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Name : Raka Aprillia F

Class : XI.5 TKJ

FACTUAL REPORT

Definiton factual report

Factual report is a text that describes something based on fact or consists of fact facts, not a text
consisting of theory or personal opinion.

Social of factual report

The function of the Factual Report is to present something, Factual report usually describes
something thoroughly, which is described as either natural or man-made.

Generic structure of factual report

1. General Classification
A statement that describes the general or general description of something that will be
written.
2. Description
Telling about what phenomenon will be discussed more specifically, for example parts of
it, behavior or habitat, or specifically describe the object or phenomenon.
Sample of factual report

Volcanic eruptions happen when lava and gas are discharged from a volcanic vent. The
most common consequences of this are population movements as large numbers of people
are often forced to flee the moving lava flow. Volcanic eruptions often cause temporary
food shortages and volcanic ash landslides called Lahar.

Gunung meletus terjadi ketika Lava dan udara keluar dari gunung. Akibat umum dari ini adalah
perpindahan penduduk karena sebagian besar sering dipakas untuk mengungsi menghindari lava.
Gunung meletus sering menyebabkan kekurang bahan pangan dan longsor magma yang disebut
dengan Lahar.

The most dangerous type of volcanic eruption is referred to as a 'glowing avalanche'. This
is when freshly erupted magma forms hot pyroclastic flow which have temperatures of up
to 1,200 degrees. The pyroclastic flow is formed from rock fragments following a volcanic
explosion , the flow surges down the flanks of the volcano at speeds of up to several
hundred kilometres per hour, to distances often up to 10km and occasionally as far as 40
km from the original disaster site.

Hal yang paling berbahaya dari jenis gunung meletus adalah “longsoran berkilau ( magma
menurun)” ini ketika magma yang baru meletus membeuntuk aliran piroklastik panas yang
suhunya sampai 1200 derajat. Piroklastik ini dibentukdari bongkahan batu setelah gunung
meletus. Aliran ini turun ke bawah dengan kecepatan sampairatusan kilometer perjam, sampai
dengan jarak 10 km dan kadang kadang sampai 40 km dari pusat.

The International Federation response adjusts to meet the needs of each specific
circumstance. As population movement is often a consequence, the provision of safe areas,
shelter, water, food and health supplies are primordial. In general response prioritizes
temporary shelter materials; safe water and basic sanitation; food supplies; and the short
term provision of basic health services and supplies.

Respon dari organisasi international merespon untuk memenuhi kebutuhan masing masing
peristiwa Karena pengungsian sering ditumbulkan, penyediaan wilayah yang aman, tenda tenda,
air, makanan dan obat obatan adalah hal pokok. Secara garis besar priority utama masing masing
tempat pengungsian adalah air dan MCK darurat, persediaan makanan, dan persediaan obat.
Zebras are equids , a family of mammals and members of the horse family, native to
Africa. The word “zebra” comes from the Portuguese zevra, which means “wild ass.” One
can certainly see how the zebra might have been mistaken for the wild ass at first glance,
since the animals have similar body types. Zebras are probably most famous for their
distinctive striped coats, which make them quite memorable animals.

Zebra adalah semacam kuda, sebuah keluarga hewan menyusuia dan anggota jenis kuda, asli dari
Afrika. Kata “Zebra” berasal dari bahasa Portugis “zevra” yang berarti adalah keledai liar.
Seseorang pasti akan melihat salah pertama ketika melihat kuda liar ini untuk pertama kali,
karena binatang ini mempunyai tubuh yang mirip. Zebra paling popular karena belang yagn
berbeda, yang membuat hewan tersebut mudah diingat.

In addition to being found in parts of Africa, zebras are also held in captivity in zoos and
conservation parks in many parts of the world, for people who want to see these animals in
person without taking a safari trip. Several attempts have been made to domesticate the
zebra, with some animals being trained as riding or driving animals. However, zebras
appear to be too unpredictable and flighty to fully domesticate, despite the best efforts of
intrepid riders. Instead, some people breed zebra hybrids, crossing full blooded zebras with
horses and other equids to produce more easily trained and handled animals which retain
the characteristic zebra stripes.

Selain ditemukan di bagian Afrika, Zebra juga ditahan di Kebun binatang dan Taman
penangkaran di beberapa bagian dunia, sehingga orang yang ingin melihat binatang ini tanpa
harus melakukan perjalanan safari. Beberapa usaha telah dilakukan untuk menjinakkan Zebra,
dengan beberapa binatang dilatih untuk ditunggangi. Akan tetapi, Zebra nampaknya terlalu susah
diprediksi dan bertingkah terlalu jinak, meskipun usaha terbaik dari penunggang terberani.
Meskipun , beberapa orang membiakkan Zebra, menyilangkan Zebra asli dengan kuda atau jenis
spesies kuda lain untuk menghasilkan yang lebih mudah dilatih dan binatang yang lebih mudah
di tangani yang mempertahankan karakteristik belang Zebra.

There are several different species of zebra, but all of them are in the same genus,Equus,
which they share with horses. Like other equids, zebras are odd-toed ungulates with
muscular bodies which are built for running. Zebras were among the earliest animals to
split from the original equids, along with asses, and as a result, they have had an extended
period of time to adapt to the unique challenges of the African landscape.

Ada beberapa spesies Zebra yang berbeda, akan tetapi semuanya masuk dalam jenis Kuda, yang
sama dengan kuda kuda lain. Seperti jenis kuda, Zebra adalah odd-toed ungulates dengan tubuh
berotot yang dihasilkan dari berlari. Zebra adalah diantara binatang paling awal yang berpisah
dari equid, bersama dengan keleday dan hasilnya, mereka mempunyai waktu yang lebih lama
untuk beradaptasi pada tantangan di daerah Afrika.

These animals have very stout, muscular bodies which are designed for immense speed and
strength. When threatened, a zebra can choose to run, often choosing a zig-zagging pattern
to distract the predator, or they can fight, using powerful jaws and heavy hooves to attack
their enemies. Like asses, zebras have tufted tails, and they also have short, upright manes
of coarse hair, along with unusually large ears which give these animals a very good sense
of hearing.

Binatang ini mempunyai tubuh besar, berotot yang didesain untuk kecepatan dan kekuatan.
Ketika diancam, seekor Zebra dapat memilih untuk berlari, sering memilih pola zig – zag untuk
mengelabuhi sang pemangsa, atau mereka dapat berkelahi, menggunakan kekuatan cakar dan
kuku kuatnya untuk menyerang musuh – musuhnya. Seperti keledai, Zebra mempunyai ekor
yang berumbai, dan mereka juga mempunyai rambut pendek yang menjulang keatas, bersamaan
dengan daun telinga lebar tak biasa yang memberikan binatang ini pendengaran yang sangat
bagus.

Zebras are herbivores, eating grass, foliage, and various shrubs. Depending on the species,
a zebra may be adapted more for the open plain, or for more heavily wooded and
mountainous areas. In all cases, zebras are very social animals, living in large herds which
are typically overseen by a single stallion. A zebra's gestation period is 13 months, typically
producing a single foal which may join the herd when it reaches adulthood, or strike out on
its own to find another group of zebras.

Zebra adalah memakan tumbuhan, rerumputan, dedaunan dan berbagai macam semak belukar.
Tergantung pada spesiesnya, seekor Zebra mungkin beradaptasi untuk dataran terbuka, atau
hutanlebat dan daerah perbukitan. Secara keseluruhan, Zebra adalah binatang social, hiudp dalam
jumlah yang besar yang sering kali diketuai oleh satu kuda jantan. Masa kehamilan Zebra adalah
13 bulan, yang hanya melahirkan satu anak kuda yang akan bergabung dengan kelompok ketika
sudah mencapai dewasa, atau menciptakan sendiri kelombok kuda yang lain.

The stripes of the zebra appear to have several functions. For one thing, they distract and
confuse predators, especially when zebras are in a herd formation, because the stripes
make it hard to pick out an individual zebra. The stripes also appear to be unique to each
animal, allowing zebras to readily identify each other, and they help to camouflage
individual zebras, especially in wooded areas, where the play of light and shadow allows
the zebra to blend.

belang dari Zebra mempunyai beberapa fungsi. Salah satunya, mengelabui dan membingunkan
lawan, khususnya ketika Zebra berada dalam kawanannya,karena belang membuat belang akan
menyulitkan untuk menyerang satu mangsa. Belang juga menunjukkan keunikannya pada
masing masing binatang, membuat Zebra mengenal satu sama lain, dan belang tersebut
membantu menyamarkan zebra,kususnya di daerah hutan, dimana terang dan bayangan membuat
zebra menyatu.

There is some debate as to how to describe the zebra's stripes. They are typically described
as white animals with black stripes, but zebras actually have entirely black skin. The most
common zebra mutations create animals which are darker, rather than lighter. This proves
that the zebra is actually black with white stripes. While this might seem a bit pedantic, it
can make a good jumping-off point for end debates at parties, if one feels so inclined.
ada beberapa perdebatan tentang bagaimana untuk mendeskripsikan belang pada Zebra. Mereka
biasanya dideskripsikan sebagai warna putih dengan belang hitam, akan tetapi pada dasarnya
kulit Zebra berwarna hitam. Mutasi umum Zebra membuat binatang ini lebih gelap ketimbang
terang. Ini membuktikan bahwa Zebra pada dasarnya berkulit hitam dengan belang putih.
Mungkin ini terdengar cukup keilmuan, ini juga menjadi loncatan untuk mengakhiri debat, bagi
seseorang yang merasa ngotot.
Name : Raka Aprillia F

Class : XI.5 TKJ

Personal Letter

Definition:

A type of letter (or informal composition) that usually concerns personal matters and it is sent
from one individual to another such as family members, relatives and friends, and love letters.
People write and send personal letters for only a small number of people to read — usually one
or two. Writers can send personal letters for lots of different reasons: short memos for business
strategies, love letters between long-distance sweethearts or even pen pal messages to foreign
exchange students. Senders usually handwrite personal letters, which emphasizes the personal
nature of the note.

Form of a Personal Letter

1. Date – This is the date when the letter is written.


2. Name, Address, City and Zip Code – these are name, address, city and zip code of the
sender.
3. Salutation and Name of Recipient – The greeting usually starts with the word ‘Dear’
followed by the given name of the recipient or relationship and it ends with a comma.
Two examples are shown: ‘Dear Ronald,’ ‘Dear Uncle,’
4. Introduction– This is the opening of a letter. It may include greetings like ‘How are you?’
Sometimes, you may refer to a previous letter.
5. Body– This is the main part of the letter. It includes the message that the writer wants to
tell the recipient. It is often divided into paragraphs.
6. Closure– This part indicates the letter is going to end. The writer may ask the recipient to
reply here.
7. Complimentary Close– This short expression includes a few words on one line. It ends
with a comma. Some examples are shown below. ‘Yours sincerely,’ ‘Best regards,’
‘Love,’
8. Signature– the signature of the writer
Example of personal letter

October,10th 2013

From : Anissa Trimahayanti

Jl. Kenanga, gang Asri II, no 4 Denpasar 29055

My Dearest Friend Lisa,

Lisa, how are you? I hope that you and your family are all right. How about your study? You are
my best friend ever. You always understand me though others won’t. When you decided to study
in java, I was so confused and sad because a person who always next to me would leave me. I
remember the last time we met, you said to me that it would be OK and our friendship would be
still good.

During months, I attempted to adapt myself to my new class in Mahasaraswati University. Yeah,
finally I could. I found a girl who could support me as well as you. Her name is Dahlia. I felt that
I was happy to be her friend because she reminds me with the girl next to me last three months in
Senior High School. Yes, she is as the best friend of mine as you. Of course I will introduce her
to you.Even though we are now many miles away, I do believe the time when we can get
together will come soon, doesn’t it? You should reply “YES”. So that Dahlia, you and me will be
three best girls ever in the world. The sooner the better!!!! I miss you so much. I am always
longing to see you; moreover, I want to share anything that usually I tell to you like when we
were in Senior high school.

Lisa, I do promise to introduce Hendra, the person you admire… 🙂 So, when will you come
back?

Please replay my letter as soon as you can because I’m really interested to know about your life
here. J

Your old friend,

Anissa
Analysis

Date: October,10th 2013

Name and Address of sender: Anissa Trimahayanti , Jl. Kenanga, gang Asri II, no 4 Denpasar

Salutation and Name of Recipient: My Dearest Friend Lisa,

Introduction: Lisa, how are you? I hope that you and your family are all right. How about your
study? You are my best friend ever. You always understand me though others won’t. When you
decided to study in java, I was so confused and sad because a person who always next to me
would leave me. I remember the last time we met, you said to me that it would be OK and our
friendship would be still good.

Body : During months, I attempted to adapt myself to my new class in Mahasaraswati


University. Yeah, finally I could. I found a girl who could support me as well as you. Her name
is Dahlia. I felt that I was happy to be her friend because she reminds me with the girl next to me
last three months in Senior High School. Yes, she is as the best friend of mine as you. Of course
I will introduce her to you.Even though we are now many miles away, I do believe the time
when we can get together will come soon, doesn’t it? You should reply “YES”. So that Dahlia,
you and me will be three best girls ever in the world. The sooner the better!!!! I miss you so
much. I am always longing to see you; moreover, I want to share anything that usually I tell to
you like when we were in Senior high school.

Closure :Lisa, I do promise to introduce Hendra, the person you admire… 🙂 So, when will you
come back? Please replay my letter as soon as you can because I’m really interested to know
about your life here. J

Complimentary Close :Your old friend,

Anissa
Name : Raka Aprillia F

Class : XI.5 TKJ

How to Write and Send a Personal Letter


Writing a letter is not an easy, especially for the people of this digital age. We are so used to with
various emails that we have almost forgotten the art of writing a letter. Since it is not a habitual
thing for today’s generation anymore, many people struggle when they have been given a task to
write a letter.

Letters can be of different types. While official letter writing is still a common practice in the
corporate sector, writing a personal letter is often considered as a lost art. However, writing a
letter is always a better way of expressing a feeling to someone.

If you want to impress someone or want to wish a person to desire to show your condolence, you
must ponder upon writing a personal letter instead of sending emails.
A well crafted personal letter should have the following attributes:

Lucidity: Lucidity is the main parameter of judging a quality of letter. If you want to convey
something to someone, then convey it in simple and lucid language. Do not make things complex
– write down straight from your heart.

 Interesting: A handwritten letter should be interesting otherwise receiver would not find it
impressive enough to read again. To make the letter interesting and interactive, you may
add a few questions for the receiver. You can add some interesting and funny facts that
are obviously related to the context of your writing.
 Proper Format: Lets get it straight! No one shall reject your letter if it does not follow a
fixed format when it comes to writing a personal letter. Still, you have to be careful with
it, as maintaining right format is a common norm. Well, the structured letter looks
interesting and readable, while poorly structured letters look messy.
 Stating Emotions: Another important thing is stating emotions properly. Ideally, a letter
should reflect your mind.

To impress a friend or someone very special, you can consider our help for writing a personal
letter in the USA. We also offer services in the UK, India, China, etc. TIHLC.com is a
professional service provider for personal letter writing. We can craft original, well formatted
and beautifully handwritten letter for you.
Name : Raka Aprillia F
Class : XI.5 TKJ

Analytical Exposition

Analytical Exposition Text

is a text that contains about the author's detailed thoughts about a phenomenon that is
around. This text is included in the argumentative text because it shows an opinion or argument
against something. The social function of the Analytical Exposition text is to convince the reader
that the topic presented is an important topic to address or get attention by way of giving
arguments or opinions that support the main idea or topic.

Definition of Analytical Exposition Text


Analytical Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon
surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter, and to
analyze the topic that the thesis/opinion is correct by developing an argument to support it.
(Analytical Exposition adalah teks yang menguraikan ide penulis tentang fenomena disekitar.
Fungsi sosialnya adalah untuk membujuk pembaca bahwa ide itu adalah hal yang penting, dan
untuk menganalisis topik yang tesis / pendapat itu benar dengan mengembangkan argumen untuk
mendukungnya.)

Generic Structure of Analytical exposition Text


# Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s point of view. (Memperkenalkan topik
dan menunjukkan sudut pandang penulis)
# Argument : Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position. The number of arguments
may vary, but each argument must be supported by evidence and explanation. (Menjelaskan
argumen untuk mendukung posisi penulis. Jumlah argumen mungkin berbeda, tetapi setiap
argumen harus didukung oleh bukti-bukti dan penjelasan.)
# Reiteration: Restating the writer’s point of view / to strengthen the thesis. We can use the
following phrase to make conclusion in reiteration : (Menyatakan kembali sudut pandang penulis
/ untuk memperkuat tesis. Kita dapat menggunakan frase berikut untuk membuat kesimpulan
dalam Reiteration :
From the fact above …
I personally believe …
Therefore, my conclusion is …
In conclusion …

The Characteristics / Language Feature of Analytical exposition Text:


– Using relational process
– Using internal conjunction
– Using causal conjunction
– Using Simple Present Tense
– Using compound and complex sentence.
– Use word that link argument, such as firstly, secondly, and reasoning through causal
conjunction, such as in addition, furthermore, however, therefore.

Read text carefully and see the translation


Cars should be banned in the city
Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road
deaths and other accidents.
Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly
gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ of asthma. Some of these
illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.
Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit
pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or
concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone.
In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.

Translation
Mobil seharusnya dilarang di kota. Seperti yang kita semua tahu, mobil menciptakan polusi, dan
menyebabkan banyak kematian di jalan dan kecelakaan lainnya.
Pertama, mobil, seperti yang kita semua tahu, berkontribusi terhadap sebagian besar polusi di
dunia. Mobil mengeluarkan gas mematikan yang menyebabkan penyakit seperti bronkitis, kanker
paru-paru, dan ‘pemicu’ asma. Beberapa penyakit ini begitu buruk bahwa orang bisa mati dari
mereka.
Kedua, kota ini sangat sibuk. Pejalan kaki berjalan di mana-mana dan mobil umumnya menabrak
pejalan kaki di kota, yang menyebabkan mereka mati. Mobil saat ini adalah pembunuh jalan
terbesar kami.
Ketiga, mobil sangat bising. Jika Anda tinggal di kota, Anda mungkin merasa sulit untuk tidur di
malam hari, atau sulit berkonsentrasi pada pekerjaan Anda, dan terutama berbicara dengan
seseorang.
Kesimpulannya, mobil harus dilarang dari kota karena alasan yang tercantum.

Is Smoking Good for Us?


Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die
every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road
accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking.
Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are
six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a
day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people
who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non
smokers.
Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one
hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had
smoked fifteen cigarettes.
Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking
habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else.
Name : Raka Aprillia F
Class : XI.5 TKJ

Biography

Definition Biography text


Dalam bahasa, biography tersusun dari dua kata yaitu Bios yang artinya Hidup dan
Graphia yang artinya tulisan.

Dalam bahasa inggris dan secara istilahnya, Biography text is a detailed description
or account of a person’s life and written by someone else, it is non fiction text. Atau
dalam bahasa indonesia teks Biografi adalah suatu teks yang menggambarkan detail
dari riwayat hidup seseorang secara nyata dan ditulis oleh orang lain.

Function of Biography
 To know a person’s story about his/her life outside of any accomplishments this
person may be known for.

 To give many information easily and educate the readers.

Characteristics of Biography

 Biography Is not written by subject and always written in third person. Dengan
kata lain teks biografi tidak dibuat oleh orang yang sedang diceritakan riwayat
hidupnya, tetapi diceritakan oleh oranglain dalam sudut pandang orang ketiga.

 Based on research. Teks tersebut dibuat berdasarkan fakta pengalaman hidup


suatu tokoh berisi mengenai kisah atau cerita suatu tokoh dalam mengarungi
kehidupannya, entah itu berupa kelebihan, masalah atau kekurangan yang ditulis
oleh orang lain sehingga patut menjadi teladan.

 describes the person's surroundings (where, when and how the person lived).
 use vivid language to narrate events. Bahasa yang jelas harus benar-benar
diaplikasikan dalam sebuah teks biografi agar menghindari kesalahan dalam
informasi yang disajikan.

Generic Structure

 ORIENTATION (INTRODUCTION)

It is the opening paragraph, gives the readers the background information of the person.
Biasanya berisi tentang biodata yang dinarasikan seperti nama lengkap, tempat dan
tanggal lahir.

 EVENTS

In events, should be chronological order. Tahap ini adalah bagian kejadian atau
peristiwa yang dialami oleh tokoh. Berisi penjelasan suatu cerita baik itu berupa
pemecahan masalah, proses berkarir, dan berbagai peristiwa yang pernah dialami oleh
tokoh hingga mengantarkannya pada sebuah kesuksesan.

 RE-ORIENTATION (CLOSING)

It consist of conclusion or a comment or the writer. Tell about the echievement or the
contribution of the person. Pada penutup, bagian ini berisi tentang pandangan penulis
kepada tokoh yang dikisahkan. Reorentasi ini bersifat opsional, jadi boleh ada maupun
tidak.

Grammar and language features

 Use of simple past tense. Sebuah bentuk sederhana kejadian yang terjadi di
masa lampau. Menggunakan bentuk kata kerja kedua (verb 2).

e.g. : -The family then moved to his stepfather’s home country.

-He was born on August 4, 1961 in Honolulu, Hawaii.

 Temporal sequence (urutan waktu) and temporal conjunction (konjungsi


temporal). Sebagai penghubung antara satu kalimat dengan kalimat lain dalam
urutan waktu.
e.g. : His parents separated when he was two years old.

 Focus on Specific participants

Use of Action verbs. kelompok kata yang menjelaskan sesuatu hal yang secara aktif
dilakukan oleh tokoh.

e.g. : the family then moved to his stepfather’s home country.

Types of biography

Short biography (focuses only on highlights of a person’s life)

Long biography (about life and times of someone in a lot more detail)

EXAMPLE

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln was born in 1809 in Kentucky (USA). He worked on the farm of his
father. He attended school for less than a year, but taught himself to read and write. He
did different types of jobs before he settled as a highly successful lawyer. He was
gradually drawn to politics.

The country was having problems regarding the practice of slavery. The white men
owned large farms in the southern states, Blacks were brought from Africa to work on
these farms, They were kept as slaves. The people of northern states were against this
practice of slavery and wanted to abolish it, The Constitution of America is based on the
equality of man. Therefore, there was no place for slavery in that country,
At this difficult time, Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the USA in 1860. He
wanted to solve the problem of slavery. The southern states were against the abolition
of slavery. This brought the unity of the country in danger. The southern states were
prepared even to form a new country. Abraham Lincoln wanted all the states to remain
united.

He faced many problems. He wanted to preserve the unity of the country at any cost.
Finally a civil war broke out between the northern and southern states. He fought the
war bravely and declared, 'A Nation cannot exist half free and half slave.' He won the
war and kept the country united.

Lincoln was elected president for a second term. He was not against anybody and
wanted everybody to live in peace. He made sincere efforts to heal the people's wounds
caused by the war. In 1862, Lincoln declared that from then onwards all slaves would
be free. This made him very popular among the people. Lincoln was assassinated in
1865.

IDENTIFY STRUCTURE

ORIENTATION Abraham Lincoln was born in 1809 in


Kentucky (USA). He worked on the
farm of his father. He attended school
for less than a year, but taught himself
to read and write. He did different
types of jobs before he settled as a
highly successful lawyer. He was
gradually drawn to politics.

EVENTS The country was having problems


regarding the practice of slavery. The
white men owned large farms in the
southern states, Blacks were brought
from Africa to work on these farms,
They were kept as slaves. The people
of northern states were against this
practice of slavery and wanted to
abolish it, The Constitution of America
is based on the equality of man.
Therefore, there was no place for
slavery in that country,

At this difficult time, Abraham Lincoln


was elected President of the USA in
1860. He wanted to solve the problem
of slavery. The southern states were
against the abolition of slavery. This
brought the unity of the country in
danger. The southern states were
prepared even to form a new country.
Abraham Lincoln wanted all the states
to remain united.

He faced many problems. He wanted


to preserve the unity of the country at
any cost. Finally a civil war broke out
between the northern and southern
states. He fought the war bravely and
declared, 'A Nation cannot exist half
free and half slave.' He won the war
and kept the country united.

RE-ORIENTATION Lincoln was elected president for a


second term. He was not against
anybody and wanted everybody to live
in peace. He made sincere efforts to
heal the people's wounds caused by
the war. In 1862, Lincoln declared that
from then onwards all slaves would be
free. This made him very popular
among the people. Lincoln was
assassinated in 1865.
Name : Raka Aprillia F
Class : XI.5 TKJ

MUSIC

Understanding Music.

Music is a sound arranged in such a way that it contains rhythms, songs, and harmony, especially
sound produced from tools that can produce rhythms. Although music is a kind of intuition
phenomenon, to create, improve and present it is an art form. Hearing music is also a kind of
entertainment. Music is a very unique phenomenon that can be produced by some musical
instruments.

Definition of Music Art.

The art of music comes from two words, namely "art" and "music". Art is the result of creativity,
taste, and human initiative embodied in various means. While music is the result of sound
processing, melody, harmony, rhythm, vocals, and tempo. So, literally the art of music is the
result of creation, taste, and mausia catalyst embodied in the process of sound, melody, harmony,
rhythm, vocals, and tempo.
There is no meaning of the word musical art in the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI). But there
is the meaning of the word sound art that has the closest meaning of music art. The meaning of
the word art of sound according to KBBI is the art of sound or sound (singing, music, and so on).

The Origin of Music Art.

The etymology of the word "art" comes from Sanskrit meaning "worship, service, giving". There
is also a saying that the origin of the "art" istila from the Dutch language genie derived from
Latin which means "genius". While the etymology of the word "music" comes from English
music that comes from the Greek mousikê. Mousikê refers to all art led by Muses in the form of
music and poetry.

According to experts.

There are so many experts who try to give understanding of music art according to their
respective views. One of them is Suhastjarja. Understanding the art of music according to
Suhastjarja is the expression of the sense of the beauty of a human being embodied in a tone or
sound that ultimately result in rhythm and harmony. The Great Dictionary of Indonesian
Language "music is the science or art of composing tones or sounds in sequences, combinations,
and temporal relationships to produce a composition (sound) of unity and continuity." Aristotle
"music is something that has the ability to reconcile a depressed heart, have recreational therapy
and foster the soul of patriotism". Lexicographer "music is the science and art of a combination
of rhythmic notes, vocals and instrumental, involving melody and harmony to express what is
possible but especially emotional.

Understanding Art Music.

Art music is one branch of art that uses vocal, melody, harmony, rhythm, and tempo as a means
of expressing the feelings or emotions of its creator. Music art today has become one of the most
popular means of entertainment along with the current technological developments. The art of
music consists of music from musical instruments and some use of vocal. In English, "art" is
called art and "music" is called music.

History Music

that makes a sound. Wood was formed an inflatable hole and became an ancient flute.

Humans expressed their fearful feelings and were happy to use voices. Playing around with their
voices is a song, hymn or small singing song inspired by birds chirping. Hardwoods and hard
rocks are beaten to produce exciting sounds and rhythms. Maybe they accidentally knocked on a
hollow tree trunk inside with a wooden stick that made a strong sound. The animal skins they use
as clothing are also placed to close the large wooden cavity into a drum.
Music is known since the presence of the modern human Homo sapien that is about 180,000 to
100,000 years ago. No one knows when humans first knew art and music. From archaeological
discoveries at locations such as on the African continent some 180,000 years to 100,000 years
earlier have shown evolutionary changes from the thinking of the human brain. With human
brains that are smarter than animals, they make a more organized hunt so they can hunt for big
animals. With these brain abilities, they can think beyond thinking and achieve imagination and
spirituality. Language to communicate has formed between them. From simple language and
speech to alarms and giving animal names, slowly some vocabulary appears to name objects and
nicknames for someone.

In a sedentary life, they may be inspired to pick up the dried-up foot of game animals that feed
them and then blow them and make a sound. There is also an inspiration when paying attention
to nature by blowing a wooden cavity or bamboo
In Prehistoric Period.

Prehistoric music can only theorize based on the findings of the paleolithic archaeological sites.
Flute Is a musical instrument often ditumakan in pre-historical times and shakuhachi-like shape
that comes from Japan. The Divje Babe flute made from the cave's thighbone, which is estimated
to have been worn some 40,000 years ago. Various types of flutes and stringed or stringed
instruments have existed since the Indus River Civilization era, India has one of the world's
oldest musical traditions derived from the Vedas. The earliest and largest collection of
prehistoric instruments was found in China and dates back to between 7000 and 6600 BC.
Hurrian / Hurrian songs is a collection of written music in ancient writings unearthed from
Hurrian in the city of Ugarit which is thought to have existed around 1400 BC.

Type of Music.

Music Art (Art Music).


Music Art or often called Serious Music and similar music (avant garde music, contemporary) is
a term grouping the type of music that refers to the theory of European Classical music form or
other types of ethnic music that is absorbed or taken as the basis of its composition. Unlike the
popular music or the music of the era, this type of music is usually timeless, so lasted for
centuries. The composers of Indonesia who created this type of music include: Amir Pasaribu,
Tri Suci Kamal, Slamet Abdul Syukur, Rahayu Supanggah, Otto Sidharta, Tony Prabowo,
Michael Asmara, I Wayan Sadre, Iwan Gunawan, Dody Satya E. Gustdiman and etc.

Classic Music

Classical music usually refers to European classical music, but sometimes also to Persian, Indian,
and other classical music. European classical music itself consists of several periods, such as
baroque, classical, and romantic. Classical music is a broad term, usually referring to music
rooted in Western art traditions, Christian music, and orchestral music, spanning the period from
about the 9th century to the 21st century.

European classical music is distinguished by its musical form, non-European and popular music
mainly by its musical notation system, which has been used since the 16th century. Western
music notation is used by composers to instruct the music bearer about the pitch, speed, metrum,
individual rhythm, and proper carrying of a work of music. This limits the existence of such
practices as improvisation and ornamentation of ad libitum that is often heard in non-European
music (compare with Indian classical music and traditional Japanese music) as well as popular
music.

Formerly classical music in Europe was mainly used for the purposes of a song in the Church or
a song for the King's impersonation. Along with the development, start also emerging classical
music used for other purposes, such as classical music that describes the audio visual, for
example Cat and Mouse song that describes the cat chase the mouse.
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Popular Music

Popular music is the type of music that is currently favored by the general public. This kind of
music is music that fits the current state of the day, so it fits in most people's ears. Some music
genres that include Popular Music are Pop, Funk, Jazz, Blues, Rock, Gospel, Underground, and
others. This genre of music can be found in almost all parts of the world because of the nature of
his music is almost acceptable to everyone.

Jazz.
Jazz is a type of music that grows from the incorporation of blues, ragtime, and European music,
especially band music. Some of the jazz subgenres are Dixieland, swing, bebop, hard bop, cool
jazz, free jazz, jazz fusion, smooth jazz, and CafJazz.

Gospel.
Gospel is a genre dominated by vocals and usually has a Christian theme. Some of its subgenres
are contemporary gospel and urban contemporary gospel. Actually this Gospel type song has a
feel similar to Rock n Roll (because Rock n Roll itself is actually a fusion or a combination of
Rock, Jazz, and Gospel), was originally introduced by black Christians in America. Some of the
current examples that still really use the flow of gospel music are Israel Houghton. But now the
understanding of gospel music has expanded into a genre of spiritual music as a whole. In
Indonesia, gospel music wing pop and rock many popularized by musicians such as Franky
Sihombing, Giving My Best, Nikita, True Worshipers and more.

Blues.
Blues come from Afro-American society that evolved from western African music. This type
then influenced many pop genres today, including ragtime, jazz, big band, rhythm and blues,
rock and roll, country, and pop music.

Rhythm and blues.


Rhythm and blues is the name of traditional music of Afro-American society, which is black pop
music from 1940s until 1960s which is not jazz or blues.

Funk.
Funk was also spearheaded by Afro-American musicians, such as James Brown, Parliament-
Funkadelic, and Sly and the Family Stone. This type of Funk music usually has a groovy beat
tone, a rhythm that makes the listener chuckle to the rhythm. Therefore, in many ways, funk is
often equated with groovy.

Rock.
Rock, in its broadest sense, covers almost all pop music since the early 1950s. The earliest form,
rock and roll, was a mixture of genres in the late 1940s, with musicians such as Chuck Berry,
Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, and Elvis Presley. It was then heard by people around the world, and
by the mid-1960s some British bands, such as The Beatles, began to emulate and became
popular.
Rock music later developed into psychedelic rock, then became progressive rock. Some British
bands such as The Yardbirds and The Who later developed into hard rock, and then became
heavy metal. The late 1970s punk rock music began to flourish, with groups like The Clash, The
Ramones, and Sex Pistols. In the 1980s, rock grew steadily, especially metal developed into
hardcore, thrash metal, glam metal, death metal, black metal and grindcore. There is also british
rock and underground.

Electronic.
Electronic began long before the discovery of synthesizers, with tape loops and analog electronic
music instruments in the 1950s and 1960s. The pioneers are John Cage, Pierre Schaeffer, and
Karlheinz Stockhausen.

Ska, Reggae, Dub.


From a mixture of R & B music and traditional musical mento from Jamaica appeared ska, and
later developed into reggae and dub.

Hip hop / Rap / Rapcore.


Hip hop music can be regarded as an R & B subgenre. Beginning in the early 1970s and 1980s,
this music originally flourished on the east coast of the US, called East Coast hip hop. In about
1992, hip hop music from the west coast also became famous as West Coast hip hop. This type
of music is also mixed with heavy metal to produce rapcore.

Pop.
Pop music is an important genre but its boundaries are often blurred, as many pop musicians are
incorporated into rock, hip hop, country, and so on.
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Traditional Music

Traditional music is music that lives in the community for generations, maintained not as a
means of entertainment alone, but there is also used for medicine and aAda become a means of
communication between humans with the creator, this is according to the belief of each person
only. Traditional music is a local art treasury in the community. Traditional music in Indonesia,
among them are gamelan, angklung and sasando. apart from the traditional music that comes
from local culture, there are also traditional music that comes from the influence of outside
culture such as gambang kromong, marawis and keroncong.
Latin.
This Latin traditional music genre usually refers to Latin American music including music from
Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. This latin music has a Samba
subgenre.

Country.
Traditional country music is influenced by blues, and evolved from white American culture,
especially in the city of Nashville. Some early country artists are Merle Haggard and Buck
Owens.