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The Six Famous Theorists Franklin Bobbit (1876 – 1956)

1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956) Major Works: The Curriculum and How to Make a Curriculum.
Bobbit believes that the learning objectives, together with the Bobbitt’s book was the first to address curriculum issues. He believed
activities, should be grouped and sequenced after clarifying the that curriculum scientific and was based on the scientific method. He
believed that the role of education was important because it prepared
instructional activities and tasks. He also views curriculum as a
students for life as an adult, and it should be based on the needs of
science that emphasizes the needs of the students. This students. He also argued for cost effective education and believed that
viewpoint explains why lessons are planned and organized should show differentiation into a variety of programs; students should
depending on the needs of the students and these needs must be directed to academic and preparatory programs or vocational and
be addressed by the teachers to prepare them for adult life. terminal programs based on their individual abilities.
2. Werret Charters (1875-1952) Werret Charters (1875-1952)
Aside from emphasizing the students’ needs, he believes that Major Work: Curriculum Construction
the objectives, along with the corresponding activities, should Charters was a behavioralist and viewed education as a science. He
be aligned with the subject matter or content. For that reason, believed that education consisted of a set of goals that students
department chairpersons or course coordinators scrutinize the needed to reach. Charters believed that listing objectives based on
student needs and creating activities that corresponded with these
alignment or matching of objectives and subject matter prepared
objectives were necessary. Likewise, he validated these objectives
by the faculty members. through the use of evaluations. Charters can be credited for laying the
3. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) foundation for curriculum evaluation.
For him, the purpose of curriculum is child development, growth, William Kilpatrick (1871-1965)
and social relationship. He also introduced the use of small Major Work: Foundations of Education
group interaction, and the project method in which the teacher Kilpatrick believed education should be child centered, in which
and students plan together. Thus, it is called as the child- children provide input while the education takes on the role of a guide,
centered curriculum. as opposed to that of an authoritative figure. He believed in integrating
4. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) subject matter and that students should be enabled to direct learning
He introduced the concept of the development of the whole in accordance to their interests and environment, through their natural
senses. Kilpartrick developed the Project Method, a form of
child, the inclusion of social studies, and the importance of
progressive education, for early childhood education, believing that it
curriculum planning in advance. organized curriculum around the central theme of a subject.
5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) Harold Rugg (1886-1960)
He believes that subject matter is developed around the interest Major Work: The Child Centered School -
of the learners and their social functions. So, the curriculum is a Rugg promoted a child-centered curriculum that focused of educating
set of experiences. Learners must experience what they learn. the entire child and not just limiting one’s focus to a specific area. Rugg
6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) believed teachers should plan instruction in advance and should relate
And as to the hallmark of curriculum development as a science, instruction to the learning experiences, interests, and needs of
Ralph Tyler believes that curriculum should revolve around students. Rugg’s curriculum emphasized social studies.
the students’ needs and interests. The purpose of curriculum is Hollis Caswell (1901–1989)
Major Work: Curriculum Development
to educate the generalists and not the specialists, and the
According to Caswell, curriculum is a method by which teachers
process must involve problem solving. Likewise, subject matter correlate activities around the needs and interests of students. These
is planned in terms of imparting knowledge, skills and values activities aid in implementing instruction. He also believed that
among students. curriculum should be centered around social functions. Caswell asked
To sum it up, the famous curriculum theorists have almost seven questions: What is the curriculum? Why is there a need for
similar views. All of them believe that the curriculum should be revision? What is the function of subject matter? How does one
learner-centered – addressing the needs and interests of the organize curriculum? How does one select subject matter? And How
students. All of them have salient contributions to the does one measure the outcomes of instruction?
educational system of the world today. Ralph Tyler (1902 – 1989)
If you are an observant student, you might ask the following questions about Major Work: Basic Principles of Curriculum and
your teachers: Instruction
Why is it that we are required to do projects, solve problems, and work in Tyler deemed curriculum to be a science, placing an emphasis on
groups? organized, logical, sequential, and rational curriculum. Tyler
Why is it that our teachers are being observed in class, and their lesson plans emphasized vertical and horizontal alignment of curriculum, believing
or syllabi are checked? that subject matter should be organized in terms of knowledge skills
Why is it that all of us should take social studies, and not only the 3Rs? and values. He asked four questions concerning the goals of the
Why are the lessons being prepared in advance?
Why should we experience what we have learned?
school, the experiences needed to reach these goals, how the
Why do our teachers integrate values in our lessons? experiences are organized, and the method used to evaluate their
And why is it that the school is after our development as whole individuals (to success. Tyler also believed curriculum should be a national process
become generalists) and be ready to face life’s challenges? and should be related to instruction.

Bilbao, P. P., Lucido, P. I., Iringan, T. C., and Javier, R. B. (2008). Curriculum
development. Philippines: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.