire to seek calm near water.

22
How Do Community Members
Describe the Health of Coastal
Waters & Resulting Impacts?
23
Coastal Health Focus group participants used previous experiences
to measure the health of Pacific Northwest waters.
While one long-time resident of Seattle, wrote down,
Disconnect between “It’s dirty,” another respondent who moved to the city
less than one year prior described coastal waters as
perception and reality


“healthy” when compared to other more polluted
waterways throughout the country.

“[Puget Sound] seems to be a healthy


body of water. I’ve been in Chicago with
near Lake Michigan and the canal, and
they made the river go south instead of
into Lake Michigan because they were
polluting the river so badly. So, they
decided to send it down to Missouri.”
— Gary

24
Pollution Focus group participants frequently mentioned the
distinction between the appearance of local waters
and the pollution impacting the ecosystem beneath
Seeing isn’t believing. the surface, articulating the difficulty community
members may have connecting with impacts that


aren’t immediately visible. This theme was heavily
discussed in every focus group session.

“People say, ‘It looks fine. What's wrong


with it?’ So even though people are right
there, and they see it all the time, there
isn't necessarily an awareness that
something could be wrong because you
can't necessarily see the pollution.”
— Ann

Use This Finding


When creating future sustainability campaigns,
consider how they will help audiences relate to
pollution and its effects that can’t be immediately
seen or counted.

25
Resident Respondents were asked to select two groups of
words that best described how they feel about the health

Perceptions
of coastal waters. The most frequently selected attitudes
are listed below.
+ 38% — Anxious/Fearful/Worried
38% of survey respondents + 19% — Hopeful/Encouraged/Inspired
+ 18% — Peaceful/Content/Comfortable
are anxious, fearful, and + 18% — Irritated/Outraged/Distressed


+ 15% — Discouraged/Resigned/Frustrated
worried about the health of + 14% — Doubtful/Suspicious/Distrustful

coastal waters.
“I'm more worried than anything...I'm
worried about never being able to have
fish again.”
— Carolyn, focus group respondent

26
Attitudes Vary While the largest number of respondents in all age
groups selected “anxious/fearful/worried” as the top

By Age
category describing their emotions related to coastal
health, respondents 30-49 years old were most positive
in subsequent choices. Here are the top three
categories by age group.
Survey respondents 30-49
offered the most positive 18-29 30-49 50+
reactions to the health of
+ Anxious/fearful/ + Anxious/fearful/ + Anxious/fearful/
worried worried worried

local waters.
+ Peaceful/content/ + Hopeful/ + Irritated/
comfortable encouraged/ outraged/
+ Hopeful/ inspired distressed
encouraged/ + Peaceful/ +Hopeful/
inspired content/ encouraged/
+ Confused/ comfortable inspired
uncertain/
perplexed

When comparing by gender, more women selected


“anxious/fearful/worried” than men, 45% compared
to 28%.

To view a complete list of sentiment options available to


respondents, see page 45 in the Appendix.

In the 18-29 year old age group, 21% of respondents


in the 18-29 age group chose both the 3rd and 4th
categories.

27
Most Critical 59% of respondents surveyed believe all of the
following issues are negatively impacting the health

Ocean Issue
of coastal waters:

+ Littering/inadequate waste management


+ Ocean warming
A majority of Washington + Unsustainable fishing practices
+ Lack of government regulation
residents recognize multiple + Agricultural chemical runoff
+ Large-scale oil spills
factors are contributing to
Focus group participants articulated an understanding
poor ocean health.


that multiple factors contributed to the declining health
of coastal waters.

“I would just say very simply that the


ocean is unhealthy and then worry about
the specifics in the details, whether it's
ocean acidification or the plastics. It's just
that the oceans, which we otherwise take
for granted, are sick, and there are a lot of
ways that they're sick.”
— Amy

28

Impacts
Nearly half of survey
respondents said diet, “You can talk about, ‘Well, I don't eat
seafood, or I don't live on the ocean’ or
recreation, and livelihood anything like that, but when three fifths
of your economy is going to have to be
would be impacted if the reorganized because half of Miami is

oceans were damaged now underwater, that affects people


in Wisconsin.”
beyond repair. — Rob, focus group participant

29

Seattle Residents
Speak
“As the water gets more polluted, it’s
harder to feel comfortable eating fish...
What do you fish, and how [are] these


sustainably [harvested], and how do you
Focus group members label things properly?”

share how pollution affects


— Ann

them as individuals and as


a community.
“People like to swim in the ocean, and kids
love it. It's a big form of family bonding, and
so, I think if the water was gross and
polluted and no one could go in. It then will
definitely impact everyone's well-being.”
—Ashley

Use This Finding


Residents do see poor ocean health as a reason not
to eat seafood, both because they don't want to
contribute to overfishing, and because it might be
polluted.

30
How Do Audiences Frame Ocean
Health, Accountability & Their
Involvement in Change?

31
Depth of How do audiences consume science content?

Knowledge Websites 29%

50% of respondents feel


Television 22%

informed about issues Social media 15%

impacting the health of Newspapers (digital


or print)
11%

oceans and coastal waters. Radio 6%

Magazines 6%
(digital or print)

Podcast 5%

Video streaming 4%
services

Other (respondent entry) 3%

10% 20% 30% 40%

Sample of Other Answers Respondents Submitted


+ Peer reviewed scholarly articles
+ Family

32
Ocean Health Vocabulary
How do audience members rate their understanding of key
coastal sustainability language?

Key
I have not heard I have heard the term I know very little. I know a fair I know a lot.
the term before. but know nothing. amount.

Shifting baselines
41% 17% 26% 12% 4%

Fishing down the


food web
34% 15% 23% 22% 5%

Hypoxia
28% 15% 25% 23% 10%

Dredge trolling
26% 15% 36% 17% 6%

Gill net
21% 10% 24% 33% 13%

Tipping points
21% 14% 30% 27% 8%

Ocean acidification
20% 14% 26% 31% 8%

Microplastics
16% 14% 26% 31% 13%

Continued on the next page.

Data gathered from survey respondents. 33


Ocean Health Vocabulary
How do audience members rate their understanding of key
coastal sustainability language?

Key
I have not heard I have heard the term I know very little. I know a fair I know a lot.
the term before. but know nothing. amount.

Marine protected
area 7% 10% 28% 43% 13%

Marine toxins
4% 12% 39% 37% 8%

Sea level rise


4% 9% 29% 42% 17%

Overfishing
4% 2% 23% 50% 21%

Mercury
contamination
3% 8% 30% 48% 12%

Fisheries
2% 4% 26% 50% 17%

Data gathered from survey respondents.

34
Duty
Who is most responsible for
protecting and improving
the health of oceans and According to a majority of Washington residents
coastal waters? surveyed, the burden of ownership falls on every
individual (52%). Another 45% of respondents said
that a politician’s commitment to ocean health was an
important factor when voting.

Written Responses from Surveyed Community


+ “Really it should be a UN thing, the ocean doesn't
respect borders” — Renton

+ “[Responsibility rests with] every person on our


planet” — Sequim

35 X
Involvement
43% of surveyed residents
identified lack of time and an
unpredictable schedule Another 18% of respondents didn’t know how to get

as barriers to more active involved. Among the written answers submitted,


several codified around a need for specific, relatable
participation in ocean inititives to engage citizens.

conservation/restoration efforts. Written Responses from Surveyed Community about


Challenges to Getting Involved
+ “Finding a local group who does activities that are
simple and timely” — Vancouver, WA resident

+ “Need more specific knowledge on how to help” —


Redmond resident

36
Roadblocks
Audiences understand no
single, silver bullet solution
will enable communities to
course correct.
40%
of survey respondents believe all of the following are
currently roadblocks to progress:

+ The public lacks the interest to engage.


+ The public lacks the power to do anything about
the issue.
+ The public lacks guidance from local advocacy
groups.
+ Lack of funding
+ The public lacks the time to affect change.
+ Lack of technology
+ Geography

Data gathered from survey respondents.

37 X
Participating in Top Initiatives Respondents Are Most Likely to
Support in the Next 5 Years

Progress Organizations working to


protect the ocean 26%

How will local audiences Beach cleanups and trash


collection 20%

advocate for and engage Faster adoption of


in the the pursuit of ocean
18%
renewable energy

sustainability? Top Volunteer Activities Audiences Would Pursue

Participate in a beach
clean up 56%

Donate money 44%

Attend a fundraising event 30%

Use This Finding


Don’t write-off seemingly minimal evironmental
impact activities like beach cleanups. Meet the
audience where they are comfortable interacting
and build further activity from that starting point.

Data gathered from survey respondents.

38
— Thank You —
This research was made possible by a generous grant from the Nereus
Program, an international initiative working towards a sustainable future for
the ocean and the people who rely on it. This research was submitted to the
University of Washington Institutional Review Board. The study was
approved and determined exempt from further inquiry.

UW Communication Leadership graduate students named the resulting


year-long initiative Oceanlink Northwest. The effort included a range of
communication, outreach, and research projects, including this guide.

39
Appendix
40
Approach To capture broad themes, we released a 26-question
survey via the platform SurveyMonkey. Of the 248
responses received, 240 were eligible for inclusion in
Quantify audience the analysis. Eight participants were excluded based
on age or state of residence. Respondents included in
understanding and the analysis live in Washington state and self-selected
an age of 18+. To achieve a critical mass of
motivations respondents, an audience panel was purchased via
SurveyMonkey. The survey was additionally promoted
through local email lists. Statistical significance of
survey data was not calculated.

Qualitative data was collected during a series of four


focus groups held between the dates March 2-4, 2018.
Each one-hour session was recorded and transcribed.
Transcriptions were analyzed for code co-occurrence
and code density using the research platform
Dedoose. Nine community members sourced from
local forums and email lists participated in the focus
groups.

41
Audience Profile Location
Responses were received from across the state. Cities
Demographics of listed below speak to the geographic diversity of
survey participants:
surveyed respondents + Mukilteo + Spokane
+ Tacoma + Yakima
+ Olympia + Olympia
+ Gig Harbor + Auburn
+ Edmonds + Kirkland
+ Bellingham + Poulsbo
+ 18% of respondents live in Seattle.
+ 16% of respondents self-reported that they live in a
coastal city.

Gender Age
+ Male, 42% + 18-29, 20%
+ Female, 56% + 30-49, 31%
+ Gender diverse (Gender + 50+, 49%
nonconforming and/or
transgender), 1%
+ Prefer not to answer, 0.42%

42
Audience Profile
More demographics of
surveyed respondents Education
63% of respondents had an Associate, Bachelor, Master,
Doctorate, or Professional degree.

Employment
56% of respondents were employed full- or part-time.

PNW Residence Duration


+ 20+ years, 67%
+ 8-19 years, 17%
+ Less than 1 year to 7 years, 16%

43
Process Extension
Research questions + What do audience members care most about related
to ocean health/sustainability?
+ What emotions or themes drive core audiences to
action?
+ How are audiences directly impacted by ocean health
in ways they’re aware of?
+ How audiences are directly impacted by ocean health
in ways they might not be aware of?
+ How do audience members conceptualize the impact
of deteriorating ocean health?
+ How do audience members talk about issues of ocean
health?
+ What do audience members perceive as the biggest
contributors to declining ocean health?
+ How are audience members are most likely to engage
to improve the ocean health?
+ What are the barriers to improving the state of ocean
health regionally?
+ What is the depth of audience knowledge into the
science behind deteriorating ocean health?

44
Sentiments
Options for survey + Curious/energized/exhilarated
+ Capable/confident/engaged
respondents selecting the top + Hopeful/encouraged/inspired
+ Peaceful/content/comfortable
two categories that most + Upbeat/optimistic/happy
accurately described their + Passionate/enthusiastic/eager
+ Doubtful/suspicious/distrustful
feelings related to the coastal + Confused/uncertain/perplexed
+ Anxious/fearful/worried
health of PNW waters + Paralyzed/helpless/overwhelmed
+ Irritated/outraged/distressed
+ Discouraged/resigned/frustrated

45
Group Name % Aware of the Group

Seattle Aquarium 80%

Organizational
NOAA 56%

Suquamish Tribe 38%

Awareness
Adopt A Stream Foundation 33%

City of Seattle, Protect Our Waters 33%

Survey respondents indicate Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission

Puget Sound Partnership


30%

25%

familiarity with local Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition 23%

environmental groups Puget SoundKeeper Alliance 21%

Washington Conservation Voters 21%


Groups featured in this section
Pacific Coast Shellfish Growers Assoc. 18%
participated in the Oceanlink initiative
Friends of the San Juans 13%
through a number of partner projects
with students. COMPASS 13%

Other (Respondent Entry) 11%

Washington Sea Grant 10%

Washington CoastSavers 10%

Futurewise 7%

Got Green 7%

IslandWood 5%

Washington Ocean Acidification Center 4%

Long Live the Kings 3%

Future of Fish 3%

SR 3 Sealife Response + Rehab + Research 2%

PureBlue 2%

Seattle Inner City Outings (ICO) 1%

46
Organizational
American Rivers American Whitewater Boy Scouts

Cascadia Citizens for a Healthy Bay Department of Energy

Awareness
Enironment Protection Friends of the
Fraser River Keeper
Agency Spokane River

Girl Scouts Grassroots Garbage Gang Greenpeace

Additional groups respondents Green Redmond


Partnership
Lake Union
Liveaboard Assc.
National Marine
Sancutary Foundation

indicated recognizing Nature Conservancy Pela Sammamish River


Clean Up

Save Our Sound SeaDoc Society Sierra Club

SOLV Surfrider Foundation Zero Waste Washington

Water Resource Wildlife Warriors


Inventory Area 8 (Puyallup Tribe)

47