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TAKING

THE LOW-CARBON
LEAP
LIVEABILITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY

WWW.RAMBOLL.COM
Cover: Copenhagen has improved conditions for bikers
tremendously. Ramboll helped create data collection points along
bike paths to make so-called green waves, where a series of traffic
lights are coordinated to allow a continuous traffic flow for cyclists.
This is one among many elements that have led to the fact that
there are now more bikes than cars in Copenhagen.
Image: © Igor Stojakovic | Dreamstime.com

CONTENT

Supporting the leap to a low-carbon society  4


Affordable, reliable energy for everyone  8
More renewables 12
Balancing the use of resources  14
Sustainable and liveable structures 16
Making mobility greener  20
From silo mentality to holistic masterplanning  22

Contact 26

Ramboll is a leading engineering, design and consultancy


company employing 13,000 experts. Our presence is global with
especially strong representation in the Nordics, UK, North America,
Continental Europe, Middle East and Asia Pacific. We constantly
strive to achieve inspiring and exacting solutions that make a
genuine difference to our clients, end-users and society at large.
www.ramboll.com
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 3

THE JOURNEY
HAS JUST BEGUN

Leading up to the Paris negotiations, 186 countries shared


IN THE TRANSITION TO THE NEW CLIMATE
their national action plans. More than 400 cities set targets ECONOMY, THE FOLLOWING RAMBOLL
that could cut urban emissions in half. More than 114 leading BUSINESS UNITS CONTRIBUTE TO THESE AREAS
companies declared that they will use science-based targets
to set emissions-cutting goals. 20 countries committed Page 8
to double clean energy R&D spending. And a new global Affordable, reliable energy for everyone
Buildings
alliance was established with the goal of mobilising USD 1
Planning & Urban Design
trillion for investments in solar energy. 10,000 new climate Water
initiatives were launched. Energy
Oil & Gas
Now the Paris agreement has been ratified by all Management Consulting

197 countries, and although Paris was a tipping point, the Page 12
COP22 in Marrakesh, Morocco will be the first conference More renewables
that details how to keep the rise of temperatures “well Water
below” two degrees Celsius. The journey has just begun, Energy
Oil & Gas
and it is crucial to ensure traction, pace and the long-term
sustainability of the green transition. Page 14
Balancing the use of resources
As a sustainable society consultant, Ramboll contributes Buildings
to this movement. Transport
Water
Environment & Health
Energy
Oil & Gas
Management Consulting

Page 16
Sustainable and liveable structures
Buildings
Water
Environment & Health
Oil & Gas
Management Consulting

Page 20
Making mobility greener
Buildings
Transport
Planning & Urban Design
Environment & Health

Page 22
From silo mentality to holistic masterplanning
Planning & Urban Design
Water
Environment & Health
Oil & Gas
Management Consulting
4 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

SUPPORTING
THE LEAP TO A
LOW-CARBON
SOCIETY
If we continue on this current high-carbon economic path, the
world will need to invest more than USD 90 trillion in infrastructure.
But the cost of converting our energy, transport and water to fit a
low-carbon economy will be lower – and it will make our economy
cleaner, more efficient, and more productive.

With the Paris Agreement on climate cost-benefit analyses clearly indicate


NECESSARY QUESTIONS change and the UN Sustainable that transition to a low-carbon
ON THE JOURNEY
Development Goals, we have broad economy pays off in the long term.
How do we grow the economy and
consensus by states, cities, utilities
maintain economic resilience?
and businesses that we want a low- Thus, governments, cities and
How do we finance the needed carbon society and everyone must companies around the world are
investments without compromising contribute to it. The trick is to solve increasingly focusing on how we
living standards along the way -
three challenges at the same time. tackle issues around climate change,
especially when financing is an issue
that will involve both the availability so that we are not just reactive but
of sustainable energy solutions and Transition to a low-carbon actually benefitting from a new
simultaneously stimulate responsible society pays off climate economy.
growth in the developing world? The UN projects global population
growth of more than 2.5 billion by The Global Commission on the
And how do we accelerate the
development of game-changing solutions 2050, and other forecasts predict Economy and Climate estimates
and technologies required to support 3 billion more people to aspire – that if we continue on this current
both growth and green transition? understandably – to the standard of high-carbon economic path, the
living enjoyed in Western economies. world will need to invest more than
With a business-as-usual scenario, we USD 90 trillion in infrastructure.
would have to dramatically increase But the cost of converting our
the amount of resources annually energy, transport and water to fit
extracted – the consequence being a low-carbon economy will not be
extra pressure on land, water and much higher. It would also make our
energy usage. economy cleaner, more efficient, and
more productive, and it would reduce
To keep global warming well below the enormous costs of adapting to
two degrees Celsius – as promised climate change. All in all, the costs
by countries all over the world in the can be lower.
Cop21-Paris Agreement from 2015 –
we need to invest at least The challenge is that while
USD 13.5 trillion in energy efficiency the global business case for action
and low-carbon technologies before is good, the need for upfront
2030, according to the International investments may land in sectors,
Energy Agency. countries or regions unable or
unwilling to carry this burden.
Benefitting from
a new climate economy This means we have to act smart
Who and how should we pay for all and innovative in order to reach
this? For some time, the economic economic, environmental and social
crisis has slowed down investment sustainability. It is the only way that
in efficient energy systems, more the three challenges can be turned
sustainable consumption and into one big opportunity.
production patterns etc. But
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 5

Copenhill delivers high-efficient energy


Amager Resource Centre will be one of the most efficient waste-to-energy facilities in the world.
As the Owner’s Engineer, Ramboll has assisted in the planning and implementation of the EUR 469
million facility, which will produce 20% more energy per tonne of waste, compared to the existing plant.

The multi-functional waste-to-energy facility in Copenhagen raises the bar for resource optimisation
with an energy efficiency of 107% and high potential for recycling and recovery.

The 440,000 tpa facility will be fully integrated into the urban setting, surrounded by high-end flats,
and will feature recreational facilities on the roof. Visualisation: Amager Resource Centre.
6 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

RAMBOLL’S LOW-CARBON
SOCIETY APPROACH
The low-carbon society approach encompasses three
elements. These can be used to facilitate sustainable
growth while increasing liveability and quality of life.

FOR ALL ACTORS


For all actors; not just
industries and governments,
but cities and people too.

ON ALL LEVELS WITH ALL BENEFITS


This means engagement at all Only if you include the
levels of the planning process, added value potentials,
and paying equal attention to the solutions will be truly
Responsible Sustainable structures
each stage of planning. use of resources sustainable.

More renewables Green mobility

Affordable energy Holistic planning

LOW-CARBON SOCIETY

The Ramboll low-carbon appproach of activity planning and adjusting. If these human elements. Only if you
Ramboll’s experience is that if it is one of these levels is not considered are smart enough to identify and
done right, it is possible to facilitate or involved, it is particularly include the added value-potentials,
sustainable growth while increasing challenging to achieve the desired then the solutions will be truly
liveability and quality of life. outcome. This applies to the public as sustainable, environmentally, socially
well as the private sector. and economically.
We aim to make solutions that do not
just solve one problem, but also make For all actors. When addressing an We help clients in a number of
life better in other ways. The Danish issue, it is necessary to involve all specific areas that can all contribute
capital Copenhagen and other cities stakeholders early in the process, to reducing emission levels. These six
with the ambition to become CO2- and establish a common ground for areas are energy, enabling resource
neutral do not only focus on creating working towards the same outcome. optimisation, responsible use of
a climate-resilient urban environment. It is not enough to work with an resources, sustainable and liveable
The ambition is to attract people, industry or government, but consider structures, green mobility, and
capital and growth by providing all stakeholders. Within a city, which planning resilient frameworks.
climate change solutions which neighbourhoods will be affected,
improve liveability. and within those neighbourhoods, While the local context of any
which influencers will be important to particular project is unique, and
To optimise solutions, though, it is involve? Ownership is an important determines the point of departure,
necessary to consider the following component of actor involvement, and the ambition and the end result, all
three elements – and the interaction of successful completion. of these areas are part of our client’s
between them - in all planned contributions to a low-carbon society.
initiatives: With all benefits. Plan for people, and
consider what is important for them. On the coming pages you can read
On all levels. This means involvement Climate change in itself is a label, but about our approach and some of the
at all levels of the planning process: people, at a personal level, are not holistic, value adding, low-carbon
the long-term, strategic level of concerned about climate change. projects that Ramboll has supported.
planning, the tactical, step-by-step They are worried about being safe,
detailing of actions needed to reach warm, happy, healthy, so use this as
the objective and the operational level your laser focus – and think of low
carbon as the long-term enabler for
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 7

A LOW-CARBON
ECONOMY IS
A LONG-TERM,
PROFITABLE
CHOICE
8 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

AFFORDABLE,
RELIABLE ENERGY
FOR EVERYONE
85% of the world’s energy consumption comes from fossil-
fuelled power plants. However, this balance is challenged
by a growing need for more and greener energy. This
calls for an improvement of the energy infrastructure, the
energy efficiency and a change in the choices of fuel.

The energy mix is in transition all entirely on the point of departure and
FOSSIL-FREE IN 2050 over the world. In choosing the right the specifics of the place in question.
The “Climate and Energy Strategy for sources and investments for the
Oslo” describes how the city can cut
future, every country has to take Improving energy
its fossil fuel emissions in half by 2030
and become fossil-free in 2050. many different factors into account. efficiency with district energy
Not only environmental, but also District energy is a good example
Ramboll has helped the Municipality economical and security factors of an approach that can be adapted
of Oslo to develop the strategy which
concerning energy systems. in almost every country in the
will act as a road map for how the city
will accomplish its green change. world – but the technology must be
Prices of renewables are coming customised to local conditions.
down fast, and in some parts of the
world the transition to solar, wind In cities, people have the same
and other cleaner sources can be energy needs at the same time, so it
achieved quickly because a country makes economic and environmental
has the economic resources to sense to look at energy supply on
invest and can employ the necessary a much larger scale. The density of
logistics. a city enables thermal energy to be
produced and stored centrally and
Enabling a society then distributed throughout the city
with more renewables via city energy grids.
In other countries, renewables cannot
be brought into the energy mix fast In Copenhagen, 98% of the heat
enough to reduce the country’s comes from the district heating grid,
dependence on highly pollutant where Combined Heat and Power
and potentially insecure sources. plants use the surplus heat from
Here, lack of access to energy can electricity production as heating for
sometimes hinder the progress in homes and offices – instead of just
education which will eventually lead releasing it out in the sea as is the
to a society with more renewables. case in many other countries.
Having access to natural gas may be
a huge step forward compared to The main advantages are higher
burning plastic indoors in households. energy efficiency, cheaper and more
reliable energy for the citizens – and
Ramboll provides tailor-made, holistic a higher probability of meeting
solutions all over the world. We climate goals for the decision
know that the best way to provide makers. That is partly because of the
affordable, reliable, secure, technically high energy source flexibility: One
feasible and low-carbon energy example is the Avedøre Plant just
to citizens differs from country to outside Copenhagen, which delivers
country, from town to town and from heating to the grid, and where coal is
company to company. The right being replaced by biomass. Another
low-carbon energy solution depends example is the fact that a growing
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 9

District Cooling on all scales


A centralised cooling system is easy to install and cheaper and more efficient than individual chillers – in colder
as well as in warmer climates. Underneath the new Copenhagen neighbourhood Carlsberg City lie two enormous
storage tanks, each holding 2 million litres of water storage capacity for energy-efficient – and economically
sound – district cooling for 300,000 m2 of office buildings. District cooling does not require a big piping system
running from a power plant to the area where the cooling is used – as district heating usually does. All it takes is a
storage tank, that is easy to install and can be used in small areas, for example with a tank just three storeys high.
Visualisation: Luxigon.
10 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

percentage of the city’s district Europe is more flexible, has a reduced sources, fossil fuel production will
heating comes from waste-to-energy risk of leakages, a higher degree of go on for decades; in Ramboll we
plants. efficiency, and better possibilities of know how to reduce the carbon
integrating renewable energy. footprint from it. One of the best
Other cities are discovering the Ramboll is already conducting a examples is hydrocarbon emissions
advantages. In London, Ramboll renewable energy study for the Ivy from platforms and refineries, where
is partner in a pioneering project League University Dartmouth to help the industry is looking for more
that will use the waste heat from the old New Hampshire institution environment-friendly solutions. The
the London Underground to reach its sustainability goals. The concept of flare gas recovery is quite
produce district heating. A report University uses oil today, but after simple; zero-flaring systems reduce
commissioned by the Greater London the conversion it can also use solar, CO2 emissions from the platform and
Authorities has found that enough biomass and other renewables, and increase the production of export
heat is wasted in London to meet 70% this part of the green transition sales gas.
of the city’s heating needs. Capturing means CO2 reductions of up to 80%.
this heat and delivering it to the heat Ramboll has completed the design
network would dramatically improve At MIT (Massachusetts Institute of of a flare gas recovery system for
fuel bills, fuel poverty, fuel security Technology) we are hired to design the North Sea platform, South Arne
and carbon emissions. a hot water system for a part of the operated by Hess Denmark. The path
campus, but MIT will still use gas to the flare has been re-established
US conversion to district energy as the primary fuel source after the successfully in instances of high
In North America, Ramboll is helping conversion. The primary goal here is pressure without any disturbance to
more and more colleges and cities to improve efficiency and reliability. the production.
that are looking to convert their
old steamwater systems, which can Cutting carbon from flare gas Apart from designing smokeless flare
be costly to operate and maintain, Efficiency and reliability can also systems, we can advise on reducing
as well as being a potential safety be improved when district energy the levels of harmful substances
hazard. The hot water district energy is inexpedient to implement. at refineries. We have carried
system which is widely used in According to the IEA and other out numerous projects that have

THREE DEFINING PRINCIPLES


IN ENERGY SYSTEMS
In choosing the right sources and investments for the
future, every country has to take many factors into
account. Not only environmental but also economic
and security factors concerning energy systems.

ENERGY
SECURITY

ENERGY
SUSTAINABILITY

ENERGY
AFFORDABILITY
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 11

Introducing low carbon energy infrastructure considerably increased efficiency


The Scottish Government has committed to a challenging target to grow the national and output while maintaining
renewable heat sector from around 3% to 11% by 2020. They have identified that district
regulatory compliance for plants
heating will play a key role in meeting that target.
installed years ago.
Reducing carbon reliance and lowering costs are key motivations for Edinburgh’s
Sustainable Energy Action Plan. As part of the plan, the council hired Ramboll to Natural gas as the best
research the potential of district heating. available fossil fuel
The Scottish city recently released its Sustainable Energy Action Plan aimed at reducing
In some cases, the most sensible road
carbon emissions through better use and generation of energy. The plan is motivated towards a low carbon society is to
by a number of drivers, including reducing fuel poverty, currently affecting 26% of its start replacing coal and oil with the
population. The Action Plan’s target stands at reducing emissions by 42% of 2005 levels fossil fuel that emits the least CO2:
by 2020. Image: © Elifranssens | Dreamstime.com
natural gas. A good example is the
Cop22-host country. Morocco. Today,
the country depends on fossil fuel
imports to generate over 97% of its
energy. But the country is turning
toward renewables and natural gas.

Ramboll is the technical advisor to the


Morocco gas project which supports
the development of the country and
ensures that the electricity will be
provided in a reliable, responsible
and highly scalable form. The Gas to
Power project will diversify Morocco’s
energy mix, improve energy
efficiency and reduce dependency on
imported energy sources. It will also
complement Morocco’s ambitious
renewable energy plan – 52% by 2030
– and is thus in line with Ramboll’s
position in this area, clearly stating
that the availability of natural gas
should not slow down investment in
renewables.

Effective refueling logistics


In order to reduce carbon emissions and enhance the traffic flow, Ramboll has helped
Fjord Line in Hirtshals, Northern Denmark, identify options for a greener way of refueling
where ships won’t lose precious time to fuel during scheduled routes This also ensures a
smooth process for the LNG terminal that would not jeopardise the passengers and the
traffic. Image below: LNG import and regasification facility in Finland.
12 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

MORE
RENEWABLES
Wind and solar are on the rise – and prices are falling.
But it is essential to choose the most efficient technologies
and set-ups. Society also needs storage to control the
supply of renewables, e.g. in giant pools of hot water.

In order to keep global warming well Ramboll is working systematically


RENEWABLES ON THE RISE below 2 degrees Celsius – a de facto with many renewable energy sources
Around 16% of the world’s energy fulfilment of the pledge politicians and to increase their efficiency.
consumption comes from renewable made in Paris at Cop21 in 2015 –
resources such as biomass, hydro, wind,
solar and geothermal. Renewable sources
renewables must grow significantly in Innovating wind as a resource
of energy have been the driver of much all energy sectors. According to the Since we developed our first wind
of the growth in the global clean energy International Energy Agency (IEA), turbines in 1986 we have rapidly
sector for the past 25 years, and today at fossil fuels dominate the electricity expanded our involvement in wind
least 30 nations around the world already
mix with a 68% share, but this must projects all over the world as well
have renewable energy contributing
more than 20% of energy supply. be effectively reversed by 2050, as being a leader in the offshore
when renewables should account for wind sector where we are involved
roughly the same share. in over 65% of global projects,

Greening Energy Plants


The Avedøre Power Station, located just south of Copenhagen, supplies district heating
to more than 200,000 households in the Greater Copenhagen area and power to meet
the annual consumption of 1.3 million households. The plant is making the transition to
biomass, a move that will reduce its CO2 emissions by about one million tonnes per year.
The switch is one of the world’s largest scale bioconversions of a heat or power plant to
date, heralding a trend that is picking up speed. Ramboll is also providing engineering
consultancy services to the conversion of Lynemouth Power Station – one of the most
polluting in the UK - from coal to biomass.
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 13

Ramboll also works extensively on Stable foundations in the South Yellow Sea
onshore wind projects. Our innovative The Chinese wind power market is the largest worldwide with a global market share
of 52%, according to the World Wind Energy Association, and Ramboll will be the first
jacket with suction buckets has a
non-Chinese company to design a big offshore wind farm in China (100 turbines with
bearing capacity able to support a capacity of 400 MW). The wind farm will be located in the Jiangsu province, 22 km
turbines even in weak seabed soils, off the coast in an area prone to earthquakes and very soft soil-conditions, where the
thus enabling the structures to seabed consists of deposits washed out by the large rivers, which poses a high risk
resist external loads such as strong of soil liquefaction. This puts unique demands on the design and construction of the
foundations that will be placed 60m below seabed, in order to support the turbines
currents, collisions and harsh weather.
in depths of 14-18 m.
At the same time, it helps meet one
of the offshore industry’s biggest
challenges: costs.

Utilising solar’s potential


Ramboll has provided consultancy
services in connection with a number
of solar heating plants. The plants
range in size from 200 m2 to the
largest solar heating plant of more
than 50,000 m2.

We are world leaders when it comes


to seasonal storage, where large-scale
solar heating plants have the potential
to cover more than 50% of the yearly
heat production. Experts from the
credit-rating agency Standard &
Poor’s call storage “the final piece in
the global energy transition puzzle”,
and according to the IEA storage
plays “a crucial role in energy system
decarbonisation”.

Extending lifetime with biomass


Biomass is a limited resource, but with
sustainable production methods it
makes great sense to convert existing
large coal-fired power plants into
biomass-fired plants and hereby cut
carbon footprints significantly. Often,
a bioconversion goes hand-in-hand
with a lifetime extension, giving 15-25
years of additional operation. This
saves time and costs too. In Europe,
establishing a new thermal power
plant typically costs about USD $780
million. In comparison, modernising
and refurbishing an existing plant
typically costs just under USD $170
Two world energy records in a small Danish town
million. In Vojens and other small Danish towns, hot water from solar heating is being stored in
a covered pit. The consumer-owned district heating system in Vojens holds two world
Moreover, an existing plant takes energy records: a 70,000-m2 solar heating plant and a 200,000-m3 heat storage – a
about 1-2 years to refurbish whereas giant pool of sorts 13 metres deep and 610 metres in circumference - in an old gravel pit.
What is more, the pool is commercially viable under Danish conditions. The floating cover
a new plant takes four to five years makes it possible to store the hot water for the Danish winter season when consumers
to construct. turn on their radiators. The large-scale investment will increase the share of solar heating
to 50% of the annual heat demand, providing consumers with annual savings of 10-15% on
their heating bills. The plant saves 6,000 tonnes of CO2 per year.
14 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

MAKE WASTE
A RESOURCE IN
THE CIRCULAR
ECONOMY
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 15

BALANCING
THE USE
OF RESOURCES
There is a growing need to reuse, recycle and optimise
resources – for example converting waste and wastewater
into energy. It is not only sustainable and a necessary part
of the green transition. It is also economically sound.

According to the UN and other Make waste a resource


SMART EXTENSION OF sources growth in population and in the circular economy
PLATFORM LIFETIME
living standards mean that by 2050 For example, waste can no longer
In 2040, 50% of the world energy we will have to extract more than be waste. We have no choice but
supply will still come from oil and gas.
twice the amount of resources to make it a resource in a circular
With mature fields representing an annually extracted in 2000 – the economy – an economy that only
ever-growing segment of global consequence being extra pressure functions optimally if it includes
offshore reserves, there is a keen on land, water and energy usage. recycling as well as energy recovery.
interest in maximising recovery
from existing oil fields to keep up
This drives home why experts are Two factors are driving the
with global energy demand. calling for a paradigm shift in how we emergence of the circular economy
consider resources. in its present form: long-term price
Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a increases for raw materials and
cost-effective means of monitoring how
environmental legislation/green
an old platform is doing and deciding
how often and where to inspect. taxation.

Using advanced calculations, Ramboll


can determine the actual state
of the structure – thereby saving
money and ensuring more efficient
exploitation of the resources.

Source: International
Energy Agency (IEA)

Sustainability in the Finnish bedrock


In the Finnish city Espoo, an advanced treatment plant is literally being carved
into the city’s bedrock named Blominmäki.

The plant in Blominmäki will not only treat wastewater but also produce energy.
Surplus heat from the plant will be recovered from treated wastewater, and electricity
produced from biogas generated in the anaerobic digestion facilities will meet more
than the half of the plant’s total electricity requirement.
16 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

The primary goal here is, of course, not only create a more sustainable plant with a capacity of 600,000
to prevent waste from being created. environment – where pollution is tonnes of waste annually.
Secondly, society must use materials decoupled from growth – but it also
that can be reused, or re-cycled. If saves money. In Singapore we are helping to
that is impossible, the waste must build a plant that will be the world’s
be utilised, e.g. by burning it. Today, In Ramboll we have worked on waste- largest of its kind, integrated with an
tonnes and tonnes of waste are to-energy projects in 45 countries. adjacent water reclamation plant to
being unnecessarily dumped in One of these is Lebanon, where we fully exploit the synergies between
landfills. A lot of it can be recycled are assisting in keeping the waste waste and wastewater treatment.
and almost all the rest can be used from piling up in Beirut by doing a
in waste-to-energy plants. This does procurement of a waste-to-energy

How to save water


You can save water – and lower CO2-emissions – by reusing it for recreational purposes. Ramboll
has helped cities like Copenhagen create many blue-green infrastructure projects, where rainwater is
retained and used on the surface for water areas in parks and other places instead of overloading the
sewage system – thereby saving electricity to the pumps. Visualisation: SLA.
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 17

Optimising wastewater treatment Recycling of building materials


Wastewater treatment is, in general, Developing cities are facing traffic congestion, soaring property prices, severe pollution
and rampant illegal construction in the wake of booming growth and the resultant acute
a fast rising technology. Water and
lack of housing. In Hanoi, Vietnam, for example, soft ground has made some of the city’s
wastewater treatment (W&WT) plants central areas uninhabitable. However, these derelict inner city areas will soon pulse with
have become more efficient and new life, due to a new Ramboll-developed technology that aims to replace non-renewable
innovative, enhancing their processes natural resources with recovered materials in earthworks by using mass stabilisation
and thus maximising output use by techniques. The soft soil does not have to be removed from the construction site, and
replacement materials do not have to be hauled on site from great distances, all of which
recovering energy and nutrients, minimises the use of natural resources and the need for heavy transport.
recuperating organic matter and
producing clean, reusable water –
sometimes even drinkable.

The original prime function was


to improve public health, but new
values include good water resource
management and a healthy natural
water ecosystem. When Ramboll
designs new or improved water and
wastewater plants, it is part of our
working model to consider energy
saving equipment and investigate if
energy recovery is a good business
case. For example, when it reduces
the cost of sludge disposal or when
sludge is disconnected from water
treatment plants to make more
production of biogas possible; the
latter has been done in Gothenburg,
Sweden, where the gas is used for
buses.

Finding ways to reduce


and reuse organic material
W&WT plants are, in other words,
becoming multifunctional. A good
example of the transition is Harvest
Power’s Energy Garden in Central
Florida, an organics management
and renewable energy facility that is
the first of its kind in the USA. The
Energy Garden helps businesses and
communities across Central Florida
reduce and reuse organic material,
increase renewable energy production
and revitalise soil to boost local
agriculture. Restaurants, hotels and
food processing facilities throughout
the region are now able to send food
scraps to the Energy Garden. Image above: Øyvind Hagen, Statoil.

The Walt Disney World Resort was


the facility’s first client. More than
100,000 tonnes of organic waste
each year can now be combined with
the waste-activated sludge from the
local municipality and processed to
produce 5.4 megawatts of combined
heat and power and over 6,000
tonnes of usable fertiliser instead of
being disposed of in local landfills.
18 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

Green roofs
In Chicago, USA, the city has decided to create a system of green roofs designed to bring down the
temperature. The city hall set an example with their green roof, which has reduced the summer surface
temperatures by 30C, decreased storm water runoff by 60% and saved the city an estimated USD 75,000 in
cooling costs. The roof has 20,000 plants and more than 150 varieties native to the region. Thus, Chicago’s
green roof initiative is a great example of thinking nature into the building design, which means a reduction
of CO2 emissions and less costs compared to an expensive cooling system. Visualisation: Diane Cook And Len
Jenshel/National Geographic Stock.
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 19

SUSTAINABLE AND
LIVEABLE STRUCTURES
According to the UN, buildings use 40% of the global
energy, 25% of the global water, 40% of global resources
and they emit approximately 1/3 of the greenhouse gases.
These numbers may seem overwhelming, but there are
numerous ways to engineer sustainable buildings.

No building is an island. Every And for the energy that is still needed
CLEAR SUSTAINABILITY GOALS building is part of a wider community by choosing renewable energy
The Change Initiative building in and the associated infrastructure and sources or by introducing district
Dubai, UAE, is one of the world’s most
when energy systems and buildings energy systems. But we should not
sustainable buildings. From the early
phases of the building design, there was themselves are optimised, it creates forget that many carbon emissions
close collaboration across disciplines value for owners, the users, the come from constructing buildings and
to maximise performance and energy environment and the society as this can be significantly reduced too.
saving while minimising costs. Passive
a whole. One approach is to re-consider the
strategies were prioritised, which means
that the natural resources available were materials that we build with. As an
considered carefully in the process. This In Ramboll we find that five elements example, timber is a material that
included considering the building’s layout are important to consider when when produced absorbs carbon
and orientation, as these are central for planning a building project: the local and stores it rather than emits
enabling natural ventilation and daylight
context, passive strategies available, carbon. It is a lightweight material,
and thus minimising CO2 emissions.
renewable energy possibilities, which therefore requires smaller
THE NEED FOR sustainable building materials and foundations. It is prefabricated offsite,
SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS options for integrated energy design. thereby shortening construction
Buildings use about 40% of global energy, By combining these five factors, times.
25% of global water, 40% of global
we can we create holistic building
resources, and they emit approximately
1/3 of global GHG emissions (UNEP). solutions with minimal CO2 emissions. The world’s tallest building with a
The most efficient way of lowering cross-laminated timber structure is
carbon emissions from buildings is to Dalston Lane, a residential building
use energy in a more efficient way. in London. The use of CLT at Dalston

Limiting carbon leakage from waste


At waste deposit sites, some of the waste emits methane gas that is roughly 30 times
more potent than CO2 as a heat-trapping gas. In Klintholm waste deposit, Denmark,
Ramboll’s experts have developed a solution: a biocover design. The technology is based
on creating a time window where the methane gas is naturally converted to CO2 – which
is not as harmful. There are other ways to convert methane from landfills to more
sustainable use: In Gothenburg, Sweden, Ramboll and partners are investigating the
possibility to use methane from a landfill to produce heat for houses and a vegetable farm
with tomatoes. The methane-limiting technologies can be used all over the world, but
must be aligned with the principles of the circular economy: That means only for waste
that is non-recyclable and non-combustible.
20 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

Lane has saved 2,400 tonnes of are constantly helping us understand less carbon than it would otherwise
carbon compared to an equivalent better where energy is wasted and have done.
structure using a concrete frame. smart technologies are helping
Timber has also been used instead us monitor and control that the Nature can absorb CO2
of concrete in pedestrian and cycle intentions in the design which are put Buildings are not the only structures
bridge structures. to use in the building. that can be made more sustainable,
thus enabling lower carbon emissions.
More energy-efficient buildings A third strategy would be to use the A different example is Bishan-Ang Mo
Carbon emissions can also be buildings we have more efficiently, to Kio Park in Singapore, where Ramboll
reduced by installing different energy- avoid needing to build more buildings. has converted a 2.7 km straight
saving technologies within buildings. concrete drainage channel into a
Recent feasible developments A multi-purpose indoor arena in sinuous, 3.2 km long natural river, that
include groundwater cooling systems Copenhagen – the Royal Arena – is meanders through the park. Sixty-two
reducing energy used for cooling about to be completed. Traditionally, hectares of park space has been
by up to 85%; heat exchangers on football stadiums were built for tastefully redesigned in an award-
ventilation air intake/exhaust or the bi-weekly kick-offs. However, winning project– with more trees and
simply intelligent re-use of excess by thinking many purposes into other greenery - to accommodate
heat from server rooms and other the building design, one arena can the dynamic process of a river system
electrical equipment. provide a venue for many types of which includes fluctuating water
events. The same goes for office levels. This does not only provide
Energy efficiency in buildings spaces, residential buildings and more benefit and better health for
can be further improved by using schools. By extending opening hours, park users – with both recreational
advanced simulation techniques when better utilisation of an otherwise value and as a cool oasis amidst the
designing the buildings and using limited usage building can be city’s concrete urban heat – it also
smart technologies when operating achieved – and thus the arena emits lowers carbon emissions, as plants
buildings. Improved design methods and trees absorb CO2.

HOW ENERGY CAN RESHAPE A CITY


Through large-scale solutions, shared services and
innovative use of existing natural resources, cities can have
energy that is cheaper and lower in carbon emissions.

01 A body of water can be used to regulate 03 Cooling storage becomes 20-40% cheaper 05 Chilled water pipes
the energy system's temperature
(50-90 % energy reduction) 04 The client benefits from lower energy bills
as well as higher resiliency
02 The cost of the cooling central
becomes 30-50% lower

04

02
03

01 05
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 21

WE CREATE
HOLISTIC BUILDING
SOLUTIONS WITH
MINIMAL CO2
EMISSIONS
22 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

Supporting green and holistic transport planning in Helsinki, Finland


As part of the redevelopment of the shipping harbour in the Jätkäsaari district of Helsinki, Ramboll helps develop
a comprehensive network of pedestrian- and cycle paths as well as a smooth public transport system, primarily trams.

A main pedestrian and cycle route will pass through a one-kilometre-long park in the centre of Jätkäsaari. Parks will be
connected to the waterfront and other parks by routes using pedestrian and bicycle bridges. A pedestrian and cycle route,
“Baana”, allows residents to bicycle from Jätkäsaari to the city centre in just five minutes.

Upon the completion of the construction of Jätkäsaari in 2030, a circular loop tramline will service the entire precinct,
supplemented by a temporary bus service during construction. Visualisation: Turo Auvinen.
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 23

MAKING
MOBILITY GREENER
Cities worldwide struggle to reduce human exposure to
harmful pollutants from urban transport sources. Holistic
transport planning not only reduces CO2 emissions –
it also addresses overall infrastructure challenges.

Air quality management strategies promote walking, cycling and the use
CREATING A “FIVE-MINUTE CITY” and a comprehensive, sustainable of public transport over car usage.
IN COPENHAGEN, DENMARK
urban mobility approach can create This allows residents to choose the
The Municipality of Copenhagen has
a significant impact on emission most convenient travel option with
set an objective that at least 50%
of all journeys to and from work or reductions. This will at the same time the highest sustainability benefits and
education must be covered by bike. result in extensive co-benefits through the lowest cost to taxpayers.
local improvements.
Simultaneously, the Nordhavn district Nordic experience
of Copenhagen has been designed to
make it easier to walk, cycle and use the
Such approaches include cleaner can benefit Indian cities
metro rather than use a car. This includes technology and fuels, but also the As an example, Ramboll is conducting
a “five-minute city” concept, whereby development of compact urban a pilot study in the historic city of
it will be possible to reach shops, communities with multi-modal Udaipur in Rajasthan, India. The study
institutions, workplaces, cultural facilities
transport and pricing options that is intended to build an understanding
and public transport within five minutes’
walk from any point in the district. of the challenges and determine

Nordhavn, Copenhagen.
Visualisation: COBE, Sleth, Polyform and Ramboll.
24 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

how international experience from “green waves’, whereby a series of A multi-faceted approach to walking
places like the Nordic countries traffic lights are coordinated to allow And the Norwegian capital of Oslo
and Singapore can benefit Indian continuous traffic flow for cyclists earlier this year recognised that
cities. The next steps are to make over several intersections. pedestrians have a lower priority
short daily trips walkable, prioritise in the city’s traffic planning, and
public transport, take advantage of Another example is the construction that cycling and public transport
sustainable energy and capitalise on of super bike paths with very few behaviour has been mapped in far
density through holistic planning. traffic lights and harbour bridges greater detail than pedestrian flows.
that save cyclists both mileage and So they invited Ramboll to design a
Studies from around the world reveal minutes. The added value here is a walking strategy before the end of
that when cities grow, environmental higher liveability – and better health 2016.
quality and thus also liveability for the citizens (and thus decreased
deteriorates. Many Indian cities also health costs), because more people To complete the assignment, Ramboll
suffer from water and air pollution – bike to and from work. lined up experts with different but
and thereby high carbon emissions. complementing areas of expertise,
But it doesn’t have to be that way. It Other clients are discovering the taking a multi-faceted approach to
is possible to decouple pollution from advantages: The Saudi Arabian achieving the three main objectives:
growth.Smart transport systems megacity of Jeddah is also concerned More people should walk for a longer
about the cost of doing nothing. An period of the year. Walking should
As part of an ambitious green environmental degradation study be an attractive – and safe – option
masterplan, Copenhagen has a by Ramboll shows that Jeddah will for everyone. And walking should be
goal of becoming CO2-neutral in lose 2-4% of its annual GDP unless incorporated into all urban planning.
2025, and an important part here is something is done to address rapid For example, pedestrians should have
reducing emissions from transport. population growth, water scarcity and their own footpaths separate from
The city has improved conditions pollution. cyclists, because the two groups
for bikers tremendously. Ramboll move at different paces, and Oslo
helped create data collection points has also seen a significant rise in the
along bike paths to make so-called number of cyclists.

PROMOTING It needs to be more attractive and simple to choose the low-


carbon mode of transportation in cities. While biking and
LOW-CARBON MOBILITY walking no CO2, cars, trains and buses are high emitters.

52 60 0
gram CO2 per person gram CO2 per person gram CO2 per person
per km by metro per km by train per km by bicycle

0 126 83
gram CO2 per person gram CO2 per person gram CO2 per person
per km by person per km by car per km by bus
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 25

Making light rail carbon-free


Rail, metro, and light rail systems to reduce car usage and thereby carbon emissions. Solar and other renewable
energy sources can now compete with coal to supply power for light rail transit systems. It is possible to make a
light rail completely carbon-free using tram batteries that are recharged at station stops using power generated
by solar energy. The Australian city Perth now has solar power and batteries that are cheaper than coal-fired
power. Visualisation: LRT Sinsen, Oslo, Norway. Placebo Effects A/S.
26 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

FROM
SILO MENTALITY
TO HOLISTIC
MASTERPLANNING
Cost-benefit analyses of low-carbon measures must
include all environmental, social and economic aspects
of sustainability in order to optimise the strategy,
framework and execution for private and public clients.

Preparing for the future is a connects different layers of the city in take a holistic approach and base
complicated process. There is a need various ways. investment decisions on thorough
to establish strong partnerships, both societal cost-benefit analyses.
public and private, to create long- You need not only to connect sewer
term solutions for companies, cities, systems with transport networks, In practice, however, working across
regions and countries. parks and buildings. You also need different disciplines and sectors can
to forge connections between the be challenging. The silo mentality –
Experience shows that you get technical solutions, the governance the mindset present when the experts
the best results if your approach structure and the social and cultural involved in a project are only focused
is cross-disciplinary - and if your offerings, if you are to create a city on their own fields of expertise – can
long-term planning integrates all the that is not only sustainable but also be a major hurdle in masterplanning.
necessary sustainable steps early liveable. If experts have tunnel vision, tackling
in the construction of buildings or problems by focusing only on their
infrastructure. Cities must adapt Value-drivers instead of cost-drivers own fields, it can be hard for them
a holistic approach and ideally a When investments in city to grasp the value gained from an
masterplan that incorporates a variety infrastructure are done right, they extensive, cross-disciplinary plan.
of social offerings to attract people become value drivers instead of cost
and businesses to a city – and that drivers. But this necessitates that we

FROM SILOS TO HOLISTIC MASTERPLANNING


- THE PROCESS
You need to forge connections between the technical solutions,
the governance structure and the social and cultural offerings,
if you are to create a city that is sustainable and liveable.

01 02 03 04
Identify all stakeholders Bring silo competencies Plan focusing on Embrace
and bring them out of their together to formulate the connections between the multi-disciplinary
silo organisations a common goal the silos as a strength from start
to finish
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 27

Distilled spirits company sustainability planning


For one of the world’s largest spirits distillers, Ramboll identified significant water and energy savings
through a series of audits at their plants in North America. Our team identified how the five already energy-
efficient facilities could further reduce energy use by 10% with approximately a 2.5 year payback. Capital
project opportunities ranged from boilers to biomass projects to lighting to increased use of waste heat and
simultaneous generation of heating and cooling to combined heat and power opportunities. As an added value,
we found that water use could be reduced 1 million m3 per year by addressing once through cooling, with
additional options around water treatment and reuse. We have now begun phase 2 of this project, visiting plants
in Asia and the Caribbean.

Ramboll has extensive experience This saves CO2, because you do


helping municipalities, private not need so much energy to clean FINANCING LOW-CARBON
INFRASTRUCTURE IN ASIA
companies and knowledge sewage water, but it also heightens
AND THE PACIFIC
institutions set up several the share of blue-green infrastructure
We has been engaged by the Asian
partnerships – and reach out to both – recreational areas, that not only Development Bank (ADB) to provide
citizens and investors - to avoid have the added value of better health technical assistance regarding financing
this silo mentality and accelerate liveability, but also higher real estate low-carbon, climate-resilient urban
infrastructure in cities in Asia and
green transitions in cities. These prices.
the Pacific. For six pilot cities, we will
partnerships help municipalities undertake a rapid appraisal assessment
form a clear-cut vision for their cities The advantage here is that an of current infrastructure, city-level
and define specific focus areas for inclusion of a blue-green solution is modelling of emissions profiles and
achieving the overall goal. often cheaper than a traditional grey vulnerability to future climate change
impacts – and prioritise options via a
solution, where only the sewers are
macro-level cost-benefit analysis. This
Joining forces to safeguard cities expanded. It also has the additional will be accompanied by identification
One example is the municipalities benefit of improved health and quality of financing models and mechanisms
and utilities of Copenhagen and of life – and increased real estate to address investment needs and
capitalise on the identified opportunities
Frederiksberg that have joined forces prices – because inhabitants get
in each pilot city. Pilot city analysis
with Ramboll and other advisors more recreational options. Other big will then be extrapolated to all ADB
on a concretisation of a cloudburst cities are inspired by the Copenhagen developing member countries.
mitigation plan. Some of the excess approach; New York City Department
water will be retained locally for of Environmental Protection has
recreational areas, while cloudburst asked Ramboll to do a cost-benefit
streets with high kerbstones will climate study in Queens. The biggest
lead stormwater away efficiently and city in the US also wants us to cast
quickly. light on not only parts of a project
28 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

but the whole picture – Mapping air pollution in five African cities
the environmental, social and Ramboll is helping the African Development Bank with transport emission
mapping and monitoring as well as capacity building in five cities around
economic sustainability.
Africa. Ensuring that all players work together towards more visibility,
collaboration and support is a crucial part of the project. The project will
Working across fields of knowledge cover the cities of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast, Yaoundé in Cameroon, Dar es
The same approaches and techniques Salaam in Tanzania, Lusaka in Zambia, and Rabat in Morocco and the ambition
can be used in other parts of the is to implement the project results throughout Africa. Image: © Timwege |
Dreamstime.com.
society. Ramboll has been chosen to
assist the Danish Energy Agency in
developing an integrated and more
flexible energy system that cuts
across all supply sectors – so-called
Smart Energy.

Like the New York climate study, it


was important that we have expertise
within many sectors. We are able to
cut across technical and management
skills and combine strong analytical
and project management profiles with
extensive knowledge of the sectors
and conditions to effectively integrate
utility sectors into a flexible energy
system.

For national, regional and local


governments and utilities, we
have helped deploy demand-side
management programme and to drive
energy efficiency throughout their
jurisdictions.

The US State of Colorado Energy


Office selected us to manage their
state-wide energy performance
contracting program that is ranked #3
in the nation. We help state agencies,
local governments and school
districts to identify and undertake
energy conservation projects.

Managing emissions
in a full product lifecycle
We advise cities and companies who
want to identify and reduce their
greenhouse gas emissions – not
only their own, but also their value-
chain emissions such as emissions
associated with raw material
purchase, product distribution, and
business travel - not to mention the
need for companies to identify and
manage emissions in their product Improving the EU’s emissions trading system
lifecycle as a part of the circular Ramboll is working with the EU Commission and national administrations
economy. to improve the clarity and reliability of information on how revenues
from the EU emissions trading system (EU ETS) are used. EU ETS is a key
tool for reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions cost-effectively.
We complete climate action It is the world’s first major carbon market and provides a relatively new
masterplans to outline a road map for source of revenue (approximately EUR 3.2 billion generated in 2014) for
reducing greenhouse gas emissions. EU countries. Over half of the money should be ‘recycled’ to support the
And we complete energy audits achievement of EU energy and climate objectives.
and energy management strategies
for industrial, commercial and
institutional clients globally.
LIVEABLITY AND GROWTH IN THE NEW CLIMATE ECONOMY 29

BLUE-GREEN
SOLUTIONS ARE
OFTEN CHEAPER
THAN A
TRADITIONAL
GREY SOLUTION
30 TAKING THE LOW-CARBON LEAP

JOIN US ON
THE JOURNEY
Each step on the way to a low-carbon society is an
individual story, and we hope that you have found
the examples we have shared with you useful.
Perhaps they have challenged your perception of
what is possible in taking the low-carbon leap.

We invite you to reach out to us to learn more about


how we can support you in your contributions to a
low-carbon society.

www.ramboll.com

Ramboll head office


Ramboll office
Ramboll Group A/S
CVR No. 10160669
City of Copenhagen, Denmark
WWW.RAMBOLL.COM