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International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science

ISSN 2347 – 8616
Volume 4, Special Issue
March 2015

4G Networks in Cellular Communication:

A Survey
Aashna Vijay1, Mamta Rawat2 , Deepa Yadav3
Department of Computer Science and Engineering,
ITM University,
Sector 23A,Gurgaon,India

ABSTRACT: - This paper gives the glimpse of cellular network for fulfilling the customer
of 4G cellular networks. It presents an overall need and for the competitor service providers.
vision of the 4G working, its framework, and In telecommunications, 4G stands for
integration 4G with mobile communication. fourth Generation in the cellular wireless
WiMax and LTE technologies have been communication. It is a successor to 3G and
discussed in the paper. OFDM and MIMO are 2G standards. In 2008, the IMT-Advanced
the key points in the working of 4G networks. (International Mobile telecommunications
Challenges faced in 4G technology have also Advanced) requirements for 4G standards was
been mentioned in the paper. specified by the ITU-R organization [1]. ITU-
Keywords: - WiMax, LTE, OFDM, MIMO, R organization set the peak speed for 4G
etc. standards i.e, 100Mbit/s for highly mobile
I INTRODUCTION communication (like autos and bus) and
In today’s scenario there is a rapid growth 1Gbit/s for low mobile communication (like
of wireless communications. This growth has stationary users and pedestrians).
moved the world into the new era of Fourth generation wireless system is a
technology where the number of subscribers packet switched network with wide area
dependent on mobile phones are increasing at coverage and high throughput. It has
an alarming rate. Mobile has become part and frequency in GHz. It is expected to provide
parcel of everyone’s life. high spectral efficiency and complies the cost
Mobile phone is also known as “cell effectively. The 4G standards are designed to
phone “because it is based on the cellular provide a secure and comprehensive all IP-
network concept. The service area is divided based mobile broadband solutions for
into small sectors called “cells “that helps in smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices.
tracking of area easily. Each cell has an Though 4G is trying to establish itself in the
antenna and is controlled by small offices market, people have started thinking about the
called base stations (BS) and each base station evolution of "5G technology.
is again controlled by switching offices called II HISTORY
a mobile switching center (MSC). Since the The “G” stands for Generation which
mid 1990's the cellular communication relates to the next generation of wireless
industry has witnessed explosive growth. technologies. There has been radical change
Increase in demand of wireless and advancement in the generation of cellular
communication necessitates the rapid growth communications. Each generation is faster,
485 Aashna Vijay, Mamta Rawat , Deepa Yadav
International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
ISSN 2347 – 8616
Volume 4, Special Issue
March 2015

more secure and more reliable than previous compatible with AMPS which means in a
technologies. The reliability factor is the network one mobile can use AMPS and the
hardest to overcome. other one can use D-AMPS [3]. It uses same
1G was the first generation of mobile channel and band as AMPS.
networks. In this technology radio signals 3G stands for “Third Generation” of
were transmitted in “Analog” form. It was mobile communications. 3G is based on the
only used in generating calls. 1G used analog Universal Mobile Telecommunication
signals for voice communication. .In North Systems (UMTS) [4]. UMTS is a component
America, Advanced Mobile Phone System under a set of standards IMT-2000 issued by
(AMPS) was leading analog cellular system ITU. UMTS was developed by the Third
[3]. FDMA technology was used to separate Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)[4]. 3G
channels in a link. The system uses separate provides data rates up to 144kbps for a
analog channels, one for forward (base station moving vehicle, 384kbps for pedestrians and
to mobile station) communication and one for 3mbps for stationary users. It allows highly
reverse communication (mobile station to base rapid access to the internet as it has the higher
station)[4].The biggest disadvantage of 1G capacity to carry data load. 3G has brought
was limited availability of network. Network various improvements over earlier generations
was confined within the country. like global roaming, high speed transmission
2G stands for “Second Generation” of and advanced multimedia access. 3G
telecommunications. The major change that introduced the concept of “mobile
came in the development 2G was the use of broadband”. Mobile broadband means a
digital signals in place of analog signals. This cellular technology that is mobile as well as
concept drastically improved the quality of provides the speed of broadband
calls and also reduced the complexity of data communication.
transmission. Two major systems were In today’s scenario, the call for rapid access
evolved in 2G were GSM and D-AMPS. The multimedia communication like streaming
Global System for Mobile communication videos, streaming videos, downloading
(GSM) is a European standard and is mostly applications, gaming, etc is growing at an
used in Europe and Asia [3]. It is a circuit alarming rate. According to the history of
switched network that allows full duplex generations, revolutions occur once a decade.
communication. It was brought as a Therefore, cellular telephony is now in Fourth
replacement of analog cellular networks. D- Generation with Fifth Generation on horizon.
AMPS stands for Digital-AMPS. It was
Technology 1G 2G 2.5G 3G 4G 5G

Design Began 1970 1980 1985 1990 2000 Early 2020’s

Data 1.9 kbps 1.9 kbps 384 kbps 2 Mbps 200 Mbps 1 GB
Implementatio 1984 1991 1999 2002 2010 2020

486 Aashna Vijay, Mamta Rawat , Deepa Yadav

International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
ISSN 2347 – 8616
Volume 4, Special Issue
March 2015


Service Analog Digital Higher Higher Higher Based on
voice, voice, capacity, capacity, capacity, IPv6, very
synchrono short packetize broadband completely high quality of
us data to messages. d data. data up to IP- oriented, service based
9.6 kbps. 2 Mbps. datarates on policy to
upto avoid errors,
hundreds of provides
Megabits. bandwidth in



4G standards have been laid down to supported using global mobility protocols like
overcome the drawbacks of 3G and caters us IPv6. 4G standards are developed not only to
with the excellent quality of voice, high support upcoming generations of
definition video and high datarates. 4G aims to telecommunications but also to support fixed
offer users faster and more reliable mobile wireless networks. WiMax and LTE are
broadband internet for devices like renowned technologies being used with 4G
smartphone, tablets and laptops. 4G grants network today. Sprint and Verizon wireless
numerous facilities which were not supported are US telecommunication companies which
in 3G standards or any other standard before are using WiMax and LTE technologies
3G (i.e. first generation and second respectively for their 4G network.
generation). It provides high speed internet WiMax stands for "Worldwide
facility. Therefore it is also known as mobile Interoperability for Microwave Access"[6]. It
ultra-broadband internet access. 4G makes us depends on wireless MAN technology.
believe that miracle can happen. Therefore, WiMAX is a wireless broadband technology
"MAGIC" word is used to describe 4G. that conveys high speeds like WiFi to wide
MAGIC stands for Mobile multimedia, areas. It relies on the IEEE 802.16 [6]. It can
anytime anywhere, global mobility support, also be used to provide dormitory
integrated wireless solution, and customized connectivity. It also connects WiFi and
personal service [2]. 4G standards are WLAN hotspots to internet. It provide a
designed to provide comprehensive IP- mobile broadband connectivity which is an
solution where users are facilitated to access alternative to DSL and cable. WiMAX works
voice, data and streamed multimedia at in similar manner as WiFi but at faster speeds
“Anytime and Anywhere”. Global mobility is over larger distances and for larger number of

487 Aashna Vijay, Mamta Rawat , Deepa Yadav

International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
ISSN 2347 – 8616
Volume 4, Special Issue
March 2015

users. WiMAX is reachable to remote areas between 5 mbps to 12 mbps however, LTE
which are way difficult for wired connections was designed to provide 15 mbps of speed.
to reach by overcoming the geographical 4G technology has than introduced the
limitations of conventional wired most interesting concept of Internet Protocol
infrastructure. WiMAX provides wireless Version 6(IPv6) which has led to the ejection
broadband access to rural areas, highly of parallel circuit switched and packet
elevated areas and inside the buildings. It is switched network [3]. IPv6 gives large address
aimed to provide broadband like connectivity space which is 128 bits long. IPv6 is
to portable devices. Sprint’s 4G wireless developed to allow the expansion of the
network uses WiMAX technology for better protocol if needed by new technology. IPv6
connectivity. It declared that WiMAX applies encryption and authentication
provides3Mbps to 6 Mbps of downloading techniques to maintain the integrity and
speeds and an average downloading speed is confidentiality of the information. IPv4 has
above 10Mbps. finite number of addresses that can be
assigned to the devices connected to the
LTE stands for “Long Term Evolution”. It internet at one time. This necessitates the need
was developed by a telecommunication body to create duplicate IP addresses and reuse
known as Third Group Partnership Project them using NAT (network address
(3GPP) in the year 2004.SAE(System translation). NAT only cover up the problem
Architecture Evolution) is the corresponding instead to solving it permanently. This leads to
evolution of the GPRS/3G packet core the evolution of IPv6 that assigns a unique IP
network evolution [5]. The word LTE includes address to each and every system. After
both LTE and SAE technology [6].4G is implementation of IPv6 each host can
aimed to provide high date rate, adjustable communicate with every other host on the
bandwidth and low latency. Network network with few restrictions like institutions’
architecture of LTE has been framed to policies and firewalls. The very first release
reinforce packet switched traffic with mobility version of 4G was not as per the standards
and stupendous quality of service. Verizon described by ITU but it is still publicized as
exclaims that LTE can deliver data rate 4G. This kind of 4G network is known as

Features WiMax LTE

Bandwidth It uses channel bandwidths up to LTE-A uses different channel
40MHz. bandwidth from 1.4MHz to
Compatibility It is not compatible with It is compatible with previous
previous technologies like technologies like GSM, GPRS,
GSM, GPRS, etc. etc.
Speed WiMax provides speed up to 10 LTE can deliver speed between
mbps. 5 mbps and 12 mbps.
Frame duration WiMax frame duration is 5ms. LTE frame duration is 10ms.

488 Aashna Vijay, Mamta Rawat , Deepa Yadav

International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
ISSN 2347 – 8616
Volume 4, Special Issue
March 2015

Modulation WiMax uses same modulation LTE uses SC-FDMA and

techniques techniques for both uplink and OFDMA modulation techniques
downlink - SOFDMA. for uplink and downlink
Cost Cost for building WiMax Cost for building LTE network
network is low. is high.



1) Orthogonal Frequency-Division (destination) ends. This leads to large amount
Multiplexing (OFDM): The main reason of 4G of data to be send without requiring more
being faster than 3G is OFDM. It is a form of bandwidth and power. Antennas at both ends
modulation that splits high speed modulating of the communication network are combined
stream and place them onto many narrowband to optimize data speed and minimize errors. In
close-spaced subcarriers[9]. It squeezes loads traditional communication system, two
of data onto the equal amount of radio antennas were used, one at source and other at
frequency. Data is split up and transferred via the destination. This results into problem like
small blocks of frequency in parallel which multipath effect. When electromagnetic field
boosts the capacity of the network. It meet with obstacles then wavefronts get
decreases latency and interference drastically. scattered and take various routes to arrive at
It is the same technology used in ADSL the destination. The scattered signals reach
broadband, DVB, DAB, LTE, WiMAX and late at the destination which leads to many
WiFi. problems like fading, intermittent reception,
etc. In digital communication system, it can
OFDM similar to FDM (Frequency lead to the rise in number of errors and
division multiplexing) technology but a reduces data speed. The transmission of
technological difference is that in OFDM the multiple signals along with MIMO at each end
subcarriers are orthogonally spaced to each of the network (source and destination)
other that reduce the interference [9]. It also minimizes the trouble caused by multipath
reduces the frequency selective fadding which effect.
affects severely the transmitted signal at a
channel. The orthogonal arrangement of MIMO has gained attention because of
subcarriers eliminates the cross-talk widespread applications like wireless local are
between sub channels. One advantage of networks (WLANs), metropolitan are
OFDM is that guard bands are not necessary. networks (MANs) and mobile

2) Multiple-input and multiple-output 3) Software Defined Radio: Software

(MIMO): MIMO is a technology for wireless Defined Radio (SDR) is radio communication
communication that uses multiple antennas at technique that depends on software defined
both transmitter (source) and receiver wireless communication system instead on

489 Aashna Vijay, Mamta Rawat , Deepa Yadav

International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
ISSN 2347 – 8616
Volume 4, Special Issue
March 2015

hardwired based systems [10]. Using SDR facilitate user with high bandwidth and high
components are implemented in software datarates. This feature integrates the
which was previously implemented in architecture of current and previous networks
hardware. This causes easy modification of which will help user to easily access new
protocols by simply downloading software applications without worrying about the
instead of replacing complete hardware. environment will easily adapt the new
SDR can be reprogrammed and technology [11]. Multimode software permits
reconfigured to operate with various protocols the user device to accommodate itself to
and waveforms. These protocols can be different wireless networks to give the
security protocols, modulation techniques and provision of high speed with constant internet
performance characteristic specified in access. This is packet based, to use packet it is
software as a part of waveform. The best required to replace all cellular hardware. The
feature of SDR is versatility. whole communication system has to be
SDR can be easily applied to LTE as it rebuilt. Each and every network will become
needs especially more processing at BST compatible when the switch is completed.
because of its high bandwidth requirements Therefore, this eradicates the need of roaming
and low latency [10]. Software Defined Radio in the areas where only one kind of device is
(SDR) benefits to develop multi band and supported.
multi-standard base stations and terminals. 3) Cost Affordability and Managing User
B. CHALLENGES FACED IN 4G Accounts: In 4G networks, it is very difficult
TECHNOLOGY: to maintain user accounts. The billing system
1) Security: Security measures need to be is not been able to manage due to the
followed by 4G standards are: disparateness of 4G networks and continual
interaction of service providers. Some issues
 It should be ensured that security related to cost and affordability has to be taken
features are fulfilled and compatible with care. Development of 4G network has created
worldwide available features. a mobile broadband environment that caters
 Security features should be high data rates, low latency and data
standardized to allow interoperability and protection techniques.
roaming all over the world. 4) Meeting Consumer Expectation: 4G
 The level of confidentiality and Networks create alternatives with the proper
security provided to users should be better combination of resources that excel user
than provided in mobile and stationary expectation to exceed consumer and industry
networks [11]. expectations.
 Security features should be updated
timely to prevent from new threats and IV CONCLUSION
services. The objective of this paper is to discuss the
In 4G networks security mechanism should be features, working and framework of 4G
used to make the transmission more secure networks. 4G technology is an IP-based
and safe. cellular network that will boost the data
2) Integration of IP Devices: 4G standards transfer rates drastically. Signal will get
unite the features of IP and non-IP devices to strengthen which will minimize the
disruptions largely and downloading will be
490 Aashna Vijay, Mamta Rawat , Deepa Yadav
International Journal of Innovations & Advancement in Computer Science
ISSN 2347 – 8616
Volume 4, Special Issue
March 2015

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very high data rate, high bandwidth, high “SIP-Based IMS
spectral efficiency etc. 4G is versatile Signaling Analysiss for WiMAX-3G
technology. Interworking Architectures”, IEEE
Transactions on Mobile
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491 Aashna Vijay, Mamta Rawat , Deepa Yadav