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Alfl>ldy - Brlan Dobson -

Worner Eck (Hg.)

Kaiser, Heer
nd Gesellschaft
d r Romischen

... t1ttn1 tohuu Vñrlng Stuttgart
Belttllg& und

Kaiser, Heer
Géza All61dy

811nd 31
und Gesellschaft
in der Romischen
Gedenkschrift für Eric Blrley

Franz Stelner Verlag Stuttgart


Inhalts verzeichnís

1. Da, Heer- im sozialen und wirtschnfdirhen Gefilge des lmpertum


l.Jlas.:c Blois: Anny and Socirty rr; che Late Reman Rcpublic:
Profe<�conafüm anJ thc Role cifthc 'vfílilary Middlc Cudrc 1l

(',ér.a :\lfohly: Oa.<. Hoer n dcr So11alslm�1ur ch:.s

R,'tmi<ehcn Kai<crm1chcR 'I l

David J. Breese Su¡,¡,ly111� thc \m,¡•

\11choel \1"31\dCf' Srcidel Sold und Wi11schuflslago

der rt\m1<ehcn Soldatcn

11. Die einzelnen Rnn¡:grupp•• des Heern und ihre •11dule11 Be,1,•hun�tn

-\ntl-<>ny R. Birky· Scnaturs J.!I ticncral, 1)7

Sc2oknc Dcmougm. ltctlilÍO Mihllac. • 12'

Bnan Dob:.on lbc pn1111p,lure,· ID At:ny .rnJ Soc1<ty 13')

011.: l'>cuh1.hc f,f,itho1l\�l.. C.:JJ1.t:Jnht1�Juí11ulinu:
Kuisi:,r, lletr und lrtsell:�ch.on '" dtr run1bc.btin ÜJst.r1dt: JulJ1 <.:. MdUll lh>U(>la M,ssio ñom lb< Lo�i<>:is
Godcu�cllrin l'iir ílr,c Oirley I Gézo l\lfijldy .•. (H� )•• Stullf,Jrt
Sccrncr. 2000 l>elJs D. Saddtnyton: 111e Sons of l\atncs Uscd by Au,1 liancs
(Heidclhe�él' i1lt11,<.1nN,1,. hr R,·itf.tgr uncl cplgrnphucbe StudJffl.. Bd. m the I:arty Pnrcipatc
11 ¡ 163
ISBN J SIS 07654-9
Micbel Reddé: 1 es, 179

m. Heer und Ge,i.ells.thaf\ In den etnzeleen Teilen <les Róm[�chen Reiches:

,se OTC&
Cccíl>a Rice, DOMO ROMA II contributo Jcll, capualc
all' di c-0r.Cne e alle milizie urhane \eta ontperia)('I 1'>3

Yann Le llohec: l .e ,(,le social et pohtiqne rle l'armee iorname

J,�rlr Vc..·nvcrlnng des werxes i.u&r.1:i.Jb der Greo1:en <k.--s l�rhch<:rrcx:htsgcselz.:s ist
unzulñssig und !\crafu:ir. Dies gil1 i,uhest,n.Jcrc für Obcr.,ctzung. �ochdruck. Mikmver- daos les provmces d'Arnque ....2•)7
fihnu11g ódec v�rgleiél1haru Vctfahrcn :-.i•wic fiird e Spcicbcrungm D.t.11;n\'Gratbe1t�
O'llflg<'I\. Íf('(ln1rk1 uuf a.1t�n ngst'C6:t5nd1gem l*apie,. C· t9'J9 by f':'aJ\I.. Slt'iner Vcrlag Rene Rehuffat: L'armée romamc a Gf olaia 227
\'.'icsbadcn UmbH, �,tz .Scutt�nrt. Oruck: Druckerei P,;1rr. F. 1-rn�burg.
P1111tetl i II Gcnn.:n1y Patnck Le Roux: AnnCC <..1 seciétc en Hrspamc sous l'Empirc 261
ó lnhll,l!S\'Cr/GICnJU�

Franeois Bérard: La garnison úc Lyoo el les uffic:iale,
du gouvemeur de Lyonnaise . 279
Bric Birlcy madc a major conrribution 10 scholarship in many ditfercru ficlds: the
Margaret Roxan: veteran Sculcmcnt ofthe Au.,ilia in Geuuanla 307 bistory, archaeology and epigraphy of Rornan Britain, panicularly tl-c military
aspects, the study of Reman frontiers, sarnian and coarsc portery. In this vohuue
John .1. \\1 ilkes: Army and Socicty in Rornaa Dalmatia 32i dedicated to his memory we have decided lo conccmrate 011 'iis first love, lhe
Reman army, psriicularly its Rangordnung, in which he provee! himselí'to be íhe
Slobodan Dusanié: Army and Miniug íu Moesia superior )43 obvious succcssor to Alfrcd von Dornaszcwki. lt scems most :lfJPJ upriate there-
fore in view of Dornaszcwki's long associatlon wirh Heidelberg 11.:al this volume
Míroslava Mirkovié: ,lililary Diplomas li·o,u Vimiuacium and will appcar in the sedes of íhe Heldelberger Al!/Jisro,-itH:lt� 8eitrlixt: nn,t Epi-
the Senlemeni of Auxiliar,' Veteraus: City or Countryside? J<,S grapliische Studien,
\V e did not intend to confiné ourselves however purcly ta Rangordnung is­
Fruz '111i1ú1of: Soldaten und Vcteranen in der Gesellschaft sues, but to examine H::. E1ic Bir ley tli<l the iuterplay of empcrur, army und socieiy,
des ronnscben Agypten (1.-2. Jh n. Chr. \ . 377 and lo invite hü, pupils und Iriends aud other scholar» active in thc ficld to rake
paJ l iu punluciug u 1.,uulp1 ehensive ueuuneut, coveriug all aspects and u.JI prnv-
Valerie A. Mrudield: The Deploymcrn of'tne Roman Auxilia iuces. In the event t.l1c: cover has uol beta as cornprehensivc as wc hud hopcd, as
111 l 7p¡,c-r Egypt and the Eastem Dcscn during che Principare 407 various colleague» Iravc experienced tl.iffi..:ulty in fulfilling thcir commümerus fo
U.."­. Wc r.HllITTI especial ly 11 ubcrl Dcvlj \'t:r, \\·hose gc..,l.'n:>u� 1 í:hulü to Rric remain.s
IV. Vurill lfcsl1 in our cnc1nori�. ,,.·ho d.ic<l ::so lrag:<:ally bt·JOn.: be coul<l makc. his pmmisecl
cvutributiun. \Ve hupv lhat U\1¡: 1.:ol1dctio11 uf '"·i<lc: rangin� studics
P. John Cssoy: LU3ERALJ.TAS J\ VGVSTT: Imperial Military printcd h�re. lh'hih: uol �xhat1�Liu� lhc c:hu�vn tl1c1nt:. \\·JU ptt:'·�t:nl s..;·n,l�c.:.h <lclail
Donau ves and t he Arras Heard . 44 5 i:mtl sul'h Jjficrc:ut pui1:ts IJ4.. 1¡.·i�\" lhut lh1: vuhuut: 111uy be rc..�anl�d as a ba­.ls for
furtht:r �)')\ccnati1,; stutl_y uf 1.hal l.h�utc. \Vilh Ibis 10 cniull \vC ha\'c cn<:uur�gcd r1ur
Gabnele Wesch-Klein: Commeatus id est cc11tpus, tJUD ire, redlre <:.ú11ll'ibuturs tv assess the ptese:1t $late of ouJ' h.t,o�" lt;d.�t! � ,·,�11 us lo intnJduci:
qtns possu. Zur Gewahrung von Urlauh im rümischen Heer ... . 459 fl'�sh w,ights. tu provide (he btoadesl possible ltlstorieal sel'.ir�� ror rulun:, 1•,ork.
\Vi; lrust U1.:1.L ia :su i.luing uur juinl tfforls havc pruduct:U a propcr Lriñutc 1(1 Etic's
Michael P. Speidel: Who l'o11ght in the FronL�.................................. .... •......... 473 mcmory an<l a \'alwthlc 1.;onlribution Lo �holarship.
We Lhuuglll iL mighl he goou lu lisl bclow thc major trihu1.t.-s lhal havo '>een
Werner Eck: Monumente der Virtus, Kaiser uod J leer im Spiegel paid lo him, includiug lhu,c in Lhc joumals oí thc local socicLies 10 which he con-
cplgraphischer Denkmülcr . ·-·······- 4S3 tnhutOO. so rnuch. \\.'e r:otc also thc hibliogr.1phy o íhis ,,·orks: puhlishecl in 81·/ton-
""'· tu be complch::<l une day prubabl� by Ruhin Birlc_y. Wc ulTcr llur lhanks 10
índex _ ···--······ 497 our coordbutors. aud \\.ish co me-ntil)n in parLicuJ:.:ir Georg Kortc, ,,·ho has ,Jone so
much to prepare this wotk fo, che press.

Gb.;i Alfiilcly - Brian Dobson - Wemer ]::ck


Nanonal Journals

Britanma, socíe:v for the promoaon of Rornan Srndies 2i. 19%. xi-xiv (David
Annual Rept1rr l'roceeding,s 19% nfthe Soerery oí Antiquanes nf I ondon. 19')7,
45 l. (aurhor unknown)
f'roccedrngs ofthe llrit,sb Academy l ')'17, 199,!, l 14-12 (Hrrnn ll\>bson)
Procccdings. Sociery oí Annquanes of Scotland l i». 1\19>, xiii-xvi (David
Breczc) Das Heer im sozialcn und wirtschaftlichcn Gcfügc des
Saalburg-Jahrbuch 4.;, 19\15, 140-44 ( Alfüldy)
Impcrium Romanum
Local Journals

Archacolcgra Aehaua, Sociery of Anuquaries of'!ewca.,tle upon Tyne, 5th Series

24, 1 \196, 218-20 (Briau Dobscn)
Durham Archacological Joumal. The Archirecmral and Arcbaeological Sociery of
Durhum ami '.'iorthumberland 11. 1995, 9i f. (Brian Dobson)
Transacuons, Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian ar.d Arehacological
Socicty n.s., 1991>, 243 f (Rosemary Cramp)
Transacuons.Dumíuesshire and Galloway Natural History ami Ar.uquannn Socí-
cty, 3rJ series, 69, l 99-l, 1 14 (W.F Corrnack)
Times. Yorkslure Architectural and York Archaeologiccl Sociery 33, 1995. 18-10
l Brcnda Hcywood)


Lnc Ihrley: A Oibliogr¡¡¡,hy 1928-74, cornpilcd by JJ. Wilkcs, Britannia 6. 1975,

Brian Dobson

Thc primipitares in Army and Soclety'


(JIJ\; 14. 197)

Juvenal Ray<; ir all The pnmipilate bmught nches, hui only as B reward for long
servicc Thc lny:slcy of th<! cít11en rroops of a Icng-scrvicc army was to be re­
warded by a gol den hand<hake for those who reacbcd thc pinnncle of the centu-
rionurc. Thcre wcre further implica11oru. not explcred by Juvenal The emperor
certainly could and did exact long yelltS of'serviee � soldicr and centurion beforc
gtanting the honour ofthe pnmipalote. and thc moncy tha1 went wiL1111. But íhcrc
was another way of •�acting a pnce íor this hono\11' Mcn who hnd bdJ the pn-
mipilate migh; be retamed in serviee und found funhcr employmení, on spccittl
tasks or in newly-creared poStS, for which thcir experience 3Jld loyaltv made thcm
alone surtebte. and which "'""' thcrcforc c1clu.<ivcly co1úidcd to rhem Prirt1lp/.
lares, and only prrn11p,lu�,. wcrc 10 be ¡,rcfocts nf thc camp, uibunes in Romc,
prefcct-ccmmanders oí lc¡:1011> ·n,c:y wcrc ª'"°
to m3ke a si¡¡ruticant ccm ribull(lll
to 1h� equally new pos1s ;.. p11x:ur.1ur., 1111d ¡_u,:;a, prcfce1� •l<>n.:side and wen out-
uumbered by thei, eques�a.w colleJguc, Such mcn newever, pnnicularly thnsc
who hccumc pmcurn1ors and �� prefects, maght nea! ID rc.,ch !he primipilalc
wcll befare sixty. but 1h"Y lllllde up for any shoncnang nf <erviee hefNe tilo rri·
mirilulc hy years of servíce after u, wh1ch mighl •mnun1 In fille-tn or rwenty
The emperor had not fidshed wuh 1h...,n \\hen thty reured. ahhough he hud
hnrt forty nr more ye.,rs' service hum Iban. bcfote andior af'er the pnmipilate. He
still felt In have n do1m oo lheu wetlth."" as dlscu.s&ed below The mumcipaliucs
lno had great expectanons frorn lbt p:urooagc and wealth of their pr'mlpilarcs,
though they could only weleome lhem bacl from nnhtary service nñer somo
Uúrty to torty years awoy.
Tbe uu�nlioo of llus p:ipcr •• ID re<;tare the saguific:w:c of lh• µ1 '"'"·'Pi·
/11slprimipi/ariY to lbc cm¡x:ror. ID lhe onny and 10 SO(ÍCI)'. in lcm» of the wealtlt
and long servicc wltich ("-�lh loyahy) chorncterise hun. c�ing ncw cvídcncc wl:<re
3ppropriate, onJ highlightmg un.solved problems.1 We oecd to cons,dcr how much

• ll ""­a5 Eri...: Oult) "'·J:n liDllk"C'A> �· tttmlíon IO tbe pn,mp,/11.n:J, u, l'J'."tl. 1 ollcr cllCsc tew
thoug.his. on p,oblc� \lte ilia.::u:nal to,gah.:r­ a.�• tribute to Wl WL.'.L"It.11)'. a.1 my t:achtr nd
my fn�nd. 1 3JT\ gmt.:fuJ ro Dr ,·..'\ ),la,.ÚJ('kf md Profcstar J l" V111UJ fo.i cor:uuentmp. on
lhi� paper. ll:ey t:!.kc nn hlamc fnr m mn1'l"fl"N:
A general rcfcrcncc ria.y � osa&: kJ lhea­.é',t>obsoo, OOKa', and frootters ­ DavuJ J.
Oret"¿t lln<l Bn.a:n Dcb;on. .Raft'Wl Off.itt" •od f1oaltec t�fuvcn X.1 Stu.ttsan 1 ?IJ?.'· IU(­117. 1•1'�.717; Oobson_ Pr:mq:1� = 8na• l>ab,,;on, OH Prunlpihre­s. Kóln 1V78.
A íurther u:,bre .. 1abo:1 userl � t:. lhdey. Ronw Aany - E 8trlt'!,, lhr Rr­1n;in Auny P..i.pers
140 Hn;1n Dobson The p11}J11p;/t1rt:>:. InArrny aocl �;:ic1c1)' 141

.he lucky pnml¡,tJan., rccoivcd, how long Lhc post of primusptfus was helcL wcll as in ihe legions, icvcry snldicr with a chance uf bccoming cenmrion, cvcry
,,vhcthur Lhcrc \.\·1.:1.s a rnirua1Ltm agc, antl , ad\.·untage if nny candjdates for tlu: equestrian or town oouncil1or sccking � direct couuurssron. Ahhough tht praemia
?nrrup1k1lc uug11l r�t:.oiv(: frorn U1cir ur1g0-, sc:rvicc tn Lhe guards, <Hrect oon1ruis· of ccnturions were considerable. thc ¡,rirntJ11faríS couunanded more, four rimes as
sioning as cc:nturiucL A íurlhcr 4ucslion, applic.1hlc lO ccn�uno11; as ,,;ellas pri� rnuch probably, and • íitlc for lifc. But there were certain lmpttcalions, as Juvenal
nupl{ar,•s. n:ughl b1,; \Vhcn n:cciv;;d lhe praemia m¡fillae. ú 1hey cbosc lo points out, and nol just Juvenal.' Pnmipilt1rt!S tended lo be old. The reason "as
serve un rdtlii:r than FL'Lirc \Vht.11 Ll1c_y hatl fullillcxl lhcir .srt,tJendla or had se.rved as qulre simple, Although thc mcchanism is far from clear, cennmons dld noi lcave
J•1r1.•uuspilus 1tspeclivcl.y. fi.ually tlttav 1t::1nains Lht: _proh]t.'!JJ of the: n<,lure of the rhe service on scrving their slfpe.nclia, as ordmury soldiers who
nmk.:'posl uf¡Jrtn1usp,/ru; 1Jer1u11. 'l,c1nlali.s111gly nonc ul' Lhcsc 4ucslions receive a were 1101 evocati, Ceniurions wcre allowed, eucouraged, perhaps somenmes com-
rcady aris\vcr. pelled, Lhougb it seerns unlikcly, to serve louger, This was presumably scen as
Thc l.1tlc prfm1pdar1s sectas. tu In, au ,nyc:nl.Jon u r lhc Li111c of Aug:ustus. lr is worthwhile from the army's point of'vlew. Ceruunons rcached that rank probably
unknovt'n lo Cat:sar• .,vhu can oaly <lcscribt: rncn as hav1ng; held the prinupilate on average in their íhirties," and had much to cffer by servmg beyond meir mtssío
su¡,er:orc a,11,n... Th1!> 1mphcs thtll lhc pos.e hatl u lin,i tcd lcnure. <tnd its tenure \Vas age of around forty-fivc. Compctition for the pruuipilatc, which mean! reaching
worth meut,omag. Evcn if thc lcr111 pm111pil1ms emerged during lhe civil war ¡,e- Iirst the primi ordines, was ficrcc; long servíce woukl be ncccssary. and rhere was
nod, tite clear link becwee11 lhe tiLle and <1ssured weruth musr have W31t.:;d ti'.1 1hc no guarantee of succcss Howcver for a ceuuuion, u man who liked nulírary liíl!
ordering ofthe praemta mi/11/ae by Aug,uslus. 'lbere had been wealthy cautunons and was alrcady assurcd of n comfonable incomc, prolonging his service In (hu
i1: earlier times. uotably Caesar's, ftom whom he had borrow,1d !i.mds to light a hope of the primipilatc was worth while Tbe record agc for a p1'i1111,spilus known
civil war.' Wl.tat there had 1101 becn was 1t guonm¡eed paymg out from a cen1ral lo mt: is L. Relonius Lucius, ,vho St:t\•eU SS yc:ars to alla1n Lhe prin1iplfate a1 78.'
fund of a sum of rnoney whicn rcprcsentcd for thc pr111111apilus wealtlt which be- Closc bchind bim, not ncc� a youug(:r u1a11. is L. :\·faxitnius Gaetllhcu.'i,
ca1ue proverbial. Toe conccpt bclongl:i to !.1 ,;i luation ,,,. hcre there is u standing. who rccords 57 sri¡,endiri at the momeur of reaching his pnim¡nlate rn AD 184.'
army \vhose rc\.\·::ir<l:¡ fOr scrvicu urc nol 1100 Lo ,,·ar. On the ol.:Jcr himd lhe list prcparcd hy Eric B1tley uf 20 long-scrv111g cenmnons.
Tlle tttle pn111ip1lans had a spcciul qualily. 111siuld 11ot be inht'lited. thougb it i .e. forry years or n'Jorc as soldicr an.d centuriors, .u1<.:,lucling L.bc longc!St·serv,ng
might be reforred to in mwnpt1ons honourioy sons, sons-m-law and des�endan:s, centuriou know11, 61 yom-s, only includcs 5 who bad ,eache<l thc pnmipilatc.11ot
particularly m the Greek East.'' Ltke co11s11laris ar a hJglter leve! lt marked rhe including the longesl-serving ono.' Clcarly lrn1g s�IYice ,u JtSelf uid uot guarantee
achievemer.1 of a panicular pos,úon wluch was preserved m a fltle. lt sufJ1ccd 10 the prinúpilau�-. M�o did continuc lo serve a.", ccnrurlon to é111 a<lva1u.:1::J agc, pre·
descnbe lhe man for ever after Such an honour is only easily paralleled for scna- st1mably at leasl partly with hopes of a hdatcd pnmlpilalé, m,J Juvrnal '� salirical
tots and procurators. lt marked a um11ue value place<! ou ihe higjiest ral'.king or all corruue.nt that you 1nighl be sixty hcfurc }'0\1 got ro cht pri1uipilatc may con10
leg1ona1y ceutunons. roid ;o reflected gJory on the whole of ihe cenmrionate. And close to a�lé-ilen1�nl of �obcr cxpcct.arion. tbr the 1uaio1Jly. but no! alL
the wealth was there to mamtam the ,ta11<li11g. though the ,,de was not depende11t A bri�f �'ortl Í::¡ ncccssary on '('he dh;lÚ1<.:liv1$ Cc.aturc.'i'. or the prs·
on lhc rnajntcnancc llf ü Cl"':11:iUS.. ,nit>ilaris seeiu tu b� lhe ,vorl of .4..ugust.u::;, the title 1ts�IL th� prae1nifl 1ni/:rl(U:.?,
This 1nilitury an�tocracy, as 11 can fairly be d1:."-Scribcd,. \\'�S 1101 sirupJy a ,vay the creaiiou of 1he posls of prcfcct of thc c�mp and µ1<1etorian tr,bunc, alrcady
QÍ honouring or :;ven cnriching U:c legionary ccnturiunalc. one n1ore ti,� in the rnrcly or never bolh held by lhc sume man, and the distiucJive command of ihe
h1erarchy o r rc,vanls on rctire;ncnL Thc pti1n1pllnle. Lhe e.n1rance into che pr1- legio11s i11.Egyp1. Claudíus furlhcr dolincd thc career by sep,uutui;t 11 clc,rly from
nupxlores. bi:c.an1c lhc naluru1 lu,rgcl oí t..'Vcry ccnlurion, tn the co.horts in Iton1e .as \o\'hat bccan1c lhc cqu�'"tdan rn:'litiae and promoting rncn who h.1d held th� po::;l oí
prhnus¡nl'tLf ire,-i,m regl!Lady lo tht pro<.:urulorships1 the1nscives esta:,Ji::iJ1cU by
(�laudi� as statc ílffi.:iaJs. tl01 pri\'atc unc:s}.:, f\.·lorc: diffic1,1lt nov, is tht: dat,ng ol
l92Q�S6 (\•t3vocs IV) Amsttrd3:r:n 1?�8 Carmen C;1stiUo. Pr11n1p:far..•s (1978-92). in: v. le
thc creation of lhe post of prt'n1uspiius ircru1n1 as: it no,v appears, ur sccrus LO,
Uohcc. ([d.\ La Hierarchie tRangord..;ung� de l'nrmée romaine sous Je •111ut·I rnptrc, Perls
19Cí:i, 111 2201 hai; preved rnoss uscful. around J-\l) 14. and lts OíltUJ-e i.::vnlinut.s lo he baftl111g, a po11n dtscu�scd bt'l<.n,v.
'.!. I.acs. bcU. C,all. S. 35 tUalventlliiJ 111u supenore «nno pritnum pifrmr dux(.riJt; 1hr«: reter-
cue'CS 10 B�c11h.1s, bc)J Ga.11. 2, 2J pri',,.l{Jii1, bcü, GaU. 3, 5 pntn•p11,' c,·ntu,u,, bell. G.a.J 6,
38 qu, mímum rlilu,n :-ril Cuesure,r. ,JJ,�ernt; bcll. c:v :: 91 ,•,r.r ('r,H•tln11.. r ('vPC,1� m " Plut., nill hí$1 )4. 9.
t'.H.>i't•1't1r Caesaris. ({:ti 3".J.Pl!t'ÍOt,• dn,16 t1¡;ud t•uu1 µriruun, 1,f!u,n m lt:fi1J1:e ),: duxomt. Ntit<: 6 IJree:t.t!t'JJobson, Of(,¡ m\,J '101\tk•rs 89, l87,
ul:-.n L. Pujnus, b:dt civ. 1, 13, l pnmu\' pflu., of Pontpt.:}' h.<1ld1ng tbc same rank m Auius 7 ( '11 111 11 JO 1 : AF I S44, ll6.
v,u us:\, <oi4Jbv1t:.. a ,\E t9S:i. 1:;s.
Caes. bdl. ov 1;'l9 9 E. ijirlc;)\ l'hc-Roln:ln :\:n,�r2t9f..
4 CIL xm 6752; R!D 17 U; JGRJ{lll 4:.2 cr .176; 111474; IV 617. 10 Dob:1on. Pnmlpil.M'!s b-14.
Bnen Dobson The prun,pdar«s m Anny end $oc1ety 143

The larer rnodificanons are rclauvcly ururnportaru, lite possibilny oJ promouon lo appropriaLe incrcascs laLcr 10 line wilb the vru'lous pay increascs auested or con-
ceníennrian procuratorshtps írom primuspilus or preiect of rhe camp, 11 und thc jC!clun..­­r.l. '
gradual change ot thc title Irom praefecuu: ,·a�·Jr<)ru,,, le¡:ü>ntS to praefeaus (e­ How long did the primuspi/11s remain in posr? 1 have argucd for one year, r�
g1011i.•. Jt was important Uut1 severus chose to find commnnders for tus tnree Par- tlccling lhe old rcpublicun notion ofappointme111 ol'ccn111rion, a, Lhe hegiru1.iHg of
thian legtons from the prirmpilares, on ihe model of die legionts) In TJgypt. Al· a campaiguing season, wirh no guaran1ee of rc-appoinrmenr, hesl exemphtícd in
though ali the legions seem to havc rccoived prcfcct-communders, who wcrc still the career of Spurlus Ligusrlnus." Clesrly undcr Cacsar a m:tn totild be primus-
prnnipllares, under Gallicnus, sorne ,¡mo bcfore the end of the cenrury thc link p1/t1s nnd tben cominue 10 serve, afler relinquishing tite J10SL, thou¡;h;, is not ctear
bcL\VCCn pruniJ>llilj)rJ111lpila,..cs and milirary scrvice was broken, as lho primipi whe1her he simrly reverroo to being a cl'!11urion In thc ('):amples ciled 111 n. 2
laris bccame thc admuusrrator of the tax known as ihe prímtpitum n,is develop- Crnstinu� wn., an ,,,.o,•niris, llncultts was 1tl, 11nd had hcld his 11rimi¡>ilo1e l'our
mc111 h11J lis roots earlier, but cousidererion of this must he lcfl to another occu yenrs previo11sly, 10r so1ne n1on1hs �t, l.ron, sun,mcr to carly ,vinter. Oalvcn�
síon." tius mny nr may nnl he �mtply íl ce11111rion once m(lru. 1n che carly etttptre il wa�
Thc amount a prmupllorls rcecivcd on rctircmcru is normally tukcn to be pn.ssihle t('I hold whol in presumably 1hc ordiunry more 1hn11 once,
<,0(),00() sesterces, depending 011 011 cmcndarion al' u corrupl paasagc in Suctonius. C\vice, even 1hree times.•• Thcs phrasing scems 10 imply u lixcd J)eriod of lcnure,
I hnve relared lhis to a 1>mhahlc paymont ol 60,000 • your, rising lo 100,0000 un· nnd [ have suggestecl one ycar, linking lu this lhc solcmn dcJication� by pr/mipdl,
dcr Ou1rULia11, ÍOl' which therc 1$ no direct evidence; the only indicuiion is thal ol1cr1 lo lwnw 11q11il,w." J'hc point ha• bcon 11111<lo In me by rhe lole f'ronk Oilliurn
¡Jruni¡1,/orc:s aro prometed Lo ccntcnarian precuratorshlps, never to soxagtnurii1n, n 1lrnt th1s 111i¡;h1 imply evcry cen111rion, or 111 lc:is1 tho most senior, chnng,ng rnuk
Micht1el Speidel rhe Youngcr has argued fer a p»ymcnt of 54,000 ri,in¡¡ to 72.000 ,111d possibly chtties et1ch yeílr, Beorin¡; in mind (he cvi�c·nco f'or othcr senior een-
hased u11 a <>U: 1 10110 lo the pay of o lcgronury. '1110 evidence he cites lor thi� Lurions outsicle thc le¡don, 1he pri11,,¡,ps pravtarii hcuJing Lhc go\'ontnr'� �to rr nnd
howcvcr retcrs ro lwo ¡,meposlrl atlcsuxl un pupyri tn tite c11rly fo1111li ccntury. He 1he senior ccornrions o( lhe prnclorinn cohons, tlds muy not be thu cose. A tmn$fcr
íollows Jnh11 i111dcn11fying thcse us ccmurions, und us bcmg ul¡mm11., ordo and flf oue of r he� l"rnm Li l\'lc lo lime ro be prrn11,spi/11,, o,· roto 1hc pr1111/ ol'l;ll11<J.1 ,o
¡m11111¡,1/11s rank respectively. There 1• however u difficulty iu •upp<,si,t!', puv fura fill n gop creoled hy a pmmo1io11 to 1>rin111.spil11s, would not cnuso u shut11c oí 1111
mnn pcrfornung command d1111cs lo be rclutcd LO ,11111 uf 11 ¡m11111spi/11., in lho curly the legion'R centurion• lf' one orgues for a longcr tenure of lhe pn111lpil11lo. which
fnurll1 ccutury, when tho 1111111:pilnres hnd lo,t 1hc1r link wlth the lcgions and the is pO$Siblc, lhcrc ore not.1hlo t<lnsoquonecs. Thc numbcr (lf ltvlng ¡,ri111ip1/o,c.,
old career, as noted nbovc. Iherc is ulso lhc �tucrul probhlru uf relotíug early would dm1> sharply, liom a Lhcorclicnl numbcr or 600 (probnbly loa high, ijS ir
l\',urih century evidcnce, nnd for prnepostn, not oñlcers in estoblíshed posts, when ,IS$lll11CS nn nveru¡¡e survivol oí20 yo�rs) 10 300 (a 1wo year prunipilale) 01· 2()(1 (a
eareers were chnncm¡¡ so drustically, lo c11rcers as they had been in nn earher 1>�· thrce yc:u pr11nipi1n1c). Thc chnnc\!S of n.n ludividuo! ccutudu11 of Lu.:\:0111ing
nod. The othcr argurnení he usos is UM as ("'o.hgulu reduccd U1c :ui101,nt recelvlld µri11111sµr/11,1 dtoJ) drnmnucnlly (fro,n betler 1han uuo lu duoo lv vos in six ur une
LO 600,000. lherc musl hav" heon w1 carlicr, highcr. ligore. Md Clnudhts mny 1111J.iue 1especl1vely).11 Thore is nlso 10 b� c1.1usidt1·eJ il10 uood tu •upply scvan
havc rcslored lho mnnunl reccivetl tu that carller ílgw·e. l bis is valid, as for as the crJbuncs ol'vlRll,·1 ond ncnrly lhirty prcfctts ofd1c cnnw, bea111114 u1111i11J U,at Lite
cx,slcncc ol' �11 earhe_i· h1gher figure ,s concomed, ancl bis ft¡,ures are nn altemnlive cvidcncc suggc•L� lhuL muny prlmipllarer rcrircd 1n1111ediately nfter 1he prl111i¡iila1c
rcco11slructlon of pay 6Cttle.s Lhal ,n lhc obscncc of finn d1rcct evldence hnve as without holding cilhcr oflicc. Jt scc111� unlikcly lhu1 lhe rribunnle. were helu l'or
much chance of being corree! as my own. 1 he probnbi.llty llUtl rhe pl'imuspllus long, hccausc ot' l'unhcr pmmolion. TI1c prcfecluros of the CMlp were oflen hcltl
rcccivcd t,vice ns 1nuch us u pn'rnu.r urcJ" and lOur tin1es as nluch as a11 ord1oary hy mcn who hatl hud u lon¡¡ curecr to rcach lhc pnmipilalc, who might be ready
lcglouary 1,,":enturion ls co1-nn1on ground, as is the receivtng as gratuuy of �t least for rctiremcnl in a le1, yc:in¡. A primipiluLc hcllf for two years would produce: c.
600,000 s�rerces under Augustus, 1 l/2 limes the census of an equestrirut. with 15 prímlprlarcs. rrwc: :tllow hu)l'to retiro immelfiatcly ench yenr, sny seven, ei¡;hl
rcmain lo produce suy l,vo lrihunos (as.,,,¡ uming � threo­yenr ienure of the v1g1(es,
and fivc pruí,-cts (m;summg a six-yeur lcnurc as prcfoot of 1hc camp) 'l'fli, rQ11Jd

11 r. rostu101us AcUi11uui; lAh l•J92, ')19) i...� now t"le eo:liesl pru111pifar:s \vbo bccan1c a ccntc­ 14 r,.,i. AIC"ll'.ondcr Spetdol .loum Ro1u. Stud. 82, J lJ­IJl, 101!- J IJ.2. <;t'. l>ob�<NJ. t>tuu.ipll.tJ,:� J )9·
nanan pn..::u1:i1.or, befote ..\O l02, follov.·cd by Marnus 1 urbo, \\'{UJ b\1We..·er .,.,ent un tu the 145.
Ron1..: lr1b1111atcs. Regular pron1otlon to conter.wriun prot.:urutorship:f appt:ln. unJer rlu!:., see 15 Uv 42, J1-J5.
l)ol,.,ion, JJrimtpil:ues 9�98 16 CIL lX JóJO:X506J =Dossou2640:AE 1992, 734
11 J·o, sotne dis.c�s.:ou see: 11''1. Carrié, ZPE 35, 1979, 212-24 17 Dob.on, Prim1p1taros 155-160; A�: 1972. 5211; 19�2. �49; 1981, 735: 1986, 984 (ali I h•lko).
l::t Suct. ('!IU@:, 44; RrDt."'l.e/Dohi.un, Officen> ;wJ P11.1ulic:n l.89· 191 lS Di­.:ei�iDobsou, Otnom .wLl Frualtc:rt 204(..
144 Orian Dobson Tlt'!' prinripi,'urtw in J\rmy­u.nd S(�1ery 145

produce sorne struin 011 tbe system. and ihrco years for the pnnupilate (five retire There are proh1e111l-i here on ,vh,ch there see1ns to be no d1r(..'Cl cv1<lcncc to guide
immcdiatcly, one/rwo tribunes, four/íhrcc prcfects} seems to produce ahnost msu- us.
pcrablc diJllculues. \\lh1lt it is impossible to demonstrate that the pnrnipilatc was Was there n lixed age for lhe p1·1m1¡>dAte? Juvenal says you nught make ,t by
only hcld for one year, l stil I prcfcr to rcunn that belief os fittmg best the peculiar s1x1y, writmg in snhre. There are a number of exrunples ns has bccn sccn wh,ch
distinction of'the pOSI. show thnt this could be htemlly croe. In other coses. •• 1 havc arg11ccl. w,th n ca·
An alternuti ve way of prodncmg more vacancies as primuspilus wouíd be thc reer con11nu1ng al\er the pttmi¡,ilate for porlúps li lleet1 ycurs.. en lhc ca,c of men
doubling uf the numbers by having two ordinary pnmipilt. This must he di;cin- who renched tbe great prefecrmes for 1we111y or mure, il may be suggcstccl drnt
guishcd from the prublem of the ¡Jrin1us¡n'/1ts itetum, The evidence for two ordi­ they did not even bave to wait ull !Hly to become ¡wimuspilus.'' Thcrc is 110 .,cninl
nsry primtpili is CIL YIIT 18065 ami en XVI App. 13.''' Ctí, VIII 18065 refers proof of !ííl}' as a u1u11nn>1u n.t;..::; the youn.e.t:st 1, nuv.·n pr1111usr11lu$ or nu1n :1huu1 to
to [\\'O pr/11,i¡>lli, hu, u Is a dedication on wluch there are vnrying numbers of becon1t: ¡1rit11r,spiJt4s happeus co be a 4�-yea1 olt.1 \V hll d1t'.Ll proJJe d1,•1n ron,w11n­
con111ru,ni'i. in tnc ccmuries, suggcsnng thc poss,hllhy 1ha1 what wc have hcre rs m111/0111s prtmlptlt .rc,i, hui that 111 no wny impües 1hm hé hod tobo lllty lO bcco111c
not so mueh II complete mil caíl as a lts1 o r the cenrurions who subscnbed ro ihe primus¡nh,s: ,, m:iy mean that he wns fony-uine as pn11111,pl/11.,." fhe cxumplcs
dcdrcauo­i. mchuting us it happcncd two ¡,nmiplli, me c,mgoing and the lucommg. qnoted suggest thnt thcre was 110 mutimum or maxi11111111 a,l\e lalc1 down; 11 l., lik�ly
CU.. )l."VT App. 13 is more difficutt, rnenhomng mcn in rwo centunes. each coru- 1ha1 pnironnge andior merit mlght bnng o Utan 10 tite pruni¡1ilatc wdl bcli,rc liílv,
manded hy a prlmus1rll11s, b111 n< tlus comprchcnd« the total evidente for a second 1hough it should perh�¡1s be rmed as cxceptlonnl. As olniady 1101<:J. ccnlunnn,
ordi1101y pnmuspítns, w11h nothing to indlcate uow such au officer might he 111· were IJkely to be tir,;1 nppl'tllfM ns such 111 thttr nud-thlnles; scrvil'c ns centurions
cluded in thc lcgionary orgn111zn11011, tbc possibrhry may <1111ply he lcA open. r,,r h1111re pr1m1p11i cn111rl he n11yth1113 hetw�en Jif1�11 and thu'I) ycars." ·1 hat
lt should be pointed out that there are no particular dimculttcs "" for as rhc therei \V('IS $('1111r. forn, nf reg11la1ion on when 11 1nnn ,vos eh?i1blei 11,r �he pr�1n1pdalc
post of f!fim11<¡ul11s itsclf 1s coocerned wuh II ronure for one year Thc nnponancc however is suggested hy che phrose usecl 111 ('11 VllT 14471 l)essnu 2b4J. p.p.
of 1he ¡w,m11<p/111s sccrus 10 he íergcty in 1ho rchgions 1111<1 ccremomul 11cuvity OI ¡>rn�rt>RtlltlJ(') tt:111¡,orf! /hrrr, et lii,•n Hntlrtant>.
ch� legicn." Por 1hut very reason I íhink it uulikcly that the ¡mm11sp1/11s cver uc- fuvenul's sarcnsm, thc cxatnplc, qomcd <>I I Reu111111� 1 uc11is nnd l.,,
compnmed a vcxillutlon. Inscripuons whicb seem to suggest l111s on closcr unuly- Max11111us Oaelulicus a11d B11lcy·� h�I or' meo with ove, 40 yems' serv,ce, do
sis may be nunhured to cx-primipill ro1se the qucstion of ho,v ol<l u 1na11 11·,,ghL he und Rtill function ef'l'tottvely ns o
11 is supposcd then th01 thc fllÍlllll,<fllJIIS scrved lOI' O penod Ol time, suggcstcd ce11tu11on und n prunu.,¡,llt1s. Thc high dcgrcc of' phys,col titn,�r;:; requi,e<I 1�1r
to be 011c vcar, uud ihen rcnrcd, 01 was rcuuned for duty. In thc cvcnt of retiro· 111urch111g and fighling us hcuvy inf'un�y nocJs no omphusis; lhc ccnlurio�s moy
111e111 thc ,,;.,11.,11iu woultl be rcccrvcd W hat happened he staycd mi'I Thcrc ,s no havc i¡,arccl thcmsclvcs ú1c lahour of march111g by riding, h111 thc nocd to sta11d m
dírect evidcnec. u11v 1110,e uian ohcrc is fer what happcncd to ccnturions who hu<l cho bnttlc l 1110 nPcl light hn11d·to,hru1d c�uld hnl'(Hy he avo,dcd. Tho 111�rcn�1110. use
servecl hcyond lhc ti1110 1hey wc,c eligible for /ronest11 111,.,.,rn In thc case or thc nívcx1llntion� rnthcr thon \Vholc leg.1011� 111,ght nll()\V �cn1nr re:11ti.1rin11\ to hl'C1,n1r
ceutunoM, a� tite praemln duc would ho i11c1o.ised jf thc 111a11 rcache<l lho ¡1r1m1 111 cfTcct anchorcd lo dutics ut thc 1cgion¡¡ry haRC, und il is \\'Orlh pn1nl1ng out 1hnt
,,rtlitu·s. aL1d I ncrt:ascd aga111 1.f he n:achcJ prcnnispilr,s. 1t sco1t1$ hc:st to a.o;¡sumc cvc11 vvi1cn ,vholc lcglons ,ve.Te lltinsfcn-cd 1(11· or 1nvolvcd 111 can1po1g111ng neve,
1hcir elaim w,•s dcfoo'l'cJ 1ill ret1rement. lhough 1ha: leaves ,he problcm ol whal aa mu<.:h us half Lh..: h::giuu:, of tbi: c111pin: ,,•ere involvl-<l 1n .my ,var. '< l"hc J 1vy
lrnppcued if lhoy clicd whil� sull servin¡¡. A ccmurlon alter nll mi¡;ht lose h·.s ccn- pu:;:;agc rt:gar<lin!( Spuriu:; Ligu�linus pui111Ji Lo u rnux1111u111 u,g� or 1illy lür ccnu1·
turionate. 1hough porhups only under exccpllonal circumstauces.l' lt msy be 1hut 1·lv11g bt,111� l,;Ulloo up Coi U(;llve s�1v1ct:, ai,J tlu:, U8lte:. \V11li lb\: .ugc ol' (°;Gcliu,,
Lhc sltualion wa,; rolhcr úolkn'Jll for 1he prinmspclu.r, who lll effecl wru; complet- who died io battle at 1be ,ige or S3 as a senior centurio11" ln quie1cr 1i111es oml
in� ttis serv1ce in g,"..l<les eligible for ¡>mnmo, and could 11011mprove hi8 pracmia provlnces some se11ior centur:ons might be allowed to serve on 111to thc,r s, ,ucs ,,r
by further ,erv,cc as tite cent11roo11 could \<>t could l1e os prefect of thc camp''). 'oeyond. stU I with some hopes of the prlmlpilote, as the Blrley tabló shows, 1 huugh
wlth those hopes diminlsJting ns younger men ca,ne i111c• colllpotit1u11. \�11dí1cr
tltis becomes co!Ullloner is lhe use of v�xillations rather Ui..n whole l�g,ous in-

lt) Dobson., .Prinnr1larc:li 1)4f.. Till! !Ug¡?C'51Cd rc.i,hn� lu J\E 1992, 124(1. Gén(ia) (tf:Juurianun
d1u?t·1n;1) p(rilni){J(rli) i!I ;vw lllll}Cttsin lo uny wcigbt. 22 Dobaon. Pnm1p.ilsres 6fi\1 ..
20 Dob:,iou. Pütuipii,,c,. 6�. 23 CIL VI )580 Oe%m1 .,ú4 l
2J T"'·� :ann 1.44 \üem�·nlcu� ,evií'w:o; 1hc cenlu:tótlS :ift¿,r th� Olllhoy In A 1 > 14 untl ,w,u\•es 24 nob,;qn, Pnmip1lr.rclí 62
M1n1e íu� 1H'di'l(l-1T ilnd !'•·utJ....Jrtt1s}� 2, 55 {Pioo íC'll\OVt:� cc:nwriuns Jl:'p}ui:i::� llll'lU l,y lti:1 lS Dr«'.t<"/Dvbwn. Offi<.'t'J� ;;ind Fronlii:1:1 121.
owu nonunce�. Al) 18); Su..­l. C(ll, 44 {C:.­.h�la d1:;miss,; >� ct.'ntuflom fvr •lti.: �nd wca.knC:$.5l !(, <:11 Xlllt,:f,4N.:f.pai�·I.[:, 111.�=-l>cssaui.2,1,1
146 B1·u1.11 Dol:­S<>tt Tht' prrt1rfpil"rt.'1 ,u Anny und Soci<:l�· 147

creases 1s di fñcult In suy Again thcre rs no evidence on whether there \VAA an age on retirement that would hti the redpiem to a census exceeding lhat or u,c onli-
linnt on the length of time a man rmght serve as cenrurion; we are lefl free ro pre- oary e,¡11�>. We will ren,m 10 lite themes ofwhat wns exJ.>e<;Jed of thc pnm1p1lan.,
sume Lhat ccmunons wcrc lrec to retire whcn thcy wisbcd aücr servmg their baste in retiremenr firsr 1he emperor had hy no me,,ns exhnusted ihe potential value ol
stipendia, but wc Jo not know Iho <.:ahgulu pussage alreudy quotod seems to these senior cenn1rions, So1ne ,ve assu1ne \Vl:'.nt to tl:e ,u,nu·,�,s ¡1r11111p,Jar1un,. n
imply Lhal he was disrmssmg ccntunons on the grounds of age, and depriving bf.ldy only attested in Al> 11,, though il'e ¡,rmr,pi/un/ws may b� 1aken as it'fomng
them of the commodo of p1·1mi1,;1,, though prcsumubíy not of those due to them as to 1t continued 1ill AD 69 ni leas!." lt 1s uhce1tn,n whether the preJ'ects of thc
centurions or prinn ontínos > but 1J1c passagc is obscuro. l I is not el car if it was camp and ,he Romc tnhune., passed througil th,s hody or reverted to ic after
normal to review tho ccntunona' titncss to hold office; the well-known examples holding their JlOS<S, or whcther lhey remained d1stinct frorn II Tho memhers oí
relnre to excepticnal circumstances (fii. 20, above). this body seem to havo heon Ltscd ror Lhe typo of indiv,dunl prngnmen1 ollen
Hiere rs in Iect n difflculty nhout che Cnlignln passage nnd the mscription al- given to c;enior ccnturion� und Rcn11e t.rihunes nlso 1• ft n1u$1 he ernphns1sed thnl
roady quered referring to consommauo prinu pilt. C'<1hRul,1 p/,:ri�·c¡uu ccntunonuin we k11ow vcry lit,lc about ú,c m,meru., pr/mlpl/al'i111•1. Thc 1em1 'hody' is used fo,·
matuns lum e.1 nonullis ante ¡1,ttu�1.tt11uot qu<·1n consu111n1aturi essent ,Jie:1 primo: conven1ence. IL appcars lhal a nun1her of prllt1ipilarcs ,vcre uvailuhle 111 Ro1ne nncl
pilos ademis; ['l,dens dicd prope �11e,n cousummauonis pru«: ptl! sai, Consumma- �rrnrently Cln co.n,pait,'1'11 fOr crnpcrors :.u,\I in1pcrial pr.ncos nnyvv·ay lhe t>ns1c
Jiu seerns to imply the com1>lctcd rcrm oí servicc, but ,e rs not clcar why the re· refere,nce i� to a n,un on 1ho staff of Oc11nunii:U6 nncl pi;. Hyginus 6 yive.r; thc prt·
rnoval oí men from office nr death tn orneo shnuld he s1ei,1íican1, unless the mipd11re.< o ¡lince in cumr bcs•.do 1ho 01·()('tlli. ·11icy muy be sc,m os 1n<livid11uls
prucnu« for havíng becn J)ri,nu,f¡>ilus were lont , r scrvrcc as ¡1rl11111s¡>1/¡,s was not rnthcr thnn ns u uni1, lhough Home arrungcmcnls l'or 1hcir puy unJ 11ccomn10<l11t1on
completed. The alternative �iat ro,1.v1111111wrlo rcprcsents thc rcaching of the pn- wou In nccd lo be matlc.
uupilate, 011 n Jny alrcady namcd, makcs beucr scnsc 10 thc rwo ccntexts ­ note ·n,c lir!<t �,roup of posts Hs,i¡;ncd lo prin11p1!,sr,·,, woro 1 hu prcl'oclur"' oí 1hc
1h11L Pudcns is noc cnl led ¡m11111s¡,/111s. but ,s tcss snt isfnccory ns a translancn, camr. Aguin 3S » rc�ulur post pru,fcc·111s ,,astrurirm se.irn. to ,1ppcor rirllt an<lor
le has been arguec 1h111 thc prnmpilate wns rcscrved tor mcn üom the yunrd. Augus1us." Whcn lho p11nem of oq1,ewín11 nnd primipilm i.r c,u·cel'\I bccom�s cl,1<1r
aml dcmed to logronaries, or írom lwlim1s ns opposed w provurcials. 111 terms oi un<lcr Clnu<.lius lho prc:Cec111re ,1f tho comp is normo lly held dtrcccly o ílor 1he pri-
c�o cxclusion of 1>rov,nciuls or of lct,ionnrics thcsc hynothcses cannot stand." n,ipilute nn,1 closcs lh• c"roor. 1hougb 1l1.:1·e nro a íew cases •>f rnen prorno1ed J\ir·
Much moro d10icull is the qucstlon of proporuons of ccnturions from the ranks of lhcr. Only in 1wo, ptrlu,po tltroo, on.rly ,.1r�t1'$ doos i1 seom ¡,ossib)o 1hm nu
me le¡¡1011s. üom the mnks of thc guurd, und dircclly-cumnll,'1011ed, umo111, tho c�uc::�tritu1 U) op1>v�cJ cu H prirnipUuris "''ª$ UIU\lt ¡,tt(�l "'f lh\! é(HUJ>.1; 'I h.: po:,I
pr11111¡>il1. Ors¡;lnrs ulnne will 1101 help much hcrc. lL� d1rci.:tly comn11ss10ncli muy
cullctl J\11" rmu, ul' r,tl�,,t ,xporl,:m., of tlic way, uf 1ho .e.14iu11. 1'llc µri111ipiluris
shnre thcm wiLh lhc ¡¡11.ird nr w1Lh lc¡¡ion•rics, w1d l1aliu11s,st1II hcin¡¡ n:.:rui1r.d in 1ms.,cssctl lhis, us woll .i, u ptuV<JI loy,,lty dito,lly tu tLo 0111poi�r 'J'ho1c is 11.0
nun,hcr\ 1nto thc: lcJ!iuns hcl'hrc 11 a<lrian, n1uy UJ)pcur as cc:..-nl urions anti u¡;¡ ¡,r, ... way ol lilslgning • leng1h of1e1111rc 10 the prefecture ofthe camp: mai1y who hcld
1n1¡,tb th,rty or forly yean,; latcr ' As Mnnc nny
pcr cent of 11r1,u1¡1il11rcs g1ving ,1 would be nged slx1y or over. le wos quite co11U1\011Jy bue 1101 excl11Si\'Cly
c·.Hr<'..eNI �ay nolh111g nh-oul :,;crv,cc hclúrc lhc rrlmipilulc. corps of orig,n 1,; held in thc same le,ion ,,s the pri1111pl1111c.
rart,culorly difficuh. lt is probublc lhut thcrc urc more ltuhans, ¡¡uárdsmen, ;,.nd in '!'he other 01(\lor use of prfmfpilares wns M rnbuncs in Romc. in tht vigiles.
r•art1culnr rlirectly�cQ111n1i�i;1on�tl <:Cntunons u1nong Lhc JJr,mi¡n'l, Lhun rccruitJng 1he urban cohorts. the eqnírrs si11gulnrcs A111111s1i, 11ntl lho pr11e1ori1m colwrts. With
i11 s1n11lnr rro?ort1<11u¡ from th<.• avu1lab­le ccntunons would produce, bul llus pref.. very few excepto11S thcse posts also wcro 1 he c�clusivc preserve t>f Lhc ¡1ri111lpl·
erence for lluhans and guanlt­.1ncn an<l d1rcclly...:ommiss1oncd ccnlunons docs nol
nppear to exclude tho po.sibJiiLy thal " hrgh proporliun uf prtmlp1/i ha<l scrvcd m
the rru1ks Qf the log,ons.1''
So far i t is s.uggcstt­d thal lhc pobil of priniuspr'JuJ', sln:�dy pí\:sti.gious. undcr JO T:i\;� onu. 2, J J (AD 16) is thc c,nly rcfcrcn� to thc •1tu1:('ru.s �1rtr,11pUnrlr1.1n. lt 1r, os..sumcd l'
lhe Principutc wJS linl.,;d to a uew tl1l� ol' primipilrlflS and n suarruueed ¡;ratuity f"iudpfüuih,,., ('rae:. a.un. 4, 72} refco; ro thc Suntt body, uscd .i¡.:aia, Tac. hitL 3.70. f. 111ih­
,w,b11:r ,·,rls (To\', ruw 4. 41.) Is us�\i 1u :in 11lt.:r"a1lvc, sec csprc1:..lly hl�t .1,70 anrl ,,7.\, !­ee
also l>ob5on, PnrT11p1 l11rcli 6;11., l't�. 1.111.10��-.!.CJ:), lt>'/(
1.7 l)1,h11.un, l'nmrp11aré'I 4ill. i::f. nu\lt Afi l 9RS. 115 31 Spt,.aa] .u;:si.gu1il.:u1J. � Dvl>i"u. P1i.ut.i¡.ij},n1;:1 661'. Í\)1 pi uJ1iµ,l111 l.'.!.. 86f. fo, pt,1ttv1i;.t,1 IJ ili­
28 Dobicu. rtiill.ipjJ:ircs 15­39. esp. l ú for tiat��Jag bt'C\\'Cc.: n bciu& rccn1i1�d and 1eacil.iog lhe \111.C$
pnnup1lutc. A� !'>t:S.. 7!51!i .1 prov1n;:ullond u leg1onury i;old1cr. J2 Doh­;vu. PJ'hlli'.,illlre­� 7, (i,t
29 Dobs,,u, L11unipd;·u·es l50­l52 ll'i1,nlp1S 10 st:uw dun ,1 pruulpH:ile h111,;d¡• pro�·ided r,l)rn lhe 11 Vc5110�1u,; Pullio• .SueL Vc:,p. l. J c:L .6­H 11,s'I, 2111. Primip1htrc.'i IC'>5r Am1J,; !)al:1nus, C1L
mnk,.. or 1hc lcginns anrl spr.ctal favQ1.1r to prJctorians and �X <.>Qtclf\J Ro111<1110 need 1\ól bl! X 6JOJ ­ �11.iu 6265.',J::S 174[; also a ��:>ib.ltty ts L. ,\por.tus, éspC:rand1c:".1 55�.
1uuluuUy' �.\..:lu:.­i\'t' Pnm1pil:uc'­ 1 (1'1f.
U8 l'na,t­., 149

tores lhe tribunes "'ere tL'!.ers under the prcfects of J1l non.. le,gJon;u') thosc men who hcld \he post of ¡mn11«,r.,il1L< ,rerom but �inply Jcrail �,e 1wo lc-
rroops on Romo, with tew exceptiens. Thcy. hk• tbc ¡,rm111•il1, themsclves th.: gioas tn Y>h1ch !he'., hclJ pnnup, ...:es. wubour d...un11wshtng ,n v.hich tbe h1¡hc,-
le.l<!crs of tbe cennmens, and lhc p¡ck,:is ,,r thc C3Mp. �.teda ho<ly of rncu )l0St v:as hcld. Therc are tiome Jns1ancc!. of p,·11n11SJ)i/us 111..·tum \\•hcu no lc-
m ley posuions bound in To) ,,lty úr.t and l<>remu<t ro 1hc emperor. The ahdity of gíon Uí narn«4­.
govcmors to appoint lcgion.r,, cemunons .md on OC.."UWD :r.uisfa thcm kJ a le- n.e m:mer ia 001' funher comphcated t>y ,\(' '.978, 286. wi1h tite phrase
¡:,on in tbcn new pro, inccs ¡,n;sumably 1)n'y had a marginal effect in butlding up rrun. ,,,,. I•',( JJJ C,i/jicue urn,m in a c:,�T :lw musl t,.: "'11,:J •roun,I AO 14
patrouazc in comparison lle orde; of po;;¡11 m 1hat care­cr 1s pccnbJT� as 11 contu ucs ,,,.11.:f r.uJrr frg.,
Promohon l><:yonJ the Rume cobons seem. to be pnmanly a ri:Jtlcf fur thc pru.,·f fitbr.• Ir 1n1/ in ¡,r,1e1. ,f11,1 .1UI( rr J, C,iesu.ri)' .4.t(� r:oh,,,r!.. ti ,·1 /C pr+1t.'·
1mliv1dual rnthcr iban n rolicy declsion tu use pnm1p1Ü1ra m the w�) 11-.a( for me ro,1Q.t. Á) t no,, arxc:pt L. Xtppic''> pc,!111 that che ,.ohur.1 /(J relt;rrcd 10 1s 1h1.· \/
prefectura of the camp and ihe Rorne 1nbu1Uto; u cleart) was, lkfon: hegmmn!i r1r.óa,;,1. no: yet clcaliv d1srinsui.sha1 lro1n the! pra-::torian cohortft, 1 musl !:,'O �n 111
on .l ll rnay he couvenient to loo), 11• !he separanon of two d1�inc1 1..1111rocrs "-'hi.C.h lccq>I thal the .mlcr Í.> ,tíreet :uid ha, no! l>ccn di.tortod. Tlus mtl.cs ít 1yp1c•lty
is the work of ("laadJ� Augu.<ta:i"' ,n nor oum:•pondiug lo any set nrdcr of po,rs, ;md meru1s u is si I IJ
Augustan ,nlutiun.< seem ro be empmcal ra1her d1l111 thcoeetica], Tlus .s par­ unlike lhc cac«r< a, v. e k.�o"· rhcr., trom Cl�udtu. onwanl,.. lt do,-,. SUU'f>I hn"·
uculnt'y clear lor tbc: commands of cobo:U a!ld al,.e wd thc tenurc o!lh<: leg,oo- .,cr l.ldl th! pu"" off1T1mu.rp,.'1,s iít'nlnt rnay he no more t1an bolL11og o rn:nqn­
ary tribunates, Sueh f)ll<tS b.1,1 been held by equestnans m thc late repuhli�: thi< latc 3gain. though bov. tn1> fit; '""' thc <tn,cturc ofu lc,t,n1 i!lXI ,..,at r:,; 1. c>t-
contruucd. but ufongsille equ.,strian• there were nativc cbiclUlfu .111d cc.,,r.lrinr,< aoc .,
ri.:,; ¡,> it -.hould be tin11¡tlu 2 nccess.v'} prclnnmary lo holding JcJre,,i,n.o
and ¡mm1piii Olher posr.; were mclll<!c.J. prad;.ctus (abru"' a, a semor post, procur.1tor;fúps. i1S app.ut'"nl 111�1:or function. rernrun .1 myc.tcr:..
praefectus ru.1v1u111. und prnl!frC1us rastrorum, 1hough as nnteJ tht­named Then: oeed not ha,·c b� º"" lll .­·"')· l�oo mdced. as Jire"<!) nlll,­J, a
wcre dhndy mainl) if nc'K c�clusiv ely reserved tor pnmtfJll�­3. There ""­a; no set nwnhcr ofmcn ,,,tl\l,c.: a Jegjon for thei.r lirst pri1111pJlu1e do t'lOI íor lhcir P',)$l\.
order oí posts, and. no re.auensbrp to íhc procuratorial carece, as lhe pr()('urarnr 35 prrm:u.!pJh,s i�. ff there. v.crc. � Jl <icc.:mc; to h�\'e bL-en t.."S.,eoliaJ 10 hokt l.he
,li,¡¡usti was 1101 yet cl�rly • st3k official, rractoriau tnhunalc before ,t, • rroblem would emerge. len pracLOJ'ian ·, tbune, 10
Claudtus chng«I 011 thrs, b� c<tabu,hrn¡¡ a elear o,d.:r nf Jló',l<, !he'"'"""" fiU neJrty thirty \.'.a.JlCJC'c; as J1r,;Ju.r il�rum \\·ouJiJ rcqujn: a mirumuol oi
equestres - thc f;ct lh.t he ongiully r:hc lej<tono,y lnbu.'!ate as l.11rd, r.01 tm:.: year.;· 'lel'\1CC a<J pri,,,usp,/us u,-n,m 1( Lic tribun:ncs werc on I� hcld for une
>CCOOd. "6 ít l•I<'< became, 11 ani:npn�an.l compared ",th
thc elear d"11nguishin¡¡ YC.11, 1 h.1vc arguc'tl elsc"hen; 1h.11 rnen gomg on tv 1na.1or procururor,;h1r, an<l the
oru progrcssion ibrough gr¡uks. 'Ihe centurioas and pr1'111püare. have ao liinher gre..t pre!cctures canld nnt ,,.... l¡i speoJ rr.orc 1han one yc,,r Q<h m the lnbun�-
part tn thc poSb nf p,:;cú·1:tu� roh, nrl, m!,111f1J ,,,;tuu.,., Jeg¡,,,,o .axf praefect11$
tcs. • h secms �tter on 1he uvJilablt 1:­v1denl'e to �ugg::.l 1en 01 fe\1,·:r pru,upil,
,dor. arthoLgh they n,;tuir,ed tlieJ.r monopoly of prr,efcrnu l'úJtrorum Cl.1JJiu& U"'1llfl 31 any ooc lime. 1t '!lay be that u,c m•m pur¡,osc uf ruc J)l'St w-..
le !,o a
al<-0 est:lhli<b<,a thal ti,;, pl"O<urat3r was a mte offirial .,lti'l ¡udt<:� r,-w.ers. FO!' bndtc co llle pm<urator>h1ps.
lh� pr11111,nil.1r<:­l he al�o 1n:roduceJ rcgu1M prou..KJt1on of the p,1m:upll,� 1icrum lo lt i., ll()f clcar llut aU rcn pr:icwrian uibuncs .,·cnr on to hok thc ru.11100 Fe"'
procuratc,r<lu;,s. senior ¡,rocur.tt015hip., "'hich ,..,,uld t:., e duc..ianan Nltl. ho"C'\rt � tn ha>-e retnacl u mbune or rl1.ol from n;,rur:i.1 rrnses." Tite tncnl
Thc �! ot 1?rirrm<pdu., 1trrum rcnu1ll'S a mystery. lr secm, d1fficuh lo :,ccept .teman<! fur pmcura1or< 1'35 out gr<al lf on� llilllks m t�r:ns oJ lhe ,ac<>nú cen-
that il wa, t.hc iltrruion oflhc ordirory prim,piJic1lc. as 11 clearly foll.,...., lhe pr:m<>- ru,y, "'11h 'l<J ¡...fc<ls of a}.,,. ron·pc,ing fur }O sex3¡¡cMnan proc11rJtnr.,h1ps,
nan 1nb,UU1c, ;ind unen aL,o the trihunatc of tllc ,·,g,te< and of an ur:r.m cohon moving on to 30 .:tntcnanan auJ 30 Juce1iaritn. p¡;rhaps l•� ccnlcn.aJian procura-
statinncd m ltaly. \'et c4ually !�ere i, :iu ul>vious place íorsuch a man 10 lhe hicr- tors .md 10 r.ract,('lnan tribu:ne2 añer 'JCCOmini pn,11,p!h tlenatt v.·cre c<>mpi:lH'l_g
an:hy or !he lcb'Íon. or any ck"" ...,...,,...¡ ofh•m n,TCislll8 dOtJc. wilhin rhc 1� for­ 30 d1k"CT.arian procurato:--.i; Ho'."C' er th1s rna.�tc no n'.lowar1t.·e for 1he
Assignrng h,m a levoJ of pay pro<luccs further anomahcs; it must full romC\\bcrc tác1 that mcHt than one duccrt..ri:m rn,."'Cllf.l1Jfflh.ip � .ac.: gene�� l1cld.. ., ­­: fh)).f, ;a1
between the ro\· of a pltU!(O!ÍUTI mbune, ab,,e 1bá, of an ordu"'1'y prrffti...<p1I•< il&d lea.1 hw,g A>ggcsted b) Sallcr."
¡,rtfcct of 1he c�mp. and bcfov. llrnr .,ra du<:cnanan pm.:urator. In my mouograpb
rn, thc pnm1p1f11tes I nncm¡,r� ro cut !he Gor,lia:i kmt by suppc,si� llm he <>t<!:· '� °""""'- Prrnt¡,,llt,n ;S,41
c1•tú tbe duries ofprefc�'t ofthc.<amp bur wirh h1gher p�y. lh• p.-oblern here,. 17 1;,1�tW":1. t'lun,r1b1n b· I J f.or 1uy c­athtr diSl;.u.J\I�•=- óÍ 1hi) 1m..:dpuon �(e Hr�c,eO, ,.,,011
Olf�t ai frmt,o-> :?si:­�­; 1 KqicY•; cet':"'>UOD .pp, .n .-\lhr-n1:rum, �. Wf».
"'­'Pffl'Tl:"t'•� l <'1-.:mr..a. Tac.. h.,t J, 1.J. n­," vrdi.,w, ,...,la::oc.• .,,.,1 e G".'hn,r omir.JF. \'almM. 3� Dl>b>oL l'nnupd.1= tn
huu, rr:itlon;in Ct.nlu"oo dirrt'r W­ tnt•uac u o 1cu.w1I Cor mto,mog... Ca.,�. O,i, ?"5. l!l. '­
1< Doo......n. htt111pd..11 .-� 6,..14
N llcl,,ua. P,._Jim • ;¡.�
,in r �a J.._""f Jaon1. Rorn.. Stud. 70. IQSO, 4. !J.l. n.f'('Cu.11}· �XI .. 11)
)50 Brian Dobsuu M1c ¡,11,'TJipdurl!:i w A11uy �nJ S:.ic:Íél)' 151

Saller's analysis ortne ducenarian procuratorships is helpful here. l lis article íluctuatc wildly. (iivcn !his. and cxcludlng. legionary commanJs which ore exclu-
was a protcst al Püaum's rather rlgid scneme, and suggested among other polnts sive to tl1c pnmi¡1,larer, ic may be suggested tht the ltaJí:u, tlcat pr<:focttrr�.s a11J
that lhc cvidence showed tnat for the 32 centenarian procurators in the second Lhc pmcurntor·grrvcmorl\hipl'. and pt'ocur�tvrsbips of in1pc:ri.aJ pro"·­incc5. :irc n1ru-
century only 13 ducenannn posts were ilútially availahle, for which they com- ginnlly n1orc crnnnu·111 than n1iglu llave bceu e�pé>l.;.Lc<l, and posls ln a<.:cuunts: and
peted wiíh thc primimt! bis l am suggesung rile lafter are besr reckoned as ten or ta.J(CS , procurntors of •cnotorial 11rovit1ce� ru1d 111 .E!gypl, ure mzr�inully les� com-
fewer, Oddly enough Sullcr's tables givc uie pnm,pili bis 26% of lhe ducennnnn 1non. •J ln nonc, exccpt for lcgiona.ry coirunanUs. Ji<l llu: p11'1111,?llurf'.\' Lhrcnten to
posts lbr ali Ptlaum carcers, whroh is remarkably close to the likely mpur of li4 fom, a majority. Thcrc is no di�ccmihle reletionshlp betwceu thc ccnte-
suggested, 01 coursc thc figure, cannot bo pressed, but Lhey suggesí that perbnps narian pmvincial Jl,;ct prcícctures an<l thc pr/mipll,m•s.
the prmrlpill t,,,.
hud as good a chance In proportion to their numbers a; íhc Ali procurulorial curccrs are cswntially individual careers, and 1hi, is par-
cquesrrinn centenarian procurntors of reaching the duccnurian posts. All praoto licularly lruc or th<>$C who rcachcd the ¡:reat prefecrures. Jlere the rw1m11 ,,1n,r,
non tnbunes mighl nerhop• huve o hopo of u duccnnrian procuratorship, gcncrnlly s1:em to havc done wcll in tite greatesr c,f ali, tbe proc:toiir111 prulécturc, with an
us procumror of an imperial provincc, without disturbing the dominancc of thc in1preR�ive nJn nf i,uccl!.i;i:;, 11 Serviro AS: le3iC'nnry cen1urions ulongsir.lL" cn1pernrs
equestrian ordcr. whn had followed tite normal s�nntorinJ carecr, such as J rajan un� Hrulnan. or i11
Ihere are point� tn be modo about which proeunuorships, seoretnriuts nnd K�me as soldier. ce,rn1rio11 nnd 1ribune, ought givc upporlunihcs u, acquire i111pe·
protecrul'eij might ho reachcd by the prlmiptlarcs. ['irst ,uHI Ioremost, reserved for rinl pmronnge earJy.
tl,e 1m1111¡dlffn•., werc thc prefcciures o!' the legions in Egypl, wlnch conld 11111 be lfwe reckon ur !he value ofthe¡m111ipi/11res lt> tite cmJX.'IW, thcn, we mu�t
QU111111M1ltd by $Cnatoiial legati becausc of the exclusión of senuton, from 01111 include the prin,,piloce os the 11at11ml j\oal of eve,­y citizen soldicr und c,111unon,
province, which was govemcd hy :, prcfcct. 111 th• period up tu Claudius the•o helping to hind the lc•ynlty or tite centurion body. The,1 wo 11111,1 a,Jd tho camn
1>rufec1-conunnnders were supphcd in u ch11wcttristicully m/ /1(11' lushicn, with no pr<,fects on<l the Rome trihune;, key figure� 111 the lcgions nnd U1c �itizQn troops i11
pattcm to the careers. rrom I Cir¡,iniu� thc cerecr is clear, 'vi. Cluudius Seeundi- Romo. 01' ptui1culur impor1m1co wcre lhc Rome trihunes; conspirnl'i-is whkh in
""" show lng rhe developed form." Therc is nothi n¡¡ to nu� on !he complcx it ic, "1 volved thom wcre lho most 1mmc<lio1ely 1nennc111g. rinally thcr� is thc suµply of
11,c nomenclature of 1his post. lt docs not uppear thut u sepnnue prerccr or thc ¡,erhaps ",¡uartcr of tho sc11io1. ducenori,tn Jlr(ICUrotorahips. with lhu possibi lily or
curnp was nppolnred rn mese le¡¡im,,, wnen in E¡¡ypl \VhU11 the Po1rthián lcgiuns nn occai;1011al 110tohle 1iroetoriru1 lll'efect.
wcre rmsed, they were given prcfoct-c11mmandcrs, wltich avoided me ancmaly M Thot doe, Mt cxhau�I thc camrihution or the pmr¡ipi/""'·'· 'l'hcy wcrc of
lc¡¡10119r, legares unrler tho e<111o•tri:m govcrnur of Mcsopotamla anJ n lcglonnry C0\11'$C uscful for odd johR, a., thc cxi�tcnc.e of the "''''"""" prrm/pilurium hcmi<
lcgate in charge or the lc¡µon 11 Par1b1cu bnscd 1n ltaly rhe leg1ons seem aU to witncsR. Fluc nlRO 111 rctirc111c11t thcy bulked lnr�e iu locnl swicty. J'Jucc cpisuJos,
lut\'e been pm under prefect-commandns lium 1..iallttm1s onw�rds, nt Hrsl 01 lenst almMt u11dct ,uccc��ivc cm¡icrors wcll illustrnt< lhis• .iud lhc t111pc1t,r'• im,-rcst
,,rtn11r1darr.,· hut ,vith no clt3r 1ni.hcauon v.•htlh�r thf'Alte ,,rt"re lhe Jhnn�r 1iról'ec.·1s Fir,;t, 1.11,dcr T1hcriutt. thcrc i� .:i.. riot nf Pt,lle111ia ,vhen 111­, lv\vo:,fol" lt.. ­lJ up thc:
of d1e camn M me11 followln¡¡ thc prin11,sp,/11s iierrtm route. l lowever ns lhe prl· funcrul of a ¡71·Jmipl/<1ris till ltis hcirs u¡¡rccd lo prnvidc a free f;llldiritorinl �hO\\.
1111pd<1res then1selves wero lar�cly witltdrawln¡¡ frolll strictly miht.ary dutics llu:y Uuuor l'uli1.1ula, u; wdl as hi, rcduclion oí thc pmemlo mil/litw fcir pmni¡u/111·es
wcro 1101 desti11ed to he the hontficiuncs oJ' u,is rr11nsfür of leiioanry command anU Lhc Lli�tui1>:,al ol' sorne appun.:ntly hcfbrc con1ptc:ing their sorvice ns ¡,r,111,;s..
uul ufl11e hnnds ofthe sem,torn '' pilus. c;n tite groun<ls or a¡¡e, ,;� cnough. he on nnothcr ocrnsiou in,esti-
Of the 011ter procurutornhips, thc ¡,rocururur­goven1vrshlps IIJld tlte pretectures gatcd thc wills of primipJiures. from AD 14 onwurds,and dcclarccl i11valid those
of the íleets m Ttaly sccn, particul•rly ,ui111bk for lite pti1111pi/11n•J. iu uo whéro norhing was lefi lo Tlberhts <>t him,clt: Finally \'mi in cstahlishing hi•
wa)' rescrved f<;1r thcni, thcsc rosts do np¡,car commo11ly for meu who advunce,J colony nl Antiwn forc.ed a rmmber of ¡1t11mptlar<'s lo lransfor U1crc." Thc mes-
beyot1d their Fim duccnorian procurutunihJp. 'l'his is not controd1cted by SnUer's sagcs � clcar: the pru,u¡n'laJ'iS in J. scnsc rcW.inOO n.'5pons1hililics tn H1e
lind111gs, if 1t is acccptctl lhul sóme procurator,al cxpcricncc incvilahly fcll lnto empe,·ur, aud his weallil. oweu lll llle eruperor. mighl be callc<l upon, illlcl U1c pri-
whol Snllcr would lcm1 Lhc <ivll domnu1, for pt/m/¡1ilrm,., os wcll a., For cqucslr1· n,ipiloris in t.he LUttnic11>::11ities wns a l,rge ligure, aga1u .tOr ,vcttJLh ú1al n1ighl be
nns. This would ap¡,ly parlicuhuly to tite first duccnanon post hcld, which is oftc11
lhe only onc ror prlm:pl/u,·es. Alsu lho numbers are so smalJ tltot µcrccotages
43 P. S.iller. op. �iL (fu. 40) 63 cC Pt1mipilare� 113.
�l CIL V�!',/= Pe�$nn l,\:l1). Pn111lplLu."C1t ?J.14; Ot<:.­:·t.e,Dob�o:l. Offic...­ri a.u.l Fronlk:rs 242· 44 Dob!IQII, Pnnup1!are, 113 (n 232, te "­'hich ecd as o p,c,� (;l11uJ.1us Lus::inu� unilcr
S?. troJuu, Ab 1987, 216.
42 Oobson. l'ruu.ip1Jarcs 139­45. �5 Suet. T1b. 37; Colig. 38· N,10 9
152 Dri�nDobwn

pul al thc scrvice ot Jus fellow rownsmen, :nakmg the co-npnlsory transter of a
numbcr a Iorm ofend0\"'-111C:tJt f()r Anuurn.
'!'he social posuion nf the prinuprlr.ns has bccn discussed elsewbere, • Here
may be emphasised once more his wcalth, his comparanvc rarcty, thc cpportum-
lJCS open to his sons as drrectly comrmssioncd ccnlunons or equesman officers.
<111d tbe close rnterhnkmg oí the rmluary IT"Jtcm1t_y °' ln thc towns the fjequent

occurrence of senior magrstracies has been documcntcd. wuh lhc mcreasmg ten­
écncy for rhe patronage atone 10 be held." Age agarn plays a par; here. Toe pn-
nnpilans by dcfiniuon ouly played a full part 'o the Efe of rus muoc:1pality añer
reliremcnl. ut what could be an advanced age, Ile could however acr as patroa
effectivclv dirring his service. 'The known benefacnons are considerable.....
Thc prinupilares. u may be argued, constitute an important element in tbe
army and socicty. wrth close h.nks to the en.perors, They are s1gn1fica"lt 10 them-
selves and as the top of a pyrarnid of tne ciuzen soldiers and eenamons ofRome.
who wcrc cncouraged to see iu tbe post of ,,r;mu.tpi/'4.t their p::lSspon mto society
al un honoured level. virtually iheir only route to rbe equesman order."' Hopes of
tho primipilatc kept cenrunons serving, aopareany a desrred end, As pnm1pili. as
c,,mp prcfccts, as rcprcscnuuives ofthc .<)81otwy cenrunonate, lhey stood fo: IO)-
alty to thc cmpcror and lor discipline. As tnbuncs in Rome, paruculady as praeto-
rian tribuncs and tribunos of thc equües singulares 1lugusti. they srood. ,&.Slly
experienccd officcrs, bctwoen thc cmperor und conspuacy. preferred !O equesinan
officers. As prcfcct-cornmandcrs in 1::gypt nnd then of the Panhian legions toc­y
gave che cmpcror un alternuuve he appat,,"ntl) preferred 10 equestrians rn these
posts. Finally thc cmpcror was no; �, erse ro usmg such men as hrs precararors
and as his groar prcfects.
In socicty gcncrally and tn the mumcipalmes m particular they were rmpor-
tant. with weahh andas represenung a military anstocracy, most of whosc mcn1-
bc1-s, as servéng l;c:nrur1ons,. \.Vtre not present. Re:c truly thcy "·ere old and
wcalthy. men who tad served 1hc cmreror. army and soc:cty. and by ycars <>f
:'!icrvicc had •,vo:i thc1r- r�·ard.

4G Dobso.o.. Pturu:;,1lzirc1 115-121, Hn:czc:1).lb$-on. Officers and Frocnieri 201-:?l "!•

..J1 Oo�nn., l'nn11p1l.ares 111-110: �e also A[ 19&4. 8Ql-5. \IJ0Cf(': � f;:llbr.-r-111-ta" <,f., pn�
1•1jrulcr1.r ts .i oldJ AE fQ87, i:?S, wt-1ch Jinlt:.3 thc �n pr::n:¡r.lmn 1- Arouln, lla-
ll!UULS lltlJ <.:. lnlc1s L .q,·d�. daring 1he l..l.l.t� le tlte lmle uf lr'-1at and runfumn;,: .�. l:hr-
lcy's duLU� ufliUll l<J t'aaln;, ll.t.w ti.e ilW.d ctun1ry, cf. 000500. P-'ltn,pila.,e,: 3}1
�h l)nh&.'"ln, ..>ru:..uptlt.rc.s 122-: .?b
.:¡Q Oob�un. Pw.atptl.,rti L!';
)O Brcczc:t>otison. Ofii,;;crs and Frn.nt1cr, 204

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