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THE Seven Poems,,





CAPT. F.IE. JOHNSON, Royal Artillery,



Fellow of the University of Bombay,

'y. , Uead Master, Anjuman-i- Islam Schools,

Author of " The Moslem Present,"

All Rights reserved.



Price Rupees Seven Annas Eight.

f nninn

The accompanying translation is intended to be

nothing more than an aid to the student, and for this

reason it has been made as literal as possible. Notes

and explanations have been added in ail cases where

the sense is obscure, and it is
hoped that by their aid
beginners even will experience little or no diificulty in

reading the original.

All different readings, and different interpretations

which have good authority and have come to hand,

have been included in the notes. Lines which have

been found in some copies and not in others are

marked with asterisks for the sake of distinction.

My best thanks are due to Shaik FaizuUahbhai,

Esq., B.A., of Bombay, a really first-class Arabic

scholar, for the trouble he took in revising the proof

sheets. During revision he considerably enlarged the

notes, &c., so as to bring the work within the grasp

of all.

F. B. J.

Kirkee^ 29 tk January/ 1893.

^Q -o

AMONfGSTtlio aucieut nations, as History shows, there are few

who have so large a treasure of sublime poetry and so abun-
dant a stock of useful literature to boast of, as the old nation of
Arabia. The Arabs have always beep remarkable for the
in the excellence of their language,
great pride they have taken
the perfection of their literature, the sublimity of their poetry,
the purity of their race, and the integrity of their moral charac-
ter. Pure justice, free from bias or p»rejudice, fully admits
and accords them a
that they have reason to feel this pride,
very high place among the civilized aud literary nations of the
ancient world. These facts are well borne out by evidence
derived from the history of the progress of literature, especially
durino- the 4th, 5th and Cth centuries of the Christian era.

During the period alluded to, the literary genius was almost

entirely monopolised by the Aryans, represented then by the

Indians and the Persians in the East, and by the Romans in the
West. The Indian literature was, however, confined only to a
limited number of Shastris and Brahmins, and was inaccessible
to the other castes, or the numerically much stronger public.
The Persians had long cultivated and enriched their literature
with a good deal of learning, borrowed from the Greeks aud
the Indians. Among the Semi'tics, the Syrians possessed a
Hebrew literature of a superior character, which was not, how-
ever, cultivated to a very vast extent, and was confined only to
a few Rabbis. These literatews, moreover, had risen to their
greatest height and
were now only hanging on the verge of
decline, and were more or less giving way to the Romans, who,
at the time we speak of, held their own against all the nations of
the world, both in the political as well as in the literary realm.

Their literary supremacy was, however, the result of a loug

working of the schools, established by Cicero, Virgil, and Livy,

on the lines of the learning they had inherited from that defunct
Grecian world which had long given way to the sway of the
triumphant Roman arms. The Roman Poeti-y, Oratory and
Rhetoric were merely offshoots engrafted ou those of Homer,
Demonsthenes and Aristotle. Much credit is certainly due to
the Romans the great improvement they made on the

teachings of their mother- school, which elevated them to a high

pitch of literary fame, and placed them at the top of the category
of the civilized and refined nations of the time. But their

achievements, though very noble and excellent in themselves,

were merely parasitic, and had little originality to boast of.
About this time we find a new nation rushing upon the scene,
and steadily progressing with long strides to the front of the
literary world, neither by means of any learning, borrowed
from other nations, nor by any set examples to guide them,
but solely by dint of the growth of their own natural faculties.
This was the Arabian nation, which, living obscurely in a
solitary peninsula, was cut off from the chief seats of learning
and debarred by its own seclusion from all the advantages of
a close contact with the civilized nations of the dav, who
regarded it
merely as a degraded and barbarous nation. Not-
withstanding its starting with such local and social disadvan-

tages, this nation, which was destined by God to rise to a

great importance later on, and to succeed the Romans in

presiding over the destinies of a great part of the world, bravely
stemming the tide of adverse circumstances, deserves all pi'aise
for the high state of culture, civilization and advancement
which people attained by means of self-development

those superior literary faculties with which it had pleased God

to endow them.

Although the Arabic language was as old as any of the

noble languages of the world, yet its literary fame was kept

by Goi\ in store for a later

generation. Tlio history of its
dates only from as early as the
literature, properly speaking,

beginning of the 6th century. Yet, within eg short a period of

time, extending indeed over not more than two centuries,
the Arabs succeeded in carrying their literature to such an
elevated pitch as earned them an immortal name among the
most refined nations of the literary world.

Their progress was marvellously rapid in every department

of literature — poetry, oratory, rhetoric, politics, history, moral
and mental philsophy. The greater part of their early literature,
however, consisted of poetry, which was the principal and
almost the only record the ancient Arabs possessed, and it is
said with perfect truth that Poetry is the record of the Arabs'

( V-r-*-'' i^hi'^^*'^^ )•
Poetry was the record of their usages,
their customs, their habits, their ways of living, their wars,
their virtues, their vices, their domestic affairs, their social

advancement, their mercantile dealings, their creeds and

beliefs, their sentiments, their moral progress, and in short all

that would interest both a historian and a moralist.

The Arab minds were cast by nature ia poetical moulds of

the best type, and their speeches even were mostly poetical, or
such as could readily be converted into rhythmical numbers.
They had at that time no rules of grammar or versification to
guide them and yet their verses were scrupulously accurate

and hardly ever went wrong. They had neither any fixed
criterion of rhetoric, nor any cannons of criticism ; yet their
idioms, expressions, images, similes and metaphors were as .

accurate, as clear, as lucid, and as perspicuous as any of the

subsequently established schools of the Post-Islamic times.
One of the distinctive features of the primitive literature of the
Arabs was that it possessed the real and rare beauty of being
a faithful representation of nature, inasmuch as their images
wei-e derived directly from nature, and their composition was

merely a real expression of their real feelings and a true

mental v/orkiugs.
reflection of their False fame, vainglory,

flattery, and empty praise were motives not known to those

early A.rabs, who led a simple and innocent life in the lap of
nature, invested with all its —
concomitant virtues, bravery
courage, gallantry, truthfulness, innocent and sincere love,,

fidelity, generosity, liberality, charity, hospitality, and a

hatred of cruelty and oppression. With the Arabs of those
times poetry was a gift of nature, commonly bestowed on all
alike, whether old or young, man or woman, rich or poor, high
ar low, noble or mean, townsman or peasant, who used it as
a tangible expression of their emotions, a ready vehicle of
v?hat they thought and felt and a lasting record of their views,
made more impressive and more perspicuous by illustrative
similes, apt images, and suitable metaphors, such as were
readily supplied by natui'al objects and views of daily sight.

Thus we see the common topics of their poetry to be domes-

tic life, wai's, heroic deeds, martial triumphs, travels, camels^

horses, weapons, chase, love, reminiscences of old associations,

hospitality, glory and genealogy of the tribe, panegyrics of noble

personages and chiefs, records of their patriotic and virtuous
deeds done for the good of their tribes, acknowledgment of
their obligations, elegies, embodying posthumous recollections
and commemorations of the virtues of deserving merits in pro-
portion to their deserts. Precepts of sociology, political views,
philosophical doctrines, maxims and proverbs were not lacking;
but they were mere results of a direct observation of the objects
of nature and of a deep contemplation of humanity in its

simplest aspect.

Nor were the Arabs unconscious of the high poetical genius

wherewith they were endowed by nature, of the great success
of their literature, and of the I'isiug fame and triumph of their

literary talents. Poetry soon came to be recognised as a noble


mental production, to be appreciated as a high accomplish-

ment, and to be regarded as a qualification for exaltation
of rank and esteem in society. Poets came forward to emulate

and vie with one another to carry off* the palm. This led to
the establisliment of a department of literary exhibition in the
national fair of 'Okaz, which was held annually in Zil-1-Qa'dah,
cue of the four sacred months, in which war was forbidden to
be wao-ed. To it flocked merchants from Hijaz, Nejd and
other parts of Arabia. 'OkaT; was the Olympia of Arabia,*
where poets resorted and placed their poetic talents before the

public for their judgment and award, which were always

regat^ded as decisive and

The Arabic literature attained the zenith just at the time>,

when the faith of Islam made its

appearance and
in Arabia,
the Koran marked the highest point, to which the Arabic
lano-ua<^e and literature were destined to rise, after which, as

the Arabs by the spread and the conquest of Islani came in

contact with foi*eigners, they had reason to grow jealous of
their noble language ;
and being afraid lest its purity might
suffer from Contact with other languages, they Were obliged

to state the principles of grammar, to ezplain the laws of

syntax, to discover the measures

of prosody, to formulate the

fio-ures of rhetoric and composition, to define the criteria of

lexicography, to determine the standards of phraseology, and

to fix the cannons of criticism, all founded on the basis

of the universal principles that underlie the pure language

of the pre-Islamic time. The simplicity of nature, however,
was rapidly waning and giving its place to artificial ornamenta-
tion, embellishment, and scholastic mannerism.
Poets, orators and writers then vied in indulging in poetic
reveries, in giving a full play to their imagination, in forming
new sentiment?, in inventing new metaphors and rare similes,

in discovering the beauties of the pre-Islamic poetry, and

in imitating by every artificial means in their power the

flowing diction of that natural poetry^ tbe pathos and the effect
of which, hoAvever, they strove to grasp with various but dnbions
success. They lay claim to no little credit, indeed, for tlie

many improvements they made on the ancient style, diction,

ideas and expressions, for the standards they fixed to regulate
the imaginative work of poetry, for the cannons of criticism

they laid down, for the'laws of language they enunciated, and

for the many beautifulfigures they invented. It was, however,

mannerism, allin all, a noble imitation, but without the true

spirit of real nature.

The progress of the Arabic literature may best be illustrated

by comparing it to a gradual and grand ascent up a lofry
mountain, richly clad ia every variety of beautiful verdure,
pleasant vegetation, particoloured and fragrant flowers, verdant

meadows, varied trees all of wild growth 3 and rife with cooling
avenues, refreshing arbours and stately alcoves, resounding
with diverse songs of wild birds, whose varieties of notes,
colours and hues are objects of deep admiration and devotion
to the votaries of nature. The summit was gained only at the
appearance of the Koran, which occupied the proud position of
a solitary eminence, beyond the reach of all aspirers, who fell
short of it. A step further, and the declivity gradually led to
a spacious plateau, abounding in fine valleys, laid out with
beautiful gardens, charming fiower-beds, gliding rills, well
trimmed alleys, levelled turfs, and picturesque parks, all
cornbined in beautiful harmony and resounding with the
harmonious melodies of trained birds, while art spared nothing*
to make all as perfect as lay in her power.

It was thus at the time when Arabic literature stood at its

highest position, that the celebrated Seven Poems, well known

as the Seven Suspended Poems, made their appearance.

They stood at the top of the eminence of Arabic literature,

exulting with deserving pride at that enviable position and


triumpliing over the evergreen laurels, so nobly won by the

superior elegance, eloqueucoanii purity of thoir language, their
admirable images and their vivid descriptions. They were
universally admired by the public, who in order to testify
and the recognition of
their appreciation of their real beauties
the obligation, which the Arabic language in no little measure
owed to them, unanimously agreed to immortali/je tlijeir fame by

couferringon them the highest Ivonour they could bestow— that

of hanging them inside th.e Ka'ba, the most sacred shrine of
their worship, as a memorial to posterity, after they were
inscribed in letters of gold on pieces of a fine white cloth of

Egypt, whence they are also called 'the Golden,' oUi.J>JI.


The poems all agree in one
important respect. They are all
introduced with touching reminiscences of old associations, old
times, the early days of the poets, and the happy days they

spent of old in the pleasant society of the objects of their love.

The fifth poem, however, differs a little, and is introduced by

the poet asking his lady-love to give him a cup of good wine,
and by his giving a pithy and elegant description of her beauties.
The second poem slightly touches on the latter subject, while
the sixth poem enters into n^any more details.

All the poems, except the third and the fifih, contain a

description of riding beasts, —

that of the first being a high
bred hoi-se and those of the rest fast-ridin gr and noble she-
camels. In the second poem we find a graphic and detailed
description of the bodily structure of a noble she-camel and in
the rest a vivid pictui-e of her way of travelling.

The first, the second and the sixth poems are egotistic : the
first deeply coloured with a kingly spirit and royal virtues; the

second with martial valour and extreme individual indepenr

dence; while the sixth breathes a spirit of warlike courage,
soldierly faithful service and knightly devotion to the lady
of his love.

The third poera is eulogistic, describing the virtues and

patriotic services of the chieftain of a tribe.
It is, moreover,
an ethical poem, heading the category of all poems of that type.

The fourth, the ^fth and the seventh poems are patriotic
and breathe thx'oughout a spirited feeling of national ii^deper^-
denceand supeinority. The latter two at"e, moreover, antago-
and give a vivid picture of two rival champion chiefs,

each striving to set off the glories of his own clan against
^hose of the rival tribe.

Notwitl:\standing these points of difference, all the seven

poems in common with all Arabic poems of the class, are dis-

tinguished with many prominent and similar features, viz., a

deep devotion in love, martial gallantry, national independence,
rigorous defence of individual rights, steady promotion of pub-
lic weal, rigid observance and free exercise of national virtues.

^iialysis of the Sev^n Poems %vith Critical Uemarhs.

PpEJt I,

The poet placing the scene at the ruined abode of his old
friends mistress, and giving a short description of his
woeful plight on his separation from their friends, and of the
high enaotiqns, rqused at the sight of the ruined abode, takes
us through a series of gallant love adventures, followed by a

lively description of h\s noble horse, a brisk sylvan chase, a

great storm and a rainy night, wherewith the poem concludes.

Here the reader can hardly fail to notice the elevated senti-
ments, the sublime ideas and the majestic language of a high-
spirited prince, tamed down by love and gallantry, but not to
the low level of an ordinary lover. His courting is an interest-

ing coTiibinatiQn of gallant devotion, anil the assertion of a

princely ])iivilt'ge to command submission to his will. He is
a stranger to mortifioation and humiliation, even in love. With
all his polite attention to his lady-love he would never tamely

submit to coquetry, if strained too far, but would prepare him-

self to withdraw his attentions the moment
they should be dis"
regarded or treated with undue haughtiness. On the other
hand, his amiable character in society and his civil manners
win him the hearts of ladies, who wait on his will and sacrifice
their own conveniences to his wishes. His beloved is a lady of
high position and rank. Her bed is strewn with
finely powdered
musk, she keeps in bed luxuri^nsly till late in the morning, and
is never known to do any menial domestic drudgery. His beast
of riding is a princely and a stately horse of the noblest breed.
He is deeply interested in natural views, fine landscapes,

sylvan sports and knightly adventures. He has many noble

virtues, among which faithfulness in love and ready attention
to the needy in spite of the risk of its impoverishing his
means, stand out prominently.
Imra-nl-Qais is best known for his clever and ingenious im-
ages, insomuch so that he has won the surname of t_yJt*«-' IJi^^
"the Creator of Images." He deserves the honour amply
and jastly, since it is he who shewed the proper way to use the
power of imagination. His similes and images are his own, and
are always, as a rule, quite apt and suitable. They are gene-

rally selected from objects of daily sight, so highly coloured by

his imagination as to surprise by their bi-ight novel appearance.

His attention to ladies, and his poetical pursuits, which

were regarded by his royal father as inferior to his rank,

exposed him to the patei'nal wrath and to banishment.

Poem II.

The opening lines represent the poet as

standing at the old
ruined abodes of his friends, ruminating on the old associations^

and recalling to miud iu vivid language tLe departure of liis

lady-love, of whom he gives a short description. Here the

attention of the poet is, however, abruptly drawn by more
serious affairs to travelling on a noble and fast-travelling she-
carael, described at length and in minute details concerning her
make, form and constitution. Then taking a short review of
his past life, he tells us of his good, position in the tribe, ot" his

adventurous travels, and of his early habits of dissipation aud

drinking, which caused him to be forsaken by the tribe, whom
lie, however, little cares for, being as he is endeared to all by
his kindliness to the poor and his politeness to the rich. Moral-

ising then on the nnstability and frailty of human life, he re-

monstrates with his reproachers against their disapproval of his

liberality aud of his dissipated life; and with his cousin against

betraying him in the time of his need, at whose disposal he is,

however, ready to place his best services when required..
Here in a strain of eg^otism, he speaks of the many virtues that
more than redeem his weak points of character, his active
and vigilant habits, his uudaauted courage, his unflinching
fortitude, hospitable attention to strangers, and his
readiness to serve his friends in time of need. As an instance,
he tells us how, in order to entertain his guests, he once un-

scrupulousl}^ ofieuded his old father by slaughtering one of his

best camels. He then concludes the poem with a few moral
lessons which he has learnt from his experience of the world.

Here we see an interesting picture of the wayward and un-

ruly disposition of a reckless youth of tender age, who has
never known the superior control, either of a parent or of a
preceptor. He sets out on his worldly journey without the ad-
vantage of experience or support, but with a full confidence in
his poetic powers, which stand him in good stead under all cir-

cumstances, win for him his desires and even gain him

admittance to the j^resence of the chieftains aud the kings of

the time. He has a spirit too haughty to stoop to any formali-

ties of society Nvliicli li(>

snoeringly scorns. The spirit of

independence is so piedominant in his character that it is even

betrayed in liis
language and diction, which often make
attempts at breaking through the bounds of conventional laws
of diction. He lacks much in gravity and sobriety. He has,
however, many good traits of character to redeem his weak
parts. Though on the dangerous verge of turning out a
corrupt and vicious debauchee, he is luckily more than saved
by a naturally philosophic turn of inind, which, together with
his keen observation of human nature, causes him to derive
such practical and useful morals for himself as to help him to
turn his vices into virtues and give him a place among the dis-

tinguished people of his time.

His images are derived from domestic sights, nomadic life,

and sylvan scenes, and arc well chosen to give proper force
and eifect to the pictures he portrays.

Poem III.

The poet begins by complaining of the strange changes, whicli

are brought on the ruined abodes of his lady-love, since
they were deserted and came to be inhabited by wild beasts,
and which have been so complete that the poet could hardly
recognise them except after a long and thoughtful considera-
tion. In a high strain of poetic reveries his fancy sees a party
of ladies, his former acquaintances, marcb before his view,

leaving him alone lamenting for their departure. He then praises

Haram and Hiirith, the two chiefs of the tribe of Muzainah, who,
by their generous intercession and their magnanimously under-

taking to pay the blood mulct, have brought about a perfect

peace between the tribes of 'Abs and Zubyan, after it had been
disturbed by the cowardly behaviour of Husain, son of Zamzam,
who, to avenge the death of his brother, killed one of the tribe
of Baui 'Abs in cold bluod. The poem then concludes with a

number of Hues preaching social morals of higli value in world-

ly life,
— a peculiar feature, wliicli distinguishes the poem and

places it conspicuously beyond the rivalry of any other poerri.

This poem is
philosophical throughout in accordance with
the occasion. is a sedate man of great
The poet experience,
a moral preceptor of good parts, and a grave preacher of the

morality he has leai'nt from his long experience of the world.

A dependent of the chiefs of the tribe, he praises them for
their good offices to the people in the restoration of peace, and
inculcates on them the recognition of the high value of their
services and their strong claims on the obedietice" and allegianco
of their subjects. Accordingly, he uses a language very graVe,

sublime, exhortive and impressive, and a dictioil flowing, soft,

gentle and embellished with figures of rhetoric*

The poet introduces the poem with a short description of

the complete changes, broilght about by time on the abodes of
his old friends which have long been deserted by human beings

and occupied by wild beasts. He then recalls to mind how

his lady-love departed with her party from the place, and

how, after removing to distant countries, she faithlessly cut

off all communication with him. Despairing now of the re-

quital of his love on her part, he seeks relief from his griefs by
travelling on a good and strong she-camel, whose speed is com-
pared firstly to that of a she-ass, urged by her jealous mate to
a watering place in the hottest part of the year; and secondly
to that of a wild cow, who, on missing" her young, which has
been devoured by wolves during her absence, passes a restless
night in the midst of a heavy I'ain in a sandy desert, only to be
surprised early in the morning by houndsi many of which she
kills when turning to bay during her precipitous flight. The
poet then gives a lively description of his enjoyment of the
llNTKODWCiloN. X^li

society of chosen friends, of liis

giving food to the poor in
winter, of his defence of the tribe against raids, of his acting
as a scout riding a good and fieet horse, of his enjoying mental
and moral superiority over his rivals, and of his taking share

incamel-games with a high spirit of liberality, the flesh thereof,

when won, being entii'ely used in relieving tho wants of the
needy and the orphans. The poem then concludes with a pithy
and magnificent description of the glories of his tribe.
The poet here is an accomplished man, possessed of a great

experience of the world and society. Though true in love,

he is tho last to put up with an unrequited love. He is a

noble person of many virtues, among which conspicuously shine
his liberality, relieving the wants of the needy, dispensation

of justice, honest dealing, freedom from envy, unrestrained

to serve his people under any cir-
hospitality, and readiness
cumstances, however trying, —virtues wherein he considers his

chief pride and glory to consist. Most of these virtues he derives

from his tribe, who possess them in a very high degree, though.
commonly characteristic of the Arab nation. His enjoymenfc
in gambling and wine is due not to libidinous habits, but
rather to a generous disposition, either to afford relief to the

needy, to make society agreeable, to patronize hopeful mer-

chants, or to while away his time in the quiet society of a few
chosen friends. His courser is rather inferior to the princely
steed of Imra-ul-Qais. His knowledge of sylvan scenes and

sports seems to be deep and familiar.

The language is elevated and sublime throughout, and em-

bellished with beautiful images and metaphors, quite in keeping
both with the glories of the tribe celebrated therein, and with
the grave and steady mind of the old poet.

Poem V.
poem introduced by the poet's asking his beloved to
This is

give him a cup of rich wino to drink. He asks her to listen


of his heroic achievements and to

patiently to a relation
acknowledge the claims of his position and martial prowess.
He a detailed description of her excellent beauties and
of the pain he felt at her separation. He then asks the king,

'Amru-bin-Hind, who, he is quite aware, is a very powerful and

despotic ruler, to grant him a patient hearing, while he recounts

in details the various glories of his tribe, Bani Taghlib, their

chivalrous deeds, and their noble services to their country.

Quoting several instances to show how his tribesmen are

always ready to fight and how indifferently they disregard the

thi'eats of their rivals, he cautions the king against the evil

consequences of offending his tribe, of making any rash attempt

at exercising any undue authority and power over them and of
treating them with contempt, reminds him of the heroic

exploits of his ancestors and of the prowess they had long

evinced outhe battle-field, and says that the ancestral chivalrous

spirit still continues as active as ever in his own person

in the persons of many other heroes of the tribe. The martial
spirit is not confined to their men only, but it forms a rare
feature in the character of their
women, who, though prevented
by their feminine nature from taking any active part in war, do
not fail to encourage their men by every means in their power,
and even make a solemn covenant with their husbands that
they return not from the battle-field without rich spoils and
splendid trophies. He further asks the king to always bear in
mind the superior position that his tribe has long enjoyed over
other tribes, and to take the greatest care not to put it on an
equal footing with its rival tribe of Bakr.
This poem is a noble relic of ancient chivalrous poetry that
breathes through of martial independence and haughty

indignation at the king's unjust encroachment on the liberty

of his tribe, and at his shewing an undue predilection for
the rival tribe of Bakr. 'I'he language is accordingly high=
toned, majestic, eiinobledj very impreseive, and keeping pace

with the unyioldiiig spirit of the poet, who is the chieftain

of a powerful tribe, and perhaps tlieir only champion, and
the advocate of their rights before the tribunal of a despotic
ruler. He is an ardent and passionate lover, meek enough
to yield to the powers of love, but a brave and unyielding
hero iu wars; gentle and polite in society, but stern and
rough iu court debates. He is a frank and open-hearted
warrior, free from guile and malice, who openly demands
his due, freely pleads his cause, cares little for the intrigues
of his rivals, and hates to gain any favour by any undue or
underhand influence. He tries to carry his object with the
king by the force of his martial prowess rather than by the
dint of any cogent argument.

The poem has verj' few sitniles, but many images and figures,
all of which, they are from martial objects, are
derived as

grand, sublime, and apt to well produce the force they ar»
meant to give effect to.

Poem VI.
Here the poetintroduced to us as standing at the old and

long deserted abodes of his beloved, which for her sake he

salutes with deep reverence. He deeply regrets her being
removed too far to be within easy reach, and feels much
dejected at the grave obstacle he finds in the way of his union
and marriage with her, consequent on her belonging to a
hostile tribe. He
gives her very strong assurances of being
devotedly true to his love, which he earnestly solicits may be
requited by her. He recollects how carefully she tried to evade
his notice on the occasion of her departure, but he being too
clever for her got scent of it and
paid her a farewell visit.
The poet then describes her numerous beauties displayed to
him on that occasion. Since her departure he has been leading
an adventurous life, keeping always in his saddle. Though
removed to a very distant country, he does not give up his

iove in despair, but liopes to join his beloved travelling on tlie

back of a fast-going and strong sbe-camel whose pace he com-

pares to that of an ostrich. He then appeals to her to testify
to the many virtues and noble deeds she has witnessed, of his

boundless liberality, courteous manners and martial prowess

displayed on the field of battle. He further solicits her to
inquire regarding his exploits from those who were present on
the field of battle, and who will surely tell her, among other

deeds, how he once triumphaatly overcame a hero of established

reputation. He again reverts to the sorrow he feels at
broodiug over the serious obstacles in the way of his love.

Complaining of the depreciation of his services by 'Amru, he

gives a lively description of a trying battle well fought by him.
The poem concludes with earnest wishes on his part for a

favourable opportunity to avenge himself on the two sons of

Zamzam, who have insulted him and have vowed to kill him
for his having killed their father.

This poem pictures a fine combination of a soldier of high

martial powers and a passionate lover, labouring heavily under
all the evils that attend an unequal match. The poet is a
slave of mixed birth, being born of a slave-mother and a free
and noble father, while his lady-love belongs to a much higher
and a hostile family, whom he comes
with to fall in love quite

suddenly and inadvertently. He comes to realize his position

only when it is too late for him to recede. Disregarding all the
insurmountable difliiculties that he sees assailing his love, he pro-
ceeds on steadfastly with every earnestness, ardour and firmness
in his love, though not without now and then giving way to

despair. He always depends for the gain of his object on the

influence he hopes his uncommon valour will have on her, on a
tame submission to her will, and on the repeated and strong
assurances of his true love. Among all the 8even Poems this

poem stands prominent for its most enthusiastic, most ardent,

most pathetic, and most tender descriptions of love, which all

throughout breathes deep devotion and tacit obedience to the

will of his Uidy. Even in the thickest part of tho battle, when
he is heavily borne down by tho conflict to within an inch of
his life, slie is not absent from his imaginative mind, which,
Beeino- the lustre of her teeth in the flash of the arms, svelcomes
them on that account, and loses all terror and awe. He is not
a wild soldier, rushing rashly into the fight, but a considerate

warrior, possessed of good sense, well acquainted with all the

tactics of war, and very sensitive regarding his honour.

The language is in every part thoroughly consistent with

the subject matter it is very tender and pathetic where


is descinbed, but where his warlike deeds are described, it is

high, The images and figures are

sonorous and forcible.

generally such as are chosen from sights and scenes, usually

met with by soldiers and adventurers, and serve well to give
full effect to the sentiments they are used to illustrate.

Poem VII.
This poem isintroduced by the poet's expressing regrets at
the departure of his beloved, whose society he never grew

tired of. He recollects many places where he knew her in the

of kind regard shewn by her.

passed times with many tokens
The many events of serious moment, which have, however, taken
claims on his attention,
place in the meanwhile, assert stronger
and oblige him to travel (probably to the king) on the back
of a fast-going she-camel, which he compares to an ostrich^
alarmed at the approach of hunters. He then tells us how his
tribe of Bakr are ill-treated by the rival tribe of Taghlib, who
claim from the former compensation and amends for crimes of

felony so falsely attributed to them. He then reproaches 'Amru,

the author of the 5th poem, for his insinuations and lies regard-

ing Bakr to the king, and for his intriguing to deprive them of
the royal favour, and sneeringly draws his attention to the great

prowess of Bakr aa borne out by the fact that their blood never

rdraained unavenged wliile the blood of

Taghlib was always
spiltwith impunity. Then tauntingly he says further that an

inquiry into the conduct of the two tribes will not fail to shew
that the Thaglibians have always been guilty of many heinous
crimes, treason and rebellion against the king, whose trust
always basely betrayed, while the Bakriaus have ever con-
ducted themselves nobly and shewed promptitude in serving
the king, who is under deep obligation to them for the
many noble services rendered by them to establish his

power and to consolidate his rule. Among others, he quotes

especially three prominent instances :

firstly, when 'Amru was
assailed by Ma'add in a large army under Qais secondly, ;

when Hujr led a large Persian army against 'Amru; and

thirdly, when Imra-ul-Qais, brother of 'Amru, was released

from his long captivity, and the blood of his father Munzir
was fully avenged by the death of a groat cliieftain of the tribe

of Ghassan, and by the leading of nine other chiefs into capti-

vity. Bakr have also claims of blood on the favour of the

king, inasmuch as he is their nephew on his mother's side.
Such services and such claims of kinship are too strong to
allow the king to be influenced by the insinuations of Bani

Taghlib. In conclusion, the poet sarcastically enumerates

instances of several campaigns lost by Bani Taghlib through
sheer imbecility, rashness and faithlessness on their part and ;

tells theiu that it is only they should abide by the

fair that

consequences of their own misguided conduct without shifting

the responsibility on to the shoulders of the rival tribe of
Bakr, whose noble deeds, exalted position and high influence
with the king they could not help looking upon without a
tingling feeling of envy.
This poem stands in a marked and relieved contrast with
-the 5tbpoem in every respect. The poets are both chieftains
of their respective tribes, each having the same subject and
the same object in common^ namely, the pleading of the cause

of liis own the same kiu^ 'Amru-bin-Hind, a

tribe before

very powerful and despotic monarch of Arabia, and influencing

him in favour of his own tribe. Hence, the contrast in the
character of the two rival poets, and in their language and their
diction is equally striking and interesting. Contrary to the
other frank and open-hearted warrior and straightforward

eloquent poet, we here evidently see

a crafty old courtier.

and he seeks to his object more by tact than

Wily astute, gain
by force. Being thoroughly conscious of tho efficacy of per-
suasion and exhortation, he avoids intimidating the king by
the prowess of his tribe, but wins his good graces by eulogising
him with his efficient ruling and with his wise and prudent
policy ofgovernment, which endears him to the people; by
reminding him of the good services rendered by the tribe of
Bakr and of the ties of relationship and by tendering promises

of loyal fealty in very conciliatory terms. Throughout the

poem a striking contrast is maintained by the poet between the

cowardly and perfidious conduct of Taghlib and the heroic and
loyal deeds of Bakr.
The language is throughout very sublime, grand, courtly,
polished and argumentative and the ;
diction is mostly indirect

rather than direct. To emphasize his arguments, the poet makes

frequent use of Interrogation of Appeal ; and gently


ing on the several historical occurrences in a vei-y concise


pithy language, he leaves it to his rival to make a careful

investigation into the respective conduct of the rival

and to draw the issues for himself. His similes, though very
few, are well selected to illustrate the descriptions and are
never far-fetched but always very apt and natural.

This poem written by Iinra-ul-Qais bin Hujr Alkandi, who

lived forty years before the prophet Mohammad. And he isalso

called Alraalik-ul-zilleol (the much-erring king), on account of
his amorous tendencies. He fell in Inve with 'Unaizah, the
daughter of his uncle Sherhabeel, and of these two lovers there
is a tale which the poet tells in the poem.

The metre of this poem is the second of the class tJjj-laJl

(or dijis.) \^Ai ^)j ^

^^j*-^ \i^'o (^Jtl* v-?-i.- ), which is charac-
I 1

terized by the last foot of both the hemistiches ixj^^j^ and ^j*^)y

being affected with the o^-^J known as u^** (the suppression

of the 5th quiescent letter). The metre runs as follows :

The feet are subject to the following modifications (ol-=»3) :

(1) o^* freely occurs in ii^-'j*' and rarely in t^l-h-cffi^ (other
than in i^jj^ and v^-^)j as the melodious flow of the metre
would be disturbed in the latter case.

(the suppression of the 7th quiescent letter) occurs
in ^^^^-o, when it becomes <J-i*lfl/o.

^UfflAAs is subject to either u^' or "-a^, but never to both

simultaneously, in accordance with the rule known as *^ Uxj


Example of scansion—
/ / J / 1 / o/ <>/
U»aJ jj^^i^^X^AJ

^,i* (fix h£ (fix!

The «i»'^ (rhyme) is afliiixi
(free); of the class of sij I

consisting of two moving letters. The poem is^-i-^ii, its ^jj

(the final rhyming letter) being J whose j^^a^ (or the moving ,

vowel) is S^'-S', and /-^ (the vowel letter of prolongation) (^ .

This metre, called di^i^f (for its length), is one of those

most extensively used by the Arabs in all kinds of poetry,
whether epic, emotional, narrative, lyric, elegiac, eulogic and
the like. The length of each line gives ample space for
expressing any kind of sentence or sentences in one independent
line. The dividing of a sentence between two lines is regarded
as a poetical defect, and is technically called (^^^^5 (=:insertion).
No word is also, as a rule, divided between two hemistiches,
{Vide lines 53 and 54 of the 4th poem.)
/ /f J c / / ~ o/ //

Stop, oil vnj two frieyuls, let us weep on account of the
remembrance of my beloved, and her abode situated on the

edge of a sandy desert between Dakhool and Howmal."

*^i^ 1st per. pi. of the aorist from t5 •
j the final j^ apocopated for being^

an apodosis to the imperative '^' •

jussive, being
Such an two friends is very common in Arabic poetry. It
a<ldress to

allufles to the ancient custom of not travelling alone, the number of the

travelling party being generally not less than three.

'^ may be taken as the lightened form of e,'^^ imper. mph. sing. Some

consider the dual form to mean
for emphasis.

1^^.^. obj. of space ( cj ^' '

Oj-li )

in/ / o// / J / j")/ / / / / j/

''And between Toozih and Maqriit, whose traces have not

been obliterated, on account of what has blown and re-blown
over them from the South wind and the North wind.''
The meaning of this appears to be that, though the South wind may blow
the sand over the remains of the encampment, the North wind blows the
sand off agani, and vice versa.
Some commentators iuterpnt tlie line to mean, wliose traces have not
been effaced on account of tiie intertlianging of the North und South winds
aloiie, but fur some other causes besides."

f^y^ is r^^'^ thoufjh in the genitive case on account of '''^'^Iwith i^i^.,

^ i-^, lUaJI ^^jj nuj pioper

for it is t-J.^r'*^'* being of a verbal uieasiire ( )

noun .

i\^suJ I
also =a i)lace where raiu-water collects.
«-ft*i aorist apocopated by (^ from
^ for ^* •
^•»*-^j *-**:! (*^ , is an

adj. clause to \jfi^

^^ the relative
c;** explanatory to pron.

" You will see the duujr of the white deer in the courtvarda
aud enclosures of it, as though they were seeds of pepper.*'
This line expresses the abandonment of the place by human beings.

The second foot in the last hemistich is affected with O^*? which rarely

occurs in it. It stands thus o li" ^J =iiA* ^^ •

^ in the obj. case being subj. ( j*^

) after w^ ; V^ the pred. ( ^*-)
\a the Dom. case.

in/ J - / o j/ o // .»3// / / / / / -//

" the morning of separation, the day they parted it was

as uear the acacia shrubs in the gardens of the
if I, standiiifj

tribe, were breaking the pods of the wild colocynth."

The acid juice of the colocynth causes the eye to water should it get
into it.

^ '"^-^
and are in the obj. case being ^t* J^^**-* (obj. of time).

Here ^^i is o'-^and the sentence '^U*^ is «tyioi^^, and so


indeclinable ( t^-*^ )
and reads with ^"^^ .

and *-** ^^
in the nom. case.
tS subj. after ^D ^^ pred. (^r^^ )

t5*^'' obj. of place {i^^^^j^).

"Mj companions stopping their camels near me in that
place, say,
Do not die of grief, but bear it patiently."
o_^^j pi. of 'j in tlie obj. case being obj. of state ( J ^^) .

iS^'" subj. to the partic. ^^*j •

^^^ in the obj. case by ''.^'j •

U^^J^- An adj. sent, tu tr^"^ showing J ^-^ ; (

= c^i^J
^ ).

in the obj. case being '*•'
Jj*-^^ •

2/ .» o / / o// s/ Oj 5/n/ c /

6 J.?*^ e^'o o"j'>^ ^*^j

'^'^ i-^-** •*. *^l^4'« ^.^ ^j'Aa^ liji J

" cure the flowing tear. But there near

I?ui{ verily my is is

the ruined remains, a place for crying ?"

^^^^ in the nom. case, being pred. (.^-J**) to the subj. *^^ after ij' •

cr* Expletive; it is generally used so with the subj. after

^*. The adv.

phrase ^ ^<^'^^ pred. ;

being obj. of place.

J[y*x jjjgQ means reliance, confidence. The latter part then may be
rendered thus :

"But is there any confidence to be placed in the moulder-
ing remains for solacing me ?"

/ / S ~ / / /''/ n /J ^ III

"As was your experience with Ummul-Huwairith before

her, and her neighbour Ummul-Rabab in Masai."
v' >^ is literally custom, habit, but the meaning of the line is that his
experience with 'Unaizah resembled his experience with the two former

Here the address is to himself. This abrupt change of pronoun forms a

figure of rhetoric, called

oUiJl^l Uy ,

obj. of time ( u^'iV-'loj-t ).

^y'^ in the gen. case, being co-ordinate ( o^^*-*) to ^ I .

V^is^-^V' in apposition (J "^-O with 2j^ . »


" Wheu
they stood up, the odour of uiiisk JifTused from
them, was as the soft breeze of the zephyr, briuging with it the
smell of the clove.''
li/c 15 in the dual form, the sub. being the two ladies mentioned iu tbe
to '
-i '

o^y^'i apodosis

/i— ^ in the ace. case, taking the place of the cognate obj. ^j^
combination of "^^-^l
with which it is in .

o La«.
&c., an adj. sent, to ^-^ '

" So the tears of

my eyes flowed down ou my breast, on
account of tlie teuderness of my love, until my tears wetted
my sword belt.'''
^i '^^ in the ace case being either J '^ or /'•'

Behold, how many pleasant days have you s^ient with
them, and especially the day at Darat-i-Juljul."
U-Jj-* ^ = not the like of; i.e., above all, especially. Here ''*
is expletive

and ^Ji in the gen. case being ^-'lo^'^/o to (/** •

^^i may also be iu

the uom. case; ^^ beingarel. pron., and

^ subj. of rel. clause being sup-

pressed, the sentence in full beiug (*j-

J'* -^ ^ • The former construction

is preferable, ^'^y. may also be in the obj. case, being^-^*^ (obj. of expla-

nation) to
^"^ = LT^ thing.

" And on ivhich

the day I killed my riding camel /or /borf
for the maidens. Then how pleasant was their the

riding camel's saddle, which had to be carried on their camels."

Dardt-i-Juljul is the name of a and the events which happeneil there
areas follows: — During the .coursepool,
of his love affair with 'Unaizah, the poet
followed the women of his tribe down to the Darat-i-Juljul pool to obtain
an interview with her. Whilst the women were hathing, he hid their
clothes, and refused to return them unless the women came out singly and
asked him for them. For a long time they refused, but were at last
compelled to do so, the last to leave the water being 'Unaizah. The
women then reproached him for his behaviour, and complained of hunger
on account of their long fast. He, therefore, killed his ridiug camel, which
they cooked and ate. Having, therefore, none of his own to ride on his
wav back to the encampment of the tribe, the saddle, etc., of his own camel
was divided by the women among themselves for carrying in parts on their
camels, he himself falling to the lot of 'Unaizah, with whom he insisted on
riding on her camel.

(•^i ought to have been in the same case as ^^ in the previous line,

being in co-ordination to it. It is, however, in the objective case ; for, as a

rule, all nouns denoting point or period of time, when followed by a sentence
as '^i-^l o^-'fi'*, are indeclinable and in the objective case. Another expla-

nation offered puts it in the ace. case hy j^ ^^ (

= mention) under.

^^^'^ ^i Here the final '

is a substitute for t^ of the 1st person ; the

sentence in full being ^'^^1 l5^^ 4=0 my wonder, come (this is the
time for yon).

O for wonder at its being unsaddled after that it was
saddled; and wonder for the slaughterer [i.e., the poet
himself), regardless of his own interest."

Jt>»xAAj (literally)
= extravagant.

"Then the maidens commenced throwing her flesh (i.e., t)xe

Jiesh of his camel) into the kettle and

her fat like the loose

fringes of white twisted silk round the lean.'*

Some translate the line thus :
— " Then the maidens remained throwing
her flesh at one another &c.
^JJ\iJ|.h siil.j. toi-^-'= (oneofthe'*'<^l-^-"J'-*^J"), tlicpred. Ijciii}: the

•enfc. l:^iJ^J &c.

(*^^ co-ordinate (o^^*^) tO(^.

" And the

day, on which I entered the howdah, the howdah
of 'Unaizah, and she said, Woe to you, verily, you will cause

me to travel on foot.'
She feared the catnel would be unable to carry the double burden.

O'i-*'^ J fcJ^o^J-^ _y-i-c being a feminine proper noun, but here it is made
o^'Ai'* by a poetical license (^*-''l ^Jjj^ )

j<^^ in appos. (J**-?) with J "^^ '.

"She was sayingr, while the howdah was swaying with us,
so dismount.'
*you have galled tny camel, oh Tmra-ul-Qais ;

V in ":? gives a transitive signification to <J^'*» ( ^.'^*-^'-i ).

^^' in the ace. case being ol^^^ ^^ii^^^ .

r. The J in "^j is J^lj'j (

= whiist).

^"•^ of common gender.

" So I said to her, 'go on, and loosen his and do not
repel me from your repeatedly tasted fruit.'

Apparently Imra-ul-Qais wished to kiss her, or take other liberties.

" Let the

young catnel be, and show it no
pity for our riding
together on it ;
and come let us taste i/owr fruit like an apple."
C5^^* fern. sing, from vil»^^ a noun with the sigriiticati'm of the impe-
rative <-^**
( (-•')•
secondary dative obj., and t^-*^ direct obj. tot5°i>i'.

"For wian^ a heautiful woman

like you, o/i 'TJnaizah., I- have
visited at night and
pregnant or giving suck, and I
she ivas
have diverted her thoughts from her child one year old."
c^U/o in the gen. case, governed by Vj unders.
(^'•*^ and ^.J^ in the gen. case, being adj. to 0-^^ .

i-^i^Jci^ apodosis to Vj j its obj. unders.

j»jUj^ o^^/o^Ai being ^_>*^

1^-«'^-« .

j»jUj 4_^,> and dj^"^ adj. to «^J understood.

^ (_5<i literally means, 'possessed of charms,' or 'amulets.' The Arab
children wear charms, which are removed when they are grown up.

''When he the child cried behind her, she turned towards

him with one-half, while her other half was under me, and
was not tui'ned away."

tj^* J &c., an adv. sent, of J^-*- introduced by J ^^'j '_j


*^'_r'^' apodosis to '•* ' i '

— ^«^ subj., iS^ pred.

adj. sent, to c^-*'

CJ^"^-' pass.

Another reading uj'^ (' ( =wh/ch she did not turn away), active, adj.

sent, to (3^5 its object * unders.

" One day on the back of a sandhill she made excuses to

me for not fulfilling my desire and swore an oath to which she

made no exception."
^"^Ji obj . of time ( eJ '•*>•' '
>^J^ )

j_^lf cL)j0.aJ «lso = she proved refractory to me.

— one oatli ;
in the ace. case being (3-^^ J^*A'a
Ia umlcrR. Anoflior reading
tJ^^I^J Act., adj. sent, to *Ala.^ jtsobj.

JJi^"'^-' (= which was not modified with any reservation) ; pass. adj. sent.

21 ^If^ti 0.3 ^xS' .-. JJJ.iJlli.4 o<i*J ^e'^

c5'0"^ OvAxjl jjl_, ^•i^'JI

''Oh, Fatima, gently, p?t^ a.suVZe some of this coquetry, and

ifyou have, indeed, made up your mind to cut off frien(hhip
with me, then do it kindly or gently.
(^^^ 'Unaizah's proper nanae being
. It is
(^^'^C^^^'* (vorative
apocopated), j* may be left with its '^ , or it may be read with '^*^

being dj^^ (j^i^-o .

This line is »n example of ^^^r^-'-^ ', by which both the hemistiches

^^'^ in the aec. case being ip-^'* iJj»-^< to iS^-^^ ''

Another instance of otfi-^J

(uzrfe line
j) I


"Has anything deceived you about me, that your love is

killing me, and that verily as often as you order m^j heart,,
it will do wlxat you order,"

The I at the commencement of this line is the I of question of

appeal, or cf-j^^^*-" j«
i-»Aa-«» i" , (confirmative interrogative,) <-^^* I =-

The nom. to ^j'^ the two following noun sentences intrqduced by lit' •-

•-^^^ is subj. and (^'' ^ pred. after o'.

*-» in the obj. case being subj. after (j '

and cJaSj the pred. (^^ ).
ig stripped of cJ, and ^*^ ends v\ith 'L'***'^, both being ((•jj^^r^)

Jussive, being ^^j-^ and *'3^ respectively-

23 Lt-Aj i^^jLj ^^/o (_^U) ^^l-»i /. <i'iiAl.a.

^x^ cXj >t*c 0.5 «_.^j jji J

"And if any one of my habits has caused you annoyance,

tlieu put away my heart from your hearty and it will be put
i.e.. Give me my heart again.

V -^ here means "he^rt." See ^Jf^ in Johnson's Persian Dietionflry.

Originally "clotlies/' hence "the body enclosed," aad tken "the heart.''

tSsji-Miiii &c., pred. after

^-^ ':
the subj. being the implied pron. in •-^^

referring to /"^•i^-^

is^-^ apodosis to c/l, introduced by «-»• Some read t^^^->^=you may

get rid of love.
2nd pers. fem. sing,
-/j n/ o/ /-o/ o/ „ o/ nf/i f

And yonr two eyes did not flow wit-h tears, except to sti-ike
roe with your two arrows in mij broken heart, conquered by

The two arrows are of course glances from her eyes.

Here the allusion is to the game of «7-~'i*-'

. A camel (^J_>'=') was
slaughtered atwi divided into- ten portions, for which the players contended
by casting bladeless arrows,
marked with portions to be won. Here, by

thetwo arrows are meant the two called J^^**-" and 'r*-i'^-' ', thi' former
winning seven and. the latter three portions, and thus the two together the

^jj^yJ 2nd pers. fem. gen. sing.

num. stripped of ti> under the Govern-

ment of J of i-^-!:^*^ .

ti'Vft'* also = cut into pieces.

A.nd many a fair one, concealed behind the purdah, whose


tent cannot be sought hy ofhers, have I enjoyed myself by

playing with, without hastening my departure/'"
~ -' "

J = vj governing

^'^i-? in the gen. case.

He speaks of her as *'^h^ (an egg),

on account of her virginity, purity of
colour, and keeping away from public

C^j^y . Ac, is an ntlj. sent, to ^^i-i .

'^^^^^ &c., sent. a])ocl()sis to VJ •

«-^^*^^i* adj. to^-S-' .

''I passed by the sentries on wafch near licr, and a people

desirous of killing me, if they coxdd conceal my tniirder,
being uiiahh to assail me oppidy."

Another reading ^-i l^^l '^i^s =z I passe-d through doors. Also i'l>*' =

Another reading cjjj'^i^' = if they could give puhlicitj to.

^'./^ pi. of U^:!^-*- adj. to 'j-i*^ .

passed by these people at a time, when the Pleiades
appeared in the heavens, as the appearance of the gems in
the spaces in the ornamented girdle, set with pearls and gems."
{j^^S.A) z= divideil. Said of a bracelet or a necklace of pearls or precious
stones, between every two of which a pearl of a different size or another
sort of gem is set.

0««r*-' Ip.fin. in the obj. case being cog. ohj. ( (3^'^'* J^**^).

"Then I came to her, when she had taken off her clothes for
sleep, except /it'r
night garnient; and she was standing near
the screen of the tent."
<X^J := In ohj. case, being obj. of exception ( j_y^.^^~.-<i ) .

<J..^£A/c = the Wearer of a single garment (called

^'^ and *i-»^*
) to cover

the body. /

/ n /^/ / / If /O <7/ f I / ^ / I r, f

"Then she said ^0 me, 'I swear by God, you have no excuse

for what you are doing, and I cannot expect that your erring
habits will ever be removed from your nature.'

Either o^t-^i may be iu the nom. case heing '

i>>-*'^^ and ^s^^ pred.

unders, ; the full sentence being is^^ *--'

'c^-i+i (
= God's oath is on me) ;

or it may be in the obj. case being (3 •^'*'

^^^^ under,
'^^ pred. (^^) •
^^^.-^'subj. (I*^^-*^),

c)l expletively used with the negative ^•*.

is^^ a sent., secondary obj, to (^j

' •

Prose order— ^^ CS^^^"* '^- '-?*''

^^) W ^^J
' '

= device, stratagem, trick.

" Excuse" seems to be rather the
**'i'=^ liter.

meaning here.
£ /^ //'O/ O / f / / / ij f_
I J r, / /

" I went out with

her; she walking, and drawing behind us,
over our footmarks, the. skirts of an embroidered woollen
garment, to erase tJie
/ •
,. .,

Another peading is (j^'^

I walking. ^5'*'' '

and^^s:-' a(jy_ ggnt. AiJl^ "^U^

= (a. garment), embroidered with designs of saddles, bridles, &c.,
on the skirts.

*'jj in the obj. case being /*•!:* J.^*^'*, obj. of place (ci^*^ '


/r, I I ri / j"^ I
iri/^ ^ / '^ If / /o/ /:;//

" Then when we had crossed the enclosure of the tribe, the
middle of the open plain, with its sandy undulations and sand-
hills, was sought by us."

"^ L?^ ' = carried us to the side of. V for *J <>'•*' transitive signification.

Some commentators consider i^'^ '1 to be the apodosis of ^ , the j being

expletive ;
others take ^5^ 'to be co-ordinate to ^O^' ; the apodosis to ^^
'^•^•"••^ oj IJs ^ = we were merry) or the under. or the next line.
being like, ;

iswl-xs = courtyard, any enclosed space.

'i and ^^'^^^ adj. to ^-J^ •

I drew the two side-locks of her head towards me ; and she
leant towards me ;
i<he was sleuder of waist, hut full iu tho


^^^'^ and ^ij in the ace. c.ise being J'''^ .

of common gender,
being of the measure of <-^-i** and of the force of Jj-*^^ .

^O Fern, of cJ^ J ,
= *'
one whose thirst is quenched," then "full of
" fit."
liquid," and then

Thin-waisted, white-s/tm?2("rf, not fat in the abdomen,
her breast-bones (i.e., breast) shining polished like a mirror."
ea.^s.^< in the nom. case being (^^) to the subj. (' '^i-^ ) is^ under.
l^AJ ij'i 5^c., adj. sent, to </*

In complexion she is like the first egg of the ostrich

*' —
whiteness mixed with yellowness pure water, unsullied by

the descent of many people in it, has nourished her."

j^^. Is the "first and best of anything." j^^. may also be translated
virgin pearl of the first water," in v^hich case the sense of the second half
of the line is more apparent.

jljta^Jl Past part. adj. qualifying U^i^' '

or 5j«^ t

O^ -• '
III the gen. case being '"•i*" oi-^"* ; or in the ace. case being

second, obj. of «t-'l^.

U t A£ ^p^ a„ a,(lj
sentence to^*^ ;
referring to it; or to the beloved,
^ referring to hef.

iJ^-*^ jt^ (Pass, part.) lit. "not descended into."

Another reading.
— tJl^'*^^£ , (act. part.)
= not
sparing', not stinted.

^h* in the nom. case being adj. to^-J;*^; or in the obj. case being obj. of

J ^-^ to ^i^ .

" She turns

away, and shows me her smooth cheek, and is
prohibiting mefi'om caressing her with a glancing eye, like that
of a wild animal, with young, ifAe cZcsfri! 0/ Wajrah."m
That is, there was a frightened ami at the same time a tender look in her
" She intervenes "encounters
S^i^lij ^Wi ^igo means ; with," &c., i.e.,

me with," &c.

Is o^^'^i-^j-h-^ for '•^ ^"<i *-?:*^* .

iys^j '^'i-'

Another reading '^^•^^separated teeth.

JnfZ s/ie sJwiu.'i a neck like the neck of a white deer,
which is neither disproportionate when she raises it, nor

The neck of 'Unaizah was like the neck of a white deer, except that she
wore an ornament round it;

V in O"^ ^^^ expletively used with the pred. ( j^^ ) after (jHr .

»j^^ &c., adj. sent, to '^ir'


•^^7^ In the gen. case, being co-ordinate to !-/!!•*» '

in the preceding line;
so also are ^j* , and
p'^ and O '"^ in the following lines:

" And a perfect head of hair which, ivhen loosened, adorns

her back, black, very dark-coloured, thick like a date-cluster

on a heavily-laden date tree."

(^^*J\^^iyj Adj. sent, to P-^'-

C>j'^\ , o^^>/o^-o for (J*.iiJ\^jj and A^ .

" Her curls

creep upwards to the top 0/ her head, and

the plaits are lost in the twisted {lit. doubled) hair^ and the
hair falling loose."

ijj.^^/c= Ascending. Another reading. *^ 'j3'**'*^'*' in the pass. =

twisted upwards ;^-' '^'^^^ pendent curls. '

j_^A.x/o and C>*lr"* Adj. to j*--^ under.

Another reading — J^-''*^-'' &C. (the pron. ^referring to ^^*)> an adj. sent,

to p^' •

iln(? s/i6 meets me with a slender waist, thiu as the twisted

leathern nose-rein of a camel, and a shank, like the stem of a

palm tree bending over jrom the tveight of its fruit."
\^j^i\z=.[\^Q space between two joints of a cane or a bamboo, ls"^***^
A dj .

to *-'^ '

(JJ <>.-' I
^^^.^^ also = clear in colour like the stem of the
irrigated Papyrus, bent down by saturation.

^jSi^\ adj. to (S'^J.


Some take it to mean J' »>•'' t/^--" i-^ •

c'^^ ci"^.^^-" V-?'JJ'^ =
clear in colour like the stem of the Papyrus growing among u ell- watered
pahn trees, bent down and sheltering it from the sun with its shade.

"In the morning, when she wakes, the particles of musk are
h^ing over her bed;
she sleeps much in the morning and
does not gird her waist with a working dress.
This line is to express the ease of her circumstances.

c5.>» obj. of place ( u ^•" '^j^ )

z*^-' intensive agent from (*"; of common gender, being of the measure

of J.^**j and equal to t-"*^ in force. In the nom. ease, being_^*'^ to

^* U-*
«j* under., or in the gen. case, being in apposition with in l_^» .

<S'^Jo infin. of the 5th eonj. from ^^"^ , a loose single garment worn by
the labouring classes when at work.

O J. / / / O/ ^O // J^> f
1' <
T J-1/.

" Slie which are not thiek, as

gives witb thin fingers^

they were the worms of tlie desert of Zabi, and soft as the
tooth-brushes of the Ishil tree."
The Arabs stain the tips of their fingers and nails a reddish colour with

(J^^J adj. to eJ . understood.

^j ^-^ I
and "-^j '**»'* in the noiu, case, being pred. O^^ )
after U o^.

^jl<«j| pi of o ^J'^ '

a sort of worm found in the saudj. very white ia

the body, with a red head.

i_^jL»< pi. of*-^'^****, a stick used for cleaning the teeth; i>^=**i
the name of the tree from i\hich the best tooth-sticks" are cut, having
very soft fibres.

42 J'M'i-o V*lj i!^-^^ 2j^AAj .-, l*jl^ ,l..2.*jlj

j*llJaJ| ^^ij

*'Iu the evening she brightens the darkness, as if she were

the light tower of a mouk^ a reclusej which is lighted in the
evening to guide travellers."

JJj^-* in the nom. case being pred. after eJ >i •

^—*^ verbal noun. = *'-•'' i j being in the evening.

43 J^^"* i i_j^ (^-- "^j^^ I ^^ 13 ! .'. *j l^ (•i^^


jjj'j i«Ia/c ^i\

" Towards one

her, the wise man gazes incessantly,

lovingly, when she well proportioned in height between th&


wearer of o,
long dress and the wearer of a short frock."
She is of medium stature.

'J^^ An infin. in the obj. case being either (1) ^^ Jj*^'^^ or (2) J^
(^^ obj of place
( u;
^^ '
*->^^ )

^j>i =a long garment ; J>^'* =a short frock.


" The of men are removed after their youth, but

follies my
heart is not freed from your love.'*
V expletively used in the pred. after tjrV •

/ nj / /n/ / f / jj 0/ / / 0/ I j//
45 (_5.U*_^'C^.c*Jl iJ»»J(^Ji-c ^•fi-'^j /. <j3^j>j j^y I
^waii, k_)jil

"Behold, many a bitter contender, as it were, an adviser,

rejn-oacliing me fur my love for you, who was unfailing in his
blame, I have turned him back /rom his reproaches."

C^y J
and (jt'^^-*^-!:-^ adj. to (*^^ .

/J v>
i>j apodosis to Vj •

cJ l*^*-* a verbal noun, expressing intensity.

agent of the 8th conj. of for^-' •

' '

j_^iJ^/o J^-'

" And many a night like a wave of the sea has let down its

curtains upon me, with all kinds of griefs, tliat it

might try
C5"^^ affected by J of J-h^*J but the /^^ is omitted on account of

making the rhyme. Its object is^ under.

Prose order is^-r^^^/ .

/o/ / / s /o / / /o/ o^ .. // s;/ / .»oj/

"Then I said to him, {i. e., the night), when he stretched his
loins and followed it with his buttocks and removed distant
his breast."

V for *iii>*3, giving a transitive signification.

By breast, the early part of the night is meant ; by loins, the middle ; by
buttocks, the latter ])art.
The natural order here seems to be precluded by the rhyme and the


^ *' ^ <^ tf <»• **

thou, long night, be brightened by dawn, but the


morning is not preferable or swperior to you in my opinion,

still continues the same.'"
for the jpain of separation
Another instance of ^.J'^^ vide ;
line 21 .

iS^}-^ I
in the nom. being "iy^-* (^^•^^ vocative single.

V expletively used with '-^^'* '

5 the pred. {j^^) after the negative
'•^ •

What a wonder you are as a night, a nigJit whose stars are
as it were secured by ropes of hemp to a firm rock."
The night seems long to him ; the light of the stars is not paled by the

approach of dawn.

O-* explanatory (^-J^J^-hJ) of ^ .

y^J^^ cjl^, &c,, adj. sentence to<-^i-'.

Here oi>^ or Sjj<i«'«*^ (

= secured), the ^-^ after cjl^ is understood,
being obvious from the context.
In some copies, instead of this one line, there are two running as below :

J Aisk ^*tf j_5.j

^^ U/ (^ I^A3
,-. t^/o
j_y>* tj
^ (^

" O wonder for thee, a night, of whom the stars, as if it were, are tied
firm with very strongly twisted rope to the Mount Yazbul.
As though the Plieades are secured firm at their position by means of

ropes of hemp to solid stones of a rock."

/ » ..

adj. to <-'"J^ unders. /'^ pi. of
jU/o adj. toj.^^'*' anders.

pred. sent, to /"^^^ subj. after u^ •

*^»^* kj^
pred. sent, to
subj. after cjl^ .

" Aud mauy a leather water-bag of the people, I have placed

its strap over my shoulder, submissive, and repeatedly saddled
wiOi it."

•^-^•"^ , &c., sent., apodosis to j (

= Vj)-
jy 3 and cU^ adj. to <-i*l^ .

-/jO / 0/ J n^ j^n// n/ o/o o// //

" Aud many a valley like the plain of 'Aer, a sterile desert,
have I crossed, in which the wolf was howling like the gam-
bler with a family to support.*'

j^ is explained in two ways :

(a) a substitute to suit the metre, for its

synonym J '•=^ , name of a certain unbeliever, who possessed a valley,.

which for his infidelity God rendered waste and unproductive ; ib) the asa
whose belly contains nothing of which any use is made.
^^ adj. to
^ 'j •

z^*'^* apodoBis to J
= ( V^)-
c-*jiJ Aj I

adj. sentence to
'j ; *-^
being pred, and V'*'*-'' subj.

(S^*-- adj. sent, to V-^ '^' '

=A gambler who always loses the game ; or one repudiated by
his family.

s;//s:/ / oj / ^ / ///SI /x/j/jOjj

52 J^U o.i^ u>l L?J^-"ul^^5 /. UiLi ^yl ^^^clJ i.) osjlfli

*'I said to him, {the wolf,) when he howled, our business is

small vi the way of wealth, if you also have never been pro-
Ui=/»J, being expletive.

ij-vli adj. phrase, pred. after cji .


J J* J U pred. sent, to
'^^ •

J^*J a syncopated form of J^*^-» .

jussive by (' )

/o/ / /o/ / 0/O//O// ir I so/ / I / I / /

" If either of us obtains atiytliing lie makes away witli it,

and he who cultivates after the wanner of my cultivation and

your cultivation will become thin."

He is now boasting of his generosity which does not allow him to keep
^^^ subj. (I'i^^^ ).*3lil p,.ecl. sent, to ^'i^>.

ijj.i'si and '^j-H jussive, being ^j^ and * '^^ respectively.

^ij^ J iS^j^ in the ace. case beiug (3^"»-« J_^*5^ .

/O/ / / 0/ / Oj // J jO- / /o/ / /

''And verily I started in the early morning, when the birds

were still in their nests, on a Jwrse well-bred, long bodied,
outstripping the wild beasts in his gallop."

^i^-'lj , &e., adv. sent, of J^^, introduced by J^^ 'jL>.

<^^^'° adj. qualifying crjr* under. It means either "having short or

little hair," or sharp and vigorous in pace."

/ joi ^s / o / jOj / a / n ^ oj ^f ^/

"Attacking, advancing, retiring, wliichever I wish,

and jofntly qunlities , being like the boulder of
ici^/i aZZ if/

a rock, which the torrent has hurled down from on hio-b, in his

face, force, and invulner ability." \.\jt^^ ^^)

_y^-* and^^'^ are intensive adjectives from_r^ and^' ; while cJ-J^-* and

j,j<X< are agents from Conj. IV., in the gen. case, being adj. to '^j^^'^ ',

so also are '^^.'^, C/'4^, «**>-*j^^_;'> and C.-^"^ in the following lines.

Or these adjs. may be in the nom. case, being pred. (^-J^) to the subj.

( \<^'^) >* under.

^^=^ , &c., alj. sent, to ^^^ .

"Of a bay colour; ^e is eucJi that he causes tlie numuali to

slip offthe middle of his back, as a smooth stone causes the

fulling rain to slip off."

J>! , &c., adi- sent, to *^^>^ .

Another reading ^^J^ JSri (intran.) = the numnab slips, &c.

^j made trans, by V ( for *J >>*•'


Jj.aV| = anything alighting. Adj. qualifying j^-^ \ j^^ ^

, iJ-it-^',

and the like under.

In spite of his thinness, he is very lively, and when the
heat of his temperament boils over in him, his snorting is as
the boiling- of a kettle."
t^^ =
"contrary to," "in spite of."
U" -^ intensive adj. ( from u^ ^^ to
, boil or become excited)'.

Some read V^*-' '

= in spite of successive gallops.

0^^_j^ t^l-0 pred. to (*ly*' subj. after a^-

s; /.^'^ o /o / /j '">
/•)// //^ / / J ' xi / S/

At full gallop, at a time when the swift horses, on^ ac-
count of fatigue, raised up the dust on the rough ground
beaten by their hoofs."
i. e., the other horses^ from fatigue, dragged their feet along
the ground.
intensive adj. =:
pouring forth, in his galloping.
cl^^Ljl subj. (

'>*^^), the pred. O'*-^) being the sent. cLr>', &e.


The light boy slips off his back, and he throws away the

garments of the heavy rough rider."


The wind, made from the speed of his gallop carries off the hat and
cloak of his rider.

V ( for ^i'^*-^ ) gives trans, signification to is^ - •

Another reading "-^^ '

J^j =He causes the light boy to slip-

^ *" ««•

V^ery fast, like the top of a cliild, the successive working
of his two hands with the connected string, has spun it well."

'^JJ'^^ a child's toy of the top species, consisting of a small piece of

skin, attached to which are two strings, joined together. On the strings
being pulled with the fingers the top turns round very rapidly.

*j^ I
, &c., an adj. sent, to ojj<J>^ .

, ^ ss " " Si ss

He has the flanks of a buck, and the legs of an ostrich, and


the gallop of a wolf, and the canter of a cub."

^J to the *^j^ and
pred. [j^^) subjs. (''^^'<,) ^%', ^'^'^,

/o/ / / 0/ /n/j / j/n/z/ j/T/ o/o / £?

62 J>^'^ CT"-' U^J^' (3i.>^ tilz-ij .•. Ai^yO.*^ *Jj.J

O.A«| lil

''Well shaped, itji^/i ^/licA; andb strong sineivs: if you

stand behind him, he shuts the place between his thighs
from view, with a tail, ample, hanging little above the earth,

which does not incline to one side (or is not crooked)."

ii.A« ii>^-«» I I
i I
a complex adj . sent, to ^J:^-^ .
iA.j> rij'i

ci^ adj. to V^ <>

under.; so also the sent. Jy^''-'. cT- •

(jij* diminutive of c3->* , obj. of place (o^-'l o^-l=) .

V expletively used with the pred.

after lj^^' •

/o/ ^1 1/ o/ ji J // * / o/o // ^/ / :: /

"As if, when he was standing in front of the house, his back
was the stone on grind up mush for the 'perfuming
wJiich then
of the bride, or the stone on which theij break up the colocynth

'J^ in the ace case being ^ '^
and '^•iV '

obj. of place

ojJ=) to ^jl*.

»^l A/o and ""i^^ in the nom. case being (^^^ after cjl^.
pred. )

Another reading — l5^ 'M^il <*a./c

j^j;A\«JI ^ji ^^= As though the
top of his loins, when he inclines to a side (or when it, the top, comes to
view) were, &c.

Anotlier reading of the first hemistich is ^'^ ' '«> M-^a ti>-?:-^-^-»-'
tl^ ^yl^

= As if, on the two sides of bis loins, when he shovvs his sides, or leans
on a side, there is the stone, &c.

Here*-^''^* and ^i^'O are in the obj. case, being subj. (f**^') after

cj 1^ , the pred. being i^i^^*^ '

^^ .

Another reading *jlr*=3 ellow and ripe colocynth; also ^'jj^ =smooth-
ness or clearness.

"As if the blood of the leaders of the herd on his neck

were the juice of Henna in combed white hair."

His overtaking the van of the herd indicates his holding the whole herd
nt his mercy.

*'•*'> in the obj. case, being subj. after \i)^ the pred. being ^y^^^ .

" Then there

appeared to us a flock of wild sheep, the ewea
of which were as the virgins of Duwar in long trailing robes."

J 'j >i name of an old Arabian idol.

&A,Wi lyl^^ &c.^ adj. sent, to V-T**-

iSJ^*^ in the nom. case, being pred. after lyS .

* ^'^ <ff^'^. Here ^^-^ which

plu. of «-^i«*"'
agrees with is masculine
in form.

n J /n / ^^o j/ / z /j"! 0/0/ /o/ o//

"They turned round for jiiglit, and were as tlie shell clearly

marked, {or variegated hij gems), on the neck of a hoy, whose

relations on both sides are distinguished in the tribe.^'

The flock was composed of black and white sheep.

^*"* lit., having a paternal uncle from ^'^ ; u ^^ having a maternal

uncle from J '-^j the meaning being that his relations on both sides were

distinguished. Both adjs. qualifying is^ under.

and /*!;? =
^j'^ is a black and white shell; either tJ^fi-*-'!
separated by
other interposed gems which set them off to advantage; or it would appear
to mean that the markings on it were distinct, the colours not running
into one another.

" He caused us to overtake the foremost ones, while besides

them were those which remained behind in a crowd, which did
not disperse."
The horse overtook the foremost of the flock, before it had time to

Another reading is y^jC> = near him (
the horse).

^^"^ i) &c., adv. sent, of J '^ ,

inti'oduced by J ^j '
'j . ^h i>
obj. of

place, and pred. (^^^); ^^j^^y^ suhj.

ij-c ^j9 r=either ;" in a herd" ; or " in a clamour.'

»./ /
^O^ (' adj, sent, to j=>- 'j^ •
Syncopated form of dtyi ,
in , / I o// / / „ / ' ^ ' .
o//o/:»/ ///

" lie killed one after tlic other, a bull ;iud a cow, overtaking
them, and he did not break out into a sweat that he should bo
i-^'^^- , in tlie acP. case beiiiir (3 J^*fi>c .

eHiJ , ohj. of place ( u ^-^ '

<-ij^ )•

o '

^ an infinitive used as J ^^ •

cl~>*-i* Jussive, beini; in co-ordination to (being *J~*:!
^'^^i ^' , ^^^ j ;


orapodosisto «r'^H c* nnders.

"Then the dressers of meat wore, apart of tliem, baking'

slices of roasted meat placed in line, and another part were
boiling quickly in the kettle."

^^j.j ^K ^p^ ^ prepositional adverbial plirase pred. after '^^ .


_^'^> ill the gene, case liein^c /-•'' o ^'-s-*'


obj. of ^'^^'*'

J^ "^^ ill the gen. rase being /?:•'
o '"^^ to
and co-ordinate to '^*:^'^ , which also admits tlie gen. case, as being

" We returned in the evening, and tlie eye almost failed io

fur when the eye was

liiti beaut ij ;
raised to see
the upper part of him, it was h)wered, ^ytVigf attracted bij

ht-anty of the Incer part."

•i'^J &c., adv. sent, of J^-^.

yiy'^j^'^H pred. .sent, to -^ Si •

6y and t-^-«~J are jussive, being ^j^ and *'^^ respectively afteru*'*'

Syncopated forms of O./^^ and -'4-'^.


Another reading (Jft««3.

inj /o/ s / o 0/ / / / jj / / jj n^ II ^ 1 1

" He passed the night with his saddle aud bridle on him he ;

iu my ejesight^ without being sent

passed the night standing
to the stable/^
'' ''
and j^^ in the ace. case being J -^^ •

^=>.j-^ /.j;i£ &e., adv. sent, of J^-^*- ; ^^j"^ and '*-*

^^ being subj. and ''•^.^*


Oh^ my companion, do yon see the lightning, the glittering
of which I am showing you like the flashing of the two hands ;

in the thick collecting crowned clouds,"

(*^j'^ ^j
^ ^^'^
from V-=»> ^'^ the final V being suppressed, and so it

remains with its own A^'^ i. e., ij'^.

adj. sent.
/acj;/Cj (J^Jj t.o 'V- •

iSJ^ interrogative ;
'^^ or '

being under.

.«-*^>>'«= either crowning, encircling, or flashing with lightning.

/ J I

Another reading J-=^

' = '—J
'^ Harith.

Another reading Ciy. l?

' =^ assist me iu seeing a lightning.

z.'. J i /o:;/// I n I I I J / / ij

" Shines the the lamps of a monk, who has

glory of it, or, lilie

'dipped' in the

J bi.J b ^iX^i t

the well-twisted wicks."

t = isA^J b
J Ij i.J 1
An example of inverted

coub-truction. An adj. sent, to V''^ 'j .

Another reading -tj;!^,' Ij^

U I = ^jjj not spare the oil, used it

Ut = considered as of no value.

l^,c in the i)reccdiDg line.

ill tiie gen. case, being co-ordiuate to f*-'

Or in tlio obj. casc,^ being iiml.; or in tlio uom. case, being subj. to f^'^i >

co-onlinatc to S^-****; or with tlic implied word qualified I)y ^'•^ in the

preceding hnc.

-//j//o/ n / ji /n/ /// n/ r,j I / j / ,

"I sat. down with my companions luaitinci for the rain

between Zurij and 'Uzaib after regarding the lightning


{j^^.^'° (pi. of V"^*' ) in the nom. case, being co-ordinate to the implied
-* .

in cixi.*.' l/o and ^^ =

1st pers. pron. implied .
expleti\'e ^s^'^ (ver. no.) my
e_ in /

observing atfcentiveh'. (^l-^l^^/oU

o.*j ;§
interpreted also thus :
— »^*-? is a
I J'
syncopated form of the past tense '^*-i It, the cloud, the object of my earnest
observation, was far.

Another reading '^*'^ = (distance) in the obj. case being (^>i'-*'^j with

^i under. It= ^5-'^'*=

^^^ '-^
'^*-/ ':! = O great tvas the distance of the object of
my earnest observation.

" In that the right of its

looking for the rain, ?/'e guessed
downpour was over Qatan, while the left of it was upon Satar
and beyond it upon Yazbul."
These places are very far apart, hence the magnitude of the storm is


cr*d '
sub. , i:}^* is pred.
a / / / /

Another reading
is • It then = As voc guessed from the
observation of the lightning and other signs of rain, its right downpour
topped Qatan, &c.
«Jj <-^*^-' used as
"^-i is o^'^^^'o ^J;i , being

uj j and ^^-^ , but here

V4r^-*'« for the necessity of the rhyme.


j'^// /o/ o/ / i J /n/j / I J /n i. jf o//

" T/iestorm commenced pouring out its waters over Kuthai^

fah, overturning uj^on their faces the big trees called Kanah-

cJ^ii '
pi. of e^^ i ,
lit. a chill, The upper branches of the tree is what
the word signifies here.
Another *^-^' iJ^ c,'^ =^ from what collects at; each interval

of raining ; and also **^^ J'^ c^* = from each water-course.

n < -

pred. after l?^'^


'^H adv. sent, of J ^-^ to * V'.
0/ _j / o^o J I in// // / //;;/ /

" Then there

passed over the hills of Qau^n from the spray
ofit, that ivhich was so very violent that it caused the wild

goats to descend from every haunt in it."

He describes the violence of the storm.

f*-^* pi. of f*-^*

' = A
gazelle or a mountain goat, whose foie-legs are
white above tlie pastern, or of a colour different from tliat of other parts.
J./ / nj /o/
Another reading of the first hemistich ^-^^r^ (Ji-'.' I

(^^ id'-J:""?-? 4^^' J

= "It settled it?elf on tnouiit Bus3'an at night." ^^ y.i^^^ ^ = placed

its breast, like a camel.

O 4"~^ a dipt.(o_r'^-^-*^»'!:-^) for ^^.*'-^ and c> 'j but here used as a triptote

( o^-xa^Aj) ^ by a poetic license.

/o / !. n / ^ ^ jj, /o/. / n / njo/ -'
/ /o/ /

" And at Taimaa it did not leave the trunk of a date tree
standing, and not a building except those strengthened by
hard stones."
*'-*^J in the ace. case hem'; jh.-^^ ^

-^^ij^ J^ i»)j.^^jl ^

V**'*-' ^^^^ ^^ the verb ^4"^^ diverted from

i.e., (*^
is it to govern the
^* to ^*-t '

jjfOQ. referring to it. '•^•Ji'**'^' adj under,


"As if Tliaboer at tlie first downfall of its rain was a great

one of tlie people, wrapped in a striped cloak,

sj,*--* L'" pl- of c;^-'^^ the prominent part of everything, especially the


bridge of the nose, ^^.j pi. of L>J ^ .

0.m^jo being an adj. qnalifying_?-?i^^ should have h^en in the nom. case,
but it is affected by its proximity to C! '^'^ which is in the gen. case.

Another reading >^0j u'iJ^ '

^J^J '
c)''^ = As if Aban in the diver-

sities of its showers.

"As if in tlie niorning the summit of the peak of Mujaimir

by reason of the flood and the debris round it, were the whirl
of a spindle."

Another reading *^-^-*-' I


^J*^-^ obj. of time ( cJ ^"^j^


^j^ ).

pred. after c) i^ j Cf-!^*^ being the subj.

E /jO O 1/ / jj jf /j / /o/ o/ /

81 ^•=*-' I
V ^•f:*-'

cfj 'i-'
J^->^ .•. ^'^ '*^
* l^'^'^-

"And t]ia cloud poured out on the desert of Ghabeet its

goodsj {i.e., rain;) and, it resembled the arrival of Yemaui mer-

chant with his trunks loaded ivitk rich clothes.

The desert became bright with grass and tlowers.

J^ in ace. case being (3^-* J_^*** .

As if in the morning the small birds of the valley Jiwaa had
taken a morning draught of old, pure, spiced wine."

Spiced wine is supposed to have great effect on tne conversational powers.

Tlie birds were, as it were, intoxicated with delight.

h*^^ dimin. of « ''^•^

obj. of time, ( (^^'^Jr-'
^j^) .

U'^' pred sent, after c^li .

83 iS^CJ)^ f^yiVi\ ^c^'^^^ A^J^^. .'. *•*•-*•«=

\J^j^ /"J:* a ^'-«'' I
cJ f^

As if in tlie evening the wild beasts in it disowned in the
furthest parts of it, (i.e., tlie valley Jiicaa,) were the root-bulbs
of the wild onion."

They were covered with sand and dirt.

c?'^-^ pi. of (Sij^ obj. of J ^^ .

^i--*^ obj. of time { ty '•^J-' '

^^^ ) •

O^ii ^^ '
pred. after CJ
^ .
^.jjiUJl iJ^Ji-^^iiJl


Ascribed to Tarafah, son of 'Abd-il-Bakii, from tlie tribe of
Bakr-ibn-Wuil. Tarafah is his title, and his name is 'Auir-
bin-ul-'Abd, and ho also was one of the poets of the days of
Paganism, and he lived after the time of Malik-ul-Zilleel, ttio
writer of the first Qasidah.
about the origin of this poem tliat the poet's
It is said
brother Ma'bad reproached him with neglecting the camels
of his father, and allowing himself to indulge in poetical
reveries. Ma'bad one day said to him tauntingly, " Can you
recover the camels by virtue of your poetry, should they ever
be lost?" The poet assured him tlmt his poetry would never
fail to recover them when lost. Ma'bad, in order to try him,
neglected the camels, which were carried away by some people
of the tribe of Muzar. The poet wrote this poem, applying to
'Amru, Qaboos and a chieftain of Yaman for their assistance, and
thus succeeded in getting the camels back, besides a hundred
head more as a reward.
The metre of this poem is the second of 'J^^-' the same
that of the
first poem; the A^'^f also is the same.

/ o//
.J I,



Kl)olah is tlie name of his mistress.

Traces refer to the marks left near a former encampment of her tribe, as
in the first poem.
*-'^-=*' read with ^^ *j being yJjf^^'^j^^ , on account ot'^^''^-' and (^•^.

^h^^ pred. ; J ^-1= I

sul.j. (


^^^' adj. sent to J

^-^ '

In some copies the sec6nd hemistich r«ns thus :

6>ki\ ^J}\ ^^J t
J (J-^Jl'f^
o^ilia =: "Where I remained weeping arid

making others weej) till the next day o)i account of the reminiscences of
the past.

" '

My comrades, stopping their camels there iiear me^ say, do

not die of grief, but bear it bravely.'
This is a remarkable example of •^j 'j^-^
or ^•^j 'j*" • The two poets
J^J,,^ &3j.jc came by a happy chance to say the same line, only
differing in the rhyme, independently of each other. It is said th;it Tarafah
was suspected of having misappropriated the line, and had to prove by
evidences that he said the line on the very same day as Imraul-Qais, but in
a difTerent place.

3 <i 'i
k-io l_jiJ
L iijL ., S
J (i.^
<5AxJl*Jl_.j0..a. ^\^
^ t' ^ ^ ^ ^ t-^ ^ ^^

/O/ / =0/ j~ /o / > j/ / o / o / - //

4 ^s^'^'H J b-y^ z ^*''

^^- '> ^^' '*• ^'^ ^- ^^- ^^'^ ^"^-^ '


camels, with the howdahs on the

As if the Malikiau
movnina; of departure iu the water-tracts of the village of

Dad, were the big ships of 'Adoal, or the vessels of Ibni

Y^raiu, wliich the sailors at times steer out of the straight
course, and at times guide straight.''

Jj*^-" a small town on the shore of the Persian Gulf, where ships used
to be built. The poet compares the camels travelling to ships' tacking.

pi. of a camel's hovvdah for the conveyance of women. In

^j(>A. ^«>A.

the obj. case, being subj. ((**') »fter U^ , prcil. being k^ in the nom.

The J cA-e I^aJ t J

prepositional phrase
u;-* goes with ^J**^ »•"' °"''

with t^t^^ .

gen. case, being adj. qualifying Uf*:^*^

AaJjiXc i,j ti^e

'40-?^" &c., adj. sent, to u^^-*.

*" -» ^ ^ ''

" Their bows cleave the ripples of the sea, as the divider of
the saud-heaps separates the dust with his hand."
agent, from ^t!^* (3rd conj.)
to play the game, called J '-J:^. TliIs

game is played somewhat as follows :

Some small article, such as coin or ring, is buried in a heap of sand, the

players all staking similar amounts. The heap of sand is then divided by
one of tlie players, (calledthe ^i ^'^ ) into a number of smaller heaps
— one
for each player — the player in whose heap the article is found wins the

This line is an instance of the defect in rhyme, called s-^^iS\, or the

repetition of the same rhyming word, ^^} '

used *vith the same meaning
within 9 lines.

/ 0/ / jT J O/ O ^ /j 5 / /I/ "^ JJ^/ / n/ ^ / r,

" And in the tribe there is one like a young gazelle, with
the Ardk tree to obtain its
deep-coloureJ lips, shaking fruit,

but wearing double strings of pearls and emeralds."

The prose order is '^j*^

U^^-H! ^^J^ I
^ jj (.Ji


icj^ '
, -?*
) and {j^ ^^ (in the ue.\t line) adj. to u '^ ^ •

U^^i&c, adj. sent, to eJ >i .

O Li
subj . and LS^ '

(/* pred.

/nil I n I I n / J ;j // ^ in/ Ijs -> /

" A her rjoung, mid

doe, who has left is
grazing with the

herd in a dense grove, eating the edges of the fruit of the

Arak trfee, and clothing {or covering) herself with its leaves J^

t^*L>^ &c., Jj^^ &c., and fc^i^^^ o53J. sents. to Jj^^.

J j«^^ either = 'that leaves her young behind to join the herd ;' or 'that

lags behind or keeps aloof to attend her joung.'

''And she is smiling with her

deep red liips, and shows teeth
likea jessamine blossoming in a damp sand-hill, situated in
the midst of a plain of pure sand."
Lit. whose ( i.e., the jessamine's) sand-hill is damp.

Her smiling lips are as an oasis in a sandy desert. Rather hard on the
rest of her face. The poet makes amends for a somewhat doubtful compli-
ment in line 10.

''^•^ under.
iS*^ adj. to

adj. to {= jessamine) under, wt^; pred. being
'j^^'*' '.^^=^
subj. after
lijx.i (
JiQr tooth) under.

<J^^ mast here be translated "situated in the midst of;" J ^-^ Cf^

LS-Jd ='m the meantime.) An adj. parenthetical clause to '•^^J^ '.

U^<^ snbj. of
^^^ .

^jj^^ W^ Sec, an adj. sent to ts*-'


The prose order of the latter part is u^-^ >i J-'-^"'

'_>^^ f

U__^) J,/o__,J l_^.:^

'^•'*'^'' = Ji7.) as if a jessamine with blossoms, whose damp
sand-hill of growth is situated in the middle of pure sand, is her tooth.

9 <>,*)lj A>.j£
J^ us^f .-. ^jUJ 2) I jj»-*^Jl iftjit iSia.-.

''The rays cf the sun have watered her teeth all but her
gums^ which are smeared with colljrium, while she does not
eat {lit. bite) anything against tlie collyrium so as to affect
its colour.''

»tjf, «^i' or **•:!'= light, beauty, or

ray. Plur.
or *^1.
^ '•^•'
in the ace. case, being (^>'*~-<< (^the object of exception).

The prose order is *-!:^*

f**^^ /•' J '^' '^ >-i««I ,

^Wj «-JJ-w| ,1
pass. a,ij. seat, to ^ ^*-' .

AaLc J '^
^ii,^ ^; j j^jIv. sent, of '•'^
, introduced !)> J 'j
j .

-//_// o- „/ // /// 0/0/ /oj: -// o//

" And she smiles u-itJi a face, as if the sun Lad thrown his

ma,nt\e of brightness upon it, pure of colour, which is not


^^j in the gen. case, being co-ord. to l?*-^

in line 8.

jj^^U l^jt^ &c.^ and >i>>s'^|«-' adj. sents. to ^^J >

^-' '

&c., pred. sent, after tu'^.

L5-^ adj. to ^^j .

" And as for me, verily, I banisli my grief at the time it

presents itself, by the help of a thin camel, swift in its paces,

wliicli travels by night and by day."
The meaning is that he follows his mistress 011 such a camel. His grief
is on account of his separation from her.

aorist of 4th conj. from (^^'° to go, hence to cause to go, to
Bend away, to repel. It may also be translated, to carry out," when ^A
would of course be translated "intention."

J in (^'^^5/ is for emphasis {'^i^'-^j.

'^^^ adv. of time ( u ^^Jr-*

^j^ )

*^^-' under, in the gen. case) with

f^^J^ (adj. to '^^, being 'Jj'^^'^j^^
on account of the ^ ^
j '^^ *-*' '

J ^'^ *^ '^
adj. of intensity to

^j^-* and (s'^^^^ adj. sents. to *^^^-'''


"J. camel not liable to stumble, whose bones are like the
planks of a bier, whom I guide along the broad road, which ia

like the back of a ribbed cloak."


The wheel marks on the road causefl it to appear like a ribbed cloak.

(i)^-*' in the gen. case, being adj. to ^^-^^^ in the preceding line; or

in the nom. case, being pred. \j^^) to subj. c?* under. So also ''Ji-' '^ and

f'^^j in the next line.

t^jl^j adj. sent, to CJ^^'.

/•^'^ &c., adj. sent, to V^^ •

Another readies ^*-' *^'~"' = whom I drove with a stick.

13 '^^.j^jf^j^iSJ^'^^^^^^ •'• '*'^ ci-'^-^-' ^^^^j ^^-"»'^

" A she-camel, strong as a male-camel, stroug-bodied, who

trots as though she \yere a female ostrich, who is avoiding a

male, scanty of feathers^ and of an ashen grey colour.'

The female ostrich moves at her smartest pace on these occasions.

*Ua..j =hard (like U'ir^J 5 a rocky tract of land); or large of cheeks

(S '^y^ adj. sent, to *?;-' '*=^; so also '^J ^, &c.

i^ji^ adj. clause to *^ *

y jK a diptote o^/^i/o^j;* for d*.sJ ^^j j and \ *^ (adj. to (^^^^

under.). So also '^O'^ which is, however, used as o^-^oj./c for the

necessity of the rhyme.

:z/j r> / /o/ s / s / 0//0// / s -»

" She rivals the

well-bred, swift-travelling camels, and she
places her hind feet iu the marks of the fore in the well beatea
1st ^^i^j dir. obj.; 2nd ^^-it^j secondary obj. to "^^-i"^ ^

CJ* obj. of place ( o ^-^ '

o^J= ) .

" She
grazed in the spring on both the stony sides of
the valley amongst milkless she-camels, grazing the meadows

of a valley whoso richest parts are watered by constant showers,

and which abounds in herbage."

Jy*" irreji; pi. o£

^^i^ .

^s*'^y (fcc, adj. sent, to tlie implied suhj. of "^^^y •

(Jj I jv.a.
ill the ace. case by a dipt. ( o^'^.^-^ j^.^ ) being
i^*^^^ , "^^
'i'j under., /J:-''o!'^^ to (3-5

a^^gill^ij-o jjn^i adj!^. to .

a dipt. ( t-J^'A-*'* ^i-c ) used as i^^'^^^ for the necessity of the


Ig O.J.U t-fli^ I

ot.Cjj J^.a». ^ 3.J .'. j^KJ^Jj V^4•' l>:i'^-o (^J I


" She turns to the voice of the

caller, and guards her honour
with a tail possessed of much hair, from the fear of the attacks
thick of hair."
of a male of a red deep colour,
V--*'* agent of the 4th conj . from v ^^ , V^*- •

{J.^L. (c<^^5 'i-<^-, J'^^ ici ^^^i' 0-^^ (_j

adj. to V'J'i under.

^^^j) obj. of C5^^^-

'-^J^l a dipt. O/'^J"*^-!:* being t-'*^-"cJ j J and *^^; adj. to

(-J*^ under.
/ iji

•^^•^ also = with filth accumulated on his buttocks by the constant whisking
of his tail.

" As if the two wings of a white vulture enclosed the sides

of it, ( i. e.,her tail), pierced into the bone of the tail by the
means o/an awl."
pred. sent, to the subj. is^ '-^^ after (j ^ .

'^, &C., an adj. sent, to ^'^^^ .

li^/-'^ noun of instrument (from Jt^*' to sew leather), hence " awl."

"At times she s^-i'/jes with it, (i. e., </ie ^ai7), the back of
the rearmost rider, and sometimes upon her
dried-up udders,
devoid of milk, like an old leathern bottle."

The verb 'rL/'*-' {

= strikes) under.
obj. of place (ci^*-" o^^).
'jJ-^ and ^j^'^ obj. of time (eJ ^''Jr-'


She has two tliighs, the firm flesh in which is perfect, as
if they were the two gates of a lofty palace with polished

o'<>.^ subj. C'^^^'o); '«•'

being pred. (^^^) .

<-^*^ '
&c., adj. sent, to c)
I >i>^* . So also the sent. '^^^ &c.

V ^^, dual in tbe uom. case, being pred. after (jj'j •

'-^i^'* adj. to^'^^ {

= palace) under.
s;/ 0/ n zj C-/ '^/ / jj jj .^ I'^l //iff
20 '^AiA;^ t-y''^^ '^^•' *-'-r^ 'j •'• y^y^=>' 1^'^=^^ Jl^^o ^i5j

" And s/ie Aas a firm attachment of the bones of the

one within the other, the ribs joined to which are like bows,
and a neck attached to it by firmly arrayed vertebrae."
Here, M under, pred. {j'i^) to is-^ and *'_/^ •
, the subj. (I*^^^-*).

aJ l^*
Jl^'", pi. of

is^^' '^ ^j'-=»- an adj. sent, to is^ ;

^^J'-^ subj. cs"^'^ '^

J l3:<
= Lj!a^ J (rs'o =„.ell fixed bones.

*-'^^' pi. of (j'j'r^ the inner part of the neck. ».

'^Jx' &c., adj. sent, to *iy^' .

£5 nj , f n f ^ fo f / f j^i t f n t f zi/ 1

21 ^iy^ v'^ '^^' L5'*l.;-'='

J •*• WJ'^^i^J ^i^ ^*«U/ ^jl^

"As if the two lairs at the foot of a wild lote tree surround-
ed them {%. e., her ribs); and the bending of bows under a
strengthened back.''
The arm-pits of the camel resemble the lair of an animal in tbe roots of
tbe lote tree, which her ribs from their strength resemble. The bending
of bows of course refers to the arching of her ribs.

l^j uiSij sent p,.ej j^f^g,. ^^ |^j ^^ U/ , being the subj.


j^ '
111 tlio ace. case, l)cing subj, after c)'^, the adverbial phrase

Aj^/c c_aU
'^'^ , being the jjicd.
«.// / 0/0/ ij/ c// / /o/ //o //

" She has two

strong elbows, very wide apart, as if, when
she is goiug", she wore a strong water-carrier,
carrying two
one-handled buckets."
The water-carrier would hold his arms rather wide to prevent the bucket
strikinc: ajjainst lus legs.

^^Ifli^As s„bj ,
M pred.

^^'^^ ,
&c., adj. sent, to the she-cntnel.

J*^ , &c., prod. sent, to ''^

subj. in the obj. case bj- Oo •

Another reading j*-* \^ o = as if she is made to go; or '_/^

UJ(^ as if

they are made (o go ; or,

are firmly twisted'. In the latter case, '•' ^ &c.»
an adj. sent, to im^^*J"*«

V either = ^ mtli, or to give a trans, signification (


/o/ / /> -f n/'i^^f i/ //o/ ^ i //n/

''Like the bridge of the Roman, the builder of which swore

that it must be enclosed in bricks until it became
h^.j (*-"»' adj. sent, to ij'-^'^' .

j^;i\axaJ ^ aorist, emphatic, passive with J , and liJ of emphasis ; the em-

phjrtic eJ is sometimes changed into (^li^^^'

" i-**J
with -"^
pas. aor. , being governed by t^'*-^ .

/Oj/-/ o» n I jf I / / J I / ^njr, j-^ J

^ , , ^ , , _,

''Reddish of hair under the chin, strong of back,

long of
stride, easy of pace (/i'f., easy going of the fore-arm.)"

*'iJ^4^j according to some Commentators, = descended from a famous

stallion called V *^ ,
In this case <^^^y*-j\ ''•JjJ^f^
= descended from the
stallion Suhab as shown by the hair under her chin.
^J '-7"* Intensive adj. from j to ply.

The several adjectives are iu the nom, case, beiug preJ. after the subj. t#*

K/ / / / J / / / n / /n / / n / /o// //os
25 ^^'^^ i_aAa.«B
j^-sUl 0..^* (4J /. k^s^^\j jy^ Ja# Ia ( o.j

Her hands are firmly twisted, as the twisting of a ?'ope
epuu upwards, and her fore-arma incline towards her as yillars
to a well propped-up roof/^
The muscles of her legs resemble the twisting of rope strands, and the
arm bones are like pillars supporting a roof.
in the obj. case, [ij^-^ ijj*-^^).
t>*^, Infinitive, being cognate object,

jjM Twisting upwards, or turning inside from outside, which is very firm
Rnd strong.

23 o^A.^^ U^ U Ua/ t^ O^Jo

j_^J (j.i
" ^
,•. >^£jS\ ^i

"Inclining frequently from the road, a swift goer, a large

headed one, v/hile her withers are elevated into a raised pro-
minent structure,

from = to incline), and would appear to mean

^_>i^ Intensive agent f^'^ {
here that the camel from freshuess would not go straight along the road.

'^^'^•* under.
j^JU/o and adj. s to •

/o/ 0/ // 0/ J / / / / / '^"/jj :z' f

''As if the marks of the girths round her breast-ribs were

water-courses through a smooth rock in the midst of a rough
The ribs from their hardness resembled a rock.

on account of S^J*^*^ '-^-"

adj. to
^lalii.^ Jipt. ( Or-ai^j^Ji-s) ,


'^j'^^'^jh^) on account of ^^u^'

i>j 1^^^ diptote ( ^>*?
::/ / Zj J If z./ ' J I ^ I I I If

28 ^"^^^ 0<2**' t^^-c {jf'j^i .'.

If-Jl^ tiJ^:J 'Jl^^l J ^'i^'i

77ie marks of the girths meet and sometimes separate, as


though they were well defined gores in a torn shirt."


o'l^J of Afl^V, a hiKton

2^1. loop (or ^'^^^'i), tlic gore of a sliirt;

a diptoti' o^waA/c^jjj i,eiii<r an extriuie plural.

^5 Jj syncopatetl form of ^^^i

aor., adj. sent, to ^J^^ ',
so also iji*~^
'i^ '

ol)j. of time (cJ ^-^Jf-'

o^-ls j /•?;* J^*^-^).
^•'(^ &c.,
adj. sent, to v^-^ •

(3^^^ pred. to ^* , sul)j. after ii)^ ^ A diptote.

o //o > J z.JI n / / / - /jio/
29 4^*w2.-« Ajli».(i,J
^_5-^O^J ^J
Ko*/ .'. /.J el) l>*^ li|^l.(jj j«ij l_j

''fS/ze is very long in the neck, which is most erect when she
raises it^ and is like the rudder of a boat
going up tho Tigris."
*' in
t the noiii. case being pred. j^^ to subj. t5"* under.

(^< ^4-* An adj. of intensity (from O^^ to raise oneself) to i3^^ under.
in the gen. case being /"V '
o ^'^-^ to ^^ '

According to this version, (j« ^^ is read in the gent, case on account of

i'i (.^ I

Some read it in the noiu. case (

= active in movement). Here both

^^ '
and i^^-fr* adj. s. to iS^ > in the nom. subj. to the pred- H* under.

U^^^ &c., adj. prepos. phr. to (^^ •

Another reading is l?-*^

—A mariner.

o / = -
Another reading "^ '^*'^ .

/o o/ /o /ojo // s// /in J s/ j'lj

" She has a skull like an anvil ;

the two halves of it at the place

of their meeting join as upon the edge of a file."

This will be clear from looking at any skull at the place where the two
halves join.
/•sr*-^ in the nom. case, being subj. to the pred. '*' under., and so also
CJ^^ and the like words in the following lines.

^(^ &c., adj. sent, to **sr*=' ; ^.Cj ^c., a sent. pred. to ^*; subj.

after i^^ .

Another reading ^'li •

C5-* J iiitrans.
= to meet ; to join.

^ailyo ^ymi of place of the 8th conj. from ^s^^ , in nom. case tu <^0'

^'And a clieek like the paper of the Syrians in smoothness ;

and an upper lip like leather of Yaman, the cutting of which

is not crooked.''
Tlie cutting refers to the split upper lip of a camel.

Yamanian leather is very soft.

Some read '^^^" ^' i'>>> = of which the leather is not cleared of hair.

/ o/ /o/ o / / 0/0/ /x //o /- ^0/0/ 0/

*'And two eyes like two mirrors protecting themselves in

the caverns of the eye-bones, which are like a hard rock con'

taining a pool frequented by the people."

ll'xiS^ ^-^
adj. to cJ

•^•^ in the
gen. case, being iu apposition (J'^0 with ^j'^ .

Constantly throwing away the dirt of impurities, so that
you see them like the antimonied eyes of the mother of a
wild calf fearful of the hunter."
Antimony is used as an adornment to the eyes ; the wild cow's eyes are

sharper to detect danger, vihen she has a calf.

O 'j->^ adj. of intensity to {iX^^.^

= Throwing away from themselves.
J ^j^ in the ace. case being obj. of li) 'j^^ .

(ij_y^ adj. to ^j^^. under.
appos. with ^j^^. under.

^ ^ ^ -ff
'^ ^ '^ ^ ^ '^ ^

two ears true of hearing, and distinguishing the low
sounds in the time of the night journey, the quiet whisper, or
the high-raised voice.

Iw^U , (lUvested of the u of the dual by ''^^^l to

^^) adj. to u^^Jf
under. - j

/Oj // 0/ / n / / // o/oj / //csj

" Two know tbo gooduess of

pricked cars by wliicb you Iier

breeding' like the ears of a wild cow alone at Ilowmali/'

tj^Aj &c., adj. sent, to cj'-'<i


J.^j:^ with ^^'^ being i-Jj^^'^j^^ .

Here by 2^'*' is meant (S'^^JJJ^ , a wild bull, and so the adj. <ij^>^ is of
the masculine gender.

"And a cautious lieari strongly beating, quick and hard

like a mill-stone placed in the centre of a broad; hard boulder.^*
The body of the camel is compared to a hard boulder.

(jc^-' is the intensive agent from 0=>J , to beat as the pulse, adj. to V'^-'

•^•^•^^ accumulated.
Another reading

And a split upper lip, witli the tip o//iernose pierced, gentle
and well-bred ;
when she lowers it towards the earth {or hatters
the earth with it), she increases her pace.

D^J ^ '(^^^^to batter the ground. The meaning seems to be that when
the camel increases her pace the neck becomes extended and the head nearer
the ground.


adj. to^r^^ under.
^j^ and * 'j^ respectively.
I^j^ and *i
'^3"' jussive, being

i:i>)js^ , ijj'"* and (^i^^ in the nom. case, being adj. to (*^^^ .

Literally the line means, "Slit from the tip of her nose, gentle and well-

38 ^^^'^ c>.fl.'lt^ ^^Ix)

sils'O .-.
c^U ^ijt J J5^3^J o.i^^j;lj

" And if I wisli slie does not increase her pace, and if I wish
she hastens, fearing the plaited ?i/7i(!pof closely twisted leather.

\S'j-^^^ and ^^* J '

, apodosis to ejl •

&3\s'^ = for the fear the obj. case, being /•-'J^*^^

( of), in .

i£jr^ adj. to tj'« {whip) under.

in/ in ///. mini n / / ^ / ^ / / / / .» o

** .^ ^ ^ ^

''And wish, her head is raised, so as to be level with the

if I

penimell of the saddle, and she strikes out with her fore-arms
as the gallopping of the male ostrich."

^K C*» ^^^ c:^/c U W

a^iodosis to i •

from f*^ to swim.

''^ an infinitive in the ace. ease, being (S J^-*^^.

/n 1 1 / o / n n / / n/ / / I / i i ni / n //

go on one like her, when my companion says to me, ^Now,

surely,would that I might ransom yon from the dangers of this

jo^imey and that I might be ransomed.^''
His companion feels sure of his destruction, but owing to tke swiftness
and strength of his camel he escapes the dangers of his journey.

t5''^'*' ajiCHlosis to ' •


in the obj. case, being subj. after '^^'^ the pred. being
j_5 ^t^-*

and C5"^^ '•

/o/ / // n I ni / s / J ^ I / I t: / J nz / n / i

His heart grows faint fearing {oris agitated with fear), and
he thinks himself struck with a weapon, even though he is not
on an ambushed path."

"^^ in the obj. case, being ^ Jj*-^'0 .

Ij l^.^
Secondary obj. of J '-^ .

A^^'OriRoad waylaid by enemies or infested with robbers.


When the people say, 'Who is the valiant youth?' I think
I am the person meant, and so I am not lazy in the time of
danycr, iiud I do not lose my head.''
tiT^ interrog., subj. to the precl- C5^

*-^-'-=»' j'
apodosis to

noun sent, introduced "^-Li
&c., a obj. to
LT^-* .
by ly j

"I upon her with a whip, and she quickens her pace
at a time when
the mirage of the burning sandy plains is
The heat of the day does not prevent him from accomplishing his object
as quickly as possible.

J is J ^^ '

J 'j J introducing the following adv. sent, of u '^ .

c:/^ n / / / n/ / z:/ j o/ ^/o f n / i / / n/ //

She walks with a graceful gait, as the dancing girl walks,
showing her master the skirts of her long white cotton
t5_Hj &c., adj. sent, to ^'^^.'y
J '•i^' secondary obj. to i^j^ '

45 "^^
^*'~:! L5^'^ U^-'j •'. A*'s* clli./l JilsJ o.wJj
<>^_;' (•^^•"

And I am not a great dweller in the hills, fearing tlie
demands of hospitalitij, but when the people seek help from me,
I assist them.'*

V expletive \\ith the pred. after '^««~' .

J •^^ J ^^^^ another reading) an adj. of intensity.

(or ,

** ^^* in the obj. case, ^-^ J^-*^^ .


Another reading '"•^•i:*-' = for a night's food or victuals.


ti.i_^i.««j and ^*j jussive, being


^j*** and * L/^ respectively.

/ o / / / o o /o/ o / /o/ /o /o/ n/ n /

" And if
you seek me in the circle of the people, you will
meet me, and if you hunt for me in the taverns, you will find
/ /

(i'^•' and c3-^-' jussive being -t^-* and *'^^ respectively; so also O^-^'^^^
and «>,ia^fl.j .

Another reading C5-W^ijejij =and if you look for me.

/O // O /-:/// Oj S- /•:- / / O /O/ / /

" " ^ ^ <<-

"Whenever you come to me, I will give you to drink a full

cup, and if you are in no need of it, then dispense ivith it and
increase in inchjpendence*'
^ '
f^ 'jussive being J^j-^ and *'3^ respectively.
C^-" '
and *i
lij' jussive being imperative,
secondary obj. after f^ '

Another reading (^^^ ' i .

Another reading, '^•'

•—*-*^ U ij and if you keep absent from it ; i.e.,

if you abstain from it.

'^^'^ in the
obj. case, being pred. after '^•" •

t^i Here *^ under., or

I . u* '

elliptical for- '-^•^•^•^'^ U"^' = content

with what you have.
/ "

^ijj adj. with a trans, signification,

— ^ijj'^ satiating.
J> . .

s /jO / o 0/0 /o^ /j^ /o i /o /o/ /

'^And if the tribes, the whole of them assemble, you will

find me rising in claims of descent to the top

of the honoured,

sought-for house."
He was the most honoured amongst the people, and occupied a position
which all others sought to obtain.

(3^-^^ and O^'^ jussive, being ^j*"

ami *'>?• respectively.

Here ^*->-'* tlie secondary obj. of Lf^'* under.

Another reading <^*'^*J ^

'^^"*' '
= honoured and coveted glory.

companions are white of shin like stars, and a dancing

girlcomes to us at uiglit, sometimes in a striped garment, and
sometimes in a saffron-coloured robe.''
( . ... »
pi. of ej'/oJ.J=i^jO,i , subj. to the pred. U^^ and *-^^ .

^^^} may be taken as subj. to r ij^ •

Or ^Jj\ &f*-, adj. sent, to *-^-i^ .

" Wide as to tlie collar of her pocket, her shin is soft to the
touch of my companions, and delicate in the bare place."
V-i-^j of common gender, adj. to *-^»^ .

''When we say, 'Let us hear a song,' she addresses herself

to do singing to us at her ease, her head hent from modesty,
while she did not raise her voice high.''

apodosis to
' '
I >i •
1^1*1^ ^J\c ji
prepositional, adverbial phrase of J ^ •

^ijj^'^ in the ace. case, being" J ^-^

= bent, or weakly.
^> =as though her eye were hurt by something,
Another reading jj'^-o

by reason of the languish of her look.

C)^L"i^ also she did not strain herself, i.e., she sang with perfect

Syncopated form of ,i«>'^ij^J^ .^^j aawi. to '*


52 isi>j ^.j (_s.l*jiiii vj^^"* .*. Wo-^ ^^-^^ t*j>^ is»

^*e-j 'ii
When she repeated her tones, you would think her voice
resembled a foster-mother's repeated lamentation over her dead
apodosis to '>ii.

VJ^ iu the ace. case, being secondary obj. to

'^^^ .

C-J, any young animal born in the spring.


" And my excessive drinking and my pleasures did not

cease, and my selling my goods and spending my acquired and
my inherited wealth, did not cease either,"
J '^
here (*^->ci*' (complete verb ),

j_y,j ]j>M,i intensive infinitive,

". /. J ...
and '^^^^ in the ace. case
*'^ij-^ by the transitive infinitive is'^^'-

all of them; and I became

''Until my people avoided me,
alone, the loneliness of the camel anointed with tar."
Tar is used to cure the mange. When an animal is suffering from this
disease, he is naturally kept apart from the others.
o /

<j '
{'"r^^'^'^'* ) introducing the following noun sent, as in the gen.

case by lif-^

^^ in the nom. case, being in apposition (J '^•^) with ^j^.^'-J


<i'y' a passive infinitive in the ace case being (y^'^ ^y*-^^.

<- ;*' I saw that the poor did not deny me, on account of my genero-
sity ;
nor the wealthy, possessed of that spread-out leather tent,
oti accoimt of mysu'perior character.'^

Tlio«f!;li his own people tnay have avoided him, be was favourably
received hy other people of all classes.
* *

^'j^^ i^^ Sons of the dust, i.e., poor people.

*'^* a dipt. iJj'^'O ji-^ on account of ^-i J "^^ -fl-' I.

<-» L^-*' a superior kind of tent made of leather. 'S'^*'' lengthened out
or stretched out Ay /A« /e«f ro/;es. Such tents are only possessed by the

secondary obj. to
j( '^i-' 'J-
j_^xJj__yX\jj {^ sent.,

'-^^' the
ill noui. case, being iu apposition (J*^-?) with the implied

snbj. of Ojj*'H

" Now
theu, Oh, thou who art my reproacher, because I
take part in wars, and because I am present in pleasures, will
you perpetuate my life, if I refrain from thim?"
Another reading C5-^^ '^^ "ho me; or t5"^'^''(= who
l)-^ preventcit

repronciiest me.

CJ 'j H^^'A'^ , giving an infinitive sij^nification fco the following sentence,

-•' •
J •
^ 1

which = »^ ''^^•"
J lif-^-y^


, ,
, ••

" And if you are not able to keep back my death, then let me
hasten or anticipate it with that which my hand possesses.'*

^^-Ja^-J ^
Syncopated form of p^ed. sent, after
if , .
^j;iuJ ,

J ^ ^ '

jussive, being^^ i" V ^J^ , apodosis to the iin])crativc ^<>

^-^ a relative pron. in the gen. case by V ; C5''^- vi.W./o^ its relative clause

( *-''*)» the ohj. being under.

58 (^^^^'^ cfj* Jf^^dfl^yM^a. J .-,

^Jjifiit?i.J ^^./o o* ^^^ ^^^*

" were not which are of the pleasures

It it for three thioga.


of the young, by your fortuue / swear, 1 do not care when the

visitors of the sick commence to visit me."

That is, if it were not for three pleasures, which he describes in the

following lines, he did not care how soon he was seized by a deadly disease-

^K *^^^.
^iiij) iiy) i^i. adj. sent, to

Another reading '^^''^ t:^^='of the want of.'

1^ apodosis to y .

i ill
<-^'>*^j is ^-aJtjIj.
The ^^^
pred. {j*^ ) to ( subj. '^<^^-t^) is ^•^j^j'<> under.

c5 '^^^ C^ >^*'* iiiterrogHtive sent. obj. of

J«^ 'f^.

•^J^ pi. of «^j'i* =a visitor of the sick.

59 «>j_>i *Ub J*ji>c ^A ^^t-^ .'. 'o<^^ cbJiiUJi ^fi-i-w e;-«-u»

" And of these three is Jirst the reproachers

my preceding
with a draught of red wine, whichj when it is mixed with
water, foams."
This would appear to mean that he delighted in taking a
draught before those who were likely to see him were about.
(3^-** in the nom. case, being subj. to the pred. ij-^^'^ ',
so also i_sJ^}
.. .«

and isj^.^^' in the following lines.

o Jl ^ I* In the ace case, being obj. of the transitive infinitive c^-f"** .

"^i*^ adj. to *0-*'

t^*-* and '^O"' jussive, being ^j'^ and * '3^ respectively.

Another reading = is
(-**•>( topped),

V to give a transitive signification (*J>>*^J'.' ) to t-^*-* •

" And my dashing on the foe on a horse with sloping pas-

terns, when one surrounded by foes summons me as the

rush of the wolf of the thorny thicket whom you have awaken- —
— g'^iog to water."

Hf Ipiug -his friend in battle is the next jdeasure.


'i>jy^ fit., .irrivinfr nt \vaU>r.

•^^^ in arc. onse by the transitive infinitive j^ .

"^^y an adj. sent, to "^i^ .

And the shortening of tlie day of rain, while the rain
ispleasant <o me, by //te society nf a beautiful woman in the
tent supported by poles."

Such pleasant days are short.

«i»^'^-' 'j &e., adv. sent, of J '-^^ introduced hy J '-^ 'j 'j An . instanee

of u^'^*^ ^' a parenthetical clause.

V = by means of.
goes with .^Js-^flJ ;

=''obj. f
place (li)*^' ^J^)-

62 vX-^s:! J =^_,^i.jl _;^f ^Ix /. O^flii:

^-iJU <>J|^ uJ^Jl e)^i

As if the anklets and armlets of my beloved were hung


upon the branches of an'Ushar or Khirwa' tree {castor-oil iilant)

which have not been broken."
The branches of these two trees are straight and flexible and of a light
colour. He compares her arms and legs to the branches of these shrubs.

i^j^^ { pi. of ^^J ) in the obj. case, being subj. after w^; '-^^'^

being the pred. sent.

<^si sent, to An instance of the figure
^) adj. passive ^jj^ •

"So leave me, so that I may satisfy my head {i.e., myself) to

my fill, while it {the head, i.e., I myself) lives, for fear of

scanty drink after death."

^A/cl* usp^ fort/**^'', an instance of j'^^ metonymy.

iSi)^ }
&c > adj. sent, of J '^ to (^ in jjfj .

«*ti'* in the ace. case, being


^j,£uo an adj. to V-^^*

"J generous man who quenches his f/wVs^ during his

awi a

life; if die to-morrow, you will know which of us is

we should
the thirsty one."
^'' under.
f^.j'^ adj. pred. to the subj

i^iji) &c., adj. sent, to j*:!^^

obj. of time (c'^'^^-" ^J^ )

i^^^^^^H^ ii noun sent. obj. of ^'***» ;

subj. and ,^<^'^'^ the


65 «>-»* JiJtV c5» ci*^^ ^^ .*. '*•":• i^^^ (*'^^ ^^» i!fj'

grave of a miser, a mean one with his

I see that the
money, is like the grave of an erring 'prodigal, a dissipator of
his property in idleness."

(•'*^adj. to ti^j under.

^^^^, &c., a prepos. phrase secondary obj. to (^j* •

ISJf^ adj. to iJ'^j under.


66 •i'^i'* tf^^^ iS* /** c* ^^'^ .'• ^*%^^^ V Ir^ O'* Ci^'ii-'j^'^ ljf«r^

You two heaps of dust, upon which are broad hard
will see
stones arranged one on the top of the other."

^ 'Ak^U^xU a(ij. sent, to u-^^.?^ lfi-«

subj. and ^«^^^ pred. ,
expresses the way bricks are used in building so as to break joint.

**I see that death is choosing the generous

people, and
selecting the best part of the property of the avaricious miser.'*

^**:! and is^^.'^J sentences, secondary obj. to ijj

Another rending u"^*-*-' '-•^**i .


1 see life is a treasure, becomiug less every uight aud

everything, which days and time lessen, perishe.s,"

'.V" secondary obj to cS'j '

-iVol/obj. of time(i:;^^->-"^-r^).
a conditional relative pron .
the relat. clause being ^* '*•'
'j j*':!
i* '

The obj. of u^-* being 8 under.

Here ^-^ having a conditional force as well, u^-'"' mid ^^H are jussive,

being -Is^ and *'_)-=>' respectively.

Another reading »i.A\J^*

*>J Ij
Ij ill
(_^j.5U j = '
what the days lessen
time exhausts.

Here ^Hj^'^^ '*

a clause apodosis to ^^ introduced by •-» •

•^*^:! trans-, its ohj., * under.

By your life / sioear that Death, so long as he misses a
strong man, is surely as the loosened halter, both folded euda
of which are in the hands oj the owner of the animal."
here *-!i^'-'*
j *Jj«>waAj = go long as, during the time that,

I Lbii. ! U = ^jW I ii^kL i S,y^ , during the time of its passing over
the youth.

(J (= surely) in •->^**J and

for emphasis.

'^j*^ subj. to the pred. (^~'' under.

<^J*' '
in the obj. case, being subj. after e-» 1 and J^'"-' **-^
the pred.

oaJ b » UI) adv. sent, of J ^^

J •

70 •i'flj^ Aaj^J I Ja.=».

t-^J ^ox: J .*. /"^ U_^j » J 15
U^J , U yj I

*'»So </ia^, if he wishes, on any day, he leads him oJ" his life

by his reias. And he who is tied by the rope of death, will

have to submit."
^^ji obj of time [a ^^j^ .
t-»-r-^) •

apodosis to
c^ .

*-^i and '^^^i are jussive forms of i:^^;! nnJ »i '•^H respectively, being ^j*"
ami * v^ .

*-^iii>'*ji &c., an example of O-^*' I

J '^j I = propounding of a maxinu

71 i^AAJj
^j^\ j^i/o .-. ls;JU
^^j \j ^^'i\J

What is the matter with me, that I see my cousin, Malik,
whenever I approach him, keep far from me, and keep him-
self distant?''

, interrogative, subj. to the pred. \s^ .

in the ace. case being obj. to 'j' co-ord. to \j^ »

^^^ in the aec case being in apposition ( J'^0 with ^^. '•

* '>*"
jussive form of ^^ and * '^i
oft5^-^^ being ^jr^ and
cj>>' ,


/O/jOjO-'-/ //// J I I / f nl I f J J I

" He
reproaches me as Qurt-ibn-Ma'bad reproached me
amongst the people, and I do not know for what reason he

reproaches me."
J ^-^^
introduced by J ^^
^^^ Ixj &c., adv. sent, of •
J '^ 'J

^'^ ^
t^"*-?^i f*
sent. obj. of (sJ

'* case by *
apocopated form of interrogative, in the genitive


An example of li
^j^^l digression, consisting of a complaining
about Qurt.

Another reading '^J* '

t^^ ^j*

" He me asked was

disappointed of every good which I ;

as if we had placed him in a grave of one buxned.''

He might as well have asked a dead man to help him as his cousin.

y.xAL j^(3j.
clause to^-?:-^.

jli*/,ej pred. to the subj. after c;(^ .
adj. to ^^-^ under.

AiiDtlitT rcndinj; i^^-^^i^j

Ha blames mo foi* nothing which / could have said to him,
except that I searched for tiio baggage camel of my brother
Ma'bad and was not not.;li<i:cut
'0"n^ in the search."

^^^ adj. sent, to cy*

Another reading, V-'J^-Ji-^ ^'-^ = without any fault.

; &c., a noun. sent, introduced by o '

, yt^ '
o^'^aj jy ^i* .

c..>«mJ u'
pred. to the subj. ls^ after •

Observe an example of ti^^^**-" ^j

. Here the two verbs ^'***^And
Jfti I
t-i^JQ^ aJj^a for their object.
^^•*' in the obj. case, being ^^-^ ^aa-as.

75 i>J;XiU^-«t t^J uI/0 /. /J| (J'j.A.j jfjO^''^^ '^0''J

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

" I to ijoii the common tie of relationship^

sought approach by
and by your good fortune, Mdlikj I do present myself to

help you when an afi'air demanding serious efforts presents


•^^ in the gen. case governed by the j of |*-»*.

Observe here the oUw I, q^ the cliange from speaking about his cousin
to addressing him directly.

/"'') &c., a compound sent, forming f»"~^-'

v '-^'^ • '^
in y^^,n pers.

pron. idiomatically used with wl j

called cJ '^•' '..;-'* •

^^K &c ^ ^ pred. sent, to the subj. is^ after u I •

«-^i and '*'•*'*' '

jussive, being ^j^ aud * L)^ .

Another reading ^^^,

"And if 1 am called on by yuu in any seriouii allkir, 1 will


be amougst the defenders of youi' honour, aud if the enemy

comes to you, striving for your destruction I will strive m
repulslnij him."

^ '
and e;^ '
jussive, being ^j^ aud * '^^ ; so also ^i and ^^^ '

Another reading «^^^ '

uf* •

t/^^ '
adj. used as a noun for '^^^ I
, or ^^^ I

t^J Uak. = l^.i£

SUs 1= defenders against it.
referring to t5^^ ' •

Here '^4^ '^

goes with
^^ -
V giving a transitive signification to ^' ^i

Or ^•^S'^^J may be taken to go with <^«*'l , and ^*^^i ^^^^ — ^^^

iX^sr I«jU r= I will exert my best. Here V expletive.

" And if
they revile your honour with defamation, I will
cause them to drink of the cup of the pool of death, before
[i. e., uiithout) threatening them."
* j'^
and (3*^' by -^J"^ and

lj*(k«J jus.sive

ik' obj. of time (a> ^^_>^

fn / / / ^ 0/ / / f^^ / I '/o if^ f I / I

78 t_5. ^j.ta>« J 2 ^ik-^ Ij CJ-* <i>'

J LJ^'^* •'• '^'^^^^J /J^JAa-I d.O>=a.ilj

" Without
any occurrence which I caused to happen / am
blamed and reproached loith complaints and banished, and / am
regarded as if I have caused my own defamation, my own
reproach with complaint, aud my own banishment."
^ij<>.r>.l •^«>'^
adj. sent, to

tj^s^Ai co-ordinate to (^^'*'jt^ tip' in line 74, with the conjunc. under.

^<*>^* pred. {jt=^ )

to the subj. (' 'i'^^•*)
^J i
Some take the under, subj. to be j* , and then it = and he is like one
who causes my reproach, &c.

t^-* ^^ )
and i^^j^'^ in the ace, case, being objects to the tran
'^ •*'* •
sitive participle

^Oi^kx)^ verbal noun, or novin of artion from ^j^ to banish, rax

banishment, i. p, ray benig banished,'

Anotlior rc':itlin<r (^ >>^^^ (a virl). iioiiii IVoui 4ith conj. ) = /""* getting me

/ //mil o/ / -// jj / / J s/ o / / / / / //

" For if any man but himself was my cousin, verily he had
cheered my grief, or he would have given me delay until to-

Any one but liis cousin would have licl|)e(l bini.

O^O* adj. sent, to f-j-^


J for emphasis ("^^^ ^J) generally used with the apodosis to ^-^ •

oh), of time (eJ '*>•'

c5 •^^-'=).

Another reading l_/^«*«'0


t5 ->'* ^:i^J'* •
Here Jt^^ in appo-

sition with l»-»*-^

being ci^-y
CJ-? J .

/oj // /
i^o- n i // I fJ Sjn I / / s I /

But my cousin is sueli a man as tries to strangle me for the
thanks, or for the frequent asking /or /lis a«?, or if I ransom
myself from him, {i- e., keep distant from him.)"
His cousin is angry with him under all circumstances.

cr^-" '-^^ adj. sent, to 'j'^


U l*^—' an intensive infinitive.

ijg,.e /.AX under.

^ii.Afl/c ^

Another reading ^_^<>'^*'0^ Ijl

= or if 1 am doing Am injustice. Here
^i-^ under.

^ tf f ^ ^ ^

" And
the tyranny of relations is more severe, as to the pain
it causes a man, than the descent of the Indian sword.^/o an obj. of specification (^i^O to "^1 .

L^"* (= than); for comparison.


''Theu leave me alone to my own habits, for verily lam

grateful to you even if my dwelling-place was established far
away near the mountain of Zarghad."
Zarghad, the name of a mountain in a distant district, belonging to

^^ali in the ace case, being />*>« J_^-*A'« .

l^jlj obj. of Jf^ to C5*^J .

83 "-^^^ * ^'*^^'
<^ij-<' ijj^. J^*^ L^O *^'*'->-' J •*•
(*^^-^ (^^ lT*-' ^-^^t^-J

"And if my Lord willed it, I would be like Qais, the son of

Asim, and 'Amru, the son of Marthad."

Qais-ibn-'Asim, of the tribe Shaibaa, and 'Amru-ibn-Marfchad, of the tribe
of Bekr-ibn-Yail, ^vere two Arab chiefs, renowned for their high birth and
great wealth.
Zi / J 5' I 9 I ' j/ /// / / f J 0/0//
84 v>^-*J «^U ^\j^ ^yii
(jfjjlj J ^-i^^ Jt/eli C:-3:'?'^l5

Then if like these two people I should be possessed of much
property, noble sons, {i.e., i^eople,)
would visit me, chiefs —
under a recognised chief, {i.e., himself. y
The meaning of these two lines is that if God willed it, he would becorne

great and powerful.

Jlx'i in the obj. case, being pred. after

"^s^ ', one of ^-^ f J-' I
J 'a3 J) I

Another reading J'-*


"i •—*-h^'' ^*= I would be found possessed of property.

'^ secondary obj. to the pass, '^i^-'


Pare J^"* .

Another reading cf-**^ •''j= and would visit me. Also (^J«iljj= and
would increase my family and retinue,

lijmA^J also = 50«s of a recognised chief.

" I am the energetic man whom you know to be venturesome

and sharp as the head of the sharp snake/'

(->^-aJI= /,7_
of muscles.

Another readiiiK »>*?^ ' = strong of make, or nnniiflceut.

^J '
suhj. {
'i'^V ) ; i-''^^-'
and uT ^^^ pred.

*?:* '
of com. gend.

86 0.\4X! ^^,Jkj^fi^J
«--^wa*J .'. i'J liaJ
|^«*^ (J^aijJ/ '^^•'Tj

"Aud I swear, my waist does not cease to be the lining to

an Indian sword, sharp as to its two edges."

That is, his sword was always girded on.

^i^°-^. in the ol)j. case, being pred. after ^^^is , one of the J ^** J'

" A
sharp sword, wlien I stood up taking revenge with it,
the blow with it sufliced for the second, for it is not a

No second blow was necessary.

^j \j,^i'XK
adj. phrase, obj. of J ^-^ to the implied subj. of "-^' •

Cf*^^ apodosis to
>> '
; an adj. sent- to |*'~-^.

J^^ = '^'^^ = while

obj. to {j^'y or obj. of
' '
>i^*- ,
being striking again.

/ jj I ii sO/ / / I I / in// / /

88 cf"*^^ O^^^ J^^ ^•^'O Jjji IJI .'. ''^.J'J^ (j^£^ C5J^J^^j5' *aj (_yi».

A trusty one, which does not turn away from the object to
be struck; if it should be said to it, 'Gently, sto'f ,i\\Q. with-
holder of it, (t.e., the owner oj ii,) would say,
It is sufficient
for me, ihe bloio has already done its ^vorl-.'

j^^AjAjJl, &c , adj. sent, to (•'—s^.

under. Here ^^ "-a/

^4'«cogn. obj. ((J^IWIJ^aaJI) to<-^(-'*=' ^-
forbear striking.

^^ -^ lit. preventer or stopper, i. e., the man who controlled the swoml.
= the edge
It also of the sword ; and then the line would mean, " the edge uf
the sword would say, *e nongh, / have done the tcork."'

'^' a noun with the force of a verb, (


(_5 1st pers. pron. obj. to <^* •

/ / O 5/ /5s/ ' '^ / / / ~ j'l/nf //o /

•^^ ^

"When the people hasten to arms, you would liud me

invincible if my hand had hold of the handle of it."

^\i A^ J apodosis to '

<i I •

l*AA,;c to l^" "^^ J •

secondary obj •

-/j 0/ O///// // O///O/ jj o//

90 '>^s:'» v^-*:! c5--*'°' ^«J:>'^-? -. «jr^^^^ OjU'l 0.5
O^s:"* •-i'^Jj

And many
kneeling and sleeping camels, the foremost

ones of them rose up, feaiung me, while I was going near with a
naked sword, being aware that I wanted to slaughter them for
•-O^ pi. of '-^j^-i a kneeling camel.

'^y'?^ pl- of '^e^^'*' sleeping.

Another reading ^-^i^ '^* or '4Jii 'y (

= the flying ones).

ojtj I
A*, &c., sent, apodosis to J (= V^) •
Lit. = my fear roused, &c.

j_^^/o I, &c., adv. sent, of J ^^^ .

/n// in/ / j/ / SI /j n/ J I 5 I / o;;//

91 C)<^>>h'^^.^^^:fi'*>^^^^ .'. "^J^^ '-"h^ ^'i ^'«^ c,-^*»

" Then there

passed hy me an old she-camel, loose-skinned
in the udders, a big she-camel, the best part of the property of
a stern old man, like a stick, tJtin from old age,*'

The old man is his father.

.»> in// ni n / / / n// ij 11 j /o -/ o// j ji

" He was saying, when her pastern and leg had been cut,
Do you not see that you have brought a great misfortune

upon me/"
'^ J '^
ji^'^'j &c., adv. sent, of J , introduced by 'j 'j •

0/ 0/
OAj \ i^»
^\^ ^Q_^ a noun. sent, introduced hv ci .
obj. of (jv-*.

Jl k-AJ More an
iiiLcrroir. pnrlicio (* i<^^*-w
. it is
iiitt'iiofjatiou of

appeal ^jij^^

I. ^j">
^-J I = ^^5 vi-j t
^„„ ,i„ <,ce.

~//j JJ^/ /o/ / / / / o/ / //////

" Aud ho said to the tribe,

wliat do you see sJunihl he
ilone to a drinker of icine whose evil doing is too hard for us to
' "
bear, and is intentioual,
interrogative, subj. to tlie prcd- '»>.

'3 , demonstrative pron. (2^*5" (***')•

UJLT'' adj. sent, to the ohj- beino; under.

Tlie sent, in full runs thus— Vj ^^. <-^*^i ^'^jS> ^ ij.^ 1 1 U Jl I


'*»*/ ill the nom. case, being subj. to the adj- ^i'^'*» .

"Then he said, 'Leave him alone, for the benefit of her, (i.e.y
the she-camel,) is for him, but if you do uot stop the remote

ones of the kneeling camels, he will increase in killing them, if

at his mercy.'

As the camels at his father's death would belong to him, he was injuring
himself as well as his father by killing one of them.

\jB.Cj and >>>i->J jussive, being ^j^ ai.d * L>^ •

ill = ^cjiif not.

/o/^o OS / // Oj / / / / J /o /n/ J I o s: /

95 ii«*^-~J
I i-flJt>.-«Jlj Iaa1.c
(]^~i J .*. ^^^\^^ ^^^~^i ft/oJil Jiai

"Then the maids commenced cooking her colt/ow>t'? in her

ivomh, aud the fat shred hump was hastil}^ brought to us."

e;^-'"'^^ a sent. pred. after '^^ .

tlf*""^ a passive, prepositional verb, with '^i.'^-^J I

for its subj., which is,

however, in the gen. case bv V •

An adv. sent, of J '-^ introduced by

Another reading Jj***"' ( active), with

*'^ J" for the subj.

Then spread the news of my desith, 'praising me
if I die,

for what I deserve, and rend the collar of your garment over
me, Oh, daughter of Ma'bad !

j_jAAxjb apodosis to CJ '

, introduced by o .

^^ a relative
pron. in the gen. case by VJ <'-^'* '^•'l -a relative clause i^^'^)
'•*' ^-^
to being the subj. and •''•* the pred.
f I


in the ace case, being o '/^-^

^o li/e .

/O// // O^/ _// j;J/ /O / / / 0/

''And do not make me like a man whose zeal is not as my

zeal, and who does not suffice other's wuafs as I do, nor had
my experience m war,"
is'-^^ ^ jussive, being negative imperative, fern. sing.

^* cT^-' adj. sent, to f^-* '

• ''* subj. (^•«') to u^i^ and iS*-^^

pred. {ji'^)'
*^-^* and '^^^^ infin., (
= '^^f^) in the ace. case, being (j'-^-* Jj-*^'*.


/^/j / ^ / n / j/ / „jO / /

Who is slow in great affairs, quick towards corrupt things,


mean, and much ill-treated by the blows of men."

That is, one who could not defend himself.

f ^^ I

pi. of C*'^ = clenched list.

V shows relation between «^t^'* and ^ '^ '

" For if I were a coward amongst men, verily the enmity

of him possessed of confederates and also the single one, had
hurt me."
^^i pred.
{yM ) to .

ij^j*^^ apodosis tn ^' , iutrodviced I>Y the J of cmpha.sis.

fj sill)), to^'^-'j ami LS"* olij.

o// o / /o
/n / o o//
n /////_ -/ / 01/

But my bravci'3^ which I shuioed against them, and ray
boldaess and sincerity, and the nobleness of my origin, repulsed
the people from me."
/ /

(^3*'^^ ,L>'*=''^^' &c., (_y^J .

/o / ;/ / o/// / / -zj c: ' ' 0/ / ijn//

101 J •"• ''*^ Lf^ ^^
'>''0j— t5-^-C (^^-i-'^j C?J^-«^ Ci-''^' "-O**-^

" I swear that no intricate affair

By your life is
perplexing to
me during my day, nor does my night seem long to me o?^ account

of ameietij."
However arduous the undertaking he had in hand, he did not delay in

LSJ^^ ohjcct of time ( '^^ J^*^-*).

(^^^J siibj. to the jjred. >i"<=_^'~-? ; the prep. V expletive.

i/i/ /o/ //s/ / /o/o I n - *^ f I ^f /

" And many made my time of

a day I spirit firm at the its

press in war, protecting its objects of defence and against the

threats of the enemy.'*

in the gen. case, being j (
= vj)-
IJ.A.C ohj. of time, (^^^l^y}\ tJ^^-t).

^^^^ infinitive, in the obj. case, being /' Jj*-^'^ .

/Oj J / I") o /o/ / I J ''' /'"' / o/ 1/ //

"In a place where the brave man fears destruction, when

the shoulders of the vjarriors clash together in it, and they
shake with terror ^
^j^si^ &c., an adj. sent- to L?-»^'*.

^j^*-^ and '^^y jussive, being ^j*" and * V^.

Lffi^'Lj^'subj. to ^y*3.

And many a yellow ai-row, changed as to its colour by
being placed near the fire, the successful return of which I
awaited, [
gave it over to the hand of him who never suc-
He generously gave his lucky arrow to the unlucky gambler.
The line refers to a sjjecies of gambling with pointless arrows, called r^ •

^J^^^^) from
«'*'^ to change the colour of it near
anything by plucing
the fire.

^^'^ '
in the gen. case by J (^^Vj) read with ^^ being a diptote for
\iijjj and ^^'^ .

»j Ija. Cj^Jii &e., sent, apodosis to j (=Vj)-

*^*?^=^Oue taking no part in the game, being a miser, and only shuff-
ling or dealing forth the arrows for the players.
/ / 0/0 //O// s / s: / /// ji // 0/ / o/o /

"I see death /o ie a

and I do not see to-morrow
number of inspirations of the breath,
to be remote. very near is

to-morrow to to-day."
^1 (>£ I

secondary obj. to ^ )' •

"^i*-? secondary obj. to J^j
^ .


obj . to V^' ' .

/o////jO o/-/// 3 I il / j'^ n/ / / / /

" And no
reproacher ever reproached like my own self, nor
did anything supply my want as did that which my hand con-

^ subj. to 1-#1Ia3 ill

appos. with it.
C' (*^ ;

^^^ snbj. of
'^*' .

a relative pron. in the gen. case being ^^)
«-3 '-^ .

C^Ia) riilative clause ( /"^ ) to ''* » under.

, ohj.

107 «>jl)^ /'tiJ'*' j'-*^^^^ *-^^J ^d ^ .*. •ii*^ oJi'U ^Ijijl tJLJ

" The time

will show yow that of wliicli you were ignorant;
and he to whom you did not give the necessaries of life will
bring you news."
a relative pron ; its '"^ or relative clause being
** '-^
o»i,s ,

«'*' under, after ^^ W •

U^"* a relative pron. subj to \j^^i ; •ijtjr"' its relative clause ('"''*)> obj-

^^Jr syncopated form of ^^s^ >

" And he will

bring you news, for whom you did not pur-
chase food, and did not appoint for him an agreed-upon tim9
for meeting."
Here ^^(•' ^=-'
^^^ ^' =^ you did not purchase.
ljt£j ^J
^J and V-T^-* {'j &c. relative sent (*^'^) to e>-* •

"And he will carry news to yon, to whom you did not dis-
close any secret, nor did you shake the surface of his provi-
i e., nor did yo'i examine his provision-bag) as to whetber he had any
sufficient provision.

&c and
, ij^^^'i
&c , relative clauses ('"''*) to the relative

pron t^'*

" the time is not, except borrowed ; so provi-

By your life,

sion yourself with what you can from the goodness of it.*'
'-^*-a-^l jjc *
obj of >>j^-'j
^•* its relBfcive
relat. pron , , clause; obj being
/ / //
ia-^a' "«^*^*->«
syncopated form of I.

111* i^'^'^^'^ (Jj^W^J (i?i^' 1-^^ .'. fHj^ J''^^.^^ J.i— jjl i;j.*Ji^^

" Do not
inquire concerning a man, but look to his asso-
ciates, for verily the companion is a follower of Ixis com-

" Birds of a feather flock
o /

Another reading ^Hj^\ij^ O'-^j = but ask aboot his associate.

Another reading t^-*^^^ .

// // O/O / r,/ / / Oj>// O / / 0/ / J

112* t5'>-rJ't*iJj^^** (ijjj^tv*'^"'^'.". r»*iUi*=^i^
l/A» /V'l?' '-^•^^lil

When you are amongst a tribe, associate with the best of
them, and do not associate witb the bad ones, for you will be-
come bad hy contact with the bad."
V^^-^ &c., apodosis to '3 I
introiluced by t-J •

*i ) in
(j^J^* } introduces the apodosis to the Imp. V-^'*^ ^
= lest] ,

and goverus the verb {j^j^ with Hr*-^^ .

j_j/o^j.A» &,c.
= lit. lest you perish along with the perishing (people).



Ascribed to Zuhair bin Abu Sulma Al-Muzani.
In this poem the poet is praising Hdrith bin 'Auf bin Abu
Harithah and Haram bin Sinau bin Abu Haiithah Al-Murri of
the tribe of Baui Zubj^an, because the two men by paying the
blood-money had brought about peace between the Bani Zubyan
and the Baui 'Abs.
The metre and the rhyme of the poem are the same as those
of the two preceding poems.
=// 1
O/ 'P
!•'«•' (•

(]f» J I



=//J1/ / / 0/ £// / s/o o/ -

Does tlie blackened ruin, situated in the stony ground
between Durraj and Mutathallim, which did not speak to me,
when addressed, belong to the abode of Ummi Awfa? "
for j*'-*^*-** '. The interrofrative is either because the poet only faintly

recognises the vestiges on account of remote time; or because he is over-

come by strong emotions, roused by the sight.
/ --» .
/ /

iU*j' C^"*' elliptical for ^^j ' '

Jj ^^-^
u-* ' = Is there among the
(*' (*

abodes of Ummi Anfa.

**^'> and i^ ^ ' '

O'O pred.
subj. ^

pAj ^i syncopated form of ('^^J ^' , aorist jussive.

/ o / / 0/ // / £// //OS / /5 / /

"And i% it her dwelling at the two stony meadows, seeming

as though they were the renewed tattoo marks in the sinewB of
the wrist/'

the two stony meadows, one near Madeeuah, and the other near

explained hi two ways:

ij^i^*'j^'-^ is (1) at each of the two meadows ; or

(2j between the two meadows.

The seufcence is interrogative, '

being under.

C-i*? '-r'^ V^^ &c., an adj. sent, to j '>>.

" The wild

cows and the white deer are wandering about
there, one herd behind the other, while their young are spring-
ing up from every lying-down place.''

i^ri-*^ pL of >'-''-h* =a wild cow, wide in the eye.

U.f^*'^ 'and j*' i^ji" subj. (

'^^•J'' ), \^. being pred.
o /

c'-^^^i adj. sent, to ^^.*-^ '

and |*

j i* '

aaIa. alg(j
_ o taus J wandering in various directions. In obj. case

being J ^=»' .

j*^ the noun, of place, from

^-^^ to sit.

U^KJslj g^p^ 3,|y ggjj^ of J^'=*' introduced by j .

t:^'^*^^, &c., pred. sent.
to the I
'^^'^^ , j^-k I

''I stood a^am near it, (<Ae eticampment of the tribe of Aufd,)
after a7i absence of tweuiy years, and with some efforts, I knew
her abode again after thinking awhile."

^f^ in the obj. case being y^*'^ after iiHJ^^'

X J* in tlie obj. case being J ** .

'•*^V obj. of time.

/ recognised the three stones blackened fet/ ,i^re at the place

where the kettle used to be placed at night, and the trench

round the encampment, which had not burst, like tlic source of
a pool."

t^'^l \\t\. of *-^^') autl Hy^ iu the ohj. case by "-^'^^ under. Or being

obj. to (*^-' in In the latter case, the version would run

the preceding line.

thus -.—'After thinking upon the three stones and the trench, &c.

Lf'^j' iliptotc, i-Jj-^^-^j*'.'^, being ^^^ '^f*^^'* •

i^J*"^ ) i> locative noun (o^-^-'


) from ltO"*^ •

0^j-< u^j*-^(J> , lit. in the night-halting place of the kettle; where the
kettle was placed at night.

Another reading •^^ '

an old well.

(*^^H c^ adj. sent, to ^iy^ .

"Aud when I recognised the encampment I said to its site,

'Now good morning, oh spot; may you be safe /rom clangers."
lA. U^
x)\ay you enjoy happiness in the morning. common forna A
of salutation among the Arabs. The time is specified, becau«e it
is generally the time most exposed to the danger of raids.
o o o
IaU^ obj. of time. Another reading ^ , either syncopated form of (*** '

or imper. from j** j .

Look, oh friend! do you see any women travelling on
camels, going over the high ground above the stream of
He fancies he sees the women again whom he saw twenty years previous-
ly, and he appeals to his companion to know if what he sees is real.

^^^i^ a vocative noun, o''^ ^li^A-^ .

C^"* expletive, used after i-'^'* .
It, however, conveys the meaning of any.'
UJs a
j^,j diptote, here used as a triptote (with ?j-*^ and i^'ij^ ) by a

poetical license.
t:;^** , &c., adj. sent, to ti^J^AJs .

f #4U/t a]gQ name of ^ place.


"They have covered their howdahs with coverlets of high

value, aud with a thiu screen, the fringes of which are red,

resembling blood."
Jo Uj iJ (i)^-*-''
= caused coverlets to be put on ; v of causation ( ^ f^**.^ )

l4j;AwI^A. in the Dora. case to •^

'jj («f7;. pL o/ ^^jj .)

^ \jj and A^S'Li/o either in the geu. case, being adj. s. to -^^J' and *^^»

or in the nom. case, being pred. {j^ ) to (^* subj. ( ''^^'o) under.

Another reading runs thus :

^^ red of
>«<5ixc (j^J 14' J-' t^'*!>'= ''^'j -J fringes, the colour of which is

the colour of Brazilwood. ^^O-^, &e., adj sent, to (jf^l>* '. UV subj.

'i'V^ )
and i^y pred. (^^ )

''And they inclined towards the valley of Sooban, ascending

the centre of it, and in their /aces were the fascinating looks
of a soft-bodied person brought up in easy circumstances.'"

iif^JJ also means — '

They mounted the rumps of the camels.'

^Jy,xJ find iLf-^^M, &c., adv. sent, s- of J '^•

J<> subj. (
0.*.?^ ) and iif^i^^ pred. { j^^ )•

/o /0/-3; //:zj/ f^ J I ri // n / ^ jj /n/ f

10 c^^^ ^"^^^ LT^ ^is^^jJ^^* •• ^^'^'^- w^*^b b->^'- ^J^-
They arose early in the morning and got up at dawn, and
ihey went straight to the valley of Rass as the
hand goes
unswervingly to the mouth, when eating.'*
L)->^^ cogn. obj. (3^-^^ J^**'* .

Here t:?* and u^j* ^5*^ '

'j subj., the pred. being |**^ '^y^ •

Another reading oy-^'ci""^'-?^

^^ for the valley of Rass.

(*^^ makes the figure u>'h**^-'l , as the rhyming word i*^' is easily and

naturally made out as tho proper word to follow the word '*'-' •

*'And amongst them is a place of amusement for the far-

sighted one, and a pleasant sight for the eye of the looker who
looks attentively."
vjixhli I
also = one of exquisite or nice taste.

Another reading (J:!

•^'^^•' = for the true lover.

o / / /

Jf*'-'* aud^-*-* siibj. s. to the pred. t;*** .

if the
pieces of dyed wool which they left in every place
in which they halted, were the seeds of night-shade which
have not been crushed."

^i U-'J"' adj. sent, to Jj^ .

V-=^ in the nom. case, being pred. after eJ ^ •

^ksi ^} adj. sent, to "r*-^ . An instance of the figure J ^*'i

"When they arrived at the water, the mass of which was

blue from intense puritj/, they laid down their walking sticks,
{i. e., took their lodging thei^e^) like the dweller who has pitched

his tents."

jj (i) in the obj. case, being an attribute to *'* ^ (ii) or J '-^ to *'•*

(iii) or
Oj) in the nom. case, being pred. to the subj
^^^*^ , the whole

oy^ /^^*^ an *'*"

sent, adj. sent, to

o //

^j.£Lt. i^fX^j metonymy ^i^^ for >J^^<^ {:j*' ' = they
lodged there.

(^^ pi. of **^= water collected in a well after drawing.

t5^2J= pi, of if^-a* .


"They kept the hill of Qanan and the rough ground aboiit
it on ^/iflir
right hand
while there are many, dwelling \n Qanan,

the shedding of whose blood is lawful and unlawful.''

There are many eiieinies and many friends dwelling there.

^^ here ^^^
siibj. to the , pred. o ^^ ^-1 •

Here u?-* explanatory to f*^ •

«-»^^ = an enemy, without a protection ; (*-^

^= a friend

by ft covenant { ^-^j^) •

'^^ an instance of the figure ^^.'^^'^ {Distribution).

^J^'° J i^''

" catne out from the valley of Sooban, then they

crossed it, riding in every Qainian howdah new and widened."
= of the trib^ of i^^^b qualifying ^-J^* under.
(^^i* relative adj., ( ,J

Another reading * '•*•* = made roomy.


Then I swear by the temple, round which walk the men
who built it from the tribes of Quraish and Jurhum."
This refers to the temple at Mecca which was built by Ismail, son of
Abraham, ancestor of the tribe of Quraish, who married a woman of
Jurhum, an old tribe of Yaman, who were the keepers of the temple before
ti'-^ &c relative clause, (''^'*) to cS '^^ '

y^^. an adj. sent to J '^j •

ij y^ obj. of place {^i}^*


17 J d^ ^^ ^^ Ujiia. (iJuJ
J-J;-*^' ^'o .'. (^ tij;*J

f^*'* _, I^AxI
- ^ ^ ^ 4' "
" An ^/la^ are two excellent chiefs, who
oath, j/oit verily
Rre found worthi) of hono^ir in every condition, between ease
and distress."

Both in affluence and trouble tliey are always to be relied on.

These are the two cliiefs mentioned in the introductory note.
^i*i cogn. obj. ( j'-^^ Jj*A-* ) to '^^> I
under, or to '^~' '
in the
previous line.

(*' a verb of praise, the sentence in full being,
' '
lu '^•i--' .

J for emphasis, introducing the following sent- as ^^ '

y '^^

adj. sent, to under.

'•''*^ ^•*-'
J '
under., secondary obj. ijji<^-^.^

1^'^ explaining J '•=^


<^'i^'**=a rope of a single strand ; singly twisted, or weak.

j*^A/o=: a rope of several strands twisted together; doubly twisted, or


(V^^ _j l1->;:s*^ ^^ another instance of j*-?;'~^^-'


:: /o /T /o/ / /-// / / o/ /- o o/ / / /

''The two endeavoiirers from the tribe of Ghaiz bin Murrah

making peace after the connection between the tribes
strove iu
had become broken, on accoant of the shedding of blood."
The tribes are the tribes of 'Abs and Zubyan.

^^^^, dual, divested of u by

^^^^-^l .

"**^ an adv. { »->_^-o ) in the obj. case, in the combination of ^^'^ I

the following sentence :

1st ^^ {
= tJiat)^ij'^'^'<'-
/ in / / / i // /o/

2nd '^ relative pron., the relative clause ^*^ '

( ) being ^j^.'^*-' i^i^fj^
where ^* is under, i*^^'"*-" c^^J U=z^x^xJ ^xj ^i l/o= I the state of affairs

subsisting among the tribe.

/o/ /o Oj/o/ i / /n / / / / / o/ / / nj / en/ /^o/ //

"You repaired luith jyeace the condition of the tribes of 'Abs

and Zubyan, Sffer they had fouglit with one another, and
ground up the perfume of^Ianshim between them."
^ name of a woman who sold perfumes at Mecca.

Some Arabs, making a league to be revenged against their enemies, tooit

oath with their hands plunged in a certain perfume, made by her, as a sign
of their coalition. They fought until they were slain to the last of tbem.

Hence the proverb ^•**>>'< _j^ t^^'C

^^ ' = raore unlucky than the perfume
of Manshini.
I/O <>,*j
i^Yiie the ijrecediny line-) 1>J '^^ ^-^ '^*J &c. = ^^J '^*J
(*«'^ j («*:!

(V^^A'^ ,
a diptote {'^^'^^^ji^ ) on account of CJ '
and ^i*^* •

l^j denotes reciprocity of action.

^^AJjJ 1^* .ij an instance of the figure are Allusion.


^yjojhs- p^*'-^-'

/n/ 0/ o / ^ n // / s / /o «, o^ o / jnjr,/ f

20 /^'"-^ J^^-* '

CJ'^ '->J^*'^J J ^^ .' '*-«lj ^1»«JI tJ'jii'J (^
I U^iJ! 4i.5j

" And indeed you said, '

if we bring about peace perfectly
by spending of money and the conferring of benefits, and by

good words, we shall be safe from the danger of the two tribes,
destroying eacli other '."
U«j Ij in the
{^^ amply) obj. case, being J'-^ to j*^*"

tJ"* explanatory to Oj^^-'C .

^j^i and 1*^—* jussive being ^^'^ and * 'j'^ , respectively.

/If/ jjo / n / / 0/0/ //o/jo/o//

"You occupied by reason of this the best of positions, and

became far from the reproach of being undutif ul and sinful."
These two men became much honoured on account of their good act in

making peace.
^^Ja^/e^jkii. ^Ic a prep, phrase, pred. (^^^) to '•^^"^'^ I

i^i'^^.*-^ in the obj. case being J ^•^^ •

The pronoun ^^ refers in both cases to


f*'-'^^ , (used in the masc. as

well as in the fem. gender), their act of completing the peace.

Or it
may be taken to refer to VJ'^ S war, which is of the fem. gender.

jn/ r, / s o/ o /o/ o / / /J J ^ // / nj o/ /

A)i(I you became great in the high nobility of Ma'add ; may

in the rvjld wnij and he avIio Ida trea-

you be guided ; spends
sure of glory will become great."
^^A*J=£obj. of J''^^.
aW &c. also = takes a lawful possession of a treasure of {^lory ly means
of his virtuous
^^T" and *'3^'
^-~J and f^-'^*:! jussive, beiii<;

^^IJo.* ^Jil>^*.^ ancestor of the tribes, among which were cT-*-^ and cJ^^i.

U^J '^^ a passive optative sent.

u'^ J &C; an instance of J-^*-' '
J ^--^ '
, a general maxim.

Another reading ^= achieves a great thing. Also f^^d is respected.


Oj / / 0/ O / /j.. /j O //Oc/ / O J jjO -/j

" The
memory of the wounds is obliterated by the hundreds
of camels, and he, who commenced paying off the Hood money
by instalments, was not guilty of it {i.e., of making luar)."
The sent. U*?:-^^ Sec, pred. to ^^"^ I

Oi^J '
of ^^'^, adj. to <-^^ ^ I

U i,i t^^s:-^:! J and the implied pron. in '^^^'^ I

refer to tJ-^ '

I* ill U^^ refers to ^^j^

or V^^ '

" One tribe it to another tribe as an indemnity, while

they gave the indcmyiity did not shed blood sufficient for

the filling of a cupping glass."

«/c tbe obj case being •
tj.£ in .

'^^0*i jussive, from (3^-/'*" ^ '->*; modified from ciO"*:! (3--^*; a quadri-

literal verb, where the initial * is a modification of *

Another reading (4H-; ^'^ '^O-*- f*-^

J where the is in b"0*i
I is
-/ J / ~ / J // Oj / o o/ //Of/

" Then there was

being driven to them from the property
j'-ou inherited,
a booty of various sorts from young camels with
slit ears."

Another reading (2j«*^" = are driven,

U^ a diptote ( «J^'^*-^^^-c ) being ^^sr'l j^^Xx/o .

for ^^'_^'« , by poetic license, J '^l being of com. gend-, the measure
U^*^ being used for the masc- as well as for the fem. gend.

Another reading is J ^' '

or (^J-*^ '
J '* '

*^^' ) =the
(^0"° young
camels, offsprings of ^•D-^j a certain famous stallion camel.

Young camels were generally given as mulefc.

"Now, convey from me to the tribe of Zubyanand their

allies a message^ — '

verily you have sworn by every sort of oath

io heej) the peace.'

1^^ which
adj. of emph. ('^^^'j) to^-^'^j, is a cogn. obj. {(S^^"^ Jj*^^),
a verbal noun from /""' .

Anotb-er reading i^•^'°li^*'

= who will con%'ey ?

•^^ here used in the sense of '^' .^indeed.


/O/ j„ /r,j /o / / /o/ - nj jj / /~ c^j^///^


" Do not conceal from God w!)at is in

your breast that it
maybe hidden; whatever is concealed God knows all about it.'* ^

He is here cautioning the tribe of Zubyan against harbouring intentions of

breaking their vows to keep the peace,
^^4.Axj emphatic, 2nd per., pi masc
j^fls^ ^ L_j_y.NaA.^ by J of <-^^^*^ •

/**:! ( Pass) and (^^ jussive being -^j^ and *'_)^ .

subj. of the obj. 8

being under.
'''•'••' '

z*^-*- ;

Prose order ^^ '

^*^*-i U«^ j . Another instance of '^^^ '
J ^^j^ ^
a general maxim.

^ ^ tf ^ ^ =^^
" Either it will be put and placed recorded in a book, and

preserved, there until the judgment day or the ipunishinent be ;

hastened and so he will take revenge."


The verbs ^-^^ ami others are passive and jussive, beiugnpodosis to
jj*x>vJ2/j or being in appos. with j*^*:! in line L*7.

^^^ jussive, being apodosis to ti^ "c;! under.

An instance of the combination of the figures v?:-'^'^-' 'j Gradatiuu, and

i/^o /o / n/ / J / / jjnj / nj^ / /- jO/o //

And war is not but what you have learnt it to be, and
what you have experienced, and what is said concerning it,
is not a story based on suppositions."

being ^^'•'^ and

'"^ -^''^
a rel. pron. in the noni. case; the I'el. clause or

wirli ol)j. ^ under.


'r' E.xpletive with the pred. after the negative. •

" When you stir

it up, you will stir it up as an accursed
tiling, and it will become greedy when you excite its greed and
it will rage fiercely.

The war though it may be small in the commencement is sure to spread.

_^j.*AJ igt and 2ud jussive, being -b^-« and *'3^ respectively.
/ /

^_y*o.i jussive being apodosis to j"^-" a 1 uuder.

**-i^^ in the obj. ease, being J'-=^ .

Another reading *-^--'j = insignificant.

*'Then it will grind you as the grinding of the upper mill-

stone against the lower, and it will conceive immediately after
one birth and it will produce twins.
The misfortunes arising from war are double.

J ^^ also be translated as the cloth spread to catch the flour as

may it

falU from a handinill.


IJIm.^ = immediately after a birtli. In the obj. case being J'-^ •

Or ^^^^' = conception) under.

adj. to {

<~(y= in the obj. case Jj*-^-^ .

being (J)--"^

The verbs are all jussives ; so also those in lines 32 and 33.
o// o Oj :r-» / /Of/ n Jij /fo/ / /o oj/n/nj/

^ ^ ^ = - " '»

bring forth youths, most accursed, each of them is

*'It will
like Ahmar of the tribe of *Ad so it will give them suck and ;

then wean them.-"

allusion (
) to Ahmar of the tribe of Thamud, who
killed the she-camel ot the prophet Salih, and was held accursed for his
misdeed. He is not of the tribe 'Ad as the poet describes him by a mistake;

li l-«= or the second 'Ad.

or, perhaps, it is because '^J*^ is called iSJ^ Si

e)Ui-c is (Jl'^'c and fj^ uuder. ^^ lo^wa/oj ^nd f»^l adj. to

' •
( oj"^-^'«^^'«= ) like^*=>-

f»«^ &c., adj. sent, to (j^'-s


Lines 31 and 32 make an instance of the figiu-e V^^j"^-' '

and i^^^j^

Observance of like terms.

_<=>. 1^

^4^ is J pred. (^^=^)•

Prose order, (*

(^•^ ^^jU^s^ .

/ n / ,/ n / o ^ J / Of i J / / n^f on ^j^

33 .*. h^^'i^ t-^*-' ^^^ JJ"*'**

/^'j^ J J-i^' ^"^ (i'^*-'^^ (j-^' f*^-'

" Thenit will produce for you what the villages in Iraq do

not produce for their people from bushels of corn and from
(i)'* explanatory of
^^'^ to ^*.
<J-*J i'
&c., rel. clause ( )

This line is an instance o£ Irony ^*««^-'

/o/^o^o/^o /j// J 0//5;/ i, /n /n / o //

^ " ^ ' -' "^"^

By my life I swear, how good a tribe it is upon whom

Husain Bin Zamzam brought an injury by committing a crime

which did not please them.'^
Husain Bin Zamzam's father was killed during the war between the Beni
between the tribes, he
Zubyan and the Beni 'Abs. When peace was concluded

made a vow secictly tlmt he would kill one of tlio tribe of 'Abs out of t.lie
revenge for his father. This he did, but ulien the Bent 'Abs came to take
revenge on him, Harith Tim 'Avvf offered thcin one Inmdvi'd camels as blood
money or his own son to kill. The 'Absioms took the camels and spared bis
son. The poet is now praising them for their act.

J in LFj**-' and f***-'

for emjihasis.

(*-^i^^j^ an adj. sent,

to is^ '

^ '•*
f^c^J ^J-i &c ,
a rel. clause l*^'*) to the rcl. pron- .

" And bo had concealed his

hatred, and did not display it,
and did not proceed io carry out his intention imtil he got a
good opportunitij."
f^^L lit. folded his flank; {'i^^ mytoiiymy for^*'^')= cherished
in heart.

adj. sent, to
= design) under, i.e., concealed stratagem, or


/ Oj / / / n 0/ „,^/ ::/ =j / / o// / //

38. (^^^"^ L5-J Ij J L?'^ «-«-'':' LSJ'^^ •*• Lf^-*'
L?^^^''^ ^^J'U Jl5_,

And he said " I will perform my object of aveiiging my-

self^ and I will guard myself from my enemy with a thousand
bridled horses behind me."

37. /A'i'^


ci'fi.' I
^^-h-s*- (_£«>' .'. Ji,.-h>^ 'j.>-!:J f_>^.^ A^ J '^*^

Then he attacked Ids victim frovi *Ahs, but did not cause
fear to the people of the many houses, near which death had
thrown down his baggage."
He killed no one while the peace was in force except the one person on
whom he meant to take revenge,

'^^i-? must be taken to mean '^•i'J-' '(J* '


(^•^^ locative noun, (cJ^*-'


'^j^,) o'^^^^to ^•*-, which is o '^^^ to

the following sent., and is, therefore, indeclinable (us*-^**) with '"'^ •

^^=: to sweep away, as some suppose), a nick-name for


l**'^> f* (^fiom

OflJ ICa^^ ^d.) &c., = **-UJ t

'^^^ = at the lodging ar place of


Another reading <^J"^J c^ftJ f*-* j=but many houses were not terrified.
o nj
Another reading^r-'^*-^ f^ J= did not respite.

s/j o/ jj /n/sf j/ rz /J / - / / / //

38. ^153 ^i g^iftjit^J

ri .-. oi.aA3
^H^Ji ^^ru
" Near a a mane,
lion, fully armed, very warlike, wlio lias

and whose claws have not been clipped."

^i>.J in apposition with '^J;-=^ (^"^-^ in line 37.

Or here '-^•'i li) ^ { = this happened,) under.

^j^^'*' , inverted form of "-^-^ '*

; or *-^ ^ with the medial * eliminated

from ^O"^ : prowess or valour.

_ii^J (_5.S'l.*=whoexhihits his prowess his arms or whose weapons
by ;

are sharp; or bristling with arms.

06.S/C [^ intensive,) thrown frequently into wars.

<^ ri and /^^^ ij^Si.^\ adj. aent. s, to ^-' '


metaphorically used for ci^i-^'^ This line is generally quoted by •

Avriters on Rhetoric as an excellent example of the combination of the two

kinds of 5jt«AAol {^metaphor), ^'A-T^'*) iaccojnpauied by circumstances re-

lating to the thing compared,) and ^'^'^J^, [ accompanied hy circum-

stances relating to the thing compared with.)
r> / ni /oj .. / = / Oj o /j o/oj // s /

**Very brave;
— when he is wronged he punishes by his
fcyrrany quickly, and if he is not anticipated with oppression,
he oppresses.
^'^ nom. case
t5^0^ niay be in the gen. case being adj. to
; or in the

being pred. {j''*^) to ^* under.

and V"^ '•*:!
jussive being •^/*' and
'_)^ •

in the obj. J '^ or adj. io ^^•^

J j*^-*)
^-*0'^j case; either being j '•?

^IkAj) under.
'^•^i (liirlilcnoilfonnof *t>^:;) Passive, jussive. It is 3^*4'*; hut tlic final

* '^'
hc'iii"; Ii"litene(l into '
it is miule to follow the rule of <J^^ '

ill^^ejl if not.

"They allowed ^/i(3ir atdmals to graze until when the interval

between the hours of drinking was fiuishcd, they took them
to the deep pool, which is divided by weapons and by

shedding of blood."
By the deep pool is meant war, and the meaning of the line is that the
tribes refrained from war for a certain time, after which they a{j;ain had
recourse to arms.

^^ , the interval between one drinking time and another. In the

of time.
obj. case being obj.

(t^ , subj. the implied pronoun referring to ^*^ .

ijj^^ contracted form of (^j^^^ , obj. sent, to '^ '*'.

o // / //
Another reading ^«-^'*-'=
<^'*' b'^J^'^'j''^
= they allowed their camels

to graze to their content during the interval, &c.

An instance of the figure oO--'^-^-^ I iib I^as.

~ / / J / 0/ o^ // J / n / cj o^/n/ / // o ; //

' = J

They accompli.shed their objects amongst themselves,
then they led the animals back to the pasture of unwholesome
indigestible grass."
That is after they had had enough fighting— drinking of the pool of

war they prepared for the next time of fighting.
-/jO / 0/ / o // ojj / no// o-/ / /jO//
42 ^liJl (J-h^Jjl <-^J:«-> i^^.\
f»«^ ^^j {*4*-M Cl)_;=^l/o ijj^*.}

Verily by your life / swear, their spears never committed
a sin against themselves in taJdng, [or never made them liable
to any 'penaliij for shedding) the blood of Ibne Naheek or the
cue killed at Muthullam."

(^ i.e., the tno persons whom he is

praising, the pi. no. is used for
Theso two men, although they paid they hlood mulct, were guiltless of
sheddina: blood.
•-^M^ (iH '
one of Bani 'Abs, killed during the celebrated war of Dahis-

place where one of Bani 'Ab was killed during the same war.

<-^-^^ in the gen. case being ^^/ <> ''^•* to i^ .


Another reading. (*
•i'W '
L^^ '

>> •

-z^'' o // /O // // 0/ / o/o o // / //

" And ^/leir spears did not participate in the deatii and blood
of Nawfal, nor in the hlood of Wahab, nor of Ibn-al-Mukhazzam."
The subj. of ''^^j^-^ is ^^-^J in the preceding line.
All the persons mentioned here were killed during the war of Dahis.

" I saw both of them paying them as blood mulct the best
part of their flocks which were ascending the mountain pass.
^^ In the obj. case, being ^i-^*-' •
^^ij^^ (^^-^ i^^^j>J I

'^^^'^l &c., noun sent, secondary obj. to. 'j


&j^la*j prea. sent, (ji^ ) to j*'^'^ I I


ol^-^ either = free from defects; or paid without any demand. In the
to AJ^lfljtJ.
obj. case, being secondary obj.
Here some copies have two lines in lieu of one, running thus —
- / 0/ o/ n/ ///j / J / j/ '^/ n.j/ / =j/

" So I saw them all paying them as blood-mulct repeated po r-

tions of thousand after thousand, fully reckoned. They wer..

driven to one people on account of other people as a mulct

hewg, &c." .

A.'JIjs = one thing after another; obj. o' («^>^^'*d.


v-ij I
i,^ ti,e masc. gemler, agreeing with its form-
a,ij_ J

6^~J *J ^^
adj. sent, to .

*-* in the obj. case, •

ir-* bcing^^*^
o t^-^*'^ and ^ '*' ''=' in obj. case, being either J '•^, or adj. to ^ ^^ .

/ oj / :: / o o /// / njjO/ / z. ^ n/ / ~ /

" T/ie camels

beloyiged to a tribe abiding always in one place,
whose power protects the people, when night brings them a
great misfortune."
They protect the unfortunate.

C5* may also = on account of a tribe; Uere the prepos. phrase goes
vvitli ^^j^~^*-i in line 44.

J ^^•^ pi. of *^-^ = a collection of 100 houses, here used for the people.

Or pi- of J ^^ = abiding near one another ; many.

f*-^*i &c, adj. sent, to is'^


J''*' subj. to ^^H the obj. being u'^^^ .

By t^-^ is meant the tribe
of the persons whom the poet praises.

TA^?/ ^''^ noble, so that the one possessed of hate, cannot
accomplish his hate against them and the criminal, iv/io takes
refuge with them, is not surrendered to
his enemies."

Another reading ^^"~^ ^^' '

^j '*
Nor is he who commits a
(*H''^ (/•>

crime against them safe from their revenge."

either in the gen. case, being adj. to or in the nom.

( Lr^ (j5-=^ ; case*

being ^"^-^ to (* under.

^ here is t-T-h'-J V^*-" j (analogous to lT^^), andjS and cf*'^ '

in the nom. case ; pred. being the sent, ^ii <^j<^i in the first case;

and f*^*^ with the e.>cpletive v in the other case.

go/ ///// = 0//// O/O// I/O/ // jO /

" I have of the troubles of life and

grown weary ; he, who

lives eighty years Avillj raayest tliou have no father if tltou

doubt, grow weary."
e^^-"'*' obj. of time.

^J^ obj. of specification Jf^.^.*^ i^ L^i^^*> .

'^ '5i a common term of imprecation.

'V '
In the obj. case, being subj. ^ which ijr^^
(j^"^') after , is t(_^ii->>J51
" -
the pred. being ^J^^,?''', under.
This and the following lines are among the best instances of 0->-*j\J^'^j\,
general maxims, enibod3'ing, as they do, excellent precepts of morality and
ethics. lu this and the following lines, all the aorist verbs, preceded by

ij-^ are jussive, being •^^'*', and those that follow are also jussive

being * [^^ .

" And I know what has happened to-day and yesterday,

before it, but verily, of the knowledge of what will ha'p'pen to-
morrow; I am ignorant.''
<-*•?* In the obj. case, being obj. of time ( ^^,' Jj*-^^ )

ts*^ (adj. from ^*^ ), pred. to the subj. ^5 after i^'^ .

''O clause (*^'*); elliptical for

relative, ^^^^^ls' its relative fj^-^ 't/'-?*

So also '^^ ^^ .
c^» .

i.e., the preceding and not any other past day. An instance of

the figure ^i*^*^'*^-*; or an expression, superfluous but defining more

o//o;/j I Oj, o//jOj o jO///o//o////Ojog

I see deatli is like the blundering of a blind camel;
— him
whom he meets he kills and he whom he misses, lives and will

become old.^'
/o/ > '^i

^^^ an infin., in the obj. case, being cogn. obj. ij^^^ Jj*-ii-^ to ^^
t.\i^ a diptote ^j'^'° j^P , on account of '^^j,^*^ '-«-''; fern, of

Object of V^5 ji,„i j^^.ki-' is » under. V-^ e^^ &c., an example of

the ti^mire f*^.-^^^


50 (^-^'i^*^
^^jij ^^^^>. u^j^i .'. ^^i^^j^'^' cr* ^jUjJ) vi^-cj

And ho who does not act with kindness in many affairs

will bo torn by teeth and trampled under foot."

And he, who makes benevolent acts intervene before
honour, increases ]us honour; and he, Avho docs not avoid
abuse, will be abused."
The meaning of the line appears to be he who prefers actino; benevolently
to seeking means of increasing his honour will find his honour thereby

cJj>^ iir"*
= in defence of.

» in 5/^ refers to \J^j^ • It may as well be taken to refer, to oj^**-''.

when it wonld mean, " will do more benevolence."
/Oj/jTZ/o/Oj 0/ // o/ n/n/ / n / / j/ n / /

52 f*'*'*-j /'^^ (i?-*"^-^ /-^y* Jf^-'^

.'. /^'"^^J Jls-^-?:* Ja^jI^ (^ ^x.^

He, who is possessed of plenty, and is miserly with his
great wealth towards his people, will be dispensed with, and
'i the objective form of j'i *^i
; obj. of •

tJ^^^ coord, to '^i,

53 ^s:*^'*" ^j-?^
^^'^ J5-'
.*. ^^"^ •^^i ^:^'''^ ^^'!>^..'^ ^ji{j^^

" He who
keeps his word, will not be reviled; and he whose
heart guided to self-satisfying benevolence will not stammer."

He will talk as a man who has no cause to fear.

> i .*
Another reading /^^ ijP-^i i^-^j = he rthose heart inclines to, and
is joined with.

jxj I
^^i^iayc JfJ
I = ii?^*^^^J ^^ I
tu-?:^^>< also =
pure, and firm.

s:*^^ ^ ttlso = will I'Ot foil back.


-^ /- / / n / / n / j/o/ / / / /n / r n / / / / /

And he who dreads the causes of death, they will reach
him, even if he ascends the tracts of the heavens with a ladder."

^j^J {J^ (^^^^•'j *^^*^ '^^^j<^i =death will overtake you
^ 5=; *i^

although you may be in strong towers."

li^W 3rd per., fem. pi.

o/// o// = / jjn/ oj/ o/ 0/ / jo/o /o/ o //

"And who shows kindness to one not deserving of it, his

jDraise willbe a reproach against him, and be will repent of
havijig shown kindness,"

The showing of mercy to the sharp toothed leopard may be an oppression

to the sheep.

''*'> in the obj. case being pred. after {j^i •

/n/ s^ o/^j / /n ^ J js. / / ~ / /o/ n/ n//

" And he who rebels

against the butt ends of the spears,
then verily he will have to obey the spear points joined to

every long spear shajt.''

He who prefers war to peace will be killed in battle one day.

The wandering desert Arabs when they met used to present the butfc
ends of their spears towards one another if their intentions were peaceful,
the points if they intended fighting.

fc^ome take the butt end to naean easy matters, and the points to mean
hard matters. The line would then mean to say, "lie, who does not yield
to easy matters, will have to labour under great evils."

C5"' '->* > ph of 'i-' ^*

= higher part) ; in the obj. case, to C- -^ with its

^^ suppressed by a poetical license.

^^-jO adj. sent, to is* '^*.


l^^ In llie o1)j. case being secondary obj. to '^•^0j or ""'J^-*^'^; the

prep. L5* being under.

<-J in ^'* iiitrodnciiig tbc follouing sent., npodosis to U^«

An exanii)le of tbe figure ^^!'-'^*J ', Antithesis.

I^j/ X. O//O//0-/J / o/o/o^//o//

''And he who docs not repulse with his weapons from his
tank, will have it broken and ho who docs not oppress tho

people will be oppressed."

t^J^ bere metapboricuUy [Sj'-*-^^\) used for j*.;-^ in tlie sense o£
" " bonour
rigbts ," ," or anything vvbicb a man ougbt to protect.

^/j/^/o/o_/j/o// j/ / ^ j/ n / n/ o /n/ o / /

''And he who travels should consider his friend an enemy;

and he who does not respect himself will not be respected."
Do not consider every stranger you meet a friend.

Tbe first hemistich may also mean, —

"He, who goes to foreign countries, takes an enemy for his friend, for
want of experience."

/o/ .. i / =0/ /jO/ // j/n/ / X J 0/0/ o/// o //

" And who

he, is
always seeking to bear the burdens of other
people, and does not excuse himself /ro»i it, will one day by

reason of his abasement, repent."

/>-&3 (^UJl J.c^jy^j Lit.^allow himself to be used as*-^-=^, or a camel
litter, l)y tbe people ; (^^jf*^«l ).

ol)j. andcr^-^l 2ndobj. to t^^y-J .

d^y^. pred. after Jyi^, one of <i'-a5(iJ I

J(x> ill.

obj. of time Jj*^'') .

^-*^i ('•?;*

In '4*-*i tbe ^* agrees with ur^^ , hence in fern. gend.

*-**- ^ jussive, being coord, to J3-^«

" And whatever of character there is in a man, even though

he thinks concealed from people, it is known/'

People know more about us than we imagine,

o-* Explanatory to '*^ •

Tlie sent, u"^-^-"

t^"-^ l?^^ second, obj. to J ^-^^ .

^^ ^ t^ ^ ^

He, who does not cease asking people to carry him, and

does not make himself independent of tJiem even for one day
of the time, will be regarded with disgnst."
^^' and ^-»^J 1st and 2nd iJ*s^'^i
U- obj, to
' .

^-^^J obj. of time ( o) ^^3'' '

'-h^ )

uy*i ^ jussive, being coord, to uji^

i / c J ^ o/o/ jj/ / ,
n J / / / n /o //

Many silent ones you see, pleasing to you, hut their excess
i)i ivisdom or deficiency ivill appear at the time of talking."

As long as a man has not spoken, his defects and his merits are concealed.

(Gulistan, 1st chapter, 3rd tale).

iJi ^= (^ ill the obj. case, being obj. of (j--^-*

(!>'* explanatory to ^t^i '^ .

iji*/ct^ and V^'" adj. to t-^^j under.

/^'^^ij , &c., adj. sent, to '^^''«.

•3^'Oand /"^^^ subj. and (^^^^ 'cr* pred.

The tongue of a man is one half, and iliQ oilier half is his

mind, and there is nothing besides iliese two, except the

shape of the blood and the flesh."
o'--' subj. and '-"'^^ pred. ,;
so also «i '3' and '^'^K

^J^"^ in (he noin. rase, bcinp subj. to (3^- ^^ •

^j(aa.j ^i(<-,J ^iji.'£> tj tjj _ I

nian w known by his two little thingsl,
his tongue and his mind."

Another instance of the figure ^?:""°^-'

^o/ / / - ''1/ / o :: / >/o/ /o / nz / // z f

- ^ -' ' '

" And an old man there is no wisdom

verily, as ^o the folly of
after it, but the young man after liis follymay become wise."
If man is a fool in his old age, there cau be no hope of his ever attaining

And the old man never abandons his nature until he is concealed in the
dust of his grave.

A bad habit, which has taken root in one's nature, will not go away until

the day of death. (Gulistan, 2nd chapter).

JJ <i.*j
5/ a sent. pred. to » ^^^.

^^•^ in theobj. case, being subj. after *j pred., being the adv. pln'aseJJ*^*^

^^*" , the final

j* ,
which forms the rhyme ( tSJJ ) is (•^'^•^, contrary
to the rhyme of the poem, which is j_j«~>«^. An instance of the defect in

rhyme called *'j'l'

Obs. the double Antithesis, *^-? '^•' '.

We and you gave, and we returned to the
asked of

a^nd to the giving, and he who increases the
asling you
asking, will one day be disappointed."

J ^5 infinitive of intensity.

'^ji obj. of time.

Ad instance of Climax 'r^i^y'




Written by Labeed Bin Rabce 'ah. Al-'Atniri, who became a
Mahomadcn, and died in the 41st year after the Hijra^ when
he was 150 years old.
The metre of the poem is the first oi d^^^^ , ( or, ^^-^^ I

J.kK)\^jc Jji/( sj^j^*-"u'* J^^')) whioh consists of e^i'C


repeated six times.

This metre, J>='^-'l {=iierfect) , is much admired for its me-
lodious flow, and like Ji^-^-' I
is very extensively used by the
Arabs for all kinds of poetry. The measure of the line is

large enough to accommodate words and sentences of auy

length entirely and independently of another line. As in

Jj^Ul each ^ hemistich being roomy enough of itself,

no word is, as a rule, divided between the two hemi»
stiches, except in the case of a word beginning with the
article J , where J may go with the first hemistich, leaving
I •

the following entire word to the second.

The following are the kinds of <J Uj to which the feet of
this metre are subject :—
(1) y-*/^Dl,(or maJcing qidescGni the second moveable leitor

of afoot), which turns t^lctal.* into ^^xkl^M , It is extensive

in use.

(2) u^>jU , {or the supj)ression of the second moveable

letter) J which turns i^l^lA^x into {J^^^k^ , It is of rare occur-


(3) J>^ •
, (
or simultaneously drufping the 4ith letter and
divesting ike second letter o of its *^j^, )
which turns

^ /o >
j^U'.ftix) into e)i*iii>« , It ia bail to use because of ita putting
tho metre out of harmony.

Example of scansion.
t J / / /j ///. /i / / J

^..btii^^ I u^'lft*^ i^li:Uixj ^UVaX^ e?


The rhyme (*V^^I) is -^J-^-* (/^"t^e),

of tho class of «-^j!<i>Ul
as in the previous poems. The t5Jjj (o»* ^^'C rliJjming letter J is
with ^*^ for (^_j^ , [or moving voivcl) ; and with the con-
stant syllable l*^ called J'^y'*t*,( or the attached ^ ;) whose J^^J, (or
moving vowel,) is <^^^ and ^j^^ , {or the letter (>f jyvolongatlon,)
is I
. , the (_sjj is preceded by '^ called o>ij , with
^, ,

#•*** ^/;e moving vowel of the precccUyig letter).

for itsjA-=^, (or

Hence, the ^V termed iJj 1'^^ J (^•<*^-*-' ^J f^^y^^y^ >'> >i^^ AaiJa/c
^> is I

while the poem {i"^^.'^>) is called *Mlj HJj^jm ^i^i^^ .

The poem contains a description of rural life and the pride
of the poet in the noble qualities and deeds of his ancestors.

"77ie 0/ the houses of my helovedt their position and


their site at Mind have been obliterated, and Ghol and Rijdm
near it have become deserted."
" at
The second hemistich may also mean Mina, where its wide extent
and its hills have been inhabited by wild animals."

t^'*'* either feminine, and a diptote, or masculine and a triptote.

^*'*'* and '4-*'^'^in the nom. case, being in apposition with jk'^'^

(juiiiii j.>o-
•^^'^» &c., adj. sent, to ij^^ .

"Also the water-courses of Rayyun of which the traces ;

were laid bare, so as to lie worn out and invisible from a


flistance, hxxt visihle on aff roach, as writing intrusted to tlie

hard stones/'

C* ' ^^ In the nom. case, being subj. to '^^ ^^ , and coord, to W-'j* .

i^j^ adj. sent, to W -^•'


J adj. iu the obj, case, being J '-^^ .

cy^j obj. to u?*'^ , the subj. being i^/c^^* , and referring to i^-^j .

is^^ of u"^J **^'*«'

(*^** pl« of
pl. aiHl

"The traces of its people remain, although since the time of

their inhabitants years have been completed, whose
sacred months and non-sacred months have hoth elapsed."

J ^^ is the name given to the eight moDths of the year during which
the Arabs consider war lawful.

(• L?^ the four months in which they consider war unlawful, /V*"* »

^'^^^'j'iand •»>*"' J
v_.^^ ,

c;"'^ In the nom. case, either being in apposition with jh"^^ ', or being
pred. to t5* under.

&c., adj. sent, to i^'^

'^ •
f*^^ }

subj . of (V^ '

«i)J'^^ adj. sent, to •

J ^=*- and (*!./=*•
in the nom. case, being in apposition ( O^aa; t

with «f
?"^ •

4 l^Ajt-i^ ^*^«>^-=?' '>*'j_/-'t 0>ij .*. '^^^"^ J (*->?

i^^:" l^-* "^^^J

''They have been supplied xvith grains by the spring rains of

the rainy starsand the shower of the thunder-clouds, their

heavy downpour, and their gentle showers have affected them."

Some consider ^^~'jj and v^ to be optative (^•i-''-*^
), meaning
"May they be fed with and may they be rained by ..."

^^^j'^ Iu the obj. case, being secondary obj. to ^^•*jj .


* '
or the iiinnsions of the moon,
(*^^^ inonns
stars generally ; here, '^'
which by thrir rising ami setting at ihiwii, were snpposed to bring rain, uiiul,

heat or coUl-

t"^ '^"^ pl- of *^-?J''*

= uf spring, bom in spring,
p^^ 'i^-? Lr'^'^tlie

rains of the spring.

i>i=i- anil ('^^^ in apposition with ( J'^0 <3>5j •

5 l^^ I
wjj's:'^^ '*-i'*** J .*. u;^*^-* iil.c
J *Jj^-«»
els' (^^

"Being the rain from evei^ night-cloud, and morning-cloud

pouring iucessantlj, and evening cloud whose thunders respond
to mie another."
U^ explanatory to ^jj^
in the previous line.

^*' under.
'-ij^-^ adj. to ^i

j^iw(5,A3 also = obscuring the sky.

vj'^ an adj. phrase to /"^-i-^-c ; vj^^ being partic. and ("'jj

in the num. case, being its subj.

An instance of |*-i~'^-^-'

/ .» // / /i/ 0//0/0 n//n// /j/n/ j jj//f

" So the branches of

Aihaqdn grew high, and the deer and
ostriclies brought forth young and laid eggs respectively on the
two sides of the valley."
Here **^ '"*''*^ ') are said to
by a figure of speech, ( called
ostriches, ,

bring forth young, though they only lay eggs. Instances of the kind are
abundant ia Arabic poetry and prose.
/ / //o /-s/=j //n///s//jnn/

" And the wild cows,

having lately calved, are standing
over their young giving suck, whose (t. e., the valley's) young
lambs have herded in the plain."
The above two lines point out the abandonment of the place by human
beings, the wild animals being left undisturbed.

«i>^ pl. of »^^ = adoe 10 or 15 days after having brought young.

In the obj. case to denote condition. ( J ^^ )


J^ "-^
, &p., adj. sent, to c^i*-* '

Either 0-^^~^ past tense or iJ^'^ syncopated form of J^^ '•J^J


C^«:?, pi. of f»«^ pLof-^'^-ffJ.

And the floods have cleared away the dust from the ruins,
ivhich shine as clearly as if
they were books, the text of which
the pens have renewed.
That is, come the ruins have to light again, as faded writing, after the

pen has again heen passed over it.

^0 pi- ^^ jyj > in the nom. case, being pred. j^'^ after u^ •

'^^ 5 &c., adj. sent, to y.j •

W^ , &c.,adj. sent, to jy^-".

9 t:;«0» u^^*^ ^^^^ '-^^'

l«:^t.ij .*.
^*J-?J ^"-^'j C^-j j'

" Or as the
repeating of a tattooer the operation of tattooing,
her indigo or soot is sprinkled in circles, above which her
tattooing appears."
That is, the tattooer brings to light the old marks by sprinkling indigo
over them.

^J , pred. after w'^j in coord, to j^.j in the preceding line.

•-^ I
, &c., adj. pass. sent, to ^-^'^

Ikiif In the obj. case, being secondary '-*'^'

(pi. of*^^)- obj. to

or J^A.
(^^*J , &c., adj. sent, to •

J - - .
' -

Either \J^j*-^ , syncopated form of o^.^**-* ; or o^^*"* past tense.

**Then I stood questioning them, concerning the inhabitants.

And of tvhat avail is our questioning rocks and houlders lying

iu their places for ever, whose speech is not clear ?

That is, what is tlie use of qucstionir)}? lifeless objects?

(^JUI adv. sent, showing J^^> (a^-'^a. aJ^:^.

UJ\,j^ suhj. nnil *-°i^ prod.

^ ol'j. to '^' '*^'*^. ^'* mill '^^ 'j-^ adj. to j'*^"^' under.

*^ l>-^ a
diptote i^j^^^'^ji-^, being an extreme plural.

cri^j''*, «tc.,adj. scut, to

f*^ .

TKq Jwnse became empty, after that all its inhabitants had
been once then they departed from it iu the early morning,
iu it;
and its trench and its shrubs ^Yore left."

The trench is the trench dug around the house to carry off rain-water.

"The women of the tribe excited your desire, when they

were mounted on their camels and concealed themselves in the
how dah -frames covered ivith cotton curtains, the tents of which
creaked being quite ncio."
* •..

l:?*-^ pi. of ^^i*-^ =a woman travelling in a camel litter, and generally

any woman.
U'i^ vide line 4 of Poem I.

Another reading '^U« ^jj

j*^'^, &c., adj. sent, to n.'^'.

L>-^*) = in a
Another reading ^-^^^ of
(pi. train, or with their letiuue.

In the ohj. case, being J '-^^ .

"Namely, every hmcdnJi covered 7viih cloths, whose poles

are shaded by a silk brocade^ on which there was a light awning

and its curtain."

O"* { = namely), explanatory to '4-* 4-=^ iu the preceding line.

iJji^^'^ adj. to under.


d-tsJ, &c., adj. sent, to 2>>^*.

S " J 5
/i^^ obj. to '-^•'=i ;
^^'j being
the siibj,

yi^^ , &c., adj. sent, to

^jj . •'•i^^
pred. ; *1^, and W^ '^» subj.;


referring to

14 t4;£T*j!lftJ3£ 5__,=.j ,UJ:_, .-. l^s^ys

^^^3 ^Ui ijl^ iUj
Being women in companies, ty/jo were as good looking as if
they were the wild cows of Toozih on the litter ; or the does of
Wajrah, it'*s white deer turning towards their young y
That is, the women were looking towards the poet, turning round their
heads, as they were departing.
The eyes of a beautiful woman are compared to the eyes of the wild cow,
which are large and have a tender look in them, whilst the poet compares
a beautiful neck to the neck of a deer.
» ..
'^•» -»

• 3 (pi- of ^^^j )j in the obj. case, being J '-^ to ^*-^ .

f^J^ a diptote <>Jj^^^j^.^ . Vide line 2 of Poem I.

and *4-= in the obj. case, being subj. ( f*** ')
after o l^ ,t'-?' >

an adv. phrase, ^j^ being the pred.

*>^J a diptote *Jj^^^ jis> on account of '^i^^^ and *-J:*^* .

lA in
\iy refers to t^^ ^ '
or to «i
'^* .

f^ (pi. of *^J^ ^ ) in the obj. case, being J '-^^

to *'•*'= .

C *->
(pi- ^^ ^'J ^^ white deer,) in the nora. case, being subj. to
*-*=^ .

Another reading ^^\fj^ ^^^ . Here 'f*' *J

subj. (
'^^^ ) , and
pred. U- )

were driven on, and the valley Sarab became
T/ie camels
distant from them, and they were in the windings of the valley
of Beeshah passing as loftily as if they were its tamarisk trees
and its rocks."
That is, the camels were tall and big.

* '3-^' (lie
()l)j. case, l)cin<» ^^.' J^*-^^ .

^•^^J ( tJj'^i-^^Jii ) for "^JrJ^J niul *?;'•«= .

l-^^ '
aiul W^ ''^j, ])io(l. after c;!^-

*'Nay, what /s 'i^

you are rGmcmbcring about Nawar, wlioii
she has departed, and hoOi the strojig ropes of meeting loith her,
and tho weak ones have been cut ?"
{-. yrm\
The poet is here addressing himself, and says it is ahnost hopeless to
endeavour to meet Na\Yar.

introducing a new subject.

<>J ^-s^-'^*-' I
conjunction ^j-^*- ,

syncopated form of^^

'^*-' .
-^ i*^"*

J in '^^j is J^^-^'j'j .

J h^ a diptote yJj-^^j^.'^ .

/ // /o / n/ /
' ? I'^f 0/////0/ o-/ £7-^

'«'* Lr^ tJ^A.>c
^^jlijt:^^ (J.ii I
.'. "^jj^j «>'i^J Aj^^

/S/ie IS of the Murrian tribe, who has taken up her abode
at Faid and drawn near to Hijaz; so how may there bo in
you the intention of meeting her ?
Faid is the name of a strong fort. The ])oet is telling himself that it is

impossihlc to take NaMar by force.

"ir-* In the nom. case, being pred. to tf* subj. under.

•^!^ used as o^-^-^^i-^ for ^^-^ ^^d ''•i*^ ^ though ti;'^i/o on ac-
count of its medial letter being (ir^^-** .

\^a\jM subj., ci;:!' pred.

I J I / 5/0/ / o/-/// -/JO/ o /// o ^ I

Sometimes site stays in the cmintry on the eastern sides of tho

two mountains, {Ajaa and Salmu,) or at Muhajjir, then Fardah
contains her aad then Rikluim adjoining it."

^•^y a diptote Oj-^-*-«j-!:^ useil as a triptofce (oy^fi*.^; by a poetic license.

/ / O o/ O /O J / / O SZi / ' 0//0/ O S /jf

if she goes to Yaman, and next

Then Suvayiq contains her
her probable place of stay is Vihaf-ul-Qahr or Tilkham.'^
(jSlj'O lathe nom. case, being co-ord. to i''^' . It is t>J/'^'"*^-J:'^ ,

but here used as o^'-sj.x) by a poetic license, and so admits i^ij^'^ .

A^^'o ^^ ^
subj. (' '^'^^), and ol-=»'j and ( pied. (^-J^ ).

l^i/o s.iJaxi=Lit,^ where she is supposed to be or thought to go.

o'-^j > also, pi. of ^^^j=a hillock, or environs,

o/ o / /o

^V I
, or y^^' '
or J-^*-' '
J name of a place.

''Theu cut off the desire of meeting one, union with whom is

exposed to di(}iculties. For, in this case the best for him who
desires the friendship is the cutting off of the desire."

That is, if the person whose friendship you desire should not care for
affection, it is better for you to sever your friendship with him, and
requite him with his own treatment.

Lit., the best of those who respect the bond of union is the one who cuts
it off as soon as the affection ceases j or the best keeper of friendship keeps it
up as long as there is a reciprocity of affection, but severs it as soon as the

affection ceases.

^^ subj. and (*
'^-^ pred.

(i^-* a relat. pronoun {J^'^J*^ ^**

' '
) in the gen. case, being '"»' ' ol^/o
to *J'-*J; its relative clause (^^'*) being ^''^j u^^*-' .

O^^*"* here = is liable to change ; swerves; is inconstant ;

or is altered
so as to cease.

J in j-):^ for emphasis (

'^-•^ ^-^
) .

aIjx J-^ I
j= one who unites the bond. of union; friend.

The second hemistich also reads '«'" Lr^ *-^^ ^'^ 'j j^j = " The
worst friend is the one who wilfully severs the bond ivith an off'ence"

21 ^*J.-t lil c3lj V-^'j

^-^^ ^y>
I ^jj .-. A/c_^j cJj_>s:-^tj J^ts.-»-'l

" Ami bestow upon him who acts well towards you many
gifts, while tlio severance of lu's frinedsliip is reserved, if

it becomes weak, or the support of it inclines;

" —
•r*^' Imperative from ^=^ for y.^ .

(J.K [s*^ also = one wlio coaxes you.

Another reading lA^'^* ' = '

one who requites your love,' or 'one who
puts up with your conduct.'

d^O^ '

adj. to iJj^*'J\ i^o'ift) or '^j^ '

{affection), under.

= in reserve, or lying at your option.

o / / /

Another reading '^*^'^ = deviates, swerves.

in is J l:s-'
_j /'a:j^j \j \j .

(•j''* subj., and O^'^ pred.

i^aJ-J: which the pron. '^ in
Subj. to is
to h^\j> also refers.
Another reading H"^ '_?^ = its straightness.

By i/ie /icZ^J q/" a she-camel, tliiu from many travels, ly/iic/i
have left hut the remains o/ JlesJo upon her ; so that her loins .

and hump have become thin/'

That is, one should leave the society of the man who is indifferent to
one's friendship as quickly as possible.
By a thin camel is meant one in condition to travel quickly ; one inured
to hard travelling.

common *^ ^'
f:^'-^ adj. of gend. to under.
wO"*; &c., adj. sent, to j

/ / //O /O/O/-/// O/;////j0/ // /

" Then when

her flesh becomes scanty, and she grows tired
and her ankle-thongs fiiU to pieces after her fatigue ;" —

= grows dear, or scarce.

Auother reading =(Jj*'

rises or collects at the heads of her bones from

pi. of (*'^-^,pl. of *^'>''=^ a leather ring fastened upon the pas-


tern of a camel, to which the thongs (^•'^^''jof a leathern shoo \^*-^) arc


24 i«^ U*^ v-?^?^''' ^ "-"^ *f'*-(H' .*. '-t^Jl^

f*^^^-*' L5* v^'i'*

She s:iiZ/ feels joy in the bridle, andjiies quickly, as if she


were a red-tinged cloudy devoid of rain^ and travelling qnickly

with the south wiud/'
That is, the camel, although tired, is still game to go.
The pace of the camel is here compared to a fast-flying cloud.

apodosis to in line 23.

' '
'«^* &c., ^i

V^ subj. to the pred. '«' .

^l^; &c., adj. sent, to ^'^.

*^4'* adj. to *^ under., in the nora. case, being pred. after o^j.

*-^^, &c., adj. sent, to * ^^'^ •

" Or as a who has conceived to a wild

pregnant she-ass,
donkey idiiie, in the fianls, whom the driving of the other
stallions Iter and the kicking and biting them, have made

The pace of the camel is now being compared to the pace of a young

^i/o { = iDJiose udder shines being stiff") ;

masc, in form, used for a female,
or it has no male of the quality.

•^^J &c., adj. sent, to ^^•* .

V^^l is iJj"A>-^^i^ on account of ^^-^ and ^•**-' '

a^ij- ^oj^.^

<^^,kc., adj. sent. toV'^-s^' .

I* in
^-^.j-^ and l«-* ^'^^ refers to Jj^ I .

Obs. ^y^ I
or Climax.

26 U^l^jj UJU^i: ^j|j^5 ... Isr^""-*

f^'^i" V^^ '^^^l*i

" Bitten and torn ho ascends tlio slopes of tbe hills with her,
for her disobedience and carnal desire have made hitu doubt
her fiddii\jt^^
V*^^ ul)j. of^'*:! .

Is:-^'*"* ill the obj. case, being u '-^ to V^'^ '

or in the nom. case, being

adj. ioj't^ uiuler., subj. of J^ *:! .

adj. sent, to j^P •

A:'t;>iJ lie.,
/ / /JO / / /n ''^z //o/ i/n/' j/~ ^ f

"In the rough grounds in the valley of Thalaboot up which

he goes; and aWiougli its places of observation are empty, the
fear is in the milestones."
That is, the donkey fears that some enemy may be concealed behind the
milestones erected in the desert.

^i^^^Oi and ^4^'j^ ^4^^-^ adj. sent, to i>^^ .

V*^ l^*J phrase, to i>-^

l^ftJ adj.

IJj' In tbe obj. case, being ''^'Jj*-^-^ .



pi. of '
; stones for the guidance of travellers.
j* (*j

/ / / jj / / // /// s; / / J / / / / .-/

28 U^ J ti;j *J^-« li "^ lii

'i^ J /'•^^-^ I
Ji3^ .•.
(_f>iU'=' (^^-iw

Until when they passed the month of Jumada, completing
six months, they contented themselves with green herbage so
as to dispense with water, so that his abstinence from water
and her abstinence was prolonged/'
^ its obj.
Transitive, i_s'^^*=t- being
either in tbe gen. case for "*' ^^ '

; or in the obj. case, being J '-^ to

Z.J / J
Another readingn '(^^•^
{js^ '-^
= The vrholc of Jumada.
/ J
^^^ {.5 ^'^ = The Jumada of the year.

Jumfidd, either the whole of winter ; or the Gth month of the yenr. At
the end of winter.

// / /

'*j"^ dual, past tense from O'^ to do without water by eating fresh
Another reading 'O^ Infinitive in the obj. case, being Jr'i-*-' to

= contentiiir;, &c)

*y^ also = the time during which they had to content themselves with
green herbage. Here it is in apposition with LS '^ 'r^*
/ /rt / / J nj / / - / / n / /If

''They returned //ie7i as regards their own affair to co7KwZ^i)igr

a strong and firm opinion ;
and the success of a decided design
depends upon executing it with consideration.
u Uswj z=
referred their affair), apodosis to in the preceding
<i I
l^itjjo (


^J"* C5'^ adj. to (^-^ 'J (= opinion) under.

p^ , &c., an instance of t>.^'*

} a maxim ; i.e., they consulted in their
minds and finally decided on resorting to a water-place.
/ ////o/ //ojo n / z./n / z, // // //

" The
thorny shrubs pierced their fetlocks, and the summer
winds arose, voiili their veeriug breezes, and scorching blasts."
When the two asses returned to the plains to water, summer was
setting in.

t5^** is a description of thorny shrub. In the nom. case, being subj. of

and in the nom. case, being iu apposition (o^*'^-' ij*^-?) with

j*J"^ ('«-*«

= passing quickly ;
burning, vehemence.
// ij///0 /J/ jj / J /=o/////

Then they vied iu throwing up a long column o/ dusty
while the clouds of it were flying about like the smoke of a
lighted lire, the small faggots of which have caught fire j
" —

'*'= under.
Ik^Mi m, ,T(ij. to 'j

In the ol)j. case, being obj. of ^j^^ .

j^Mi .
&c., adj. sent, to 'j'-J-^

dix«i,/o „,^ under.

t(, ^u
S*'*':i ,&c., adj. sent. toj^^.

V-^-d intr. =: kindles ; or V"*'i pass. = is lij^htcd.

C ^J'^ ) pi- of
(*j"^ , pi. of '^j^ faggot.

/ / o/ / / /j/ /n/ / n/ J/ jo/

Blown upou by the north wind, iJie smoke becoming thick,


as was mixed with the fresh branches of the Arfaj tree like
it ;

the smoke of a fire, whose high flame rose high."

That is the donkeys were travelling so quiekly that they raised a cloud
of dust, resembling thick smoke.

s.Jj^jo an adj. to j" under, in the preceding line. It is derived from<-"-*^

the north wind.

'^^^^ an
adj. sent, to

^Jrt.«j &c., a partic. adj. phrase, to j •

'•*••**' '
in the nom. case, being subj. of the partic. ^^** .

It is read in two ways —

/Ij'-'l = going high.
/ / / / /

(2) j*
'^-^ '
pi. of
**^*' , a kind of fuel ; or pi. of (*
^^*^ = highest parts
//on /x/ / /->o =//o /////-// ///

" Then he went and sent her on in

front, and it was his
liabit, to send her in front when she inclined from the road."
He was afraiil of her running away, if he did not watch her.
'^' '"^^ in front) iCi^^ being the pred. in the
Subj. to fi is

{= sending
obj. case.
The feminine gender of >^i (^ is
explained in twoways ;

Either i^l)
/* «>5 ' = *^ t^^J
= progress), which is femiuiue iu furin.

Or. l«^
denoting an action of the female ass, the verb

(2) is
J* put
in the fem. gender by affection.

Tlien they entered the raicldlc of the river, and cleaved its
tvaters, ivhich tvere very full, with its reeds tJiicJdy adjoiuiDg
each other ;" —
Another reading cj-^^^
= breadth.
'^JJ^'^ adj. to ^^i^ nnder., in the obj. case being obj. to '•^'^'o.

l^:i>i[s Ijjls:'^'* apartic. adj. phrase to ^H^ ; t«/cili being subj. to the

partic. jj^^

-' = ^ »- ^
Enclosed in the midst of reeds which shade it, some of
which were beaten down in the reed bed, and some were
iijk:s.^ adj. to ^k^ .

Another reading '^i^^'*j adj. to ^^^P or J '^ .


•^**j in the obj. case being •'•i* J^*** .

'^^^i adj sent, to ^ '^^' '

8 in referring to ^ '^:! •

^^^«c &c., adj. sent, to ^ '^V
, the subj. being ^^*^-* and j*^-?;'

and jn-cd- ^'"* .

Or ^^^ ^t^-^. &c., an adj. sent to ^»^ft^'° . Here ^j'^-^ ami

to<J-^i .
(*^i' pi. of (•* ^^
= standing ones.
^* '-^ .
referring to *?

36 [^A)\yf j\j^\ if^d^'i^j

c^.'.i.i^ .*. ^'.cjj^/o AJi'ii.o.j ^1

" Is i/ie cameZ lUie that sJie-ass, or railior liJce a wild cow, v:hoRe

young has been eaten by wild beasts, aw(7/ who remained behind
io loohfor licr young, while she was the leader of the herd, and

the director of it"?


This wild cow, being the leader of the flock, was niiturally faster paced
thau the rest, and her anxiety for her young would make her move quicker
than \isua(.

*-^^'' and in the uom. case being predicates to t5"*;

'"•fi^'^^j subj. under.

'^^'^^ ^^i under

adj. sent, to *^-*-^j, ( adj. to ).

*J^^ ^ and (*
'^^ pred. to t5-* , ( referring to ^i^^j,) under.

Or *i>>^* subj. and ( '^' pred. According to the latter construction

" while the leader of the herd is her chief
the meaning is stay."

jin^i^'-^J is J^^'j'j .

A wild cow Av Inch lost lur calf, and did not cease her moving
round the edge of the rugged tracts in a sandy desert, and her
f.\^xs^ adj. to *-?:^'=»-j ;
= snub and depressed in the nose.
'^•*-i'^ and ^ji^ &c. adj. sent, s to *^-^^=>' .

Subj. to f-T-Y''' '^-^^ '''•"^^ r'*- •

/ o^ • •

<^_;^ In the obj- case, being *"?:* U^*fl-<5 .

o /

Another reading Here subj. is the implied pron., referring to ^-^^^


and the following sent, is its pred. ; '•4^ ^'•i 3 ^'jJ= subj. and the adv. phrase

^j li*j I
^jij.£ pved. Here literally the sent, -would mean, "she con-
tinued to be in the following state, roaming and lowing along the edge of
the rugged tracts in a sandy deseit."

'^Seeking for a young calf thrown on the dust, of a whitish

colour, whose limbs are dragged by grey hunting wolves,
whose food swpi^ltj is not cut off."
The wolves were always hunting and had plenty to cat.

__yft**J i\\%o = wandeiing and lowing on account of, &c , the prep. J goinfT

uith ^Ji^' in li'it-» 37.

^ttx/c ty^o^^ (
= young) under.

/ /

^j*^^ &c., atlj. scut, toj'^^^ .

cT-J* adj. to V = '-^

^" "^ J ( ivolves), subj. to ^j .

(^^^ &c., adj. sent, to ^-h'^ .

I4/0 Ujs j^.+j J) jg explained two other ways besides

in :

(1) = who are not obliged any one who may upbraid them
for their food to
with the obhgatiun, i.e., who earn for themselves independently of others-
(2) =who are so voracious, that their food is not bestowed on any one,
having never anything to spare.

They met her suddenly and seized upon her young. Death,

verily, is infallible, so that his arrows do not miss the murk."

i^£ l.^^ j^s J io also = they saw negligence on her part.

also= afSicted her tvith the destruction of her young.

t«^f«-«» LT'^.^i ^ pred. sent, to ^rl^'^-^', the subj. (f»-«0 after o '
an in-

stance of iJ'^*' I
, which is generally quoted.
Another reading ^•^^'^
^' = so they seized upon her young.

^ ^ '*' ^ ^ ^ ^

" She
passed the night, and continuous dripping
rain des-

cended, whose excessive pouring continued watering the sandy

places constantly,"
'^''J here f*
iJ-**, a complete verb.

•-"^ 'j
adj. to^-'*'^" under., subj. to ^t^ ' •

t^J^" &c., adj. sent, to **:!'^ •

subj. to 5^^ •
p ^^*~"' an Intensive infinitive, (.^^

^^ '
vi In the obj. case, being J '-^^ to ( ^?"*

The line also reads in the following diiferent ways :

M ) t^Asls:"-' Uj b Jj U^ '

= "
which waters the sandy places
the implied pron.,
while its pouring continues." Here, the subj. t« (jfj^-" is

referring to
'^:!^ ;
d'^^*^^ ^

^ ^y adj. stut. to

l^^/cls:~ U.' I
^ ;x
));irtir. atlj. phrase to *-»:!'i, denoting J*-:^; Uj'o ol)j.

of J '-^ , and c^^"^ in the noin. caso, being subj. to the participle^*-''>J«

(2) l^y^ (s:-~-'

Jj Ui l^_c^y "whicii waters the sandy places
and whose pouring is continuous." Here ^4-* ^^*~ l*J
IJ an adj. sent, to

'JJ>. ^'I>i pred. U-*^) and '«^^s:— ynbj. (l^>>^'*-=).

/ ///-^w
// / ^ i, ////•>/
/// /O/ S
i7 // /'if//
/ 0/ // /J'
/ jO/

''The rain fell on the line down the centre of her back inces-

santly, durino- anight, the clouds of which concealed the star.s."

ji I^X/o a^lj. to ^^-J (

= rain) under.

Another reading '^•' ^^^'^, in the obj. case, being obj. of J''=»- to the
iinphed pron. sul)j. to j' -*i , referring to h •

j^^ Ac, adj. sent, to *J-!i-' .

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ «•

" She was

entering amongst the roots of a tree with high
branches, apart from other trees, standing ou the edges of sand-
hills, whose soft sand poured on her from the effects of wind
and rain."

That is, the cow took shelter from the raiii under a tree,

«-i^-'^^ from oj'=^ {--inside).

Another reading v *^ = excavated for shelter, from V"?:^ a pocket.

Another reading '>>J>i'^

Cj>a.-'^* iJ^^ '
o '%* . Here (J'^ '
pi. of lI-^' •

U^-'^ and «i'f^^-*adj. to^^"' under.

And she, {the covj,) was shining in the face of darkness very

brightly, like the ocean pearl, the thread on which it is strung,

having been withdrawn /ro»i it.

The pearl would roll from place to place on the threat! being withdrawn
so the restlessness of the cow is depicted.

^^^^ In the obj. case, being J ^=^ .

l^^lJiJ J«s adj. sent, to *JU^.

^^^^ I
«j[^s:^ jjj^ instance of isk'^*'^^ ' t .

/ /o/ a, / i / n /// o //o / / J / c / //p / s/

Until, when the darkness cleai-ed away, and she got up in


the early morning, she went forth, ^Yhile her feet were slip-
ping on the damp soil."
^J^^. apodosis to '
i '

J>^ &c., adv. sent. (*V-=^ '''-'^).

(*^3' 1)1.
of j*-'3 J an arrow without either a point or feather, used for
gambling purposes. The word is here used to denote the cow's legs, which
were thin and straight, f^'j
also=cloven hoofs.
/-» S/ = / = S-> = O/ /J / J-/ / o / /

She was distracted with sorrow, and wandered backwards
and forwards araong^st the streams of Su'aid, seven nights and
days, perfect days."
The cow took no rest even at night while searching for her young.

^j^ adv. sent, of J '-^ •

Another reading '-'•-^•^^ '^^'^=: continued to keep at. "^SIj: one of

^ijhj J OXii

pred. ^fter
an(^i it.

Another reading; (Jjti.^ ^^t cyUi ci-iii: =rsiie continued perplexed,

as to tohere her young might be, in the sandy tracts of 'Alij.

^y JIaj oxUj
, .^,,,1
syncopated forms of <^y-"^ , '^^i'^"^ and '^'^•J'^3 .

* ^f* pi- of t^t-J a tank, or pool.

- /
l*A*« In tijp
oi,j case, being •'•i' Jj-*^^ ; adj. to t^-' ^i-' under.

( '.?• (pi, of
i**^-' j
= twins, i.e., coupled with days.

(4^(j iU- (^
phrase, to
., ^*-?-*^ .
p;utic. :ulj.

- 111 tlie iiom. case, bciiijj subj. to tliu partio.

0-^^ ,

/ / / / > / n o>o/ £? / //0//0/// c/

" when she became and her full udder

Until, hopeless,
shrank up, which was not, however, dried up by her bringing
up her young and her weaning them,'
•^hi (•' &c., adj. sent, to (J-* •

c ^^j
' = suckling ; giving to suck.

And she heard the murmur of fhe voices of men unseen,
and it caused her fear, for man is her disease/'
J n :: / //
Another readintj '--*~-r'^-'j
= perceived.
J in o^-^J i"j is J ^== '

J 'j and the sent, is adv. (

^^J ^•^
'^^ )

^u.*.* disease, i.e., enemy, causing alarm.

She began to consider hoth directions to be dangerous places,
— causes of fear,
—behind her and before her.''

The cow did not know which way to go.

oii'*^ in line 46.

apodosis to

cji>-o one of the •"'AJUj I

J ua J) t
; Its subj. being the implied pron.

referring to the cow, and pred. the rest of the line U"^^^-""^ &c.

^^ III the nom. case, being subj to the pred. sent. ^^ '
"-r*-*^ &c.

\^JjA3/i\ ji noun sent., obj. of ^'^^^ .
i^h^ In the nom.

case, being pi-ed. after w '

whose subj. (
is 'i
which refers to ^^ .
^"^ ) ,

I^aIa, and ^•#'=l'«l nouns in the nora. case, being in apposition ( J*^^)
with ^^J'^', ov with -^^
; or pred. to the subj. '* under.

Or dual in the obj. case, being 1st obj. to v***^ , the noun sent.

') &:c. being the secondary ol)j.
Though in the obj. case, the '
remains as it is, for the ''h-'
o^ .>£L/0
i^t^j^ ^ ^
e. i) being an express noun, is indech'nable, cs'-^-J'* .

V-^"* pi-ed. after

^ '^^ . Prose order '"•' '
' ^^ V-^"* ^ ^^' .

^*^^ mean "the master of the cause of

Soir.e t^-'j"^ to

fear," "the hunter, or the master of the dogs, of whom she was
" the master with the "
afraid," dogs." The line would then mean,
began to consider both the positions of danger, as to whether the hunter
would surprise her from behind her or from before her."

At length wlieu the shooters despaired of lii.fting her, and


they sent trained hounds with creased ears after her, while
their collars were dry,"

( pi. of
^^^1 ,) adj. to 't'^^ under.

CiJ^'j'^ adiptote. o^-ax/o^Ai , being extreme plural.

i^-^ t^^UJtj a parfcic. adj. phrase to ^'A^

/ ...
"^ '
A.&£\ sy|jj_ toU^^'; pi. of
^'^^ or j*^"^?
collars of iron or leather.

^^^ mean ^^ ^-^-^ ^^>

Some take ,-
to the creases of the belly.

" thin in their bellies."

•would then mean, "with their bellies dry i.e., ;

o /o /o / /
/ / / / / ^ / = /o = / 5:: // / / / / /

it-iY/i her and her thick horn turned upon

They came up
them, like a Samhariyan spear, as to its point and its entirety/'
C'^^ apodosis to 'li' in line 49.

14:^ Uj jU j.^ <x'jj4*«.J 1^

ajj. sent, to h^^'^ ;
U^ UJ j ^'^ '>-=^

and ^ij-^*"^ ^ pred.

/ / -»

*0**** =made by ^4** , who and whose wife '^H'^j were remarkable
for the fctraight lances they made.
/ / jj^ / S//0/ 0/ 0^/0/ o n//n// cJ / j/

" That she mio-ht drive them

off, and she was certain that

she did not repel them, her fate had approached death."

/ /

J for purpose, ( 1-'"^-*^'^ '(*

^ )) governing the aorisL '^i'^') wilh^-^ .

a noun *—*-^i
sent., obj. to

^=^\ i>3yjl ,t.f>., .

01)j. of O^J^J is i^A under.


^^\<^i jipodosis to ol •

" Theu Kasab died from her goring tvith Iter and she
"Wiis covered with blood , and tlieir bukhaui was left dead on
the scene of the attack.'^
«^'^*^-' the usual word Tor to die" when applied to a dog.

V^"^'^ a noun indeclinable ( tf^^ ) with f^-^^ to V, because originally

it was a noun with the force of an imperative.

^^^ a noun of place o^-e. I

^*oI ^ f i^om j^ to attack.

/ / / z: //0///0/ i J / z ///o /o/

13y such a she-camel, when the shining vapours o/^/ie sandy
deserts danced in the forenoon, and their hills put on the gar-
ments of the mirage,^'
The poet now returns to the cam cl, »\hose swiftiiess he has compared to
n zebra and a hunted wild-cow. lie says that the heat of tiie sun shall i.ofc

jireveut hiui from pursumij his journe}'.

The preposition V
in '^'•^i shows relation between '-^-'-' and c^'^^ in the

nexo line. An instance of the poetic defect, called u^.*'^^ Vide remarks .

on Prosody, I'oem 1st.

'•»^'*' with the
i i
obj. of time, ( u^-O^ i^j^ I

) , in the combination of
foUowing sentence.
^^ 'V eitlicr 'tlie deserts, glittering in the beat ;' or 'the glittering mirage.

Subj. to V^^^' , ^'t'*^' ; and obj. 'i '^j


" I am
accomplish my want, and not neglectful of the suspi-
cion of others, or that the reproacher should reproach me in
obtaining that ichich is my need."

^Hj -kj.^Ti' adv. sent. (''V^-^ *W).

C' '
&c., a noun sent., co-ord. to ^^.i ) •

r r

Or in the obj. case, being ^' J^*^'* and '

a noun
*^iJ may be p^^:!

In this case. "^^ ' ^ for

sent., co-ord. to it.

J '

'^^0 elliptical

/ / / / / / J
AJ Is-* iils'^ r= do not
^_^lj ^j I

iJ.xjj Ji^J
I if I flag hi tlie inirsuit of my
object, for fear of suspicion oy for fear of that, &c.
o / /
Or u'j' =^ so that, otherwise, lest.
" I
The line then means, show no remissness i« ??!?/ /7?/r5?nVs, and leave
no room for suspicion, lesfc I may be liable to the reproach of one, who asks
auj' object /roHi me."
.^ 0/

Another reading is ^iij ^j' e; '

j a noun sent, in the combination of
&>[^] \v ith ^>^^ under. = lest I neglect anj suspicion.

Another reading is '^iij ^y '

' — my remissness would be a cause
' '

for suspicion. Here ^j* '

e,' a noun sent., subj. to the pred. ^^-j , (in the

nom. case).

is read either, of ^ or intensive of

(* '^•' (i. ) f*^j' ( pi. (*> ); ( ii. ) f*

Did not Nawar know that verily, I am the joiner of the
knot of the ropes of friendshijp, and the cutter of them as uwll."
Part, of interrogation.

pi'ed. after i^^'


0-J^^^ a diptote, ^^^^-^j^.-^, but here used as ^Jj'^^^, admitting c^j^J

by a poetic license.

introducing a noun, governed by the prep,

CJ sent., 'r' •

u^'^j intensive agent, from '-^'^j,

and |*'«^ from j**^^; in nom. case,
being prcd. after U '


56 t^^U^ i^^^-*-'
L>=*^ ^*^^J J '


I am a leaver of ])1ac(>p, wlieii
I do not like tliein, unless
its fate.. ( i.e., the fate of my soul,) binds ray soul there.^'

That is, he nt- vcr stays in a place, which lie does not like, but it
may liappcil
that he will tlie before he is able to leave some [)lace disagreeable tu him.
J '
elliptical for c) Ij
or if, unless ; and ^yji ,
subjunctive jussive.
0/0/ /

Or J cJ 'j =()r else. Here ouj^ht to be ^^'^Ji

elliptical for it , but the
>^^ is replaced bv fV^ by a poetic license.
// 0/
Or leing co-ord. to ^*-^j vfhen the sent, in would

^•^^jTi jussive, ; full

0/0/0// /O/
thus — ^'^Ji ^^'^i j
/ /




i I = when I do not like them, of

\vhen fate dots not keep me to them.

Another reading (J^^*i = sticks fast, hangs on.

(^^^•' I
t>^*^ = some of the souls, i.e ,

^ ^j^ Intensive agent from '-^J-' •

/ / / /jo/ / 0/ /o/ o 0/ / 0/ / 0/ 0/
57 h^ ''^'^
s l^^*-' <>J<i>-'
(jJ^-tj .*. '^^^J tjj< c^ C'O'^^ ^ «^Jt Jj
" Oh Nawar! do not know how many
Moreover, you, nights,
ftgreeable in temperature, pleasant in their amusement and
carousal, / have spent;'*
\A^< ) snbj., the pred. C>^^ ) being ^^j^^-»
Ojo>5 Jq ^^^ ^^^^
l^r ( ,

line or in the obj. case, being ^^-^^-^

*^J^ (^^^ i^j^ij I

Another instance of tiri*'^*-'

• Vide \ine 53-64.

explanatory to
t>"* (*•>

1^1 ^3
J ^Aj-^i ^^} an adj. phrase to ^'•r .

^4-' and in the notn. case, being, subj. to the adj. <*^*>-' .

t^ '^ of common gend.

j,lo,J verb, noun = s.A:^l.i.x) .

Or =^ boon companion.
it may be [)1.
of (^i"^^

In the latter case, the last hemistich may be taken to mean,

"^J -^ ^^ cheerful carousers and pleasant amuse-
^j^^ t>iAJ ^1^ I
(3 its its
/ - ^ 0/
ment. An instance of V V*-' O-*'' '-^^^ 'j
"-*^-^ '


Another instance of <^ '^*^-' i)

Here the abriiptiy turns to
1 .
addressing Nawar, of whom he spoke in the third person in the preceding

"I passed tliem conversing ivith viy companions and many a

sign of the wine seller I went to, when it was raised and the
wine had become high in price/'

c:^j 4j.i
l4_yxil^ pved. sent, to f»^ in the preceding line.

^x Im> i,^ jijg qIjj case, being pred. after "^^ .

in the gen. case,
by J ( VJ many a). It is a sort of rtag hling = ,

outside taverns, much the same as an inn sign in England. Tlie flag is
taken down when all the wine is sold.
^^i^ 'j , its obj. ^^ under.

Siibj. to '•^'fj the implied pron. referring to ^i^'^.

*^I make the purchasing of wine expensive by biiijiny every

leathern bottle of old wine; or leather-covered flagon, the
contents of ivldch have been poured into glasses, and the seal
a diptote, «-J^'^->-< j'i-*= , adj. to Oj {wine-skin) under.
ij^ i)

^^j^ a wine-jar, smeared with pitch, co-ord. to u '^


*^^''^'^-' and ^'C^^-=»> u^ adj. sent, s to ^h'^ . These sentences are re-

versed in order by the necessity of rhyme and metre.

/J / jj /£'/ ;/..» /o/ o// // J//

And many a morning draught of pure wine have I taken,
and many a time has hap'pcned the taking of the singing girl
her stringed instrument, which her thumb manages skilfully."

J = VJ •

*-J:*^ adj. to j*^ under.

ji J < = stringed, adj. to '^J^ under.


(4/ol^jl ^jlK>;i,ij sent. to>^^

Ju 15
= adjusts^ handles gently,) aorist of the 8tli coiij .
(J '*^ ')
from J '

for JJ '

Auotlier 'f^ ^t^- ''

^^ to which lier tliuinh returns ajlar

straining, t^-"
syiu-opatcd form of i_5'^-'
Jroni (j'^') = l)etakes itself to.

/j / i/ / /o -J/ /o ., / / i /// / j>o//

(31 l^^- (jj »_^it j^AA. t.^.\^ j£ i) /, j(_^S:~'J
-. ts^ .j>J I
(.^Aiw U o,iilj

"I liastonod in the early vtiovxywi'gliejiive Die crowincj of '^Q>

cock, <o roUeve my want for it, ( i.e., wine,) that I might take
a second drauglit from it, when the sleepers awoke.'*
*^J'^ W &c., also means, "anticipated the cock with my w:ar.t for it at the
l^\^ la.
second obj., and ^ ^r' •'-' '
first ohj. to oj ^ tj

iJ* '
aor. governed with ^^ liv J (for purpose).

Another reading '-^•^ ^ ^= ihat I be ^iven to drink.

/ -

(^^•^ a nona, indeclinable with /^ , being o ^'^•^ to the past sent, fol-

lowing. Vide line 4, Poem I.

Another reading V-*i c>' elUptieal for V^:;^; '

"^^J at the time of the
waking of.

j*'iJ pi. of .c'l^.

/j/ /~ / 0//1/0/ - /^o//o/ ///

" And
many a morning of wind and coldness the rtnn.s of
which have bejn placed in the hands of the north wind, havo
I prevented Us evils hj dlciding provisions amongst the poor.''
2 ' •^'^
In the gen. case by J (
= V^ )•

^j*, In the gen. case, being co-ord. to ^J •

0*£jji>j v^(^. ^ apodosis to J

= VJ •

01)). of "^^jj is '«*^>i'-c ^

= ils fivil,) under.
^s:-)'^\j,i Siv.. sent, to!* '-^^ •

" xVud while a swift horse

verily I have defended vu^
tribe ;

bears my weapons^ wliose bridle, when I set out in the morning ;,

is my shoul4er belt."
He rallies the bridle about with hln^, tl^at he i^ay be re^dy to, b|fi<ll^

his horse at the shortest notice.

J*s"» adv. sent. (''•i-'^-=^ '''^ei).

^_j?^=ii swift horse that outstrips others.

^4^^^ iS^^-^j iin adj. sent, to -^jr^'

(jC^Uj subj., and ^*'<='^ pied.

u in '^^' for empliasi§.

" Then I ascended as a acout to a watch place on a dusty

^^ill, narrow as to its summit, tl^e dust of \\h^ch "syas near the
standards oftlis enemy."
< =z a locative noun in tli^
place of recpnnoitring
' '
';*flj^ -, 3, ( ti/-^-^ (•'^ )

pbj. case by ^j*-^ .

Another readino; ^-8^^'*

= reconnoitring ;
or 4*-'jf'* =goiiig up. In the

pbj. case, l)eing J >-^ .

Another reading ^^.^^^-^ ct-^ = to a place regarded with fear; (adj. to ^-t* '


?^?•^* LS^ adj. to iJ-J^, or

0-^ under.

\^^ixi ^^^^A£ \

^^) I

f„ij. sent, to hi^ , or *:?^^^'«.

/ // ^i /o/::/// / =/o/~// -./

'• Until when the suQ plunged his hand into Qversprending
ni'jlit^ and darkness concealed the ^yeak places on the frontiers/'


jj^-*-*^-*' imdpr., subj. to'-^"^-' •

^i I J.J '.i-iiJ I
an idiom = put his hand in, undertook, began. So also tb.e

/ / /

phrase, tjf^^'^i C.-^ J-


_?* 'i i p., iii^lit, for it cotiroals nil tilings from view,

^ 'jj'*^^ places exposctl to danger.

/ „ ^ / / ^ ^j o/ / / o / / n / r, / / /n / J 0/0/

'^I JescondctI to the plaiji^ and slic, {my horse,) stood firm,
liko tlio trunlv of a higlv 2'i^^^"i '''''«} bii-fe of brauches, whose

flato-f^-athercrs stop ^hui't of (^ailtcrhuj

the dcUcs."
ji f

v^-#-« I

apodpsis to
in the preceding line,

^^J;^^ adj. to ^^^' uikUt. so also *''i_r=^, read

; \\'ith <^, being j¥^

sj^j-a.^'o on account of ^
Oj >>'« '-^r' I

_^'^==- etc., adj. sent, to *^^'' •

f* '-^^ pl- of
[*j^T^ j or (• '^ intensive form of

I caused her to gallop, like the galloping of the ostrich,
and above that in speed, until when she becanie warm, and her
bones became active,"
i p., «hen she liad got rid of her stiffness.

't^*-* J intensive of ^-^^'j .

'i^r-^ iiifm. in the obj. case, being (J^^^-^ J j*-&-o .

^^j'j in the ol)j. case, l)eing pbj. qf measure (0^-'=); or 00-ord. to 0_^-fc.

Another reading *-''*'

j = and ?j7i-c
nr( it, also (^^"^ Jj-*-^-^ .

- /

Another reading ^*'*-'^''^ '-^^ =^lier bones got dry of pcrxjiiratinv.

Uer saddle shifted, and her neck poured down sweat and
wetted her girth with the foam of the hot siceat."
^^ ^J > a ,«addle made of sheep skin without wood.

i^kii ^Q^ apodosis to

in the preceding line.

She raises her head, and she pulls against the rein and
turns to either side, as the flight of a pigeon to water, when
the pigeons of its flock urge on."
A/c Ua. sing, and
(•^^ a collective noun.
LfV-* &c., a<lv. sent, ('^•i-'
^=*- '^•'»>') to tlie preceding line.

•^jj infin. in the obj. case, being cj^

J^*^-* .

obj. of time "^V j in the combination of ^^'•<f with the following
"" *
c?^ also = '^^*->
- ..

= dashes forth, darts forward.

Obs. V^J^^-* 1

<* And many a house with many strangers in it^ unknown

to one another, the gifts of the owner of which were hoped for,

and his reproach was feared,"

The poet is now referring to a visit he ]invil to Ni^'man-ibn-Almnnzirv
an Arab chief, and of a dispnte which he had there with Riibi'-bin-Ziysid,
who tried to expel Biii,i Ja'far, the people of Labeed from the court of

^^•h-" adj to j''^ (under.); in the gen. case, governed by the prep.

J (
= >r J ) ; so also i^-^js^^^ .

J^ pi. of '-r^ij^ , in the nom. rase, being snbj. to the adj. ^_^i^^ .

^4^* l^-* i^=^y and U-*


i i^"^^^ adj. sent.s. to j

' '^ •

Here the omi.ssion oi"the noun (pialitied by the adj. ^j^.^^ , without any

adequate context to determine it, subjects it to ditferent iiiteri)retati(nis,

and the commentators offer the following ones :

(1) J
^ = house, i.e., the court of Nu'mau, where people of all kinds
repair, unknown to one another, (or not certain of their fate in the court),

hopefal ol' his <iifts ami afraid of the disgrace of retui'ning disappointed.

(2) 'r'J^
war wi'h a dubious residt where strangers meet, all covet-

ing to gain victory and .spoils, and afraid of defeat.


^^^ = ii dubious affiiir, which (lifTi'renL tribes nsseniblc to consider

gravely, hopcrul of a satisfactory settlement, uiid ulVaiil ol laihirc.

-^ laiul, wliere
(•'•) tJ^J forei^iurs and travellers meet, hopei'ul of gains
and iifraid of disappointment in their ventures.

The second hcmistieli an ^^'

example of '"•'•^ .

/ /I/ - // - /o i /=// -» i >r// 5n,

" — Tlicse sirojigers, heivghold men, threatening one anotlicr

with revenge, as if they were the genii of Bady, whose feet
were firui in hattle or in
S Oj o/
V-^-^ 1)1.
of V^-*^' ) tliick-nccked, an epithet applied to lions licnce it ;

conies to mean brave. In the nora. case, being pred. to the suhj. /•t


ji,A3 &c., adj. sent, to V-^-^ .

jtX^j syncopated form of J'^'^^-' .

l^/c|j,5| b^^\jj adj. phrase to V-^-*= •

^i-«'jjin the obj. case, being
J^^ to V^-« . It is •-^^'^^•^^f:-*^, but here used as «»i^'^^'«; admitting
by a poetic license. ^-^ I t>J I
in the nom.
tyrij^-*-* case, being subj. to

/ / =// o/o/ o/ / o />/ jS^ / ft / j»i/',/

I denied the wrong, existing there, and I acknowledged
that which, in opinion, was right my ; while the noble ones of
that assembly did not glory over me."

J \nj^- ('j is J'^^lj';.

Obs. /"^^ ^•' '

^j>-^' &c., a sent, apodosis to j (

= ^j)) in line 70. Another instance
of i^fi*^'^ . Vide lines 53-54.
/ /o/ // // / O/ jO// /O/ j/ /

"And many a she camel,/?^ /or gambling, I called my comiia^

nions for the killing of her, with gambling arrows resembling
one another iu shape."

The camel of course was divided amonp; the poor and the
needy after
being killed. In this and the fuUcwing lines, the of hig
poet is boasting
generosity and hospitality.
(3JU/0 ( pi. of (JU^ ^) winning arro^vs, flhich make the object played

for a forfeit to the player. A diptote i^^^^^j^i being ?j*^ '

c^«*^^ ^

but here used as iJj'^^'^ , admitting JLr~"^ and t:)J.^^J by a poetic licensci

J3Jt^ in the gen. case, governed by the prep. J (= VJ )•

/ / / /

j'-^^l pi. ofj-~d or «r-«^i one vVho strikes With a a

galubling arrow j


l^Asl.-^ I AjUa/0 ,
partic. phrase, qualifying (Jj-'l.*^

\i%K l^^ I
iy tiiQ nom. case, being subj. to the partic. ^•^
^o"*"! .

»Ji'^-c>J &c., npodosis to j (= Vj)-

"1 call my fritinds for hilling by these arrows the barren she*
camel, or the one with young, the flesh of which is expended

amongst my neighbours the whole of them."

The gambling arrow is not to be considered as the instrument by which
the camel is killed, as these arrows are pointless. The gambling arrows
were used as lots, by the drawing of which the particular camel to be killed
Was selected. Here the camel is charitably offered by the poet from his own


^* vi '
&c , adj. sent, to J-'t-*^
. So also '^^ '^i &c.

The pronoun ej* refers to (S '*'* in the preceding line.

" for the sake of
Some interpret U^^Ja^j
^'i*.' to mean, (i.e., /or /eerf/n*/)
a barren woman, having no children to support her, or one with children.**

clfilaxi anj ^ I* masculine in form, though used for fetnales, there being no
males of the quality.


udj . to L5^ '


Another readino- *^^-'' c> '^"f:^ =^ for the neighbours of winter, of

*l^*J I
tj Ij-^^
= for the neighbours of the night, i.e., for the neighbours
^ ^ -- ^
who suffer from want iu winter, or at night.

75 (4;^ U.4I U^i:* aJUj ILaA ... Uil^* v-Jj^s-'l jfsr'l_, cii^Jl*

"Then the gnest and tho stiauger were as thoiagh tliey had
descended upon Tubaldh, fertile as to its valleys."

•-ci-a-" and J^^ '

subj. ( ^'^^i^ ), the pred. (^^) being the whole

Following sentence '^l^,


*J^-*J a
dii)tote, tJ^'^-^^^^i for "^^^^^ and *-!;*^-c • A valley in Yaman,
a place proverbial for its fertility and abundance of herbage.

I^kUA I Uwa^r* ji
partic. adj, phrase of J ^ to ^ k"^ ; W-^twiil gyi^j,

to the partic. ^'^^'*', (in the obj. case being J ^^ )

Every poor one, scanty as to her clothes, takes refuge
near the ropes of my tent, helpless of procuring subsistence as
the starved camel, with her tattered clothes floating high in
the air,"
n I

V^*"^ ^ of "-r^^^, cords of a tent.



*iij is really a thin camel, but is used here apparently to denote any
miserable being.

An allusion to *'J;^ , the camel which the Arabs in ancient times


tied to the ijrave of its owner This camel was given no food
after his death.

or water, but was left to perish ; the idea being that on the day of resurrec-
tion tlie man would he able to ride, and not compelled to go on foot.

l^/olo.* 1
^i^ partic. adj. jihrase to *0j • "*'* '"^^ '
in the nom. case,

being subj. to the partic.

t>^^' .

the wooden platters icifhfood,

^'They, (i*.(3., m\j tribe,) heap up
when the winds blow adversely in winter, causing famine, and
the orphans and the destitute come to partake of them."

The poet seems to mean, that the generosity of his tribe is well known
amont^-st the people, so that the poor come to them for help iu troublous times.

c>y^^ /,7. = they crown heap up; ;

or fill


" The like crows round the platters."

Some take it to mean, poor sit

Here the subj. is the implied prou. referring to at the end of the line.

from opposite direc.

i^.awjUJ ^fj^-'l li'=:"when the wind blew adversely
tions." The Arabs constantly use this or a similar expression to

times of famine.

Is^"^ pi. of
= & gulf; here, large dishes like gulfs. Obj. of clT^^d •

•^^ (an adj. sent, to ^? ^,) = which are placed extended; or are filled

afresh as soon as emptied.

b J \^m ^ or J ^-s^
phrase \q>^^

l^/olw I
fin adj. i

U J lyi pi. of c^
J l-^, a diptote, O/'^''^^^* , here used as oj-^.x>o^ admit-

ting t,''-?^"' by a poetic license.

subj, to the partie. adj.

l^JX)tAJ I
) 'j-^

/ a. I / / j/ = O//0/ J //o //o / E

Verily we, when the assemblies o/ i/ic Writes meet together,


are such, that there is always chosen from us, a strong-willed

man in a great matter, one who takes great tvouh\e in carrying
it out;"
That is, the leader of the tribes is always selected from our tribe.
syncopated form of '^•'ij where
^*i is the subj. after lyl; the pred,
O// /
being the whole sent J_/i (*' &c.

Another reading J-'^'^ I *^fl'^-" '

i ! l>'^= vve used to be such that, &c.,
o// o/
here used as a complete verb ^•' (J-** .
J-)" (•^
( (• )

79 t.(jx:t^A l4J_^iisr' ^AJ^ji;*^ .•, I^Qa. 2_^J;^*J

j^^-kjiJ *mJ:«j

A divider o/ ilie spoil, who gives the tribe their due, a

controlling ruler and a conliscator of their rights,

He acts with either justice or tyranny, whichever pleases him.

*(-sfi.A ^z: vrho gives .some and denies others as he wills.


^^a^c J jp j^Ijq nora. case, being co-ord. to j ^y in the preceding line.

So also ^'^ 'i'-*'* .

&c. an ailj. scub. to ^~-»'« .

jX3 Ji-« z= One who rules his people unopposed and treats tliem as he

wills. So also j-^*-^ another reading.

Some take the second line to mean :
— "One who resents their rights, if
encroached vpo7i, and one who sacrifices his happiness to theirs."

Here ^^-"^^
= who voluntarily forfeits his own dues for the benefit of


80 l4^tAi v-'^-^J V-T-^ ^'"^

Cj^jC) J
•'• e^J;-*J
f*^ ^«>>Jli^l"C

"Owing pre-eminence; and one possessed of gen-

to his

erosity, who
helps others in their benevolence, a liberal one*
obtaining the sought-for things, and taking tbem by iorce from
the enemies."
o /

^^ in the obj. case, being j-!:-?:*^ or ^Jjj^*^-*, to

in the

preceding line. An instance of (j-i*'^^-' t

Vide line 53.

Or it may go with «-^-'i> ij*-^i {= he does all that), under.

= i/ /

^-^ also = ^^^ as an obligation, or as conferring a bounty.

/•_/^j(i In the nom. case, being co-ord. to 3 '-/-^ •

^J^^J lt^J^tjJ:*J adj. sent, to (*^j^ •

Another reading tr*""c?^ = in attaining greatness;

Or (^^^-"t^^* in doing the pious deed.

«*• and VJ"" intens. adj. s. to ^j^ i^ •

V^^J a diptote, here used as a triptote admitting u^^-*^ by a poetic


^* Intensive agent from f^^, to obtain spoil.

Lines 78-80, an instance of (i—^^'' '

" iTe is from a

tribe, whose fathers framed for them a good
code of laws, and every tribe has a code of lawiB and a leader."

^4^^^/0(^ jj_ylc (^bj

) . The people are according to the religion of
i.e., the king
tbeir king, sets the fashion.

^y^»/0(^/c a prepos. phrase pred. (_^-*^ ) to ^* subj .(•«»«*•?'« )


'^>-«» or = institnted for them, or prescribed them good usages.
The Arabs had no regular code of laws.

j»a>jUI^4J oj,*.^ an adj. sent. to^"**-*.

one from whom people take an example.

(•^ i>^'' J &c., an example of d-^-^ '

, (General Maxim).
and '*'« '* »-^*^
subj. to the pred.
' .

If they are caused to fear, the helmets will be found on

them; and the rings will g'litter like stars on tbeir coats of mail."
In the fearful times, that is, in the times of war, they prepare for
battleand not for flight.

'j^^^i and Passive Jussive, being ^j'** and * 'J-^

(3-^-' respectively.

Another readiag i^j^i they get alarmed.


Another reading !:>'—' j^* ^*'*-'

you see helmets and
' '
(J^-* (act.), rings.

l^/oi) v_Art^xJ|^ ^13 an adj . sent. to w*-" •

er*' '
also pi. of lU^'^*' blades of lanees.

of *^ ^ •
pi. V

They are not tarnished a.9 ^0 ^/leir lionour, and their actions

do not perish j moreover, their njinds do not incline along

with lust."
Another reading '-^•i*-' 31 i I
since, &c.

So, be content with what God has divided amongst us, for.

verily, He loho has (livided tlic qualities amongst us, is the

Great kuower of them."
He dispensed to eacli of us such qualities as He knew were best
suited to him.

Tlie Great knower is of course God.

'^ a relat.
pron. in the gen. ease by VJ the rel. clause being «->"J:UJ I

the •*-»
, or conjunc. pron. i under., obj. of f»*~^

/•^* an intensive agent from (^'^ to know.

Another reading cP*-' ^*-*-' '

= dispensed the wnys of living.
Here the address is directed to his enemies and enviers.
U in l^^ilsi refers to (i'
^^ '

85 ^^'^^^ Ixia^ j3 jij ^^ j\ .-. jLx^ ^^i o.*^5 IAk ill 1^,1 J

"And when Rectitude was divided amongst the people of

a tribe, the great Divider of it fulfilled to us with more thaa

our share."
&c., apodosis to
cy* J .

^— •> intensive of '•*

J* ^-^ i.e.,

( /

L5*j '=gave in full.

Obs. the use of V expletively in an affirmative clause.

=the fullest of our share.

Another reading '-^-^ iJ-^ '•> = with the best of our share.
/ /j//jn/ n/ /// jjo/^ / = 0/ / / / / /

So, He built for us a fabric of glory, high as to its roof, and
the full grown of our tribe and the young ascended to it.'^
They are all honorable alike.
^*-i*j an adj. phrase, to -^ ; to which * refers.
/•**» in the nom. case, being subj. to the adj. '*-i*j .

/•^•«» also = its height, its altitude-

refers to ^j^*^ ' •

"And ^vllen the tribe is in distress, tliey are the endea-

vonrers in 'protecting it, and they are the horse-men of it, and
the rulers."
An example of the figure «^ ''^*-' '
, Enumeration.
g^i^*Jl subj. ( l'>'^^'o), and '
its pred.

2U««,Jl^Aj 't**»j lj*/»*; and ^i^^^^ ^^ co-ordinate sentences, apodosis

to '
i . I

" And they are as the spring to their neighbour, and to the
widows, when their year of waiting becomes long."
In the old days a widow had to wait a year after the death of her hus-
band before she was allowed to re-marry. The line means that they were
as generous to the stranger and afflicted, as the spring with its showers ia

to the land.

Some interpret the second hemistich to mean, " and the women, destitute
of provisions, when their year grows long, on account of distress and famine."

o^'O^^JI co-ord. to ;j'^ '


"And they are the foremost of the tribe in hattle, taking care
one jealous o/^/ie ^r("Z)e should delay his help, or that
lest the
the mean ones amongst them should incline towards the
That is they encourage the others by their bravery.

Here * ^"^^J (
= chiefs ),
or b'^
= '^^ managers of the affairs,) or the

like, is under., which is o^'^-* giving its place and its case to its

Some interpret it to mean, " They form but one compact tribe by their
or " They alone are the tribe, being the
unanimity and mutual help ;
principal, important and significant members of it."
J _/jO / // /

is^' O a noun
sent, being *{:•' I ^^'•^^ to
^'^^'^{=for fear lest,) under.

•>"*« '"S^
j_jAii>j ^ylc'i!^"* .,i>,o = tnkiiig care not to give the envier any
chance for crcdfinr; mutaal liostilitij among the members, and thus prevent-

ing them from assisting one another.

So also the sent, ^jrh u '


Another reading is '^>^^'=^ .^•' ci = if an envier were to criticise

their character, or to know their circumstances.

Another reading is '•«'*' ^j^ ds'^*-^ '^'^ 1*^':! u '

j '
"or that their re-

preachers reproach them along with the enemies.


Xu^Ls-'l ^J<jj-^aJ1


Ascribed to Amru-biu-Kultliooin, who was one of the poets of

the days of Paganism, and a chieftain of the tribe of Taghlib.

He is Baid to have recited this poem extemporarily in the
presence of the King, 'Amru, son of Hind or Munzir, on the
occasion of his bringing about peace between the two tribes of
Bakr and Taghlib, who were on the point of renewing their
The poem is said to be a long one, containing about 1,000

lines, the poet having added a good deal subsequently; but

the preseut portion is the only fragment of it now extant.
The poem coataius a lively description of the chivalrous deeds
of the tribe of Taghlib and their glories.
The metre of this poem is the first kind of^'ljJl, (or v-r*^-^'

It consists of (j^J^^*^^'* six times, the 3rd and the 6th being

tj^kax), or afipected with the aJ-^, called »-«k.»

{=z plucking), which

omits the last chord e>'s and makes the preceding J quiescent;

j^iifUAj which makes it dwindle into t:^-'j*> . It runs thus: —

/ / / / f J

^^aUIa/o is subject to the following o^-a-j :

i-s/A* , or the making of the fifth letter quiescent^ which
turns (^*i*la/o into ci>'-J!* ^^-^ • It occurs freely.
Osi£ ,
or the suppression of the fifth letter J , by which

lft>c becomes u;^* '^'o . It is allowed, but is of rare occur-


t>r o /

(iii) ocKj ,
tlic combination of s^^.c and ^^, (tlio snppres-
/ J.

siou of the seventh letter,) by which ^^^^£^i>.< becomes J-!:*'^^' .

It ia bad, as it iuterrupts the harmony of the metre.

Example of scansion: —
o / o /

U'J *.i
o>hk^ lJJ/^A/0 O^*ka,
j ./O

The ^-h'
^^ is *iii-"«5 of the class of y '^*^ I, which consists of

one ci'^^"^'* letter after a quiescent one. The poem is called

^^}y^ from its

<^^j being o whose
, isj^"^ is <>«^*, with 1 for the

/ -»

It is, besides, <^dj^ by t5- or j , preceding ^ ,

the ^^jj . The

_j ^•=». ,
or the ''^^^ of the letter preceding the o ^^ ,
is either ij^i

or '^•»'«=
, according as the latter is (^ or_j
This metre extensively used by epic writers and others,

both in long poems and short piece3.

1 lijjO>iiJlj^*:i. j_j.aAjl/j .-. llj;s.-*^(i tX-V^s^:! ^.;d>)J1

^ i^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

^'Now, then, 0/i c?/23-&ea/'er, awake, and give us our morn-

ing draught from your goblet, and do not keep the wines of

Prose order,
^vai-^J li^^)-" li
J^"^ I

1st pers. proii., pi., in the obj. case by tf^ '

«-J for V-i:^*'' ., iuilicating a subsequent action.

Andaroou is the name of a small town in Syria whore a description of

wine was made-

in form, the word here treated as a noun ^-^ '

By an anology is i)lural

j^JtwJl y^ith the

suflix UJ ,
and so the gen. case is marked by c^- and the

goes witl) *^-*^. Some take i:jij<^^ ^
to be a syncopated and lightened

form of ti>-J:-j
'^^ •^ ' = people of Andaroon.
Here and the fjllowinp; line the address is to his sweetheart Jj*^ f
in '

and so the pron. s and the imjier. s are of the 2nd pers., sing.

/ /////j/o // / c^"" :://=/ /o/j

''Wine mixed with water of a colour as if tlie saffrou was —

iu it —
when tlie water mixes with it and we drink it we become
&XM.XM./0 JQ l\^Q u or in the nom. case, being pred. to
q{jj_ case, being ^^',

t5* J i.e.,j*^ (wine), ^-^^^^ .

O^^ '
HI the obj. case, being subj. after cj ^ and '4-?:' the pred.

^i^** apodosis to ^^\'d\ .

Some explain it as an adj. (

= luarm), iu the obj. case, being J'-^^ to
* ''I

According to this interpretation, the sent. Ht* U^^ 'c;i5 would bathe
apodosis to
' »> .

Another reading ^^^^"^ ( =/«//).

" It leads the oue, who has want, away from his desire when
he tastes it, until he becomes softened as to his desire."
jj^ a])odosis to
^i '

V gives a trans, signification to jj^ .

" Until be becomes

'^ii Ls*^ may also mean, soft in temper and agree-
able to others," or "He forgets his sorrows."

Lf^.k aor. v^'^^^'c by l5"^-^ •

/-»/ / // n - //=:/ = //

" You .see the miserly avaricious one, when the cujj is passed
round to him, despise his
property for it.'^

'^i«'° secondary obj. to (^^ .


Prose or.lcr '•i'-^ ^j^\ I

i '

\^^ x-'fJ li-ht-* p*=""'l^«

(^^^ .

" You tin-ncd aside the cup from us, Oh Umma 'Aniru,
while the circulatiou of the cup was from the right hand."
O l^j &c., an adv. sent, of J ^•=»'
introduced by J 'j 'j .

JJ** (*
i" the obj. case, being o^'^-* ^i> '>->:
, vocative compound.
(^j^'^^= circulation, an infin. in apposition with o" '
• Here ii)^

iJa> •
and '
in the case, cj '^*-' '

ei^-t: (obj. of place).

is (*^J
^^J:*-?:-' ol)j. being

Or t_5^^^ =^place of circulation, or proper way for circulating the cup. In

the noiu. case, being in appos. (JU*.^2/I J •^^ ) with u" ^-^ ;
^^^•' '

tlic obj. case, being pred.j'*'^^ after cj li . The latter part then = while the

proper way for circulating the cup was the right.

/ / o / / z f o/- / \x i/ / /

*'0h Umma 'Araru, your friend, to whom you do not give

to drink, is not the worst of the three."

V expletive used with the pred- after ^ .

By v-^^ be meaus himself.

^^is-^^-* 51 2nd pers., fern., sing.; a relative clause, ('•^) to ^5*^

> the

connecting pron. '^i^'^ under.

in the obj. case.

/ / / / O/ I
O / ~//0/ jO /O/ j: / /

*«- >•

"And many a cup of this ivine have I drunk in Ba'laback,

and another in Damascus and Ca3sarea."
cr-^ in the gen. case by J {^^^'Jj-

<^j^:ii>5 apodosis to j > its obj. i under.

«-^'^^*^ a dipt., iJj'^^'^j^.^ on account of V^O"* fiud ^^.*^^ , but here

used as cjj->a*-* , admitting ti^j^^-' , by a poetic license.

iu the obj. case

^iij f^ij'o^i dipt., (3_;^>"<^i-c

..... by '^'.j'" under.

on account of '"^"^ and

-» ,.

/ /

"And as for us, surely deatli will overtake us ',for it is fated

to us, and we are fated to him."

Ia5'^«>.j oj-« &c., pred. sent, after cjl

. h '^^'°
obj. of J 's^
referring to 'i '^' '
; and ^^ij
obj . of J ^^ referring
to ^ .

''Stop a little
longer hef&re going, Oli you, who are travelling
in the howdah, that we niay inform you of the trath, and you
may inform us."
^^' in the obj. case, being obj. of time.

UAxJi jji jjjg oiyj case, being an undefined vocative noun, (3_^^J^ii ^'*) J
or apocopated form of '^*-i"*.'= .

o ^ J,

j^^ and (^j^^ jussive, being apodosis to the imperative is^'


^ 1st per. pron.j obj. of iSJ- •


This line is an instance of ^ij'^^^ '

Vide line 19 of p&em I.

/ /o o j> 0/ o/o O/ =5 0/ o/ o / 0/ o/o/

Stop, that we may ask you, whether you cut off communi-

cation with us to hasten separation, or whether you deceived

the trusted one ivho never deceived you.''

J ^^ jussive; being apodosis to the imper. l5^ •

" PTe
mai/ ^eZZ yow of the day of battle, ivhen
ive luere striking

such a blow and piercing, that your cousins became glad by

reason of it."
'O'^ and ^•^•*J=
in the ol)j. case, being cognate obj. ( (3 Jj^^-^) to

'^*J= under. ^O^

^^O'^ and Prose order being ^i' ^^O-^ ^-^ij^ ^J"^

^ f ^ /
., ..
Or ^^j'^ ami "*-^ may be ol»j. s.
of specificntiou jh.\*^ to ^\ij^ (
= ««-

p](:asant),\\\\\. U^^j^ uiulcr. IlL-re ^^.j^ ^yh\ &c ,

woulil mean, 'of the
day of buttle unpleasant Ijy reason ot. striking with swords and i)iercing
with spears.'
An adj. sent, qualifying either f*Ji, or'-^*-'^J ^i^'^
to whieh respec-
' refers.
/ / / •:/

C^-* '^^suhj., and c^^i*-" {

= (t^^--^ ) obj. to ^' '

&c. L(7. = Your cousins made their own eyes cool by reason of ifc,

i.e., they were very much gratified by it, when they gained their object.
The prepos. v in
shows relation between f*ji
and j^* in line 9.

/ //// / /r, / / so/ /O/O- / = /i /

" to-morrow and and

For, verily, to-tlay tlie day after to-
morrow are pledged to that which you do not know.'^

One cannot foretell the future.

'i^-c and i^-c ^*J after the pred.
id being u*^J
I .
, subj. ,

J' / / s n/ ////
Prose order, ^J->U3 ^iUJ ^Jlk ^
^i ^xj j t
yj I
j t<^i ^J 'j •
a rel. pron. in the gen. case, by Vj its rel. clause being iijJi*l-*J' ^ and

the pron. •^:!^-'^

being 8 under.

13* 13_, J U ^] ^^j Wh^ij .'. ^^j^. I

^u ^^i

Do the father of Laila and her brothers reproach me about
her, while they treat me unjustly in doing so ?
lie means to say that they ought not to reproach him so unjustly.
Interrogative particle, f '^^^'^
^ '
^j^ .

(*^ subj.,
and cJJ*^^^ pred.

" But we and

they extended ^o cac/t others for the sake of
kiudredship, a strong rope of friendshi])."

f^ 'i '
obj. pron., eo-ord. tci ^^, in the obj, case by u^-' .

^^•^-^ in the obj. case by ^^ d<^^ .

They are our brotliers, and their syiwpathies are perfectly
vnth ifs, so that if they are angry we are angry ;
and if
lodge in a place, pleasing to them, we are pleased iviih the

Lit. = \i they lodge in a place of friendship.
^>"h^j apodosis to c; 1
jji^^i •

/ »//^o /O/O / ////I// /O//

" In
befriending our brother, we are far from apologising to
their enemies."

i.e., we have no regard for their enemies.

being the obj. of the

(->'=> I
in the obj. case, infin. ^ lij-^.

V expletively used with the pred. after

*"*"' .

/ /O / J^ O/ /O/ / /III /O/ / / I J

... ^ ^ =* ^

" She will show yon^ -when you enter in iifon her privately,
and she is safe from the eyes of her enemies/^

'^j &c,, an adv. sent, of J ^-^ introduced by J''^ 'j 'j .

" Two arms

as/ai{ aiidjleshy as those of a long-uecked she-
camel, white, young, -pnve white iu colour, who has not been
C5"^ 'ji dual, secondary obj. of *-^:!j"' in the preceding line.

An instance of i^i*^^ '

Vide line 53 and 51. of Poem IV.

JJaJ;£ J
fU d\,j^->, and o^5=^ adj. s. to
*^' ^*

s-^^d^ a dii)tote Oj-'-a^-'O j.J;£ ,

ly^^ an adj. of common gender and number.


^^^^^ fj'^'^ (^^ ixlj. sent, to <-l-b^c. 7,t7. = 'vv|„) ,11,1 noL conceive a fuitiis.'

^'^•J:-^ also menus, a woniiiii long io the neck and tall.'

In some copies the second hemistich runs thus ^'

j-*"*^ 'j
C-' •

who i)assod the spring, grazing in sandy tracts and nigged grounds.

'^*-^.y &c., an adj. sent, to J^J:-^ .

19 UJ|«,/C iU l-fl5' I Ij l^A. .-. _ljlJ (JJ^A! ljc\J ,

(^/C t^iwj I

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

''And s/i^ iViill shoic you a bosom like a bowl of ivory, soffcj

guarded from the liauds of tlie toucliersj^'


'i'^^ in the ohj. case, co-ord. to 1^^ 'j'i .

(J^pl. of '^^^.
i~> '/ J j' /j // o // / n/j/ /o/ /o/ /

And slie v:iU sltov: ijoii the waist of her supple l^udij, which
is tall aud long, while her buttocks move with difficulty Avith

what adjoins them;''

She is big aud fat about these parts.
/ //

{^''^'° , a noun of place from ^j^^ to !)end. Place of bending of the


bod}-, hence the waist.'

*'^->-' '"^^^ under.

adj. to

o.a*-*» and ^^'-'= *^^'

adj. sent.s. to

W- J Past tense, 3rJ per., fem., pi. ;

its sulij. the implied, pron., referring

to ^'^', and ol)j.

under., referring to ^^ i^ •

V ill "*^ for *;!'^*-', to give trans, siguitication to ^J'^-' .

Another reading *^'^-'

= the two sides or tlanks of, &c.

Another reading ^^J'jj, the projecting parts of her buttocks.

Another reading ^^m*-;! aor. Crd per., fem., pi.

Here '•'
i)ron., obj. of ^ i'

" And slie will show you a big hip, for which the door is too
narrow ;
and a waist, at the sight of which I have become
mad ;"

Oi'^i &c., adj. sent, to
'ji.xx^ 0.5 &c., adj. sent, to .

^•^-^^ cognate obj. <3'-^^ J J-*^-^ .

/ // nj J / / i / / J n/ 0//0// / /

^ ^ ^ ^ = = .*

"Aud two legs, z/;/a^e as ivory or marble, the jin.gUng of

ornaments upon which makes a low noise."
^ij really a column, pillar, support, hence a leg.
^^'! a kind of coarse marble ; a flag-stone ; and also ivory.

U" '•"**=»• = tnikling or rattling.

iiJji &c., adj. sent, to ^jHj'-'^.

^M-'j cognate obj. ((3'-^^ Jj*-^^) .

"The she-camel, the mother of a male foal, did not grieve

with a grief like my grief, when she lost her foal, and she raised
an affectionate yearning cry ;"

His grief at parting with bis beloved was greater than the grief of such
a camel,
o:: //
A^^ I
r^n adj. sent, to V^-^j*

; so also the sent, eo-ord. to ib, viz. *^*-^j

t in ^ii^ t
I'cfers to Sr^ .

iS'^^^^ a prejios. phrase, qualifying '"^^J j

cog. olij. ((Jj-^-^-* cJ^*^-*).
/ / - /o // / // OjO/o/ J / n/ //

''Nor f//(/ the mi(Jdle-aged woman grieve^ whose evil fortune

did not leave her from her nine children; except buried ones."

t.l.h^M in (lie iioin. case, being co-ord . to V^ ^ (*

. An adj. to ^j^"^

»-0*V^ ^c> nt^j- sPit. to *f-l^^.

^ subj. of ^yi/*-'.

^i^ obj. of ^jh(*^ ;

^^-^ t5^^^^ .

"I remembered 7?i?/ youth, and I became desirous for that

time when I saw her camels being guided awaij iu the evening
with songs."

dj*^ pi. of t-^*-^, a camel especially reserved for the womcu.

^^ pi. of t^', obj. of time, (cJ^^^ '«->^-'=) .

CJi*^^ a pass, sent., secondary obj. to '^i'j.

Another reading ''*'«^ '~**^ 'jj '

=1 reverted to the silliness of youth ; or,
to amorous dalliance.

26 tAJ|ilwa^ Lf^d^J o^i'-li' .*. o^i^-^tj AajU^JI o..vJ_^*

.'^ ^ ^ ^ t^

" Then Yemamah came in sight, and appeared high above us

like swords iu the hands of their drawers."

27 I-xasaJI
^^,Ai^ 1J^£JI_, .'. lixJLc Js.*^ ^(i *^iAlj|

"Oh, Aba Hind, do not haste against us, but give us delay
and we will inform you of the truth of our affairs," —
in the ol)j. case, being compound vocative, o '.*fi-«
^i>'-*-« j

surname of ^•^^""u;'? Jj*^< The name of his mother as well as that of

his daughter was •

being npodosis to the imper.^-'^'

j"?^"' jussive, .

Another reading ^^*i(* l_j

= and respite us.

28 'J^ijJ'^^ '-^^ c;*>>

•'• ''^"- "^'^'y O'j^J
U 'j

"To the effect that verily we take our flag;.-

to the baitle-jitld

white, and we bring them back red, when they are satiated
ivith hlood'*'

CJ '
introduces the following noun. sent. s. in the gen. case by v ;

siibj. and ^ j^^ and j*^-^-* pred.

^'^J and ^j*^, objs. of J'-*- to CjIjIj and ly* respectively.

" -*

^HjJ'^* an adj. sent, to i^^ •

Another instance of tl>^^•' .

Obs. the Antithesis (

AflJ ^W I

) between «>^y and j*^'^^ ; and '*-^j'^*-'l

between ^^'^A and L

/ / o / / / o/o /o // / ~j // -/ /

" And ic'd inform yoti of many days of our

of the celebrated

ivars, the history of whicJi is long, wherein we rebelled against

the king, not luilling that we should obey him."

'i '
in the gen. case, by the prep. V being co-ord. to the noun sent.,

<^J^'^ '
&c., in the preceding line.

J 'j-^ also means " long of fighting."

Iaawic &c.,
adj. sent, to j»^i' •

v-^iJ «-^U."
syncopated form of
I .

^li-j ly' a noun. sent. ^i^^^J^^to ^Vj"^ nnder.

Some take c'^*^^ u '

to be elliptical for e^i'^J^ ej'«= that we may not


Another reading ^^^J for^-'' •

Some take the j iu 'i


J to be V;j 'j .

30 '-^ ;=*•' I
c?-»*" t-^Un^tij .. ijc^y^i j^x^ _,

"And many a chief of a tribe, whom they had crowned with

the crown of authority, and who protects those who seek
refuge %<oxi]\ him;"-—
^^ citlier in the obj. case, being i^.*^^ d*Ai\^ Jaa^JI, the govern-

ing verb being ^i^^ *^0"'

in the next line ; or in the gen. case by the preps.

An instance ofi^'i'*'^-' .

ij^/i jj ^f. ^ anj (^^^ &c., adj. sent, to •^- •

" Have we loft ow horses standing round him, with their

reius on their necks, standing quietly."
Another reading *^-^'-^ = bent.
The line either, "our horses with our people, stood near liim to
rob hiiu of the spoils;" or " his horses, when he vva3 killed, remained stand-
ing about him unable to help him"

*^-^^* "O^
secondary obj. to •

aA^-* and ^y^ J ^^

obj. of

l^ixc I
secondary obj. to the passive participle
l^^^ .

(i)^*^ pi. of u/ standing with one hind fetlock bent, a liorse stand-
ing at eaie.

We book up our abodes near Zi-Tuloolij while we banished
to Shauiat those who threatened us.''
Zd-Tulooh, a valley belonging to the tribe of Tha'lal>ah in Yamaa.
Shiimat, a mountain.

\J^^ &c., *V '^ <'^ to '^ .

J '
in ^.^^)*'^ A rcl. pvon.jthe partic. being its relative clause.' 1st per,

pron. in the gen. case, being

^-iJ '
o ''A* to ^5"^-^*"^^ which is stripped of

its CJ on account of ; =^Jj'*^jt i^*^ '

''And the dogs of the tribe whined, fearing us, when wo

ihe armed warrior, who approached to
stripped of his weapons
fight us.'*
Another reading U'? 1^^^— the dogs of genii like people.

cj »>./*• x,//. to
lop the branches of a tree, or to strip it of its bark.

Jf:>l** ijif, a thorny tree; but here metaphorically {2j^*'^**l) used to

mean 'an armed man.'
J 1st per. pron., obj. of (_?*:! , a relative clause (*^'^) of ^^-^ ,

/ ////_ >^/ //in/ / !o/o^ //

34 iiA:s^M*tflij|^iiy^>;j ... GUj pi ^Jf difi.3

"When the mill of our war is removed towards a tribe, the}'

become as flour to it in meeting/'
Oa>> and l^-'j^^ jussive, being ^^ and * 'j-^

^^ subj. of the pass, verb Oa^> .


^^^ pred. after 'j^^y^ .

Obs. tj'*-^^-'
Allegory in this and the fallowing

35 ^Ji**^' iiitwai t4J_,«Jj .'. o.^-* (jf'jri' U-^l^'> i:;^^J

" Its meal cloth is

spread east of Najd, and its supply of
grain is the tribe of Quza'at, the whole of it."
The site of the battlefield on Whieh they dcs royed this tribe was east of

(J '*^ the cloth spread out to catch the meal when grinding grain.

^^^y the handful of grain poured at one time between the mill stones.
c . .. . -

cs"'^ in the obj. ease, being pred. after tyj^- • Soalso**''^' (adipt.)'

in the obj. case, being corroborative (»^^^-') adj. to ^^i-^'.

" You and we

alighted at our Armse in the rank of guests,
hastened our hospitality, fearing you would abuse us, if ive

Tliis line is
spoken satirically (f»^W) as will appear from the next.

JJr->>^ cognate obj. ( (3^-'='* Jj*«-<).

Auotber reading ^•'•^^^ .

^'^^ *« A>ti'o under.

^«iij ^ I
a iioua sent. •'^•'

' 1st pcrs. .

pron., olij. of^*-'''*'^

" Wo treated
yoii hospitably, and we hastened in showing

you before dawn the hospitably of a millstone whit-h grinds

exceedingly fine."
t-^'i'** (liminutiTe of '-*•^* ohj. of time.

Daybreak or dawn was gcneralty the time for raids among tlic Arabs.
a O/-* in the obj. case, being in apposition with f»^
(J '^•?) [^ .

Lit., we hastened your hospitality just before dawn, consisting of a


C>^ intensive agent from er*^ to grind, of common gender.

/.»::// .^^0/ J 1// 0^1/ i^f / ' / f iff

Wo make o?<r /avow r« universal amongst our own people,


and we abstain from asJiing favours frmn them, and we bear

from them or, on their aecountj what Ualilities they ask us ta
^ a relatire pron., its rel. clause {^^ ) being S'J^Ua.^ where * the obj.

of ^ij^*^ under., and ^ being the secondary dative obj.

also be taken as ^i* [3*5^ or -^^ ^i^ = as long the line
may , '-^j ( as) ;

" we undertake to
then meiuiing, pay their blood-mulct as long as, or as
often as, they load us with the consequences of their cnrnmitfing homicide.

In some copies the first hemistich reads ^>^ *li>£j|l^»^ ^•*l'^'=:we

have for a long time in the past been repulsing the enemies from them.

U,X9 w^^^^
obj. of time
( t-ir^ ).

(t^* Lit., away from them, i.e., so as to afford them relief.

"We fight with spears when the people are far from us, and
we strike with the swords when we are attacked hy ihem
at close quarters,"

cr '-^-'' i.p, the enemy. ,

U is /-A/o Ij ^ or *ij '^'^ax!

; or ^-h-*
'-^j *V^J= .

/ / / / // / o/
j_j^ y^j
K :^ ^A. \ji «-*»j
(luring the keeping away.

Another reading ^^i***''^

= we encounter them. Here the obj. (*
//o/ oo// // nj ^ ^
p // n r, J

''With tawny-coloured flexible spears of the Khittyan spears,

or with the bright swords which flourish over them."
^» of »'-^» .

Jj 'ii pi. of •J:' '>> » with **^ without c:^^^^ being ijj'&'^^jb^ .

(^^" I

belonging to ^^t a place in Yamanmh, noted for the manufacture

of lances.

t>«'^*i 3rd pers., fern., pi. an adj. gent, to O^'i:! .

f»* Obj.
of c>ii**i under.

Another reading ci^'i^^^ = which mow.

"As if the skulls of the warriors in it were camel-loads,,

thrown down here and there on rough, stony ground."
^* the battlefield.

iSj-^j pi. of cj^"* J ) « camel-load.

ui*~*ji adj. sent, to ^J^j • 3rd per., fem., pi.
= J / / /0//0/ / / ij /

J Uaj K (jc^j^we tear the skulls

Another reading, ^•'^•j U-!^ t

of the brave in it and ilieir shins.

IJJ'^ pi. of CJ^«', obj. of (3*"^ •

Another reading f*'^^*'=^ J ^^ &c. = you think the skulls of the warriors

and their shins scatter on the rough grounds.


42 UaHs-?.*
v_,l»yi t-AJ^ii-*
_, .-. Ifl^
crjj Uj (3'^J

" Wc cleave with them the heads of the people, and we cut
their necks, aud they are cut,"
refers to C^^ {mconis) in line 41.

C5'^-^"' ami tiri''**^ (3nl ptrs., foni , |)1.) from ^^•* = frcsh green grass-
t-j^U^I with u sickle, v-"^^ •
lenlly cntting

/ /o/ / / / ~ / nj.

Another reading ^•^•i''*-=^"' V^O '

= we make them cut the necks
which are cut like fresh yrass.

ILi (j^^^-* J^**^-)

cognate obj. (

"And verily hatred nftcr hatred will disclose itself against

you, and will make apparent the concealed disease."

If you cannot stifle yonr hatred against a person hut allow it to increase,
it will become known eventnally, and lead to retiibutioii.

Some take the address in ^V-^ to he directed to 'Amru bin Ilind.

^j^- and J'*•^i pred. sent. s. after c;! •

Another reading ^t^* y^i.

44 ^j^i'^! L5^^ ^^
^^^^i .•. »>*< o^.»li; oJ .i.SL*-'l (a'<.

" Wc iidierited glor^^, as the tribe of Ma'add knows, and we

fight for it with our spears, until it is apparent to the icurld."

Snhj- to iji'ii the implied pron. referring to *>^* '


'•'j'i in defending it, i.e., onr glory.

Some take '^i•^i to mean, it (i.e., glory ) leaves them for us." Here

('X'^^ nnder.
Another reading ^^hM \j^^
/•' "'_
— and even our sons do the same. Here cf^^

pi., in the obj- case, bcin^- c^^-*''*—^ ; aud gen. pron ,
being ^i^ lo'-^i/c.

the ancestor of the tribes of Najd, to which Bakr and Taghlib

And we, when the tent-poles of the tribe fall upon the
furniture of the tents, keep back whoever approaches us desir-

ing robbery."
When the tents are struck, we act as baggage-guard.

Another reading (^ ^^ ^^ t^ . The Hne then means, " when the tent-

poles of the tribe the carrying camels, in consequence of their violent

fall off

fiir/ht, we keep firm, defending those near us."

/ //
Here i^^^' pi. of 0"=^ = furniture of the tent, packed for loading
on camels ; or the camels carrying them.

Another reading (^^^^ i*'

<if . Here tjc'*'^^! an infin. = on their

hastening to fly.

iS- relative clause, y^) to ii^* •

" 1st per. pron., obj. of u;H .

"Wo cut off their heads without mercy, so they did not
know how they should oppose us."

Another reading '^' .

- ^\
J^-J^^ Ls' also = for no purposes of sacrificial rites.

o/ /
Another reading {j^j't^ t5"' = with no particular aim.
interr., subj. ('"^M*);
'"i^ CS"*"" arelative pron., pred. (^=^)'. ^'^i^^i

^^^y^H; (prose order being "^ S f^

telat. clause (*M> elliptical for ^i '-^J^s-^i

= what is that with which they may escape or oppose ua ?) The whole sent.,

obj. of CJJJ '^! .

As though our swords and theirs were sword-sticks in the

hands of players.''
We fearcil no more iVoiii the rral swords tlicy were sticks.

C^J^^'^ a (lijitute, liuie liy

a pcKlie lieoiise used as a tiiptotu (*-V'^^'*}j

pied, alter cj

admitting c':!^^* ,

''As if our <^iirinents and tlieirs were dyed with tite

juice of
the ui-jruwau or besmeared irlth it."

j^^ik jvnJ (i>^i-e pass., pred. sent. ai'tiT CJ '-^ .

o'j*^j' Aialjiei.^ed from Persian U J* j

', a tree, the frilit and flower
of which fire a deep red colour.

" When a tribe is unable to prog-ress by rcaisou of tlie fear

of affairs which are likely to come to pass/'

0^->-»«J"=: advancing in battle.

Another reading o4-**jV= to use their swords.
~ -

^^^rlo '
a noun sent., subj. to the participial adj. /')-^'

~ f ^
Some take /^""•' '= dubious not known how to be averted.
/// ////// ;

*^ ^^'''^ for fear that should happen.

elliptical for ^J^^J c'

^j^^^ c)

/ = =j/ =//..» » / / / //o/ /O /O / /

59 IIaAj l««*J I

iJij 1.:e-« .•, «i.A. Cj I j)
Ji^ Ia,*^J
' '


"We make onrtmopsmonutaiu Rahwat, possess- firm as /Ac

ed of dignity, defending our honour, and we take precedence,
io the rest of the tribes in time ofhatth,'*
^"^ '>i
This line is the apodosis to '
in the i)receding line.

^^'^ or ^^-^ under.

adj. to *'^i^^''

i^j a mountain in Yaman, proverbial for its size and grandeur.

o..^ o Io also means,

valarous ;
fully armed."

AjJU'" to *•^^.^^ .
j,^.^;^ j,,jrt. adj.


Or *-lij .is:^'
infill., in the obj. case, being W J^aA^ , (
= in order to
defend our honours.)
i^ tJie q])J_ case, being pred. after •

By reason of 02<r youths, wlio regard being killed in
battle a glory^ and our old men experienced in wars."

jjU^jzr: with, or by means of, youths. PI. of V "^ •

iD3J:'. &c., adj. clause to CJ ^'*'

(JxflJ I
pass, infin.
= being killed.

''^^^ secondary obj. to Ujj-i .

V^"*" pi. of V-i'* '

, co-Old. to u'-**" .

Prose order v^^ 'c5* ti^'iV^'* V-Ji'*0 •

" PFe the opposers of

ar<3 all people, fighting or striking
their sons to defend our sons."

^i<^^ ,
diminutive of ^s^'^^, an infin. = c5'<^'* , to compete ; used as an

adj. of common gender ; in the nom.

case, being pred. to the subj. c:.;*
" an "
or " the best."
under. It means, adversary," or "a competitor,
It may be in the obj. case, being adj. to; or a noun in app. with '^^^

^J^J in line 50.

^*-i*^ , obj. of J'^ to cr^-^-".

J '^ to U'^' '

«£jU;* , obj. of

Another reading *^j obj. of3-"'*-'=as regards striking.

^«^^J obj. to '^^^^^^


also= to cast lots mutually, to exchange ; when the line would
mean, — '
JFe kill their sons and they kill ours according as the chance
„ _ /_
favours one or the other party.' Iloi-e *-pj'«^iu app. with ^^^^ '
in hue 51.

8.£j\a.-o ^\^Q ji
= 'Staking,' wlicii tlie lino would monn, 'Staking their
BoiiB apiiiist our sons.'

53 '^•iV' ^^'^^ ^-^'^-^ ^A^j /_ r*t-"'^

f,^ [kC)

"Hut in tlie
day of onr fear for them, {i.e., our sojis,) ouv
cavalry become s^iV'^ml out toivards tJie
enrmij in troops aucl
squad roDS."

f^ obj of time,

o introducing the following sent., npodosis to

'-* '

V-^-*^ pi. of *-?'^^ fiiiy iiuuiber of men between 20 aud 40; in the obj.

case, being pred. alter tf-?'^-' .

C:^-^-*' sound pi. of eo-ord. to ^->-^^ .

/ »// =/ / J TJ / 0// / O// /O/ X/ /

"But on Mio day, in which we do not fear on their account,

we hasten to the attack with our loins girt."
j_j^s s a noun sent., in the gen. case, being ^^^ o ^^a/c ^q |;|,g o^-l^-'l,

(ol)]. of time )

introducing the apodosis to
<-> •

" we far in."

(^.**J also means, go

t:.>i•^^'•^^ obj. of J '^ to c^^ .

In some copies the 2nd hemistich of line 53 reads '^Ji-J^^^'* ^j'-^

'we go early in the morning in attacking parties with our loins girt ; while

that of line 54 reads ^^i^- 'w's** \ve repair to our assemblies

,_^J ^x^.'^»z='
in parties •'

Hi're J'j^-'^
= ^^^*'*
horsemen making inroads.'

(Jnder the leadership of ono. from the Beui Jasham-ln'n-
Bakr, with M'hom we beat dowu the level ground and the
rough ground."
That is we conquer both weak and strong, or all kinds of land ;
or all

kinds of affairs.

= a large jiartj' ; or a chieftain ;
or an army-

j'^^. 1^^. ^'^^ ) a tril)e of Bani Taglilib, to whom the poet belongs.

&c., adj. sent, to i^^

t3'^-' j •

/o//o/::///o/o// z./ j '^ '^ > "^ I / I /

'Bat verily the tribes will not know that we have been
shaken an,d become weak."
We conceal our losses, and alunys act as though sure of vietorv or we ;

arc never known to the people to hise courage or be weak, as weakness is

strange to ns,

\.y^^*.^l Ijl
and ^^ j '^' ^^'
noun sent, s
being olij. to f^^l*^ .

Here ^^^? ^ an example of the defect in vhyme, known as ji^-^ I

^Vk^ .

the j'^^,(()r the *V^ '^'f (^ before <l5",) ought, to have been ^_r"—^^ while as
a inatter of fact it is
*^ •

/ /O O/ /l/Z/O// /0//£?//0//0////

"Be careful, no one must act foolishly with us, lest we should
have to act foolishly xi'itli Iiivi above the folly of the foolish

(^ *s:-5/ negative, imper., emphatic, witli tlie liiiht tD •

^Vo shall <li) more tlian ])nv them back in tlieli- own coin.

cJ^s:-' ,vltli '^^' o.

governed by

An instance of the figure* l'^*-- /

by which avenging is termed as an
act of f;d!v. I'idc line C> of poem I\'.

/ / / nj n/ J J I o /r, / r,/ c f " /

" For what

purposo, Oh
'Amvn bin Hind, Jc» i/o» wUli that
we shonUl become servants to the chief you have dcjvited
over lis :

Wliat f^ood is it your wishing that so powerful ft tribe as otirs sliould

&ul)iiiit to your leiulersliip?

interr. noun ^ '

oU^ to ^.^^ •

(^ ^^x^~^-^

the vocative compound, <J l'^^

jj*^ in oI)j. case, l)ein{; ( ^i>'-^>«),

i^yt^- pi. of u^ ^^
, in tlie obj. case, being pred. after C.^^-"

Anotlicr reading ^^^>-^ = for your posterity.

/ in/ I / / J-) / J J o /o / 0/ - / -/

''With what desire, Oh 'Amru bin Hind, do you listen to our

slnnderors, and despise ns?''
"Wiiat (h) you wish from such a course ?
Anotlier reading ^^•i'* 'O'-'j = you regard us with contempt.
1st per. prou., olij.
of (_cj.i3'' •

"AVith what object, O 'Amru, son of Hind, do you think

thnt wo should be considered vile?

j_^j>.jul ^(.^ ^ noun sent., obj. i<i (^j' •

^-^^-'j J ^' ej^^^ pred. sent, after u '

J ^' in tli» obj. case, being pred. after ti/'^*^-'.

61 'J'Tiy*-*
<-^'*i' ^J^^"
(_5^' .'. ''^:!j^' fJO.r_^j ^ IJ0O4J

" You are

menacing us, and threatening us. Enough, when
have wo been servants to your mother ?

Ujjii/c Syncop.ated or hghtened form of i^-^O**-* > pi of (.j-^'^'* adj.

( »_>_j~A.c) f 10111 the verbid noun i^^^'* = service.


^'^i^j dim. of '^jj an infin , cogn. obj., elliptically used for ''^Oj'^J =
^f-^ '} proceed gently; leave it for a while.

All examp. of Irony (*^'t^-


/ / o / / /O/ /o/o // o /O/ J o/ I f I t / XZ f

"For, verily, Oh 'Amrn, our spears bave proved too stiff to

our enemies before 3'ou, to 3'ield 1*0 tlieni".

^ '•'
is often used to symboli>e " honour ". The line means that though
we have lutd many enemies before you, we have never submitted to them.
jj*^ in the nom. case, being simple vocative.

'-^f:-^' &c., pved. sent, after c)' •

UaIj (^I noun, sent, obj to ''^^^ '•

^[£ ^i^l^baffled.
Lines 62 to 64 a good instance of '-^^•^'-'
'= Allegory.

When the vice gripped it, it refused to straighten and

proved to it very hard and stubborn rejecting h ing strnightencd;"

Our pride will not allow us to be directed by other people.
^* refers to ^ '-^^
in line 62.

ol-^i a descrijition of vice for straightening Sfear shafts.

Another readiui: j*f*'-'jJ^= "ould prove to them, i.e., to the enemie

S.i\j:u.c j,^ ^]jg o),j_ pasc b;'ing J '•-=» .

Obs. the figurc^^-tii I

'i^£ 'j.^ in U^^ ^j '•^ '

Very hard, .s7ic/t that, when it is bent it emits a creaking
roise, and breaks the back of the straighteuer and his fore-

AijjM.£ lepeatcd for emphasis ( '^^.^ ''.)


o -/ / 0/0/ /

Another rtiuliiip;
'-^- ^^
o_)*£l lo! = "\vlicn j'ou iiiiich i^, it would
stnki-, ^c."

"Have you been told anntldtyj about the triljo of Jusliam

BillBakr, concerning their breaking their ewjarjimdnts in tho
great afTairs of the former pooplo."

Another reading Lf^-^H = "concerning any failing on their part," &c. ; or

regarding any abasement, they had to submit to," &c.
/ 0/0 / jj // /I I 0/ r) / / /n/ /o/ /) /

''We inherited the glory of 'Alqamat Bin Saif, who made

lawful to us forcibly the fortress of glory."

diptote tJ^-^^-^j'^-^ for ^V^J and *i*^* A cliief of tlie tribe

&^'uU a .

of Taghhb, who lived about 500 to 5t)0 A. D. Being afraid of the tribe of
Bakr, he established with liis people in the southern jjart of the Peninsula
after the war of Busoos was over. He was well known for his good nature
and liberality.

&c., adj. sent, to

'*^>-^ ; i. e., threw open.

'*'i>i;obj. of J '-^^
; forcibly, by dint of valour.

/ / ~ J n J /n ssO/j jO /n /^ / ~ /n/ J J n /

" I inherited {Jte

(jlonj of Muhalhal, and one who is greater
than he, that is, Zohair; which is the best treasure of tho trea-

The glory, which had been acquired by his ancestors and inherited by
him, was the best of the treasures they had left him.
Muhalhal, son of Rabee'ah, the great grandfather of the poet on the
mother's side who fought with the tribe of Vail for 40 years, in order to

avenge the blood of his brother V-h*-^ •

Zohair, his great grandfather on
the father's side, ulio died about 4l0 A.D. He mentions them to show that
both sides of his family.were distuiguished.

Lr"*j iu appos. ( J'^0 "ith^^^ I

, which is co-ord. to ^4^^.
a verb of praise, '*-*•*•*
f»*^ {^'^•'

^^'i c*i , &c., elliptical for c5*^ 'j J ^jO'^ \,yJ\j^^ ^».i j


Another reading ^^^ ^^.'^ ^= the best after him.

" We inherited Attab and Kultlioom wholly, aud

the glory of

by them we obtained the iuheritauce of the most honoured


^'^* and ^^J'^^ in the obj. cascj being co-ord. to ^^*^-*'« in the preceding

sent, to U ^^^ and l-*^-*'^ .

^«J &c., adj
Another ^\ Cj\ji z~ ttig
reading ^*--**^ legacy of all.

grandfather of the poet.

father of the poet, who lived about 500 to 560 A.D. His prowess
and horsemanship were proverbial. When the war of Basoos was over, he
went to King Munzir III., and, as the representative of the tribe of Taglilib,
he swore to the fulfilment of the treaty by them.

" And Zu-1-Burah, whom you have been told about, through
whose glor\j we are defended and we defend those who seek
protection of us."
1 1
i = «
man of the ring,' one of the tribe of Taghlib, so called on
account of his putting a ring in his nose, making a vow not to take it off
until he should have killed the slayer of his brother with seven more of
his (the murderer's) brothers or on account of a ring of hair on his nose. He

j^j -» .

was also called <^>-^^ '

^^i .

Another reading "J^ '

/ /O/- O /O i // £J0/> - j/r,/ - /

And from US, (i.e., our dri^c) before him^ (i.e., Zu-1-Burah^)

was Kiilail), the cndoavouror w increasing our glurij. Tlien

whore is the glory which wo have not obtained ?"
'•*^ ^•'
pred. to the
sul)j. </*
*r^i^ in apiJosition (J'^-f) with tS"^^— ' '
; brother of J4W-»^ •

1*^' subj. to the pred. '^J^^'^ uruler.

C?' inter.

* of ^i-'j under.

"When we tie our she-carael with a rope to the neck of an-

other, she breaks the rope or she breaks the neck of titc camel
tied to her."

Whenever we join in battle with an enemy, we overcome him.

jussive, being ^j^ after i^^-* ; aud "^^ and U"**^ apodosis, (*!>^).

Another reading ^^^^-ij^

^*x) j^ ^1,^ pass.
= whenever our she-camel
is tied.

Another reading '^^ .

''And we shall be found, we, {I repeat), the firmest of them

inkeeping our word, and the most faithful of them when they
bind us with oaths."
(i^ in appos. with the imjjlied pron., subj. of '^^^ > for emphasis

(o.j.S'UJi j and C.^'O

secondary obj. to <^y .

Another reading (f-*-^' cr*'* '^^^ j ] the whole sent. (^^'* n;* second- '

ary obj. to '^^J^ J ur* being the subj. and t^''



/•'*' ^j •
co-ord. to ^t**''* ' •

'j'-^iobj. of >^5.

Another reading "^y jussive being co-ord. to "^^ in line 71.

"And wo, on the day on which tJte fire of war was kindled

in Khazaza, helped ilie tribe of Nizcu' above the help of the

Ill the time of war our assistance was more valuable than that of auy
other tribe.
-^ '
»-> ''^* to
obj. of time, the sent. <^h being it,

Subj, to '^'j
) a word implied, such as V-^^ 'j the fire of war ; or

LSJ h > the fire of hospitality.

/ //
(_5J '_}=* a mountain near Takhfah, by the side of the road, between
Mecca and Basarah, which was the scene of a battle in 492 A. D., won by
Kulaib against the armies of Yaman. A fire was then kindled on the sum-
mit of the mountain to guide the people.

J j^ J // / J / n J 0/ /
74 l\s}\ Li^J .-.
^AJ ii,^~j(^l ^^^Jj
Lijjc^Jl j^ir-'l ^J=tj»

" And we are

they who kept their camels at Zi-Orata, while
the old large camels, and the she-camels abounding in milk,
were eating withered grass.*'
They had stayed thei'e so long that the camels had eaten up all the fresh
grass. They stayed at this place a long time to help their tribe against
their enemies.

J '
a relative pron. and the partlc. cj^H'-^ its rel. clause Y^'^)', ^^ '

iy^~^ here ='>*»^=*' <ji^^ , So also are all the participles with J '
in the

following lines.

^*^ '^^big camels; of common gender and number ;

or pi. of '-^i^=^ .

/ o/
j^-=» pi. of
= yielding abundant milk.

^'^ &c., adv. sent, of J ^s^ .

/ I ^/ / ' o/o / / / in/ /r, / I /n in zij /

"And we were the right wing of the arm// when we met

the enemy; and the sons of our father were the left wing.''

^i subj. toW^J and i^ij^i^ pred.

1st per. pron. ^^^ ' iJ^^^ to *


Ux: Ij^^J, i.e., the tribe of Biikr, their cousins. The rcforcnce is to their
deeds in the and Yaman, when Kulail) Toiif^lit with
war between Niziir
Labeed al Ghassani, the agent of tlie Ghassani Kings, niHng over Taghhb,
Labeed had struck the sister of Kuhiib in the face.
/ / o/ 0/0/ /n J n / 0/ s/o/ J //
76 ^^:! i:)*^} *J_^*o Ixl^j /. /f-i'j i^*^} i'ij'£ I^^Jtwsi

" and we attacked

They attacked whoever approached theiU;
whoever approached us."

*-'^'« cognate obj. ((3^^"* Jj*^'>=).


- and ^^^M rel. clauses to l^-* •

1st pers. pron., obj. to l^^:! •

*. ^ *• ^ ^ ^ ^

"Tliey returned with plunder and with captives, and we

returned with fettered kings."

<^JO.a^ obj. of J'-'^' to "-^y-^.


V a prep, giving a trans, signification { ^i '>*-^^-') to the verbs '^-J

and ^-y I

78 ^^^^ ' '^•^

OV*5 ^^ '
.'• &^^)^^jH {^'^^M (^i-'I

Beware, Oh Bani Bakr, beware 0/ qitarrelling viitli us, do
you not know with certainty concerning oiir bravery ?"
/»^yi ai-J** (~' 'j or a phrase equivalent to a verb; elliptical for ^^•'I b'J^'ii
= withdraw to your owuselves, look to your own affairs.

is^i in the obj. case, being o '^^ ^«> ^•»-«.

for interrogation.

U= Ixi^J where '^ is expletive ; '^O*-* jussive by ^ •

/ /o/ / X i/ / // ''j'^ / i ^'"'/ =:/ /

" Do
you not know about the bands from us and from you,
when they were fighting together
with lances, and shooting

Wilis' stripped ofti^^*-^) being o^-^^^^t-^ being an extreme plural _


t^*^^ and (i>i*V- 3rd pers., fem.,pl., adj. sent, of J ^^ to V-^

^^^ •

/ /o / / / Oj/ s / o / / f in J / in / jn/n in/ /

"While upon us were the helmets and the Yamanian jerkin,

and in our hands swords, which were straightening and were
The swords bend from the force of their blows.

^>^^M pred. O^-^), the subj. ( l*^^) being U^i^-", ^h^^ and
5 1

jj Ums t

V"^d = silken jerkin, or leathern shield.

1^. and lii^s:-*^ adj. sent, s of J^*" to •-» ^i-» ' •

UAAis*,. means which were

^ j^+Sj also rising over the heads of the enemies
and stooping on them.
n/_ J
Another reading \^*^i = which had to be straightened.
/ J .» / / /- in I II I / I ij I ni I

*'Upon US there was every ample glittering coat of mail ,

wherein you would see creases above the girdle."

Aijl*. jr gubj. (I 'J'ij'e), and ^'^"^^

pred. (^*^) .

*-*^''*' and u' ^ "i
adj . s to

iS^^ an adj. sent, to

^•** .

I ~ /O/
Another reading ^'^'^ '

(3^ = above the belt.

bj^s: an infin.j'or pi. of i^'^-*^ a crease.

/ J nin / jj I I I n I sso/ /o/o I n i j /

82 IJ^^ c^flJ
oy*- l«-' "^i Ij .'. U^^J Jllaj5)|yj£ o.*^_j lit

"If it should be put off from the warriors one day, you
would see by reason of it, the skins of the people wearing it
1 »^

It was snch a loncj time since tlioy Imtl takon the armour olT; or their

skins were blackened from the cilect of the iron, by lung wouring.

^'•'Ji obj. of time.

•^i'j apodosis to l<i ' •

^>^ pi. of 0^•=^ J secondary object of *^i^J

83 ^>^ '-ii
M^-^^ •*•
J*^-^ <^->*'* tij-^jj'^* e^(^

" As if the folds iu these coaU of mail were the surfaces of

pools, which the wind strikes, when it blows, so as to cause

them to ripflo.'^

Another reading ty<r'^*'° • The line then would mean, —

" As if their backs, [i.e., the surfaces of the coats of mail,) were the
surfaces, &e."

A similar line occurs in the Hamasah.

1^'as.^j &c., adj. sent, of J^^ to ci^^c .

j*^-*^ syncopated form of j'^-'^ » pi. of^*^-*, by a poetic license.

// ?^ .

'^j^ another instance of the defect in rhyme, called J "^^ IjU^s, Vide
line 56.

84 UjjIaJ I

J i,j Iflj UJ ^^j^y; .-. o_^si.

I is Ui UUar' J

" In the day of battle, well-bred horses, scanty of hair,

carry us, which are known as belonging to us, horses captured —
from the enemy, and which were weaned from their mothers. ''
2 ^'^^
obj. of time.

^j^ pi. of 'i^^l , adj. to J^i^ under,

... . »
1^^ adj. sent, to J^i-^ .

•^J^ pi. of 8AJ:aJ, a diptote o^'^i^j^Jli an to J^J5^,also,=

, adj.
selected, chosen.

U^}'^' passive, past., 3rd pers., fem,. pi., adj. sent, to Jji^ .

Another reading •>>' ^

*'*.>~^= pastured, or of goodly make, or marked
with branding, or with a colour.

f J n/ I a: /o// ^nj/n///r= // /n / /

35 li*^ U^J'^J
LvJ;Ll>.5 ^jl'^j}^ Jii.O^ .'. ^•^j'j'^ W'^JJ

They arrived wearing coats of mail, and they came out of
fhe hattle with matted manes like the twisted knots of the
bridles, while they were worn out with fatigue."
^^jlj*^ obj. of J^ J used with ^^i^^"^ , though yJj'^^-^ j^.^ , by a
poetic license.
^^^ obj. of J^^ .

^'^i'^'i 3rd per., fern., pi., adj. sent, of J ^^ to Jj-J:-*> .

^ *• = ' "

We inherited them, from our fathers venovmedfor sincerity,
and we shall cause our sons to inherit them when we die."

(^^ i.e., the horses.

^^ ^y ' «-> ^-^^ to t^-^J

ts^. secondary obj. to '^^y •

" Behind us there are we fear lest

fair, beautiful women ;

should be divided the enemy or suffer disgrace."

they amongst
U^-h-! and i^j^"^ adj. to
* ^'-*
under., subj. C'^^'^), to the pred. (^^ )

ji^^^ &c. adj. sent, to

J> I ^ .* I • I \
ti 'i
^^-^t-* J '

t"^^"^ ^ '
^ "°"^ ^^"*- ''^•i-
of J "^
> introduced by *0 '^'^•^' ^' •

Another reading O }^^ o !j i l^-" /•

'^^ = noble, we are afraid lest they

be separated /rom us,

They took promises from their husbands, when they met


the bands of the enemy, celebrated for their bravery,"

"^^ '
in the second hemistich.
ai)podosis to
"i '

<^ji^ a diptote. ^j'^^j^.^) being extreme plural.


Another rcailing 'j'^'' '^ ^"^v-

AnotliLT reading l^'i*^*'* distinguisliing themselves with l)a(lges.

/ -/J /" / / / s / S /I/ =^ /o//

That they should take as booty the horses, and swords and
with them, bound together with a rope/'
prisoners, and return

i:;^.- J^^ partic, ohj. of J '-^ to (^j^


~j , // / »

^Aii^AJ emphatic, plnr. with J and c> for emphasis.

Another reading lir*^ L5"*"-'

=" in order that the women may take as

booty, &c."

Another reading ^'^f:-? j

^Jl <>J I = coats of mail and helmets.
Anotlier reading '>-!:*ii^ =well struck with swords and whips.

This ^^-^ in the previous line.

explanatory of
line is

/ ////// j/,= / -/ ij / / ////

''You will see us going forth to battle, while all other tribes
Lave taken to themselves an ally, fearing us/'
C^3j ^ partic. objof J'=^ to •

^i-* '-^^ *.J*^ the following sent.

J introductory to

i'i^is.^ in the obj. case, being ^-'

J^**"' .

AJli-* ist
Or ohj. and ^-^^y 2nd obj. to 'ji^*. The latter part then
" have taken our fear as a
means, eonipauiou," i.e., are constantly afraid of
our prowess.
/ ~ J jj o/// o // ini jn / n/ / n J / /

"When they, (
i/jc icomen of our tribe,) walk, they walk
gracefn.Uy and sway as the backs of the drunkards sway."
/ /J / J o /

'*:!^*, dim. of t5^.>* J »'^j-

to A*-^*.' I
(ica^/ of walking) undiGT., cog. obj.

apodosis to
' '
cHi*'*^ .

92 ^J^'ij ^-«'a. ^~.-!:4-? t:^^i-^ .*. j-^J e^? ^-^ c?ij li?^ i^ilxJs

" Til ey are the women of tbe tribe of Bani Jusliam Bin Bakr,
who mix with their good qualities, long pedigree and true

^^J i*J= pi. of iXa.Jj*Js J a woman who travels in a hovvdah, hence the upper

class of woman, who can alone afford such luxury. It is '^^^^^^^.^ in the

nom. case, being pred. (^'J'^) to the suhj. lif* under.

/o //
j^Jaiik. an adj. sent, to e^*; mix, i.e., atld to.

" and say '

They feed our horses, to us,
you are not our hus-
bands, if
you do not protect as from the enemy.'

Another reading o '^'^i = They lead.

*-^^-*^ in the obj- case, being pred. after .


pron., obj, of J*-**-'

" If we do not defend

them, then we shall never remain
for doing any good after the capture of them by the enemy, and
we shall not live."

That is, they would lose their good name if their wives were captured,
and after their good name was gone, death was preferable to Hfe.

«^*-! obj. of time ( e) ^^>^ '

^j^ ).
Another reading (^^' for anything.

Nothing protects the women like a blow, suck that you will
sec by reason of it the arms of our foes flying o//'like the qulats."
O-y^ subj. of^^"* .

^^Ji ^(. ^ ^,ij. sent, to v^'*.

» /j
O-i*^* sound pi. of *''^. It is as given in tlic dictionary a« a smaller
of wood struck forward by a lar<^er in tlic game of hockey. The game,
I believe, is more like " Tip-cat " than
/ /I/ =: J r zi tntr s /z/ j j j ir z.f r

" As if we, when the swords arc drawn, gave birth to all

people, the whole of them."

That is, all people turned to us for help, as though they were our sons.

J introductory to the follov\ ing ""•i-^

^ &1.*a. ,

^ "^ J &e., pred. after ci 1^ .

'*They cause the heads to roll on ike ground, as strong boys

the play grounds."
roll balls in

^<^it>o.j lightened form of S'^'^'^-'

, where 55
is modified into c5 •

^.j^^ I
sound pi. of h^ , obj. of <j''^'i'J .

^JJ l)"^ pl- J-?-/"^^^a robust youth.

«'*? LiY., a gravelly ground or


f J f <">/ SI J / ^f r 1^ J I ir, t t Off

" And
verily all the tribes, descended from Ma'add, have
known when their tents were pitched in the open plains ;"
That is, the day the tribes appeared in the world.

V^» pi. of *^, subj. to the pred. {j^^^., 3rd per., fern., pi.

99 l-ij;iij nil ijj>^U*i I IJ

.-. 'i'^ I
i I
^y^xk^i I U tj
'j Ijj

"That we are the givers of food, when we are able, and we

are the destroyers when we are tried in battle ;"

pred. being u^J**^*-'
in the obj. case, being subj. (('^') after cj' ,

c)^**^*-' ' ^J '

a noun sent, introduced by ci
in tbe gen. case by V •

O^^^**-' ' '•* '

co-ord» tou^**^*-'' ^ '
and so also similar sentences in the

following lines.
For the construction of u^**^^ '
and the like, Vide oJ'~-; '
line 74.

/ ^ o / / ^ X z,/ f / o// / / J /O s;//

And that we are the preventers of what we desire, and
we descend nipon any country wherever we wish ;"
^^ the pron. 8
clause [^ '^) to obj. under.
iJ^j rel. ,

'^•i-=^ locative noun, (c''^*-" i-ij^}, indeclinable with /-^, the following

sent, ^^i'^ being '•»:' '

o ^"^ to it.
^^*> lightened form of '-^^ .

/ ///.»Pe// / n / / / j z c /

101 J)l .-. libs-' S I

l^-* UJ I
tj^J^-^jlii wj<i>^ Ijlj

''And that we are the leavers of things when we &re dis-

pleased with them and the takers Avhen we are pleased.j";

102* liJ:-«a£ lil .-. li*if lil i^^^^UJIUIj


"And that we ate the protectors when wo are obeyed; and

that we are resolute in punishing when we are rebelled


Another reading lU^*^^^ ' = controllers.

103* li>sr' I ob I
J o^aaJ
i I
.-. iixh I J t^_^xi U\li\j

''And that we are the defenders of those who follow us,

whenever the swords leave their scabbards;"
u^i*-" subj. ( '"^h^ ) , to the pred. sent. ^O^^ "^k '


Another reading ^ •

pron. obj. of </ - •

" And that wo are the shcltorers of the foor in every year of
famine ;
and that wc are bouutiful to those who ask for gifts

of us;"
iS^ almost a proper name for the year of scarcity, and so it does uot
admit the article J '
j and being also of the feni. gender, it is O/-a-^^>-0 ,
but here used as Oj-^*^^ admitting iiH^^ and 8^r*^ > hv a poetic license.
^ pron. in the gen. case, being '^"
o ^^^ to ls'^^'^ •

105 Uj;3f lit ^_^xl^JH3lj .-. Uoi^ lii 4^^*i*J llJIj

And that wc bestow freely when we give our gifts ;
that we destroy when we are disturbed."
i^y^*-^ |lj r
also = " we set the captives at liberty"

"When we arrive at the water, we drink it pure, whilo

others besides us drink
it impure and muddy/'
^j"^ apodosis to c*
' •

'^^ adj. of J ^^ to * ^" , so also J •i'^ and ^4-^ .

V^'^'-J adv. sent, of J ^^ introduced by j .

107 ^j .-. U£ ill

^J^*^ '^^J vJjj^U^i;

^UJiJ 4^Ju jib!

Beware tell to Bani Tammah and the tribe of Du'mee *how
did you find us?'

-.(^J 1
^j and /* o^i.J branches of the tribe of Ayiid.

When that the king treats the people with indignity, we
refuse to honour submission amongst us."

We refuse to submit to tyranny.

•-^Ol Syncopated form of t-^U-", gubj. to the pred. sent. (•'•*•

secondary obj. of j*^**'

j^^ Lit., afford a place, allow it to settle.

o /

j^ 11)
noun sent. obj. of ^^^. I
, introduced by *0 ii'AK^^S .

pron. in the gen. case, by c^ .

/ / j/ '^j/ J n/ / /O// I r, I n /I /r, i n

" The world is for

us, and lie who is above it, and we attack
with violence, being powerful, when we are attacked."
^ pred. {y:=- ) ;
^^^«^-' •
and w* subj. (
^"^ ) .

j^^^**! , a perfect verb U** requiring no pred. after it.


\:y^^ obj. of time, (w^^3-'

«-ir-'= ) ? the following sent. cA^^ being
^) I o ^< to it.

^-^Jj-i^ parfcic, obj. oi^}^^ to LJ^^ implied subj. ofcAV*

Another reading (Jh^-^J (^i-s*- =when we attack.

/ XL ^ J Z \ / f 'II f /f f / C /.»

" We are called tyrants, while we have never committed a

tyranny, but verily we destroy the tyrants."

^^ verb ls*'-'
obj. of the pas.

i^h.*' Secondary

U*ljiUjadv. sent. '^ y^=^ , introduced

^^.^ pred. after ij^^ '-,
being the subj.

111 lie Ijiix)

Ij^J^a-w »*lt*ij.s-yt ^U_j ., JjUr ^J^ ji^\

" We have filled the land until it becomes too narrow for us,
and we have filled the sea with ships. '•"

^^'^ in the nom. case, being subj. (''^•*,)the following sent, being

pred. (^'J^) J or in the obj. case, being '^j^^'^i J**-* • *^ iS*.l^)\ ,


^J;^*" in the ohj. ease, beiiifr^'i-?:*^

r- , obj. of specification.
/ ,n /o/
Another rea(ling.,r^'
ji^j =the surface of the sea; and^^*^' ^^j^=
the uiidiUe of the sea.

/ / ^ f / '^j' i J 2/////0////

"When ouG of our boys reaches the age of weaning, great

kings fall down worshipping him."
^ .1

tS'-*'* subj. to C*J.

Uj,^L, part. obj. of J ^^ to ^:I^'.

j\ ^ I

pi, of J ^ .

H^^ IfM^i I
^ {^X^^Ai I


Ascribed to 'Antarah Bin Shaddad the 'Absian. He died
about the year 615 A. D. His mother was an Abyssinian slave.
It was his prowess and deeds of valour, that secured him his


The poem gives a lively description of a' raid by Mu^'aviah,

son of Nizal, from the tribe of Beni Sa'd on Bani 'Abs, the
tribe of the poet, in a valley called Farooq between Yamamah
and Bahrain, which resulted in the utter defeat of the former,
Mu'aviah being killed by the poet.
The metre of this poem is J/c^^J I
c^^ Jj^', the same as that
of the 4th poem.
The rhyme (*V^) is AflUaAs^ (.Aee) of the class of •J'^I^aJI ; .

The poem is /'i*t^ from its ^jjj being Vide Poem I. .


O // / 0/

JaaL^/o ixAJw/0 .JLclaix

u Ulflx^ llf t^ (ij*
1 . ,JLxfiI»./0


/ / / o /

" Have the

poets left f /le garment a m
place for a patch to he
fatched hy
me and did you know the abode of your beloved

after reflection ?

That is,
left any deficiency to be supplied ? Have
have the poets the
left any poetry unsaid that the poets of the present
poets of the former days
day may say
The inquiry of course contains at the same time a negative sense; being

interrogation of appeal, ti'^^-'i" (•^t^^^'i''.

Vide line 22 of Poem I.

-ij-^-* a locative noun, Oj^-l= t'loiu c'oiij. v., obj. ofj>i^*, but in the

gen. case by c;**, used expletivuly, after *-*•* •

Anotlier readin-^j^-'^'^^ soni^ ;

a verbal uouu.

obj. of time (uJ^>-'


<J* may nlso=»*^ , certainly; the address is directed to himself.

is here**^«-^^ ,
=tJj .
(Ja «t= <
or rather,' or, 'nay, verily.'

" The vestige of the house, which did not speak, coufound-
ed thee, until it spoke hy means of signs, like one deaf and
sent, to f**'^ This line is an instance of ^j'^^- Fic?eline 21,
j^liAjj^j adj.
Poem 1.

" she-camel there long grumbling, with a

Verily, 1
kept my
l/carniag at the blackened stones, keeping and standing firm in
their own 'places."

J in OflJ fur
emphasis («^^^ ^^).

^i^^ adj. to ^'j under., in the obj. case, being obj. of time.

J^y adj . sent, of J '^ '« iS^ ^^ •

•'^ * •

= blackened),
^^ |)1.
of ^l***" , { adj. to '^^'jj •

'J' under.
(^ pi.
of ^'^', adj. to (/*

•^ 'jj pi. of^*^ 'j^^ ^^*^6pi"g firm, I.e., t^*^-''

== the three
stones, on

which a cooking vessel is

placed ; an adj. used as a noun.

\jji^ ^"^ an instance of an adj. in combination of ** ^ '
with the
noun it qualifies.

Another reading "^ 'jjC^^^j where i'^-^and •^^'jj adj. to c^'J' under.

Another reading f*-^^
'^^ '

jj ^^•-' ilr' i^^ ' = while I complain to the

stones, high, keeping firm and standing there.


jS^ I
^f,., an adj. sent, of J^-^ '^ U l(= I,) the implied subi. of

C^ pi. of ^ I

=high ; adj. toj ^^ 'j or (j?»

^> '

<^ ^jj adj. pi. ( o^^AJ^ii ) .

C//j O / / / r, r, / />1 / / / 15/

/^ is the abode of a friend, languishing in her glance,
submissive in the embrace, pleasant of smile."

' <> in the nom. case, being {j^ ) ^4 ^ ^^{jj ( lijAijx) ) under.
adj. to ^ij'-'^ under.,
= of cheerful mind and of pleasant conversation-

Sij(i.i ^-^J
l^^Js o^A^i, Jj^-' I

^^-b, and (~^^-»-'


adj. phrases to '''.

l^^^is in the nom. case, being subj. of the adj. U^»'^*.

pj-ti adj. of common gender.

/••~>^-" = l^-"^*'", her smiling; a verbal noun.

/o///o///=// / =// / //o////
" ' '
^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ,
Oh house of 'Ablah situated at Jiwaa, talk with me ahout
thosewho resided in you. Good morning to you, Oh house of

'Ablah, and be safe/rom ruin.^'

' >5 in the obj. ease, being «-J '^^ ^ <i U/o .
*^^^ a diptote, ^j'^^^jt^
. .

for *^i^
and *>^*
j name of his wife who
died soon after marriage.
tf** contracted form of a phrase of salute, =
1 ,
may your morning
be happy. Vide line 6 of Poem III.

^^-^ obj. ofj-ii*-*; or obj. of time.

. This line is another instance of ^j'^^^ '. Vide line 21, Poem I.

" halted she-camel in that place ; and it Avas as though

I my
she were a high palace; in order that I might perform the
want of the lingerer."

(!>'*•* preil. (^•^•^ ) after ly (^ .

C5-^^', aorist, v>^^ by J of J-*^-*^ .

m)j to u^_yJ t
under., i.e., the poet himself.

''And 'Ablah takes up her abode at jiwaa; while our people

at Hazan, then at Samman and at Mutathallain."
Ma I_5 {^c^ an adv. sent, of J '^ , introduced by J '•'*
'j 'j .

Also ^j=^ = ,^U'<si= rugged ground.

* '->^ ^-^^^wide part of a
pi. of valley.

/O/ 1 _ /O / //O// / // JJ r>/ /////// n /-J

"May yoQ remain long amongst the ruins, whose time is old,
and which became desolate and empty, after ilie, departure of
Patronymic name of
I t
^^H^ (*

*^ii-^ Passive, optative ( '•J;^

^ >i

Also = may you be greeted.

'^•'' the implied subj. of '^i'i'^
C^"* explanatory of ,

»^4£ I*
jlflj ^ ^y I
, and ^ I
adj. sent, s to ^^

'^J obj. of time.

9 i'L I tj:.j llJs

j_5.i£ [j..^ .-. ^s^l) ^^._JJ^jJ\ i^/j. C-JLa.

She took up her abode iu the land of mij enemies so ; ifc

became difficult for me to seek you, Oh daughter of Mahs^am."

i^ij-' 'j^ '=Lit., roarers like lions, threateners ; i.e., enemies.

Another reading (^^^5.^'*^ Ij t)-* oia^=she removed far from the place

of the visit of the lovers.

\j^c ^g^ J^^ ^jj piirase, in the obj. case, beiug pred. 0•^^) after"^-'^'^ •


V^-^ an infin., in the nom. case, being subj. to the adj. 1^*-'' .

^^i I
in the obj. case, being o '•^^ (^li
i-*^ .

Obs. *^ ^^''•' ^
the change from speaking of his mistress in
, the first

hemistich to addressing her directly in the 2ud hemistich , which is due to

strong emotions.

10 /•O*-^ cT--' "-^i-f O**'^ ^*^j •'• ^-^^j' (Ja5 1^ ly^jc i^i-Als

I was enamoured of her unawares^ at a time when I was
killiug her people, desiring her in marriage; hut by your
father's life I sivear, this was not the time for desiring."
When there was war between the two tribes, there was little use his

wishing to marry her.

Secondary obj. to the passive verb *^*^ .

^^j^ obj. of >^>J to "^^^ .

^^ 'j adv. sent, of J ^-^ , introduced by j , which = while' ;

' '
at the same
time'; or 'notwithstanding that',
in spite of that.'

'•^3 infin., in the obj. case, being J^*^'* to f*^ j under.


Another reading '-^^•'


VJJ=^ By the Lord of the Ka'ba.

J emphatic ('^•i^^^).
JO/ /J
«^** subj. to c^-*"""* pred. under.
Z'' / /// / o/
^^j'^ a noun of time (w^^j-' o^J= from f»*j)j a fit occasion; q\^^j'^

a verbal noun, = thing to be coveted or eagerly desired, as

easy to be attained.

1^^*=: accidentally or unintentionally; suddenly; at random.

" And
verily you have occupied in my heart the place of the
honoured loved one, so do not think otherwise than this, that
you are my beloved."
^^xh-is jussive, being ueg. imper., fem., sing. It has here only one obj.

The prep, {j^ in is^"" and v }?o with ^J^.

"Ly-i* a parenthetical clause (*'^y*/o Ai*;?.).


The pron. ^ refers to tlie infinitive

Jj^^-" to be gatiieretl from the sense

of the sentence
v^^ '
^-^J-^J cr^^ c:-J_>i

/o/o /^o// oz/i/j /JO/ /::// o/'' ^ / / o / /

^ r- ^ **

And how may be the visiting of her, while her people have
taken up their residence in the spring at 'Unaizatain and our
people at Ghailam ?"

"^^ (inter.), prcd. to the subj. j '>»•'


/ / ^ j/
J L/*^ '
noun of action from j 'j , Jjji •

J / /

Another reading jLr^-" '-*-!:^ = How is it possible for me to be comforted ?

^j^ji>3j -^(iv. sent, introduced l)y J'-'* ^J J •

/o/ / ;
Another reading i^-!;*-'
^-1 , or ('i •^i^J .

'"> J o/ jjj^ n z. J /s / / / o o/ o/ Oj o

*'/ fe/iei<; i/iaf you had intended departing, for, verily,

your camels were bridled on a dark night."
Here ul , may be taken either as lightened form of c; I = verily ; or as

the conditional particle ( -b^»»0^^ )

, In the latter case the sent = If you
had resolved on departure, I came to know of it, as, &c.
J /

Another reading 0-^^j- '


v'^; == camels for travelling ; pi. without sing.

Another instance of ^^^^ ', turning from 3rd to the 2nd person, and
BO also vice versa in the next line.

O O - /
^j/ /_ /O/ /O/j/j/.. ///

" mc fear of her departure, except that the

Nothing caused

baggage camels of her people were eating tlie seeds of tlie

Khimkhim tree throughout the country."

He knew that her tribe would have to move on, as there was no forage
left for their camels.

•^-•j obj. of place ( /-?:» J^*^* ).

^-•i &c., adj. sent, to ^h*=^ .

species of thorny shrub, given

to camels to esit only when other
forage is not procurable-

Another reading (*^

15 (^s^ il I
y l>.J h} ^^^ I I
^^-' .• •
*-!^^^ C-^*0 'j W ^^ '

''Amongst them were two and forty milk-giving camels;,

black as the wing-feathers of black crows."
Black camels are considered very valuable by the Arabs.

'«i» pred. to the subj. cJ^'^-^ '

^/ o/

*jy^ pi. of V^^^ = V^^"* ; or according to some, sing., admitting

^ of the fenlinine gen. ; in the obj. case, being _>-* to kd^'-^.) 'j ci^*^ '•

Another reading ^'y-'^ = a she-camel left to be milked.

.16 **W I Aj (i..* A1a2/o u_)<i.c .-, c^lj ^_j^i t5«>J«-^-W^«»»Jil

When she captivates you with « mouth possessing sharp^ and
white teeth, sweet as to of taste*
its place of kissing, delicious

31 noun of time, ( u''^->-' '

<-^J^ ) , obj. to_r^
3 '
(= remember,) under.

^Jj'^Ls'^ — possessed of sharp edges; ( VJL/"^ being pi. of VJ"* ) >

nf lustre; adj. to^*^ under.

Another reading f*-*^'^ t^^l-^lj

= with a sleek and delicate cheek.

*r>^ and '^i'^^ adj. to^*> .

^^slk \f^ ^jjg nom. case, being subj. to the adj. v**"* •

'^^^'* noun of place, of the 2nd conj. from <-*t* "


z,> f I / / /n 0/
Anotlicf rending (• j-^-*

""^ '
tX*-' I
V "^^ = "
pleasant to tnste We^i

after the xisual sleep of sleepers."

17* (*'yj o^^-* t:^ )[>*•" e>^ l« J .*. eioLi ^jUjtj o^iiJ UJlS'j

"As if she sees with the two eyes of a young grown up

gazelle from the deer, which is not born one of twins."

A single birth contributes more to strength^ beauty and soundlieas

of limbs.
/o / ////// o/// / / / /// z/f/

" It was as musk bag merchant

though the of a in his case
of perfumes preceded her teeth towards you from her mouth;"

syncopated form of '^-^
^ =
diffusing odour, lience a musk Ijag in ;

the obj. case, being subj. after cj'^j the pred. being "^^-^ .

^A««flj ^igQ zs ^vitli an elegant fragrance.

" Or as if it is an old wine-skin, from Azri'ut, preserved long^

Buch as the kings of Rome preserve ; "
^' ^ in the obj. case, being co-ord. to ^J
in line 18.

o -.Cj
,i I
a city in Syria, famous for its good wine.
'"* =Lit., from what, such as.

^^^ = '

foreign country, non- Arabic. Here Rdme is meant.

"Or /ler mouth is as an ungrazed meadow, whose herbage

the rain has guaranteed, in which there is but little dung; and
\vhich is not marked with the feet of animals."
He means that no one except himself has tasted the delights of her lipe.
^*^Jj in the obj. case, being co-ord. to '^j in the preceding line.

y>*'fl-* &d- adj. sent, to '"•^jj •

'^'^^ obj. to ii>*'^ .

4^x5 jN
J I JaIj adj. phrase to "^^^ >

Also = bearing no mark to attract the people lest they sliouhl pollute It.

first pure showers of every rain-cloud rained upon it,

and every puddle in it hrigJU and round like a dirham ;"


The water of the puddles in the meadow was clean.

8 in /i^^ refers to ^^^' in line 20.

^ Ci^^ &c., adj. sent, to ^'^J ) •

li^O"* &c., sent, co-ord. to '^ ^i ^ .

=;/ n/ i.^ /o// o / /

Another reading ^j^ c"?!-'^

^ >i '-^ = upon which abundantly
tooured every fixed and abundant rain.

Another reading *fiii>A.(Jii= every meadow.

Sprinkling and pouring ;
so that the water flows upon it

every evening", and is not cut off /rom itP

and '?
[intensive inf.), in the obj. case, being J '^=*^
to "^ i> ^ .

di obj. of time (^-i' Jj*^-*) to t^/?- •

sent, to * ^-' '

^j'^h(*^ adj.