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PTFE was accidentally discovered in 1938 by Roy Plunkett while he was working in New Jersey

for DuPont. As Plunkett attempted to make a new chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant,

the tetrafluoroethylene gas in its pressure bottle stopped flowing before the bottle's weight had
dropped to the point signaling "empty." Since Plunkett was measuring the amount of gas used by
weighing the bottle, he became curious as to the source of the weight, and finally resorted to
sawing the bottle apart. He found the bottle's interior coated with a waxy white material that was
oddly slippery. Analysis showed that it was polymerized perfluoroethylene, with the iron from the
inside of the container having acted as a catalyst at high pressure. Kinetic Chemicals patented
the new fluorinated plastic (analogous to the already known polyethylene) in 1941,[4] and
registered the Teflon trademark in 1945.[5][6]
By 1948, DuPont, which founded Kinetic Chemicals in partnership with General Motors, was
producing over two million pounds (900 tons) of Teflon brand PTFE per year in Parkersburg,
West Virginia.[7] An early use was in the Manhattan Project as a material to coat valves and seals
in the pipes holding highly reactive uranium hexafluoride at the vast K-25 uranium
enrichment plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.[8]
In 1954, the wife of French engineer Marc Grégoire urged him to try the material he had been
using on fishing tackle on her cooking pans. He subsequently created the first Teflon-coated,
non-stick pans under the brandname Tefal (combining "Tef" from "Teflon" and "al" from
aluminium).[9] In the United States, Marion A. Trozzolo, who had been using the substance on
scientific utensils, marketed the first US-made Teflon-coated pan, "The Happy Pan", in 1961.[10]
However, Tefal was not the only company to utilize PTFE in nonstick cookware coatings. In
subsequent years, many cookware manufacturers developed proprietary PTFE-based formulas,
including Swiss Diamond International, which uses a diamond-reinforced PTFE
formula;[11] Scanpan, which uses a titanium-reinforced PTFE formula;[12] and both All-
Clad[13] and Newell Rubbermaid's Calphalon, which use a non-reinforced PTFE-based
nonstick.[14] Other cookware companies, such as Meyer Corporation's Anolon, use
Teflon[15] nonstick coatings purchased from DuPont.
In the 1990s, it was found that PTFE could be radiation cross-linked above its melting point in an
oxygen-free environment.[16] Electron beam processing is one example of radiation processing.
Cross-linked PTFE has improved high-temperature mechanical properties and radiation stability.
This was significant because, for many years, irradiation at ambient conditions has been used to
break down PTFE for recycling.[17] This radiation-induced



inch – TPI

1/8 – 28

1/4 – 19

NPT stands for National Pipe Thread and is an American standard thread. It may also be reffered to as MPT , MNPT or NPT (M) fo
FNPT or NPT(F) for female interal threads. A thread sealant must always be used to achieve a leak free seal (except for NPTF). It
rather than actual diameter (similar to BSP in this regard).

Both threads have the same pitch, angle (60 degrees) and shape (flat peaks and valleys).

The below table gives the Threads Per Inch, Pithc and Major Diameter for NPT Threads.

Trade Size Threads per inch Pitch Major Diameter (O

Inch mm Inch
1/8 27 0.03704 0.94082 0.405
1/4 18 0.05556 1.41122 0.54
3/8 18 0.05556 1.41122 0.675
1/2 14 0.07143 1.81432 0.84
3/4 14 0.07143 1.81432 1.05
1 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 1.315
1¼ 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 1.66
1½ 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 1.9
2 11 ½ 0.08696 2.20878 2.375
2½ 8 0.125 3.175 2.875
3 8 0.125 3.175 3.5
4 8 0.125 3.175 4.5

NPT threads are common in the United States and a few other countries, BSP threads are widely used in many other countries.

BSPT -British Standard Pipe Taper

BSPP -British Standard Pipe Parallel
NPT -National Pipe Taper
NPS -National Pipe Straight
While the actual specified outside diameters of American National Pipe differ slightly from those of British Standard Pipe, either thr
pipe of its respective trade size. BSPT equivalent is NPT and BSPP’s equivalent is NPS.
Never swap threads if it is a high pressure application.

NPT/NPS and BSP threads are not compatible due to the differences in their thread forms, and not just the fact that most sizes hav
threads have a 60° angle and have flattened peaks and valleys (Sellers thread form) where as BSP threads have a 55° angle and
(Whitworth thread form).

NPT and BSP thread pitches (threads per inch) are listed below. To determine pitch, use a thread gauge or count the number of th

Trade Size Pitch (Threads per Inch)

1/8 27 28
1/4 18 19
3/8 18 19
1/2 14 14
¾ 14 14
1 11 ½ 11
1¼ 11 ½ 11
1½ 11 ½ 11
2 11 ½ 11
2½ 8 11
3 8 11
3½ 8 11
4 8 11
5 8 11
6 8 11
/8 – 19

1/2 – 14

5/8 – 14

3/4 – 14

1 – 11

1.1/2 – 11

2 -11

2.1/2 – 11

3 – 11

Thread size refers to the nominal bore of the pipe.

Subtract approx. 1/4″ (6mm) from thread diameter measurement for
nominal pipe size.
Pitch is Threads Per Inch (TPI).
“Gas”, “R” & “G” also refer to BSP.
“Male Iron (Pipe)” may be BSP or NPT.