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discuss the difficulties of defining the terms 'health' and 'disease'

Saturday, 9 June 2012


12:27 PM

Health:

Health - described as a state of physical, mental and social well being.

Difficulties arise, as different people have different standards about what is a 'healthy' level of
physical activity, application of mental ability or socialising

Health involves the effective functioning of a body, and is not just the absence of disease

Disease:

Disease - is any condition that impairs or interferes with the normal functioning of the body

By this definition, a broken toe is classified as a disease

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 1


outline how the function of genes, mitosis, cell differentiation and
specialisation assist in the maintenance of health
Saturday, 9 June 2012
12:27 PM

Genes

Genes are made up of DNA, with bases forming codons that relate to specific amino acids
Since amino acids are the functional unit of proteins such as enzymes, a gene message often
translates into a particular enzyme that controls a specific reaction

If a gene mutates, the amino acids will form different proteins, hence different enzyme reactions will
be carried out. This could lead to disease

Mitosis

Mitosis repairs body cells.


Two types of genes control this cell cycle:
○ Proto-oncogene - stimulate cell growth and cell division
○ Tumour suppressor genes - slow down or stop cell growth and cell division
If either of these genes are damaged or mutated, cancers can form due to uncontrolled cell
replication

Cell differentiation and specialisation

Multicellular organisms need specialised cells to carry out particular functions.


This allows the survival of the human body.

Specialised cells include:


○ Red blood cells
○ White blood cells
○ Neurons
○ Muscle cells
○ Bone
○ Epithelium

EXAM STYLE QUESTION


1. Outline how mitosis and cell differentiation assists in the maintenance of health
- Mitosis repairs body cells, and if either proto-oncogene or tumour suppressor genes are damaged or
mutated in this process, the resulting daughter cells can form cancers due to the uncontrolled cell
replication
- Cell Differentiation specialises cells to carry out particular functions (eg: skin cells form our skin etc),
and again, if these cells are mutated, the cell activity will mutate, too; either ceasing action entirely
or performing the wrong action

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 2


distinguish between infectious and non-infectious disease
Saturday, 9 June 2012
12:27 PM

Microscopic organisms that cause disease:


Virus - Influenza, AIDS
Bacteria - tonsillitis, tetanus
Protozoan - Giardia, malaria
Fungi - Ringworm, dandruff

Three factors that contribute to health and disease


- The host organism
- The agent of disease
- The environment

Infectious disease
Is caused by pathogens which invade the body
Infectious diseases are contagious and can often be passed from one person to another

Non-infectious disease
Non infectious disease cannot be easily passed from one person to another (except by heredity)
Is not caused by a pathogen
It can be caused by:
○ Heredity - haemophilia, Down Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis
○ Nutrition - Scurvy, Berri Berri, Tooth Decay
○ Physiological malfunction -
○ Environment - Skin Cancer, Lung Cancer, Stress, Asthma
○ Chemicals - Cancer from radiation

Transmission of Disease
Host Response
- Interpersonal variation - elderly are more prone to disease. AIDs sufferers have little resistance
- Personal Variations - people under stress may succumb to colds
- Resistance and Immunity - humans have non specific and specific defences that fight disease
- Behaviour - healthy lifestyles can prevent and reduce susceptibility to disease (better diet, exercise). By participating in screening
processes, we can reduce severity of disease (early detection of melanoma)

The Agent of Disease


- Specificity - most infective agents affect only one species
- Infective Dose - sufficient quantity to cause disease
- Effect on Host - pathogens stimulate immune response, including increased white blood cell production

The Environment
- Standards of Housing - water supply, sewage and air pollution can contribute to disease
- Many infective agents are spread easily in crowded, unhygienic conditions

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explain why cleanliness in food, water and personal hygiene
practices assist in the control of disease
Saturday, 9 June 2012
12:27 PM

Infectious disease is caused by pathogens


Maintained cleanliness prevent pathogens from entering the body and multiplying
Transmission of disease can also be prevented though cleanliness

Examples include
○ Washing hands before eating or preparing food
○ Effective sewerage treatments
○ Providing uncontaminated water
○ Avoid coughing near food
○ Cover hair and open sores when preparing food

Treatment of Water supplies


- Water sits in reservoirs for long period of time. This allows for microbes to settle to the bottom
- Water is filtered to remove any remaining suspended solids
- Water is chlorinated to kill all remaining microbes

Food
- Processing and preparation reduces the rick of contamination
- Contamination could be by poisonous chemicals or pathogens
- Cleanliness is achieved by use of fresh and properly stored food - this helps ensure maximum
nutirtional vale of the food

Personal Hygiene
- Washing hands prior to eating and when coughing or sneezing reduces spread of pathogens from
person to person, and object to person
- Washing body and brushing teeth prevents the build up of decay and certain bacteria that could
cause disease

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identify the conditions under which an organism is described as a
pathogen
Saturday, 9 June 2012
12:27 PM

When is a Microbe a Pathogen?


Any organism is considered a pathogen if it causes disease
A wide range of organisms can be pathogenic:
○ Prions
○ Viruses
○ Bacteria
○ Protozoans
○ Fungi
○ Worms
○ Insects

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 5


describe the contribution of Pasteur and Koch to our
understanding of infectious diseases
Saturday, 9 June 2012
12:25 PM

Pasteur
○ Established the germ theory of disease through experiments with wine fermentation
○ Hypothesised that infectious disease were caused by microbes
○ His experiment disproved spontaneous generation
○ He proved that decay was caused by air-borne microbes, not just contact with air
○ He stimulated scientists to start looking for microbes that were causing disease

Koch
○ Followed up on Pasteur's work
○ He isolated bacterium responsible for anthrax
○ He improved technologies: described techniques of fixing, staining and photographing bacteria
○ He developed a general system for identifying a pathogen: "Koch's Postulates"

Koch's Postulates:
1. The organism believed to be the cause of disease must always be present when the disease occurs
2. The organism must be isolated from the host and grown in pure culture
3. Organisms form the pure culture, when inoculated into healthy suitable hosts, must produce the
disease
4. The organism must be re-isolated, grown in pure culture and compared with the organism first
injected

Koch's Postulates Simplified:


5. Disease must be present in infected host
6. Disease isolated in pure culture
7. Disease put in healthy organisms - must then produce the disease
8. Disease is re isolated and compared with original organism

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distinguish between:
Saturday, 9 June 2012
12:25 PM

Type of Description Example Disease caused


pathogen
Prion - Tiny particle made of protein Usually named by the Diseases of the
- Abnormal form of a protein needed within organism disease they cause Brain:
- Scrapie
- Mad cow
- Kuru
- CFJ
Virus - A small particle containing RNA or DNA inside protein Viruses are often named by - Influenza
coat the disease they cause: - Smallpox
- It is only able to reproduce inside living cells - Influenza virus - Polio
- Smallpox virus
- Polio virus
Bacterium - A single-living prokaryotic cell - Corynebacterium diphtheriae - Diptheria
- Clostridium tetani - Tetanus
- Staphylococcus - Golden staph
blood poisoning
Protozoan - A single-living eukaryotic animal-like cell - Plasmodium - Malaria
Fungus - A eukaryotic non photosynthetic cell with cell walls, that - Candida albicans - Thrush
may be single-living or form more complex structures - Microsporum - Athletes foot
(tinea)
Macro - A variety of animals including worms and insects that can - Tapeworm - Tapeworm
parasite cause disease - Head louse infestation
- Head lice
infestation

and name one example of a disease caused by each type of pathogen

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 7


identify the role of antibiotics in the management of infectious
disease
Saturday, 9 June 2012
12:26 PM

Identify the role of antibiotics in the management of infectious disease


- Antibiotics kill or prevent bacteria from growing
- Antibiotics disrupt bacterial cell formation
- Different antibiotics affect bacterial processes in different ways

- Example: penicillin disrupts cell wall structure in bacteria, so these cells cannot replicate
- Antibiotics only treat bacterial infections - they have no affect on viruses

- Antimalarials treat malaria


- Antiviral treat Viruses
- Antibiotics treat bacteria

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 8


identify defence barriers to prevent entry of pathogens in
humans:
Thursday, 14 June 2012
6:08 PM

Skin:
- Physical barrier to pathogens
- Aided by sebum and sweat which flush away slow growth of bacteria and fungi

Mucus:
- Produced by mucous membranes
- Membranes are sticky and traps the microbes
- Respiratory surfaces lined with mucous membranes

Cilia:
- Are hair like structures that line air passageways
- Tarp and sweep away inhaled bacteria in respiratory tract

Acid Secretions: (chemical barriers)


- In the stomach, destroys most ingested pathogens
- In urine, which is sterile and acidic, flushes urinary tract and helps prevent growth of microbes

Saliva, tears, nasal secretions and sweat:


- All contain lysozymes, an enzyme which breaks down cell walls of some bacteria

Other:
- Oil glands on skin secrete fatty acids that inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi

Body's Defence against Disease


Non-specific (act against any Pathogen)

1. Natural Barriers:
- Physical - un broken skin
- Entrapment - mucus
- Chemical - stomach acid, sweat, lysozymes

2. Second Line of Defence


- Phagocytosis
- Inflammation
- Cell death of seal of pathogen
- Lymph system

3. Third line of Defence - Immune Response


Specific - acts against a specific pathogen
Involves:
- Specialised white blood cells (B and T lymphocytes)

B Lymphocytes are:
- B Cells - when activated in response to an antigen they produce 2 types of cells:
○ Plasma cells - produce antibodies (proteins) which inactivate the antigen
○ Memory B cells - which remain in body and respond to future infection by same antigen

EXAM STYLE QUESTION

4. Identify one chemical barrier which prevents pathogens from entering the body and state how
this barrier carries out this function

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this barrier carries out this function

- Stomach acid - a lower pH level is acidic, and kills pathogens entering the body

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identify antigens as molecules that trigger the immune response.
Thursday, 14 June 2012
6:17 PM

Identify Antigens as Molecules that Trigger the Immune Response


- The immune response is triggered when foreign molecules enter living tissue
- Antigens are molecules in the outer coating of microbes and protein debris from other organisms
(and foreign molecule: virus, bacteria, prions, fungi, macro parasites)
- The body will recognise these antigens, and start producing antibodies
- Each pathogen is specific to its own antigen
- An antibody protein binds with an antigen to destroy it

Example:
- Antigens in the outer coating of bacterium will stimulate the immune system response
- The body will produce antibodies, which will immediately destroy the bacterium, or make it easier
for a macrophage to engulf it

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 11


explain why organ transplants should trigger an immune response
Thursday, 14 June 2012
6:29 PM

Organ Transplants:
- Antibody-antigen responses results in rejection of transplanted tissue (hearts, livers, lungs etc)
- The transplant tissue is identified by the body to be foreign and this triggers an immune response
- Antibodies are produced to attack the transplanted tissue
- Nowadays more successful than in pioneering attempts
- New drugs are used to counteract the body's automatic immune response

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 12


identify defence adaptations, including:
Thursday, 14 June 2012
6:31 PM

Inflammation response
- Areas become hot, red, swollen and painful
- Damaged tissues will initiate a localised inflammatory response
- Damaged tissues releases histamines, chemicals that increase dilation of blood vessels
- Increase in blood circulation results
- Histamines cause leakage of blood vessel walls so that white blood cells (eg phagocytes) can
penetrate the affected area and kill any pathogens

Phagocytosis
- White blood cells called phagocytes move through blood capillary walls to the affected and release
more histamines
- Phagocytes will actively engulf or surround the invader
- Neutrophilsm the most obvious within the first few hours
- Monocytes will circulate after a few hours, and phagocytose foreign material
- White blood cells that destroy foreign objects will accumulate later as dead phagocyte cells to form
pus

Simplified
- Phagocytosis is carried out by specialised white blood cells called Phagocytes ("eating cells")
- These phagocytes include macrophages and neutrophils

Lymph system
- At 2nd line of defence, lymph nodes filter out foreign bodies like harmful bacteria
- Fluid from lymph nodes is then filtered by the lymph system from the body

Cell death to seal of pathogen


- The body will try to contain or seal off a foreign antigen from the rest of the body so the invader
doesn't harm the host
- It is a chronic inflammatory response characterised by
○ the presence of macrophages and lymphocytes
○ the formation of a tough wall of tissue that encloses the pathogen to form a granuloma
- The macrophages and lymphocytes completely surround the invader and eventually die, but the
pathogen also dies, because it is fenced off from food supply
- Example: TB often affects patients by forming granulomas in their lungs. Bacilli are fenced off to
prevent further infection and to stop them harming the host

Granuloma - a collection of modified macrophages

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identify components of the immune response
Thursday, 14 June 2012
7:05 PM

1. Third line of Defence - Immune Response


Specific - acts against a specific pathogen
Involves:
- Specialised white blood cells (B and T lymphocytes)

B Lymphocytes are:
- B Cells - when activated in response to an antigen they produce 2 types of cells:
○ Plasma cells - produce antibodies (proteins) which inactivate the antigen
○ Memory B cells - which remain in body and respond to future infection by same antigen

Antibodies
- are proteins found in blood plasma that can combine with and neutralise an antigen
- They are highly specific for the antigen that stimulated their synthesis and release
- They can react with an antigen in a number of ways
○ The antibody combines with antigen to cover its active site, so has no effect in the body
○ The antibody may dissolve parts of the cell walls of bacteria, destroying them
○ The antibody neutralises the toxins produced by the antigen
○ The antibody may cause bacteria to clump together, making the bacteria less active and more
easily taken up by the lymph system
○ The antibody may make the antigen more susceptible to the phagocytosis

T Cells
- Mature in thymus
- Are the lymphocytes that destroy antigens themselves
- T cells do not produce antibody producing plasma cells
- When the antigen enters the body, T cells themselves secrete substances that either
○ Directly destroy the antigen
○ Stimulate the activity of phagocytes
- Produce memory cells - rapid response to future infection

B Cells
- Mature in Bone Marrow
- Are the lymphocytes that are stimulated to produce plasma cells
- The presence of antigen molecules stimulates the lymphocyte cells which begin to divide and
produce plasma cells, which make antibodies
- B cells accumulate in the spleen and lymph nodes and do not circulate
- Produce memory cells - rapid response to future infection

CLASS NOTES:

T cells:
- Helper T cells (T4 cells)
○ Activate B cells (to produce antibodies) and T cells in response to antigens
- Cytotoxic (killer) T cells
○ Produce chemicals that destroy antigens and attract phagocytes
- Memory T cells
○ Remain in the body and confer long term immunity
- Suppressor T cells
○ Suppress the immune response once infection is controlled
○ Reduce antibody production and output of chemicals from cytotoxic cells

Antigen

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Antigen
- Any foreign substance that enters the blood stream and stimulates the immune response (activates
B and T lymphocytes)
- A pathogen is a type of antigen

EXAM STYLE QUESTION:

2. Outline the role of TWO types of B Lymphocytes and THREE types of T-Lymphocytes in the
immune response

Killer T Cells ○ Produce chemicals that destroy antigens and attract phagocytes
Helper T Cells ○ Activate B cells (to produce antibodies) and T cells in response to antigens
Suppressor T Cells ○ Suppress the immune response once infection is controlled
○ Reduce antibody production and output of chemicals from cytotoxic cells
Memory T Cells ○ Remain in the body and confer long term immunity
Plasma B Cells ○ produce antibodies (proteins) which inactivate the antigen
Memory B Cells ○ which remain in body and respond to future infection by same antigen

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 15


describe and explain the immune response in the human body in
terms of:
Thursday, 14 June 2012
7:18 PM

Interaction between B and T lymphocytes


- T cells influence and help B cells
- B cells can prevent T cells from replicating and acting
- B cells can kill T cells and vice versa
- A B cell can concentrate antigens by collecting lots of them over the cells surface. These antigens,
presented to T cells, can stimulate a T cell response
- T cells can pass an antigen between cells, so that many T cells can quickly become involve with B
cells in a response to an antigen

The mechanism that allows interaction between B and T lymphocytes


Mechanism 1:
- The T cell produces a soluble factor after interaction with an antigen
- The B cell reacts with the soluble factor and the specific antigen to become a functional antibody -
producing cell

Mechanism 2:
- Is based on cell contact between the T cell and B cell
- Close contact comes about because of interaction with the antigen
- This contact allows the T cell to signal the B cell to become a functional antibody-producing cell

The range of T lymphocytes and the difference in their roles


- Exposure to an antigen makes the particular responding T cell differentiate into a range of T
lymphocytes. These include:
○ Killer T cells - secrete substances that destroy antigens directly, enhance the activity of
macrophages and inhibit replication of viruses
○ Helper T cells - enhance antibody production by B cells. HIV infects T4 + cells (T helper cells).
Chronic infection with HIV leads to a decrease in the number of T4 + cells. Stimulates cloning
of B and T cells
○ Suppressor T cells - stop the reaction when the antigen is destroyed

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 16


outline the way in which vaccinations prevent infection
Tuesday, 4 September 2012
1:44 PM

Vaccination
- To inoculate an organisms to cause them to develop immunity to a disease 1. Vaccines acts as an antigen
- The vaccine contains antigens that trigger the production of antibodies and memory B and T cells in the ↓
organism 2. Stimulates immune response
- Vaccinations only apply to infectious diseases, and not non infectious: there must be a foreign antigen ↓
from a pathogen to develop antibodies against 3. Plasma and memory cells are produced

Immunisation 4. Antibodies can be produced rapidly of the pathogen
- Is the process which stimulates the immune system to produce lymphocytes or antibodies to fight strikes again
infection, giving immunity to that disease

How Vaccinations Prevent Infection:


- The vaccine acts as an antigen which induces the immune response
- Plasma cells and memory cells are produced
- The vaccine does NOT cause the disease, so the plasma cells are left unneeded
- The memory cells are important, however, as they give the body immunological memory for a particular
pathogen
- If that pathogen enters the body, the circulatory memory cells can respond very quickly, so that the
person does not suffer from the disease
- Because the number of memory cells can decrease over time, booster injections are needed to maintain
immunity

Effectiveness of Vaccination
- A series of vaccinisations must occur over a period of years
- Each produces a small response to the vaccine and given in a series, these small responses teach
lymphocytes to rapidly recognise the antigen in the vaccine and to produce memory B and T cells that
give prolonged immunity
- Each vaccine contains a particular antigen related to a particular pathogen
- Some vaccinations can wear off with age, because re-exposure to the antigen is often needed to prompt
production of memory B and T cells

Vaccination Programs
- Protect people against a wide range of infectious diseases, including:
○ Polio
○ Diphtheria
○ Tetanus
○ Measles
○ Mumps
○ Rubella
○ Hep B
○ Meningococcal disease

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 17


outline the reasons for the suppression of the immune response in
organ transplant patients
Tuesday, 4 September 2012
1:44 PM

Acquired Immunity
- Tissue organs form other organisms are treated by the body as foreign and they are destroyed and
removed

Treatment (Tissue typing)


- To reduce the activity of T cells, doctors select tissue and organs for transplant that are chemically
similar to the tissue in the receiving patient - this is called tissue typing
- Matching tissue is less likely to be target by T cells
- Tissue typing reduces destruction of transplants by B cells, too

Drugs
- Drugs that suppress the immune response are given to transplant patients
- Large doses are needed initially, but over time the immune response lessens
- However, these drugs do not simply stop rejection of the transplanted tissue or organ - they also
reduce the body's ability to respond to other antigens

Immunosuppressant
- Reduces the immune response
- Increases the risk that a patient may suffer from infections

Example: Kidney Transplant


- Has protein on cell surface (antigen)
- Recipients immune system recognizes these antigens as foreign to the body
- Immune Response is activated
- Antibodies are produced to attack donated organ
- Rejection of organ

Solution: Drugs
- Drugs called immunosuppressant's are given to the patient to suppress the immune response

Risk:
- Even a mild infection could cause serious illness or death
- Once immune system is suppressed, the patient is more susceptible to other infections like
pneumonia

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 18


identify and describe the main features of epidemiology using lung
cancer as an example
Tuesday, 4 September 2012
1:45 PM

Epidemiology
- Investigates the cause and effect of disease
- Describes patterns and causes of diseases in populations
- Done by collecting and statistically analysing information and data

Epidemiological Studies include:


- Descriptive studies - showing patterns of distribution within population
- Analytical studies - to test specific hypotheses
- Intervention studies - like clinical trials to test a new drug

To be valid, the studies must:


- Focus on a large population, rather than an individual - this allows statistics to be used to identify
trends and possible causation factors
- Use population where there is the occurrence of the disease, and where there are UNEQUAL
exposure to suspected cause
- Allow for analysis of factors which may contribute to disease: age, sex, ethnic group, occupation etc

Example: Smoking and Lung Cancer


- Is an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells that spread throughout the lungs
- Cancer cells are less differentiated and have uncontrolled reproduction rates

Cause and Effect Relationship of Lung Cancer and Smoking


- Epidemiology studies helped identify the risk factors that could lead to lung cancer
- Lung cancer is not cause by only one factor, so epidemiologists had to research:
○ Lifestyle
○ Environmental factors
○ Genetic history of people of those suffering lung cancer

Data
- Comes from statistical analysis, and described as percentages (eg: 83% of lung cancers are
associated with smoking)
- Conclusion by epidemiologists cannot predict each individuals fate, but only give a broad
generalisation about population
- Studies have shown that passive smoking can also lead to lung cancer
- As a result, smoke free zones in the workplace has been instilled to maintain a healthy environment
for employees

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identify causes of non-infectious disease using an example from
each of the following categories:
Tuesday, 4 September 2012
1:45 PM

Inherited Diseases- Down Syndrome


Causes:
- Inheritance of 1 extra chromosome
Symptoms include:
○ Mild to severe mental retardation
○ Small flat nose, epicanthic eye fold, short neck and limbs
○ Sometimes heart or intestinal abnormalities
Treatment:
- No treatment
- Early intervention of special education, speech and physiotherapy
Control
- Amniocentesis or CVS
- Possible therapeutic abortion
- Genetic counselling
- Community awareness of increased risk to older women
Occurrence
- 1 in 800 live births
- Risk greatly increases in mothers over 35

Nutritional Deficiencies - Scurvy


Causes:
- Lack or deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the diet
Symptoms:
○ Fragile capillaries
○ Bleeding and bruising, swelling
○ Swollen diseases gums, loss of teeth
○ Failure of wounds to heal
○ Death without treatment
Treatment and Control
- Vitamin C in diet especially citrus fruits, green vegetables
Occurrence:
- In people lacking fresh fruit and vegetables in the diet
- Deficiency of vitamin C
- Incidence low in well developed countries today, but the disease accounted fro death of many
sailors on long sea voyages in 18th Century
- Example: 2/3 of sailors on a 4 year voyage were affected

Environmental Diseases - Lead Poisoning


Causes:
- Accumulation of lead, a heavy metal, in body tissue
Symptoms:
○ Metallic taste in mouth
○ Nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea
○ Delirium paralysis
○ Coma
○ Death (severe)
Control
- Monitoring lead levels of people at risk (blood testing)
- Reducing lead levels in environment eg: by use of unleaded petrol and lead free paint
- Wearing protective clothing when handling products which may contain lead
- Educating public about risks

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- Educating public about risks
Occurrence:
- Increase in incidence of low level lead poisoning since early 1900's
- Related to increase in our use of and exposure to leaded products eg: food, paints, pesticides, lead-
polluted air, water and soil

Search For Better Health - Theory Page 21


discuss the role of quarantine in preventing the spread of disease
and plants and animals into Australia and across regions of
Australia.
Tuesday, 4 September 2012
1:46 PM

Quarantine
- Is the isolation of a diseased organism to prevent the spreading of that disease

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS)


- acts to keep Australia free of foreign disease to prevent the spread of disease of plants and animals
across states
- It also keeps out exotic species that will multiply and outcompete native species
- Their role is to:
○ Protect Australian agriculture production, consumers and environment
○ Protect human health and the health of Australian flora and fauna
○ Keep worldwide market access for Australian exports
Border Control
- Involves the checking of all mail and cargo (by air and sea) into Australia as well as any plant or
animal products, animals or international travellers
Checkpoints
- At particular areas within states or at state borders also control the spread of disease
- Animals and plants coming in from overseas are quarantined through isolation, so they can be
examined for periods of time
- The isolating of humans is also needed for individuals diagnosed with serious diseases like avian flu

Quarantine Regulations
- Are imposed by governments to restrict the spread of infectious diseases and invasive organisms
- They are most often applied to goods like plants and animals, food and products made from plant or
animal material when they enter a country
○ Example: animals that are brought into Australia are held in quarantine stations for varying
periods to make sure that they do not introduce diseases that do not exist in Australia, like
rabies
○ Example: It is illegal to import apples into Australia from New Zealand because they may carry
a disease called fire blight

Quarantine regulations within Australia:


○ Example: there are sugar cane borders in the far north of NSW and only authorised, inspected
cane may be taken from one side to the other. This prevents the spread of disease form one
cane growing area to another
○ Example: near the QLD NSW border, there are checks where travellers are not allowed to
bring fruit and potentially fruit flies into the south

Quarantine and Humans:


- Children with infectious diseases like nits and chicken pox are not allowed to attend school until they
are no longer contagious

Effectiveness of Quarantine
- Quarantine is effective for diseases that are:
○ not highly infectious (eg: leprosy)
○ Develop fairly quickly (eg: measles)
○ Or have severe, easily diagnosed symptoms (cholera)
- Quarantine is not very effective for:
Diseases which are highly infectious (eg: influenza), because these can be spread before the

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○ Diseases which are highly infectious (eg: influenza), because these can be spread before the
infection is recognised

Limits of Quarantine:
- Quarantine has also had limited success in stopping the spread of diseases such as bovine
spongiform encephalitis (mad cow disease) because this disease develops very slowly
- However, current bans on meat from countries with the disease may have some long term effect

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explain how one of the following strategies has controlled and/or
prevented disease:
Tuesday, 4 September 2012
1:46 PM

Strategies include:
- Public health programs
- Use of pesticides (insect vectors)
- Biological control (agriculture, insect pests)
- Genetic engineering

Public Health Programs


- 3 targets
○ The pathogen
○ The host
○ The environment
- Pathogen:
○ Sterilisation procedures
○ Guidelines for health workers
○ laws regarding notifiable diseases
○ Laws requiring quarantine or isolation
- Host:
○ Public education (Eg: "Quit for Life"; diet and exercise information)
○ Vaccination
○ Screening programs for detection of TB, cancer, high blood pressure
- Environment:
○ Water and air quality monitoring
○ Domestic sanitation
○ Sewerage
○ Medical and hospital facilities
○ Quarantine
○ Good ventilation
○ Occupational Health and Safety standards

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