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The Iranun Nation in the Philippines darangan lyrics were the same and identical with Tantawan, Bunged

Iranun was one of the oldest existing nations in the world during the (Bongo) and Timako. Therefore, these three islands are historic and
ancient times with definite integral territory wherein the sovereign power considered as tourist spots of the Island.
and authority was exercised over it by the ligimate ruler. Iranun as a
nation inhabited mainly the Crab Gulf (Moro Gulf). Its villages were The relation between Bembaran and Uranen Kingdom was quite
established and concentrated in the Iranun Bay (Illana Bay). The origin interesting to mention and discuss here. Some of the Iranun genealogists
was attributed to the people of the Uranen Kingdom of the primitive past say that Bembaran and Uranen Kingdom were identical. Some says that
inhabited in the Tbok (Malabang). Iranun was the first people who Bembaran and its people was a legendary and it was one of the most
entered into a marriage affinity with Shariff Aulia and Shariff Kabunsuan. narrated legends during the Uranen Kingdom. Some says that Bembaran
Bai sa Pandan (Princess Pagunguwan, daughter of Rajah Urangguwan) which was the setting of the Darangen constituted the heights of the
and Bai Angintabu respectively. Their wedlocks where Sultan Kudarat has Uranen Kingdom. Out of these views, it is safe to say that Bembaran is the
directly got his line of descent. Iranun was a breed nation between the place where the setting of the Darangan period occured during the
Karibang-Karingke Line of descent and last wave of Malay migrants. From Uranen Kingdom, and was one of the civilizations of the Kingdom.
this marriage affinity sprang the Iranun nation whose first leader was Rajah
Urangguwan. The name of their place (state) was Uranen. During the Going back to the issue on decendancy, Makaapen and Dungklang
advent of the Shariffs, union took its place in the kingdom through were the forefathers of the Iranun of the coastal areas of the Iranun Bay.
uninterrupted inter-marriages among the royals. Maraguia was the forefather of the Iranun in the City of Cotabato and
The ancient Muslim civilization started from the coast of the Uranen. near adjacent places. Budtol was the forefather of the Iranun of the
Genealogists say that later in the succeding decades it was spread and Upper Stream. This stage of civilization was reinforced again when Shariff
extended to the Ranaw areas as far as Upper Pulangi areas. The Biwang- Kabunsuan arrived. Shariff Kabunsuan married Princess Angintabu, a
Kawanan Tinday A Datal O Pagilidan (Two Huge Coastal Principalities) daughter of Makaapen, begot Makaalang. Makaalang married his first
was established as a political group headed by Rajah Makaapen after cousin, a daughter of Rajah Dungklang named Princess Pidsarawdan
the death of Rajah Urangguwan, simoultaneously with Slangan and begot Rajah Bangkaya. Rajah Bangkaya married a lady from Lupah Suog
Buayan principalities. Later on sultanate system of government was name Pangyan Mampay begot Kapitan Laut Buisan, the father of the
established patterned from the system of government introduced by the strongest among the sultans of Mindanaw named Sultan Dipatuan
Shariffs.The political system of the Iranun during Rajah Urangguwan was Kudarat. Intermarriages among the offspring of the four rajas in the later
patterned from Sri Vishaya and Majapahit Empires. decades were observed. Their intermarriage established a royal line of
descent. This was the stage of civilization of the Iranun when whitemen
The society of the Iranun was a muslim. Its social class was classified into: came ( Spaniards in 1521).
Uripin (slave), Kadaklan (Dumato) and Pendatu (Ruling class). Iranun is a
very hospitable and principled group of people. It is good and friendly Iranun was a great warrior. Iranun were good navigator and sailor. Their
contrary to the description of the western writers as they described Iranun skills and knowledge in navigation and of being a sailor is comparable to
as pirates. This description is not true. As a matter of fact, Iranun is the the skills of the whitemen ( Spaniards, Portugese and other westerners).
champion of hospitability and good will. The Sultan of Brunei was being During the counter offensive of Sultan Kudarat against the Spain Royal
reinforced by Sultan Kudarat. The fleet was composed of Iranun warriors. Armed Forces, mostly of the captains of the different vessels of Sultan
The Sultan of Brunei was able to defend his sovereign state against Kudarat were Iranuns. Iranuns are champion of freedom. The Iranun
invaders through the assistance of the Iranuns led by Sultan Kudarat. defended the sovereign territory and authority of the present Moro Nation
Tradition says that it inhabited the coastal areas of the Iranun Bay. It was from aggression and invasion of the Spaniards. Iranun are jealous people
said that Tbok, a place near the present site of Malabang was the center as far as sovereign is concern.
and seat of government of the ancient Iranun. It was headed by Rajah
Urangguwan, the ruler of the Uranen Kingdom. The modern authorities in It is a fact that Iranun was the people whom the the Spaniards met during
history have cited the fact that the ancient territory of the Uranen was the their invasion. The Spaniards described them as moro (moores in western
areas where Sultan Kudarat exerciced his sovereign authority and version) because they portrayed the same quality in terms of field combat
influence. It stressed from Punta de Flechas of Sibugay down to Tagalook and fighting of the Moores people whom they fought in Northern Africa.
(Davaw Gulf). These areas were recognized by the Spaniards. This was the origin and beginning of using the term moro which referred to
and described the Iranun people whom the Spaniards met in this Island
In the later decades, the Iranun as a group of people was covered. Most particulrly Mactan, the recorded first bloodiest battle between the
of the writers and historians did not mention Iranun in their writings. It is Spaniards and the native inhabitants. Thus the Moro is a colonial term
interesting to mention and include here that Iranun was the original tribe introduced by the Spaniards replacing Iranun ( the original inhabitants).
where other tribes sprang out, the mother of other native tribes in the
Island. Let me discuss in the following paragraph. It was presented in the preceeding paragraphs that Iranun was the
people whom the Spaniards met during invasion. The Spaniards
Modern historians made mention of Shariff Aulia. It is right that there was a introduced some strategies and techniques in order to reinforce and
Shariff Aulia who sometimes arrived in the Island. Shariff Aulia landed at establish their colonial mission. It was their first priority to dismantle the
the coast of Tbok and welcomed by Rajah Urangguwan, the ruler of the original tribe for them to implement their mission effectively. The strategy
ancient Uranen Kingdom, a Kingdom situated and located at the Iranun was little by little leading to creation of other tribe within the Island. There
Bay, Layagan Gulf (Moro Gulf). Shariff Aulia married Princess are identified colonial terms which make Iranun tribe put into ash and
Pagunguwan, a beloved and adored princess of her time, and a ruined by colonialism.
daughter of Rajah Urangguwan. They begot the four rajas: Rajah
Makaapen, Rajah Dungklang, Rajah Maraguia, and Rajah Budtol. These With due respect to other scholars, Iranun had been subdivided into
four rajas explored and adventured the Island (Mindanaw). The first two different tribes. These tribes are: Maguindanawon, Mranaw, and Mragat
(Makaapen and Dungklang) remained in the capital of the Kingdom. The (Islamized); Tiduray, Subanen, Kalagan, Manobo, Blaan, Bagobo, and
other two ( Maraguia and Budtol) went south. Maraguia established his other highlanders (Unislamized). The first three (3) sub Iranun tribes
own community at the present Tantawan (PC Hill) in the present site of accepted the Ideology introduced by Shariff Aulia and Shariff Kabunsuan.
Cotabato City. Budtol went east through Pulangi River. He established his Tiduray, and others did not accept the Ideology introduced by the two
community in the present Buayan. Shariffs. This is the reason of Moro (Iranun) has two groups of people in
relation to belief: Islamized and Unislamized.
It is interesting to include here and mention that Tantawan was once an
island like Bunged (Bungo) and Timako. The Iranun tarsila has described Later on in the succeeding decades, Spaniards more and more intensify
that Tantawan was a military base during the ancient Uranen Kingdom. their colonial mission. On the other hand, the Dutch had the same mission
The huge biruar ( tower) was established in Tantawan to oversee the with that of the Spaniards. The Dutch was expanding its sovereign in the
enemy which may come from south, north east, and west portion of the Island. A rivalry between the two world super powers began in the Island.
Kingdom. It was a military naval base of the ancient Uranen Kingdom. The rivalry between the Spaniards and the Dutch colonialists were
Later as decades passed by and it becomes a century, it becomes as its contribute much in the ruinity of the Iranun as a people/nation. Factions
present geographical view. According to the oral tradition, liitle by little a were observed. Colonial concepts came in. With due respect to other
landmarsh was developed. Modern science explains the episode as a scholars in history, the term Maguindanao although a native term
result of residual remains process. connoting specific place is a colonialism sponsored term to destroy the
original which is Slangan, which is the correct. Slangan was a
In one of the lyrics of the darangan, it was mentioned that there were confederated state of Tbok and Buayan after the death of Rajah
three islands which served as a guard islands of the Turugan (Palace) of Uranguwan. Slangan was led by Rajah Maraguia.
the Ayunan Pangadapan O Inayunan O Kampong Sa Iliyan A Bembaran.
Most of the Iranun experts and commentors in ancient/prehistorical facts Iranun tribe expanded in land of the Island until villages were established
are unanimous in findings that the three (3) islands mention in one of the in the Unayan area (Ranaw). Iranun oral tradtion say that the first Iranun
datu who explored the Ranaw area was Penduma. He was a descendant Colonialism dismantled Iranun as a nationality and introduced words
of Rajah Dungklang. He explored going in- land part of the Uranen although they were native in implication but they were used as instrument
Kingdom until finally he discovered Butig. Butig is the seat of the Unayan. for colonization.
The established village in Butig (Unayan) flourished and developed into a
center of trade, commerce and education of the time. Later on it Iranun like other ancient nations had early contacts with other foreign
expanded into other places around the Ranaw( Masio, Bayabaw, Baloi). nation. It had established a contacts with Sri Vishaya and Madjapahit
Thus the creation and estblishment of the Pat a Pangampungan Ko Empires. It was a sovereign nation. At present time still considered a major
Ranaw (Four Lake-Based Principalities). tribe among the ethnic tribes in the Island

Iranun nomenclature in relation to names of majors tribes were attributed Iranun is co-existence of the Aetas (Pygmies) or Negritos of Liusong
to its geographical connotation. The people who remain in the coastal (Luzon). According to the oral tradition of the Iranun the size of the typical
areas of the Uranen Kingdom is called Mragat, which means people of Iranun was between four (4) feet and five (5) feet height, an average of
the seacoast (Ipagilidanen in Iranun version). The people who established 4.5 feet in height. They were originally brown, and moderately flat nose.
villages around the ranaw (lake) is called Mranaw, which means people Iranun had been intermarriage with the karibang, ( a small size bodied
of the lake. The people who established villages in the inner part of the human bing usually found living near the falls) and karengke ( another
island in relation to its coastal areas is called Idalemen. The people who small size bodied human being usually found living in the caves). Other
established villages beyond the dalem (inner part) limit is called Iranun genealogists say that Iranun was a cross breed between the
Isbanganen. The people who established villages and reject the Ideology migrants from the two big ancient kingdoms (Sri Vishaya and
introduced by the Shariffs, in the inner part of the Island in relation to Majapahit)and the karibang line and karengke line. It was again breed
Slangan is generally called Tiduray. The people who established villages in with Arabs during the advent of the Shariffs.
the Upper Stream of the Pulangi River is called Irayaan (Taw sa Raya in
some version). The people who established villages in the inner part of the Iranun had foreign contacts and relations with China (Ming Dynasty). The
Island in relation to the first seat of Uranen Kingdom at Tbok is generally Uranen Kingdom sent four (4) of its rajahs, namely; Rajah Batarabuwasan,
called Subanen. Tiduray was the mother of all highlander tribes in the Rajah Pagarabuwasan, Maharabuwasan, and Rajah Yuwaharabuwasan.
Cotabato areas. Subanen was the mother of all the highlanders tribes in Dr. Sonia Zaide (1985) identified them as King Prabu, King Mahalchilim,
Zamboanga areas. Kalagan was the mother of all highlander tribes of and King Pahala. The four (4) rajahs had been welcomed by the Emperor
Davao areas. Yung Lo of the Ming Dynasty. The civilization of the Chinese was
introduced in the Kingdom through them. Most of the things which were
There are Iranuns in some kampongs (communities) in Sabah, Malaysia. seen by them in the China beneficial and advantageous to the Kingdom
Their existence in the Malaysian Archepilago specifically Sabah was and its people were adopted and it became a part of the culture of the
attributed to the request of the Sultan of Brunie from Sultan Kudarat of Iranun. Dresses, ladies style and ornaments (pandara), Brass wares,
reinforcement to augment his forces to defend his sovereign against costume(loose trouser for women) and other social patterns were
invaders. The reinforcement was composed of Iranun warriors. After the adopted from the chinese people. In warriorship, Iranun had learnt a lot
defeat of the invaders, the Sultan of Brunie offered them a portion of his from the chinese. The skill in using bow and arrow, using kampilan, kris and
sovereign sultanate for them to live as an expression of friendship and gift other ancient weapons were improved. In household likewise a lot of
for them. The warriors got their their families and transfer their residence things had been learnt from the chinese (cooking, embroidery and others)
and citizenship to Brunie Darussalam. They lived there. Their descendants were also learnt from the chinese.
are the identified Iranuns in Sabah.
Iranun had also foreign contacts and relations with India. Iranun learnt
Uranen Kingdom whose seat of government was in Tbok had foreign more languages in India including their mystical knowledge. Oral tradition
contacts with the Sri Vishaya and Majapahet Empires. According to the says that many of the medical and magical knowledges of the Iranun
oral tradition of the Iranun, their relationship was focused on education were learnt from the Indian. The ancient formula of computing the one
based on the system of their time. The type/system of education was year days. The ancient Iranun astronomers had computed one year 354
more on mystical and rituals. Iranun during that civilization was experts in year (leaf year) and 355 days ( common year). They arranged the 12
the languages of the two Malayan Empires. Some of the reading materials months by 30 days and 29 days; fifteen days (sbang) and fifteen days
of those remote past are still preserved. Some of the Iranun genealogists (delem). In short astronomical knowledge of the Iranun were learnt from
stated that the mother of Princess Pagunguwan, the daughter of Rajah Indian. This formula was confirmed by the modern science. Thus the
Urangguwan was one of the daughters of the last Emperor of the Sri astronomical knowledge of the Iranun during ancient time was accurate
Visahya Emperor. because it survived and rearched the modern era. Medical knowledge (
Katabibtabib) using oration and medicinal plants were learnt from the
The two Royal Sovereigns shared technical skills especially on warriorship. Indian people. The civilization of the Iranun had been improved through
Out of this program the Uranen Royal Warriors (armed forces) had been foreign contacts and relations (Chinese, Indians, Malays and Arabs)
strengthened. Their skill in field combats and marine skills had improved. It
is possible that the skill which was saw and encountered by the Spaniards Rajah Marikudo (Merkat Ado in some version), ruler of Aninipay(Panay)
attributed to this program. Island wherein the ten Borneans datus met was an Iranun. Western and
Filipino writers (historians) failed to identify the true identity of the datu.
It is interesting to include in this script the inhabitants of Liusong (Luzon), Rajah Merkat Ado was one of the ancient sovereigns who ruled the island
Aninipay (Panay), Mactan and other ancient Kingdoms and sovereigns of especially Aninipay. As it was described that Iranun was a hospitable
the primitive past. What is the relation of Iranun with of the native people, Rajah Merkat Ado welcomed them (Borneans) in his sovereign
inhabitants of Liusong, Aninipay, Mactan, and others ancient sovereigns? kingdom. Actually a portion of Aninipay (Panay) probably coastal area
With due respect to other authorities in history, oral tradition of the Iranun was offered by the Rajah for the Bornean datus to live and establish their
says that all existing sovereigns during the ancient period in this country villages. Historians said that it was sold to the Bornean datus. It is contrary
(now Philippines) were Iranuns. The inhabitants of the Sovereign Maynilad, to the literature of the Iranun tarsila that the place was not sold but
Tondo, Mactan, Aninipay (Panay) and the Uranen were all Iranun. Thus offered as a sign of friendship and hospitability. To recognize the
Iranun was the original nationality of the people of the ancient these hospitability of the Iranun in Aninipay led by Rajah Merkat Ado; Datu Puti,
Islands. They were confederated to each other. Historians only stated that the leader of the Borneans offered marriage with the daughter of Rajah
only the four Sovereigh districts of Aninipay were confederated. The truth Merkat Ado. A marriage contract was entered into between the natives
was that all existing Sovereign places during the ancient past were and the Borneans. A dowry was offered and given in terms of one(1) set
confederated. Their national identity was Irarun. of golden nicklace and gold sayap (salakot in some version). After the
marriage ceremony, Rajah Merkat Ado asked an opinion from his Council
The early contacts of the Iranuns with foreign nations (Kingdoms) became of Elders the best action in order to reinforce the established relationship
the bridge in improving the way of life of the Uranen Kingdom. Social between his realm and the Borneans. The Council of Elders categorically
relationships were established especially on marriage. The present time said: Give the low portion (coastal area) of your territory to your daughter
tells and shows the existence of the Iranun. as her part in your ancestral domain. You transfer and establish your
capital and Palace (Turugan) to the inner part of your territory. Oral
Iranun was the first identified native inhabitants of Mindanaw, which was tradition says that about one kilometer from sea coast going upper
historians and scholars failed to mentioned their written works. This perhaps stream of the Aninipay river the location of the new capital and palace of
the result of colonization. Their villages were established along the coastal the Rajah. Datu Puti and the Princess live harmony with other
areas of the present Moro Gulf especifically Iranun Bay. In some cases, Borneans(11th century).
they established their vilages along the river banks (Maynilad and Tondo
as an example; and Katidtuan as in Kutawato area). The present ethnic The intermarriage between the two Sovereigns (Bornean and Iranun)
tribes in Mindanaw were originated from the Iranun. Iranun as a prospered and expanded going north direction. Batangas was the first
nationality was destroyed and put into ruinity because of colonialism. village (community) established. Intermarraige in the later decades were
observed between the native aetas and the breed people. Later on as property or anything for them to survive.
decades passed through, the Kingdom of Maynilad and Tondo were
established. Costumes and Dresses

The socio-political interactions of the major Asian ancient sovereigns Ancent Iranun man were using samping (vernacular for bahag) and
(Majapahit, Sri Vishaya Empires, Chinese Dysnasties, Indian Kingdom and sablay (Tsaliko in modern time), and tubaw. However, ancient Iranun were
the Ancient Uranen Kingdom) sprang out a well breed Iranun which shoesless. They were not using shoes due to absence of knowledge on
constitutes the Last Uranen Kingdom under Rajah Urangguwan. shoemaking. They were footbbeares peeople. For the women, ancient
Iranun were using loose blouses in the primitive style. Later, it was
Generally, Iranun was the first identified people who live in the ancient improved when foreign contacts with the chinese.
past of the civilization in this part of the globe. They were the people of
the Uranen Kingdom. They established their villages along the coastal Characteristics /Quality(s)/Habits
areas of the Iranun Bay and river banks. They were the people whom the
Shariffs met in this Island. The origin of the Iranun people was from four feet Ancient Iranun possessed a very hospitable, courteous, respectfull,
to five feet in height. Their civilization belonged to the primitive civilization. obedience and other good qualities. They were brave and good
However they had established contacts and relationship with foreign combatant (warrior). They were champion of freedom and defense. They
sovereigns and kingdoms. The first stage of breed of the Iranun with Shariff usually considered their lawfull leaders as second to prophets. All orders of
Aulia was the breed of Iranun whom Shariff Kabunsuan was met and later their leaders were faithfully followed. They were peace-maker and loving
on arranged with them a marriage affinity. This is the first line of generation people. They were good friend but magnificient enemy in time of war.
among the Iranun where native blood was breed with arab blood. They
called it kia saripan. System of Education

Iranun as a People The ancient Iranun system of education was very simple. There was no
school building and other materials. They used their individual houses as
Iranun was the aborigine and original inhabitants of Mindanaw. They were school building and classrooms. The father was the teacher of the boy
belonged to the primitive and prehistory people. They were identified by children. The father taught his male children on manhood responsibilities
the Iranun tradition as Karibang and Karinngki line of descent. These and obligations such as farming, hunting, carpentry, and other manhood
people were analogous with that of the Aetas (Negritoes) of Luzon and works. Skill on warriorship was the most important training among boy
other places. They were breed with the foreign people ( Indonesian, children. For the girl children, ancient Iranun taught their girl children on
Malays, Arabs, Indians, and Chinese). Iranun tarsila stated that they were motherhood responsibilities and obligations such as cooking, waving,
the rapo people (foreigners) who migrated to the Island thousands of sewing, embroidery, washing clothes and kitchen utensils, rearing of
years ago who married the daughters of the different rajahs in the Island children and motherhood works. Kapaningit sa engged ( Love and
(11th-12th century). These marriage affinal ties sprung the modern jealous of country was inculcated in the minds and hearts of each Iranun
(present) Iranun in the Island. minors) by their teacher (mother).

Government and Succession of Authority Each Iranun minor was trained to love the country. Love of country was
the noblest act. They emphasized that country emanates all aspects of
The government of the ancient (prehistory) Iranun was simple but humanity. Iranun people were good nation makers. Both man and
effective. They (rulers) had one hundred pre cent control over their woman were required to study nationalism and patriotism. Thus the system
sovereign. Each engged (community) had its ruler. They were exercising of education of the ancient Iranun was simple. The emphasis was focus on
the Obsolute Monarchial System. Usually, patriarchal line or type adopted love of country and humanity.
as a procedure of succession. After the father death or resignation, the
son automatically replaces and sits the throne. In some cases, the Literature
daughter replaces the father in the throne. The system was family
succession. The ruler was assisted by mantris (cabinets in the modern Ancient Iranun was identical with that of the Darangan Period. Some
times). The legislation was vested in the Council of Elders ( in the mainland Iranun geneanologists say that Darangan Period was one of the periods
the luwaran or radawan in some version was the example, and Ruma of the ancient Iranun. The hero of the Darangan was Rajah Bantugen. The
Bitchara in the Lupa Soog). Thus the government was monarchy and the seat of the government was in Benbaran (situated in the north west of
succession of authority was hereditary. Bukidnon) near Wao. It was a name of a civilization of people during
ancient time. The civilization was more on mystic and rituals activities. The
Relationship With other Villages Darangan was composed of decades with different episodes. It
described most the characteritics of the Iranun as people. The true
The ancient political relations among Iranun villages and principalities was meaning of love and wisdom, leadership, livelihood (economics and
confederation. Each Iranun village was independent to each other. industry) socio-political, humanity and other good quality and
However they were confederated. There was no central government. characteristics were described in the episodes of Darangen. Iranun oral
However, their socio-political relationship was very strong. They had tradition say that Darangan as a civilization was composed of six (6)
established the so called allied warriors for defense purposes against any federal states which Bembaran was the capital. These federal states were:
foreign attempts and invasion. Da Madiar a Linog, Sawlaya A Salg, Daguwatan sa Oray, Pindulunan sa
Ragat, Sadurog ko Marandang, and Bembran. Their rulers were Batara
Original Establishment and Location of Iranun Villages Mangadka, Batara Mapalala Makaug, Batara Bakuludan sa Waki, Batara
Lumuday sa Barat, Batara Tundugen, Batara Rinawraw Tubpaan, and
The ancient Iranun erstablished their vilages and communities along the Batara Bantugen respectively. The cabinets were: Daranda, Mabaning,
seacoast of the Iranun Bay in the Moro Gulf (Crab Gulf). In some and Lumbatan. The adore and beloved princess was Princess Lawanen.
instances, the ancient Iranun lived along river banks. These villages
expanded in the course of time. Until whitemen came for invasion and Iranun has many bayoks. Usually the oldfolks/elders during those times
colonization. The villages of the ancient Iranun served at the same time as were using bayok in their communication. Examples of these bayoks are:
kuta. The turugan has a biruar (tower in the modern time) as watch house Biwang Kawanan Tinday o Pagilidan Pipandaraan, Iranun Pipparasan,
or guard house. Usually the biruar was built on the top of a tree or any tall Ranaw Gilanggumilang, Maguindanao rawaten, Slangan da marimbang
object. The purpose was to oversee the coming enemy(s). In a hilly which connotes nobility and maharlika. Others like: Pidzan pagzir so
places, biruar was built on the top of the hill. ganding na so kapanganonen bo na maliwanag den sa dar which
means hospitability and courteousness. Benar e rinaw so ragat na
Source of Living and Livelihood sisirungen a barat so karante o alongan which means problems and
The ancient Iranun were good farmers and fishermen. They were living in
the fertile vast land and sea. They supplement farming and fishing by The principal village ( principality) was Benbaran, the capital of the
hunting deers and other wild animals for their daily needs and Darangan civilization, wherein the Turugan (royal house) was established.
consumption. Other source of livelihood was black and gold smith Turugan was the official residence and court of the Ayunan Pangadapen
industry. Ancient Iranun were good blacksmither and gold smither. For O Inayunan O Kampong sa Ilian a Benbaran ( Official Royal Court of the
women, Iranun were good waver of mats and malong. The ancient Iranun Most Respected and Honored Leader of Benbaran), His Majesty Ayunan
used barter trading (among themselves and intervillages). The fishermen Pangadapen Pasandalan A Murog, the great ruler. All important matters
exchanged fish to rice/corn/ube and other agriculture products/crops for either personal or non personal business transactions were done in the
their daily consumption. The farmer did the same. Therefore their medium Turugan. Other villages (principalities) were Bugabong A Kumara, the
of exchange in the absence of money was bartering in order to acquire a village of Her Majesty Paramata Gandingan. Bugabong A Kumara was
civilized as Benbaran. Iranun experts in Darangan say that Benbaran and properties subject to bues (tax in the modern time). The uripin (slave)
Bugabong A Kumara were equal and parallell. Sarbaka Kilaten, cannot possessed properties because themselves were the property of
Gamaniyog were states of Bugabong a Kumara. the datu. The property(s) of the kadakilan (commoner) would be inherited
by their heirs.
Music, Musical Instrument and Plays
Darangen as a song was the most popular name or title of a song during
the Darangan Period. Darangen as a title of a song described the entire The ancient Iranun used customary laws. Usually the council of elders
civilization. Man and woman knew very well to perform/sing darangen. were the drafter of the customary laws. The draft was presented in the
Darangen as a song was usually sang at night. Bayok was another name followers during fiest days. In ancient Aninipay the Code of Kalantiaw was
of a song which usually performed by two or three performers. The formulate and odopted. In the ancient Iranun radawan (Code of Models)
Mranaw sometimes called Kambayoka. The performers were called Unur. was formulated. The Radawan defined and described socio-political,
Mamayog was another name of a song, performed by one gentleman family relations, religious/spiritual, and others which would be observed
and one lady. The mamayog described the loyalty and courteousness of and followed. There were process involved in the implementation of laws
a husband to his wife during the ancient Iranun (Darangen Period). Some especially in court: baina, amad, karina, matakapala (clarity, justification,
Iranun folks identified another song entitled Darangen a Babay (Most suspect and testified respectively).
Beloved and Adored Lady) was commonly sang/ performed in the
Slangan Principality. Princess Tinabon was the star who was being Religion
described in the song.
The religion of the ancient Iranun was greatly influenced by the state
The kulintang, agong, gandingan, pamindira, and dibakan were usually religion of Sri Vishaya and Madjapahit Empires. The arrival of Shariff Aulia
and commonly used as musical instrument. It was called in the Iranun as gave a significant effect to the religion. Sufism as a belief was introduced.
Lima A mamagenesupa (Lima Ka Daragia in Ranaw). This musical Thus they became a Muslim-Sufie.
instruments were usually used during fiest day or durangna (wedding
ceremony). During the ancient time, Lima Ka Mamagenesupa was used Supertitious Belief
also during rituals. Kutyapi (Kudyapi in some version), palendag, suling,
kubing were among the musical instruments during the ancient time in the The ancient Iranun had many supertitious beliefs. The examples were:
Iranun civilization. Generally, all the person who reach the maturity stage eclipse, black butterfly, snakes enters the house and others. There were
of human development knew to use and play these instruments. Sagayan about hundreds of supertitious beliefs of the Iranun. Tunung was identified
was a stage play which usually performed by young man describing the to be a powerful spirit.
skill and bravery of the Iranun warriors. The sagayan was usually
performed during rituals. Sagayan was usually performed by two young Language
men. Minors can do it. In some Iranun wedding fiest/ceremony, sagayan
was being performed in the kakuyog sa damak (damak is a cooked The ancient language of the Iranun was originated from the Malayo-
sweet foods deliver to the house of the bride from groom house) and in Polynesian Language of the Pacifics. In course of time most of the original
the procession ( kuyog) of the groom. It was usually put ahead of the language of the Iranun were modified due influence of other language.
parade. Sagayan during wedding ceremony is accompanied by an unta The original language used in the Darangan was an Iranun language. The
(it is look like a camel played and manipulated by a youngman to move). original language had been modified due to: conquest, intermarriage
Kulintang (Lima A Mamagenesupa) was being play as a music of the with foreign nation, adoption, and duplication. Out these factors the
procession. Sinulog was a kulintang tune usually used as a music in the present language evolved. The present Iranun language is generally
procession. accepted as medium of communication in Mindanaw except Lupah
Suog. The present Muslim can understand Iranun. Thus Iranun is the mother
Wedding Fiest/Ceremony language of the Muslims in Mindanao.

During the ancient Iranun, wedding fiest/ceremony was a long process. Writing
Parental system was the usual practice. Iranun usually practice maharlika
system. The man who was belonged to the ruling family of the village The ancient alphabets of the Iranun were patterned in India. The system
marries the daughter of the ruling family of other village (Prince is for of writing was one of the good achievements of the Iranun during its
Princess Principle). foreign contacts with the Indian people. Although it was primitive, the
Iranun have their own system of writing. This system of writing was
Iranun wedding process undergoes four stages. These stages were: influenced and gradually changed to the present system patterned from
panunuriman (observation), pangingidong (Whispering) from the the arabs. They called it kirim. The kirim was looked like sometimes a bird,
kakamaman side (groom side), sarangguni (actual negotiation of the two a tree, a roof, and cloud-shape.
parties facilitiated by other group, usually the Council of Elders of the
bride family), and gurangna (wedding ceremony). In some cases, Arts
sarangguni and gurangna were fused into one. It depends on the
negotiation. The ancient Iranun has its own arts. The most popular one until the present
time is the ukir ( engraving naga). The ukir is used almost furnitures and
During the ancient Iranun, dowry (sunggodan/btang/btad sa adat) was fixtures of the Iranun including houses. The bawor (cabenit or apparador
term of material not money, for example: land/lot, bulawan (gold), and now a days) has an ukir differrent forms and patterned. Sarimanok is
other valuable materials (animals). In some cases uripin (slaves were another type of ukir during the ancient Iranun which was passed
accepted as dowry or even the entire sovereign of the groom father generation to generation. Most of the museums and libraries now a days
served as dowry in case of a single child). After signing of contract have these arts displayed.
between the two parties, the groom was granted to court and
talked/'invite the bride to ocassion with one chaperon. The groom was Science and Math
granted to sleep in the house of the bride. Wedding ceremony among
maharlika (ruling family) was full of decors (pandara). There were activity The ancient Iranun were good scientists of their time. They were
(siapa sa manggis, kulintang contest, and other wedding activities were astronomers. They name heavenly bodies as: makabangis, sulo a
observed) to give honor and respect to the royal wedding. mangangayaw, manok, madakel, laya. They arranged the twelve months
(12) to 30 days and 29 days. Therefore there are three hundred fifty four
The common class (kadakelan) used only sambulayang with no flag and (354) day in one year (common year) and three hundred fifty five (355)
pamanay. The uripin has no wedding ceremony. The ruling family used leaf year. They divided one month into two groups: Sbang and delem.
the complete set of pandara (pasandalan, sambulayang with flag at the They used heavenly bodies as compass. They can determine west, east,
top of the pole, ubor-ubor, and pamanay). Usually bright colors were used south, north by the used of the heavenly bodies at night. Their knowledge
(red,green and yellow). Among the ancient Iranun red means bravery, in astronomy and navigation was older than the knowledge of the
green means sovereign, and yellow means ruling family. These colors were western people (Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and others). There were eight
only used and attributed to the ruling family. (8) tahons, five (5) kutika, and eight (8) bintang. All these are instruments
of the ancient Iranun in compution. Even they were in the mid of the
Properties and Inheritance forest, they can calculate low or high tide through this knowledge in
science. In Mathematics/arithmetic, gibo (thousand), laksa (one hundred
The whole sovereign (integral territory) of each village (kampong) thousand), pandang (million of thousasands).
belonged to the Datu. The property would be inherited by the legitimate
heir(s) including rulership. The kadakilan(commoner) can possessed They had also a system of counting. They used riray system. Some of the
mathematical terminology were: laksa, salaksa, laksalaksa, yuta, spearheaded by Rajah Urangguwan. The seat of the former government
sayuta,sayutayuta. All these were few among their mathematical was in Ramitan (Lamitan in the Filipino authors). It is one of the barangays
terminologies. Arabic numerals and system of counting including of the municipality of Sultan Gumander, Lanao del Sur in the present
mathematical nomenclature were introduced and adopted during the geographical political division. Ramitan was the first seat of government
Shariffs period. Thus a modification was observed. led by Sultan Kudarat. The seat of government of the latter was in Tbok.
Tbok is one of the barangays of the municipality of Malabang, Lanao del
Territorial Defense Sur in the present geographical political division. It is interesting to note
that the two capitals (seat of governments) are neigbors. Sultan
The ancient Iranun were good defenders of their territory and freedom. Gumander and Malabang are only separated by Picong River and both
They consider any individual or group who do not signifying its interest to situated and located along the sea coast of the Iranun Bay of the Crab
enter the Iranun territory (both sea and land) as enemy. Coordination Gulf ( LayaganGulf).
(Pagtaw) was very important to them. To them (Iranun) when you enter
the territory of the other sovereign without coordination was considered Iranun During Spaniah Invasion
sin and unlawful. The invasion and other marine activity of the Spaniards
and its allied forces/group/tribe were considered unlawful. Out of this The first recorded Spanish invasion in the Mindanao (Uranen) was on 1596.
concept, Iranun warriors were forced to drive out through drastic action This was led by Capt. Figueroa. Figueroa was killed during the fight. The
(by force) all groups or individuals who attempt to enter their territory gesture and action of the Spaniards was considered by the native Iranuns
without prior notice of friendship. Their defense tactics and mechanisms as aggression and and invasion. The Council of Elders unanimously
were misconceptualized and misunderstood by filipino and western agreed to adopt a technique for effective defense against the Spaniards.
authors. Filipino and foreign writers described Iranun as pirates. They were The top executives namely Rajah Raut Buisan, Rajah, Sirungan, and Rajah
not pirates. They only defend their territories against invasion of foreigners. Tagal suggested to the Council to launch a counter offensive. The
proposal was approved. They attacked Visayas islands, Mindoro,
Iranun in the Shariffs Period Bicolandia, and Southern Tagalog. The counter offensive of the natives
was misconceptualized by the Spanish and Filipino historians. They
Uranen Kingdom was the first kingdom ever had in the ancient period described it as piratic activity. This is not true and uncorrect. The natives
(prehistory). It was the mother of all kingdoms established after decades had just adopt an effective technique for defense purposes. They only
or centuries. Shariff Aulia was the first arab muslim with missionary works defended their sovereign state and nation against foreign invasion. he
who stepped-foot and landed in the Uranen Kingdom (Tbok was the seat counter attacked were launched in 1599, 1600, and 1602.
of government). He married the native princess named Bai Pagunguwan
(Iranun tradition identified her as Bai sa Pandan). Out of their wedlock, Change of System From Kingdomship to Sultanate
they begot the four rajahs (Makaapen, Dungklang, Maraguia, and
Budtol). The introduction of the belief brought into the Kingdom through Meanwhile, in the year 1617, Kingdomship was officially changed to
Shariff Aulia was the first stage of the Iranun civilization recorded in history. Sultanate System. The first ruler of the new system was Kudarat, the son of
The old belief was gradually changed to what is present belief of the Rajah Raut Buisan. His renal name was His Majesty Sultan Mohammad
Muslims in the world. The system of government, socio-economic, trade Dipatuan Kabunsuan Urangguwan. He established his seat of government
and industry and other walks of life were improved and strengthened. The at Ramitan (now a barangay of Sultan Gumander, Lanao del Sur).
primitive system of government was changed to more structurized system.
The Caliphate was introduced described as Sultanate System. Invasion Continued

Iranun tarsila say that Makaapen married Lingayen, a daughter of the On March 13, 1637 (Zaide), Governor Corcuera invaded Ramitan. The
property custodian of Rajah Urangguwan begot Princess Angintabu. The native inhabitants fearlessly defended their territory against the
Princess was married by Shariff Kabunsuan (1475). Out of their wedlock, Superpower Spain. The Sultan retreated in the inner portion of Ramitan. He
they begot Saripada Makaalang. Saripada Makaalang married his first moved to Dapaw Lake for a week. The Council of Elders agreed to the
cousin name Princess Pidsarawdan, a daughter of Rajah Dungklang, proposal of the Sultan to transfer his Court (capital) at Magulaling,
begot Saripada Bankaya. Saripada Bankaya married a lady of Lupah Balabagan, Lanao del Sur. In this seat of government, the Sultan was able
Suog named Princess Sri Pangyan Mampay Laila begot Saripada Raut to expand his sovereign powers and authority. The villages and
(laut in some version) Buisan begot Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat, the strongest communities within the Crab Gulf (Moro Gulf) and the inner parts of the
and has a longest term of realm among the Iranun sultans. It is interesting Island, except Surigao and Agusan. He established socio-political
to note that the term saripada was used as prefix three times before the alliances with the local (kampong) leaders and foreign nations like Brunie
given names: Makaalang, Bankaya, and Raut. The term has a Malayan Darussalam, Java, Makassar, Sumatra, Lahore, Singapore, China, and
origin probably a term existing and used during the two big empires (Sri India. He was able to mobilize all sectors of the Uranen Sultanate.
Vishaya and Madjapahit). It connotes ruler or nobility. Thus it was a royalty
title used during the ancient period of political structure which is Iranun in the Height of the Divide-and-Rule Technique
equivalent to Sultan (Surutan in Iranun version).
After the death of Sultan Mohammad Dipatuan Kudarat Kabunsuan
The introduction of sultanate system gradually changed the rajahship Urangguwan, the Divide-and-Rule Technique was applied by the
(primitive system patterned from ancient (prehistory system of colonizers (Spaniards and Dutch). Sultan Tahiruddin Malinog was
government) to more advanced political system. Iranun as a people with supported by the Dutch. On the other side, Sultan Manamir was
distinct nationality entered into a neolistic civilization called Shariff Period. supported by the Spaniards for supremacy. Rivalry in the succession issue
The Iranun accepted the Ideology introduced by the Shariffs. was the gate to divide the native Iranuns. The whole Sultanate was
divided into two groups (Malinog group and Manamir group). This was the
Iranun During Sultanate System beginning of the subdivisioon of the native inhabitants. This also leads to
some corrupt use words, and colonial terms although native but it implied
It was presented in the preceeding paragraphs that the two identified destructions. Here are some examples of corrupt use of terms and words:
Shariffs (Aulia and Kabunsuan) intermarraige with the Iranun Rajah families Luzon (Liusong), Panay (Aninipay), Visayas (Vishaya), Tagalog (Taga- ilog),
( Rajah Urangguwan and Rajah Makaapen respectively). Out of this social Illana (Iranun), Zambonga (Samboangan), Lanao (Ranaw), and many
relationship, the new socio-political practices was merged and others.
developed. The offspring of Shariff Aulia-Princess Pagunguwan was
intermarriage in the later decades with the offspring of Shariff Kabunsuan- Iranun During American Regime
Princess Angintabu. Out of this mixed and interwaved bloodline of
descent sprang a royalty lineage of decendant. Sultan Kudarat, the first It was described that more than three centuries, the native Iranun fought
native ruler used Sultan as a royal political title and authority eas of Iranun- for defense. They were not not conquered until the time of signing of the
Shariff line of descent with a blood sprang from the Karibang-Karingke line Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 which ended the Spanish-American
of descen. Out of these facts, it is safe to say that the first Sultan of the War for Supremacy. The Royal Government of Spain ceded all the
native breed from the Iranun-Shariff line belonged to the Uranen Kingdom controlled territories and exercised its power and authority to United States
which exercised its sovereign authority and power over the Crab Gulf of America.The present Mindanaw, Palawan, and Sulu were not included
(Moro Gulf) with concentration in the Iranun Bay. Thus Rajah Urangguwan in the Treaty because they were not conquered.
of the ancient past (prehistory) and Sultan Kudarat of the Shariff period
(Sultanate System)were the fathers of the royal line of descent among the The Americans amplified and use the same technique (Divide-and-Rule).
native inhabitants. Out of these facts all claimants of royalty line of They only improved and strengthened the technique used by the
descent are all descended from Iranun-Shariff marriage affinal ties Spaniards. hey used words which connotes places in order to deceive the
native. With due respect to some historians, Maguindanao as a name of a
Sultan Kudarat realm was a continuation of the ancient political system place which connotes a traditional name which is implying sovereignty is
not correct. It is used and amplified by the Americans to destroy the territory and sphere of influenced, political structure/system, socio-
original place which implies sovereignty the SLANGAN DA MARIMBANG economic, educational system, culture, belief and tradition, and other
which means Slangan the original and has no equal. aspects. It was one of the ancient civilized nations in the world. Its
existence and civilization is contemporary with Sri Vishaya and
Cotabato, Lanao, Zamboanga, Davao are all colonial term used, applied Madjapahit Empires. It was a nation sprang from a Karingke-Karibang line
and amplified by the colonizers (Americans) to destroy the tradition of the of descent. Karibang and Kareingke were analogous with aetas of Luzon.
native. The original was Slangan, Ranaw, Samboangan, Tagalook During the Fall of Sri Vishaya Empire many of the people either family or
respectively. political group migrated going north until such time that they reached
and landed in the present Iranun Bay (Illana Bay), the center of the
Effect of Colonization primitive people/ native inhabitants. This group of migrants was identified
in the tarsila as Taw sa Guiwa ( English version people of Java). They
The most destructive effect of the colonization to the Iranun and Uranen entered into a social relationship with the Karingke-Karibang people.
as a nation and state respectively was deception to the next generation. Intermerriages were established between the natives and the Javans. Out
Spanish writers and historians (Pigafetta) wrote a wrong information and of this social process Iranun as a nation sprang. They established their
data. He described the native inhabitants whom Magellan met as Moores political system KINGDOMSHIP patterned from Sri Vishaya Political System.
(a nation whom they encountered in war in Africa). This people has the The first ruler was Rajah Urannguwan. This system of government
same quality and ability in combat with the native inhabitants of the (Kingdomship) last until reign of Rajah Raut Buisan, the father of Sultan
Island. Thus Pigaffeta baptized the Iranuns as Moores. Later the term Kudarat.
Moores was corruptly used by other writers- the present form Moro. The
usage of the term Moro to refer the native inhabitants in the Island was This nation was destroyed and ruined by colonization. The colonizers like
amplified by the American writers. Thus the original nation and state - Spain and United States made a conquest and invasion to expand their
Iranun and Uranen respectively were forgotten in the annal of history of territory and sovereignty and introduced their respective system and way
the Island. of life. They used force and political strategies to destroy and dominate
the natives. The colonization of the western nations fragmented and
The colonization has contributed much to the introduction of western divide the Iranun nation into tribe. Unlike other foreign nations like China,
culture, belief, customs, practices, and others aspects of life which were India, and Arabs. They came not for conquest and invasion but for trade,
harmful and destructive to the culture, tradition, belief, practices of the commerce, education, and religion(spiritual) aspects. They helped the
Iranun as a native inhabitants. The political system was introduced which natives. The civilization of the natives was improved and strengthened
caused to the gradual modification of the political system of the natives. due to the socio-political relationships with China,India and Arab.
The socio-political system of the Iranun was totally destroyed suring the
American regime. The Americans organized the Moro province for the The name of the state was Uranen Kingdom, its people was Iranun. The
purpose of total elimination of the residues and remains of the past ancient Uranen state is the Mindanao of the present time. The terrotiry of
civilization enjoyed by the native inhabitants from the ancient Uranen the Kingdom stretched from Sibugay Peninsula to Tagalook Gulf with all in-
Kingdom down to Uranen Sultanate led by His Majesty Sultan Mohammad lands areas, except Agusan and Surigao provinces. Its sphere of
Dipatuan Kudarat Kabunsuan Urangguwan. Thus introduction of influenced reached as far as the present areas of Zamboanga and
Cotabato, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga, and Sulu was a strategy of the Misamis Provinces. The seat of government and center of civilization was
colonizer to eliminate the truth. Cotabato, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga, in Tbok now a barangay of Malabang, Lanao sel Sur. Therefore the
and Sulu were native in connotation but colonization by intention. civilization in the Island started from the coastal area of the Iranun Bay
(Illana Bay). Iranun tarsila named, called, and identified it as Biwang-
Many terms and words which were corruptly introduced and used for Kawanan Tinday A Batal O Pagilidan (literarily translated as Left and Right
colonization purposes. The examples of these words are: Dagiangas, later Huge Coastal Principalities), in political interpretation say traditional name
it becomes Dagiangas later on it was changed to General Santos. is translated as Kingdom of the Sea Coast, which refer to Uranen
Tacudong it was modified to Tacurong, Kutawato, later on it was modified Kingdom, the official name.
to Cotabato. Lupah Suog, later on it was modofied to Sulu, Aninipay, later
on it was modified to Panay. Irong-irong, later on it was modified to Iloilo.
Antik, later on it was modofied to Antique. Tukudan, later on it was
modified to Tucuran, Pangagian, later on it was modified to Pagadian.
Marges a ig, laterlater on it was modified Margosatubig, Kumaladang,
later on it was modified to Kumalarang. Padampadang, later on it was
modified to Parang and many others. All of these are colonization srategy.

The foremost effect of the colonization to the Iranun natives was the so
called colonial mentality. The mental or intellectual skill of the native
becomes dependent and submissive to the western and americans. The
Iranun natives become nothing and mentally slave of the foreign
education. Therefore, conquest and colonization were the root caused of
the problem in the Island (Palawan, Sulu, and Mindanao: Pandawan,
Lupah Suog, Uranen of the ancient past respectively). Therefore the
colonization wiped out everything.

What is Iranun?

Iranun as a word/term is composed two words which were joined

together to formed a word with distinct interpretation and description. The
word/term IRA means remains, residue, or silt. These word/term may refer
to a place or area which was formed out of a long process evolved from
remains or residual process that caused a formation of a place. NUN
means people with distinct culture, laws, belief, tradition, of residual and
remains process. It implies all places predominantly inhabited by the
Iranun was a water millions of years ago which gradually becomes a
land/soil through residual process. Thus, the territory of the Uranen
Kingdom was a water which gradually becomes a soil for the people to
estabilsh their comunity. Out of this concept, it is hereby described that
Iranun is a group of people who were belonged to the ancient or
prehistoric period of civilization which lived and occupied a certain
territory (water in origin) which was formed through a residual or remains
(silt) process thousands of years ago with organized socio-political
structure with distinct culture, belief, custom and tradition. Thus Iranun is a
nation not a tribe.


Iranun is not a tribe of any nation of the world. It is a nation with defined