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LANDSCAPE ARCHTECTUR GLOSSARY

Arbor An open framework designed to offer


Aa a shady resting place in a garden or park,
often made of rustic work or latticework
Acidity The characteristic of soils that have which serves as a support on which climbers
a pH level of less than 7, which is suited to may grow or on which creepers may be
plants that thrive in “sour” soil as opposed trained.
to alkaline or “sweet” soil. Arboriculture The art, science, technology
and business of tree care.
Aerobic Pertaining to an organism that
needs atmospheric oxygen to thrive, used Arborist A professional who practices
especially in reference to compost piles. arboriculture.
Effective compost bins promote an
environment in which such organisms
thrive. Bb
Aesthetic (adj.) Pertaining to the Balance (landscape design terminology)
appreciation of beauty or good taste; visually Refers to the consistency of visual
pleasing. The corresponding noun is attraction, or lack thereof. Consistent visual
"aesthetics," which means the study of the attraction is achieved through symmetry; if
appreciation of beauty. the designer’s intention is to avoid the
monotony of balance, asymmetrical plans
Alkalinity The characteristic of soils with a will be implemented.
pH level that is greater than 7, which is
suitable for plants that thrive in a Balled and bur lapped Plants shipped to
"sweet" (alkaline) soil, as opposed to a the consumer after having been planted,
"sour" or acid soil. dug up and wrapped. “Balled” refers to the
rootball which has been dug up; burlapped
Amendment An element added to the soil, refers to the wrapping material traditionally
such as compost, peat moss, or fertilizer, to used for transporting tree and shrub
improve its capacity to support plant life. deliveries.
While fertilizer improves soil by adding
nutrients only, amendments such as peat Bare root Plants shipped to the consumer
moss improve soil by making its texture or without having been planted in soil,
drainage more conducive to plant health. rendering them effectively dormant, are said
Peat moss adds no nutrients to soil. to be bare root. Rose bushes are sometimes
Meanwhile, compost enhances soil both shipped as bare root plants, for instance.
through adding nutrients and through
improving texture and drainage. Basket weave brick pattern when laying
bricks -- for a brick patio, for instance -- various
Anaerobic Pertaining to organisms, such as designs, or patterns can be used. One
bacteria, that can live in the absence of of these patterns is known as "basket weave";
atmospheric oxygen. The term is often used another popular brick pattern is called
"herringbone." For a graphic illustration of what
to refer to such organisms living in a the basic weave design looks like, see the
compost bin and influencing the quality of its picture at the bottom of this page. The basket
decomposition; it also refers to the weave pattern is essentially composed
conditions under which such organisms of pairs of bricks. Picture a square area in which
thrive, conditions that are considered 8 bricks are to be laid (2 columns and 2 rows,
undesirable. consisting of 4 pairs of bricks). It would run as
follows, starting from the upper left corner and
ending at the lower right: 2 bricks standing
vertically, 2 bricks horizontally, 2 bricks
horizontally, 2 bricks vertically.
Bedding plant Plant (usually an annual) Cement (masonry term) The binding agent
grouped with others en masse to produce in concrete and mortar. Limestone is mined,
the maximum in visual appeal, A crushed, mixed with other ingredients, and
landscape designer selects bedding plants heated to produce cement.
with regard to color, scale, line, form and
texture in relation to the accompanying Chilling requirement A requirement for fruit
plants. and nut trees, measured in terms of the total
hours needed during a dormant or winter
Biodegradable Capable of being period in which the temperature is below
decomposed back into the soil by biological 45ºF and above 32ºF. Meeting the chilling
agents, especially bacteria; usually used to requirement will result in normal growth and
refer to items that are to be disposed of. bloom in the succeeding growing season.
Environmentally sound landscaping often
takes into account whether materials are Climber Plant that climbs on its own, using
biodegradable. For instance, plastic might tendrils or some other method (such as the
be rejected as a material for mulching adventitious roots known as holdfasts) to
because it is not biodegradable. secure itself to objects. Climbers are often
supplied with arbors upon which to climb.
Bonsai The historically oriental art of Vines are subdivided into the categories of
dwarfing trees by careful root and stem climbers and creepers.
pruning coupled with root restriction. The
term is from the Japanese for "potted plant," Cold frame An unheated outdoor structure
because such trees are often kept in composed of a wooden or concrete
containers. framework and covered with glass or clear
plastic, used for the process of hardening off
Broadleaf Having relatively broad rather seedlings.
than needle-like or scale-like leaves.
"Broadleaf" is often applied to lawn and Commensal Applied to pests which, while
garden weeds fitting that description, to not truly parasitic, do partake of the same
separate them from other weeds for food as another. Often applied specifically to
purposes of categorization. One also refers rodent pests of the landscape, which
to evergreen plants such as rhododendron partake of human food. In an integrated pest
as "broadleaf," to distinguish them from management system for the landscape,
needle-bearing evergreens. commensal pests will be discouraged from
arriving by making sure food is kept in well-
Burl A large rounded outgrowth on the trunk sealed containers.
or branch of a tree, often used decoratively
as a veneer in woodcraft. Compaction Applied to soil which, deprived
of proper aeration, suffers from excessive
water runoff and poor conditions for plant
Cc rooting. In reference to compost bins,
compaction occurs under anaerobic
Cabling The use of cables to stabilize a tree conditions.
that displays a tendency to lean in one
direction or another, rather than growing Companion planting The gardening practice
straight. Often employed by arborists or of planting one plant in proximity to another, due
other tree service professionals. Also Known to the benefits it bestows on the other plant.
As: bracing Organic gardeners, for instance, often juxtapose
plants because the one will have insect-repelling
qualities that benefit the other, obviating the
Cambium The layer of cells lying between need to use chemical pesticides. Sometimes, the
the wood and bark of a stem from which benefits are shared, making for a symbiotic
new bark and wood cells originate. relationship.
Complete fertilizer A fertilizer that contains Core aeration The process of mechanically
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. A fertilizer removing plugs of soil and thatch from a
listed as "10-10-10," for instance, would be a lawn to reduce soil compaction.
complete fertilizer. But a fertilizer listed as "10-0-
10" would be incomplete, the middle zero
indicating the absence of phosphorus in the Corm For certain plants, a protuberant stem
fertilizer. growing underground that stores food for
potential roots, leaves and flowers.
Compost A mixture of decaying organic matter,
as from leaves and manure, used as an Cotyledon leaves Leaves of the embryo of
amendment to improve soil structure and provide a seed plant, which upon germination, either
nutrients. Compost is located in a “compost pile” remain in the seed or emerge, enlarge, and
or "compost heap," which may or may not be become green. Also called “false leaves” or
contained in a structure called a “compost “seed leaves,” in contradistinction to the
bin.” The composting process is largely the result first “true leaves” which develop later.
of the activity of aerobic organisms.

Cover crop A crop that is primarily planted


Compost bin A structure built to create
not to be harvested for food but to prevent
compost, designed so as to facilitate the
erosion, control weeds and improve soil
decomposition of organic matter through
quality while the garden is otherwise
proper aeration and moisture retention. With
dormant. A cover crop is often ploughed or
the proper combination of air and moisture,
tilled under before the next food crop is
ideal conditions are produced for the activity
planted, in which cases the "cover crop" is
of aerobic organisms responsible for the
used as a soil amendment and is
high temperatures that transform the organic
synonymous with "green manure crop." In its
materials into compost.
capacity to control weeds it is
designated”living mulch." From the
Concrete (masonry term) A product landscape designer’s perspective,
composed of cement, sand and gravel or the choice between various cover crops
other coarse aggregate. When water is could be influenced by aesthetics,
mixed in with this product, it activates the since the cover crop is, after all, taking the
cement, which is the element responsible for place of garden plants in between growing
binding the mix together to form one solid seasons. As such, it should be selected with
object. Concrete is sometimes used in the an eye to its visual impact, in addition to
construction of a hardscape design. practical considerations. Also Known As:
green manure crop
Conifer (arboricultural term) Literally, a
cone-bearer. Trees that are conifers Creeper A vine plant that needs to be
reproduce by forming a cone rather than a artificially guided and secured to a support
flower as a container for their seeds. (trained), if it is to grow upright. Also
Known As: trailing plant
Control joint (masonry term) Groove
inserted into a concrete surface to "control"
cracking. Essentially, the groove is an
intentional, controlled crack placed in the
concrete to preclude the concrete's cracking
on its own, in an uncontrolled manner. By
placing a groove in concrete before it cures,
any stress the concrete will be subjected to
subsequently will not produce haphazard
cracks that will be a landscaping eyesore.
With a trowel or jointer, the mason can cut
an even control joint that will be aesthetically
pleasing. Control joints can also be cut into
existing concrete surfaces using a saw with
a masonry blade attached.
Dd Ff
Deciduous (arboricultural term) Shedding Finial A small, ornamental, terminal feature
foliage at the end of the growing season; at the top of a gable, lamp, lamppost, stone
used especially in reference to trees. wall etc.

Dethatching The mechanical removal from Float (masonry term) A tool with a handle
a lawn of the layer of dead turfgrass tissue fastened to a flat piece, used to finish a
known as "thatch." concrete surface. Using an arc-shaped,
sweeping motion, one smooths over bumps
Dioecious Said of a plant species for which in the concrete surface with a float.
the male and female reproductive organs
are carried on separate individual plants of Focalization(landscape design terminology)
the same species. When a plant species is The forcing of the viewer’s perspective to a
dioecious, at least one male plant must be central or focal point. The use of symmetry
present in a group for the fruit-bearing or balance creates a more intense
female plants to be pollinated. focalization, while asymmetrical designs
Pronunciation: di·E·shus • (adjective) Also soften or even avoid focalization.
Known As: diecious
Forcing The process of causing a plant to
Dormancy (applied to plants) The grow or flower before its natural season.
temporary diminution or cessation of a Also Known As: vernalization
plant’s growth, usually during winter in the
temperate zone. (applied to the land itself) Form (landscape design terminology) The
The state of the land during periods in shape of a plant, e.g., upright, oval,
which no primary crop is being grown. Note, columnar, spreading, broad spreading, or
however, that a secondary, or "cover" crop weeping.
may be grown on the land during periods of
dormancy. Friable Pertaining to soil that has the
crumbly texture ideal for the root growth of
Dry wall In reference to stone walls, a dry plants.
wall is a wall of stones that is not held
together by mortar. Fumigate To use a toxic gas to control
burrowing rodent pests.
Ee
Gg
Edging A line of demarcation that creates
visual interest in a landscape by separating Gazebo A small roofed outbuilding erected for
one segment from another. Also Known As: outdoor dining and entertaining, often octagonal,
border with open, screened, or latticework (q.v.) sides

Edging plant A compact plant used to form Girdling (arboricultural term) The choking of a
an edging on a landscape. Also Known As: tree branch either accidentally through a material
border plant applied by a human, such as a wrap used in
grafting, or through a vine that has vigorously
Evergreen Having foliage that persists and enwrapped a tree, such as bittersweet.
remains green throughout the year. Note
that not all conifer trees are evergreen, Grafting (arboricultural term) Uniting a
despite the popular association between the shoot or bud (the scion) with a plant (the
two terms. The tamarack or larch, for rootstock) that is already established by
instance, is a conifer, but it is not an insertion or by placing in close contact. One
evergreen. danger of grafting is girdling.
Green manure crop A crop that is planted Herbaceous Pertaining to plants with a non-
when a garden is otherwise in a state of woody stem whose above-ground growth
dormancy and that is not grown for its own dies back in winter in the temperate zone.
sake but rather to be ploughed or tilled However, do not confuse "herbaceous" with
under before the regular growing season. "annual": an annual plant dies altogether at
Like compost, green manure crops serve as the end of the growing season, both above
a soil amendment. the ground and below.

Ground cover A low-lying plant, usually Horticulture The science or art of cultivating
requiring minimal maintenance and suitable fruits, vegetables, flowers, or ornamental
for covering large expanses of ground on plants.
the landscape.
Humus Organic matter partly or wholly
decomposed. When its total decomposition
Hh is hastened by human intervention in
order to use it as a soil amendment, it is
Hardening off The process, undertaken in virtually synonymous with compost.
spring in the temperate zone, of preparing a
plant started indoors for the change in Hybrid plant A plant produced by
environmental conditions it will encounter impregnating the pistil of one species with
when permanently moved outdoors. The the pollen of another. Also Known As:
plant is hardened off during a transitional hybridized plant
period in which it is left outside during
daylight hours only and in an area where it
can be shaded and protected from wind. A Ii
cold frame is ideal for this process. Watering
is reduced as well. Gradually, the plant is Indigenous plant A plant native to the
allowed exposure to an increasing amount
locale in question. Indigenous plants are
of sunlight.
sometimes allowed to co-exist with lawn
grass, ground covers, or garden plants,
Hardscape The inanimate elements of especially if they are not invasive.
landscaping, especially any masonry work. Indeed, some landscaping themes favours
For instance, stone walls, brick patios and indigenous plants, as in wildflower gardens.
tile paths would all be considered part of the
hardscape. But by extension, anything used Integrated pest management
in landscaping that is not part of the The management of pest problems that
softscape can be considered a hardscape involves use of the full spectrum of control
element, including home accents such as measures in a coordinated, integrated and
water fountains and, yes, even pink foresighted manner. A cornerstone of IPM is that
flamingo’s! taking preventive steps to preclude a pest
problem is preferable to waiting for pests to arrive
and then having to eradicate them.
Heading back Pruning off the terminal or
“head” growth of a plant, especially a tree.
Heading back is a general term, whose Invasive plant Unwanted plants that exhibit a
subcategories include "topping" and tendency to spread out of control, once
introduced, often thereby producing a
"pollarding." Topping is performed on
monoculture that discourages the growth of other
large old trees as an inexpensive alternative plant varieties. Landscapers need to control or
to their full removal. Pollarding, in contrast, eradicate such plants that invade the lawn or
is performed for aesthetic reasons. garden.
Pollarding begins when a tree is young, and
continues throughout the life of the tree. Invertebrate An animal without a backbone,
Also Known As: pollarding, topping (note e.g., an insect; animal pests are usually
that "topping" (q.v.) has acquired a rather categorized as invertebrate pests or
negative connotation) vertebrate pests.
Latticework An open framework made of
Jj strips of metal, wood, or similar material
overlapped or overlaid in a regular, usually
Jointed Possessing a stem with nodes. crisscross pattern. Also Known As: lattice,
fretwork
Jointer (masonry term) Tool used to make
control joints on a newly poured concrete Leader (botany) The primary stem of a
surface. plant, usually the top stem. Used primarily to
refer to trees. Also Known As: apex
Kk Limbing (arboricultural term) Removing
unwanted limbs from a tree. Large scaffold
Knot garden A symmetrically-designed (q.v.) branches hanging dangerously over a
garden, using geometric patterns, in which house, for instance, often need to be
control is exercised by the precise use of removed. This work is best performed by an
edging plants. Shrubbery often plays a arborist or other tree service professional.
dominant role in knot gardens, since it can But the term "limbing" is properly applied to
be pruned to conform to precise the removal of any limbs from any tree,
measurements. Knot gardens gained regardless of size.
popularity with the nobility during the
European Renaissance and are especially Lime The rock powder used to raise the pH
associated with the grand English estates. of soils high in acidity, thereby making them
more alkaline.
Ll Line (landscape design terminology) Refers
to the fact that the viewer’s eye movement
Landscape architecture The profession that or flow can be governed by the
practices the art of arranging or modifying the arrangement of plants and their borders.
features of a landscape, an urban area, etc., for Eye movement is unconsciously influenced
aesthetic or practical purposes. That is, the by the way plant groupings fit or flow
"landscape architect" practices "landscape together, both on the horizontal and vertical
design," although non-professionals often use the planes.
terms interchangeably. Also Known As:
landscape design (The American Society of
Landscape Architects, however, asserts that the Living mulch A cover crop plant that is
terminology "landscape architect" denotes a planted around and between the primary
higher level of skill, usually reinforced by a plants in a garden to control weeds, prevent
degree, than does "landscape designer." The erosion, facilitate water penetration and
University of Greenwich School of Architecture improve the soil. Such plants are sometimes
and Landscaping also draws a distinction: "The used in companion planting.
relationship between Landscape Design and
Landscape Architecture is equivalent to the
relationship between the laws and lawyers.") Loam A soil possessing an ideal mixture of
clay, sand and humus for growing plants.
Landscape design The art of arranging or
modifying the features of a landscape, an
urban area, etc., for aesthetic or practical
purposes. Often divided into hardscape
design and softscape design.

Landscape gardening The decoration of


land, as by planting trees and shrubs and
designing gardens. Used especially to refer
to residential landscaping work.
Mulch A covering placed around plants or
Mm covering the ground in lieu of plants, to prevent
the growth of weeds. If placed around plants,
Masonry Construction achieved through the mulch provides additional benefits, including the
diminution of erosion and water loss, and the
use of units of various natural or artificial
regulation of soil temperature. In addition, upon
mineral products, such as stone, brick, or decomposition (for organic mulches), mulches
concrete. The term can be applied to the serve as soil amendments.
craft itself or to the finished product.

Microclimate The climate of a small, specific Nn


place within an area as contrasted with the
climate of the entire area. The climate of the
Naturalized plant A plant established as a
entire area is indicated by where a region lies in
the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone (simply "zone" part of the flora of a locale other than its
forshort). place of origin. When a plant naturalizes in
an area, this can be either a "good" or a
Beginning gardeners and landscapers should try "bad" thing, depending on your opinion of
to follow USDA Plant Hardiness Zone guidelines. the plant.
But growing plants not suited to your region's
climate is sometimes possible, if one knows how For instance, when we buy an exotic bulb
to exploit a microclimate. plant that has a pretty flower and plant this
in our gardens, we're delighted if the plant
For instance, a sunny nook in your yard that is naturalizes. Sometimes, however, exotic
sheltered from harsh winds and frosts is an plants that become naturalized later come
excellent area for experimenting with plants
to be looked upon as nuisances. Tenacious
otherwise considered too tender for your region.
Let's say you're in zone 5, and the plant you'd like enough to spread without humankind's help
to grow is supposedly hardy only to zone 6. Try -- and perhaps even in spite of our attempts
growing it in the microclimate of your sunny, to eradicate them -- such naturalized plants
sheltered nook. Success isn't guaranteed, but tend to acquire a pejorative designation:
you will have increased the likelihood of the namely, "invasive." An example of such a
plant's survival considerably. plant in North America and the U.K. is
Japanese knotweed, an Asian import.
Monoculture The use of land for growing
only one type of plant. The practice of Neutral Pertaining to a soil having a pH
monoculture on a landscape thus has an value of 7, i.e., neither acidic nor alkaline.
effect that is the opposite of biodiversity, and
can sometimes be responsible for the Nitrogen-fixer Any cover crop (of the
spread of plant diseases. However, the legume family) whose roots are colonized by
planting of bedding plants en masse is a certain bacteria that extract nitrogen from
widely encountered example of a the air and convert or “fix” it into a form
monocultural use of land. required for their growth. When the bacteria
are done with this nitrogen, it becomes
Mortar (masonry term) A product composed of available to the cover crop itself. When the
cement and sand. When water is mixed in with cover crop is tilled under, the nitrogen
this product, the binding element, cement, is becomes available to your plants.
activated. Distinguish from "concrete," which acts
in a similar way but which contain coarse
aggregate which is bound together by the Node The place on a plant’s stem from
cement. Concrete can stand alone, while mortar which leaves or branches grow. Likewise, on
is used to hold brick or stone together, for the branches themselves, the place from
example, to construct a hardscape design which leaves, buds or other branches grow.
feature.
NPK Acronym for nitrogen, phosphorus and
Mortared wall A stone wall in which the potassium, the three nutrients that compose
stones are held together by mortar. a “complete fertilizer.”
Oo Pp
Open-pollinated Pertaining to a plant that is Pollarding (arboricultural term) To cut a tree
pollinated without human agency. Also Known back nearly to the trunk, so as to produce a
As: non-hybrid plant dense mass of branches for aesthetic
purposes. Pollarding begins on young trees,
pH A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a soil, and the process is repeated throughout the
numerically equal to 7 for neutral soils, increasing life of the tree.
with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with
increasing acidity. The pH scale commonly in use
ranges from 0 to 14.
Procumbent Trailing along the ground;
used to refer to plants that cannot grow
upright unless aided by humans through
Pergola An arbor treated architecturally, as with training. Also Known As: trailing
stone columns.

Proportion (landscape design terminology)


Pistillate (plant reproduction terminology)
the sense or requirement that the size of the
literally, bearing pistils. Pistillate plant parts are
"female": i.e., they bear ovules and produce individual components or groups of
seeds. components in a landscape fit into the whole
landscape harmoniously. One way to
Plant taxonomy In general, a system of achieve proportion is through proper use of
classification for plants. Specifically, we use the transition, applied to the size of the
plant taxonomy developed by Swedish naturalist respective components. A landscape that
Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus (1707-1778). Improving fails to convey good proportion is one that
on the unwieldy systems of his predecessors, is marred by abrupt transitions.
Linnaeus simplified plant taxonomy through the
"binomial" system (literally, "two names").
Linnaeus' system uses one Latin name to Rr
indicate the genus, and another Latin name to
indicate the specific epithet. Together, the genus
and the specific epithet comprise the "species." Rhizome A horizontal stem, usually growing
Thus, for example, our plant taxonomy classifies under the ground, that often sends out roots
the plant, bittersweet nightshade as Solanum and shoots from its nodes. Also Known As:
dulcamara, where the first Latin name is for the rootstock, rootstalk
genus (nightshade), and the second name is for
the specific epithet (bittersweet).
Rhythm (landscape design terminology)
The quality of a landscape design in which
Notes:
the illusion of motion has been created
through the arrangement of landscaping
1. The species is a subset of the genus.
elements. For instance, the viewer's
2. The genus name begins with a capital letter; the
specific epithet begins with a lower-case letter. perspective can be led beyond the
3. When we translate from Latin to English, we foreground to a more distant part of the
reverse the order of the names, putting the specific landscape.
epithet name before the genus name.
4. We can elaborate further on the species in some
cases, which is why sometimes you'll see a third Rootstock Root or part of a root used for
name. In such cases, we're simply getting more plant propagation. In reference to the
specific, accounting for variation within a species.
Most commonly, this third name is a cultivar, and it
process of grafting, the rootstock is that part
will appear in quotation marks. of a grafted plant that supplies the roots.
5. When you see a genus name, followed by the Also Known As: rootstalk
letter "x," followed by a specific epithet, this is an
indication that the plant is a cross between two
different plant species -- a "hybrid."
Systemic poison – An insecticide mixed in a
Ss plant’s soil and drawn up by its roots to its stem
and leaves, where it will be ingested by the pest
Scaffold branch (arboricultural term) One that it is designed to kill. Although the landscaper
adhering to an integrated pest management
of the primary limbs radiating from the trunk
philosophy would prefer to repel insects
of a tree, from which all subordinate altogether, the use of a systemic poison is at
branches stem. least preferable to spraying. By the time spraying
is carried out, significant plant damage may
Scion (arboricultural term) The detached already have occurred.
shoot containing buds from a woody plant,
used in grafting. The scion is grafted onto
the rootstock.
Tt
Screed (masonry term) A straight board used to Tendril A twisting, threadlike structure by
even off the surface of sand or freshly poured which a true climber, such as a grape or
concrete. The board is usually slid across the cucumber, grasps an object for support.
tops of the form boards holding the sand or
concrete. In this process, sand or concrete
Texture (landscape design terminology) The
remaining above the level of the forms is moved
to areas in which the sand or concrete level is too perceived surface quality of an object. The
low, or else simply removed as excess. texture of a plant's foliage or bloom can be
perceived as coarse, medium or fine.
Sheet composting The technique of
spreading organic materials over a garden before Thatch – The layer of dead turfgrass tissue
they have thoroughly decomposed, then tilling between the green vegetation and the soil
them under to achieve subsequent surface that must be removed, or
decomposition. Those who haven’t the time to dethatched, to maintain lawn health. Thatch
manage a compost bin, in which organic is derived from stems, leaves, stolons,
materials can be decomposed thoroughly, rhizomes and roots.
sometimes employ this technique.

Topiary (arboricultural term) Of or


Shrub (arboricultural term) Low woody
characterized by the pruning of live shrubs
plant, usually with multiple shoots or stems
or trees into decorative shapes, as of
from a base (height of 15 feet or less). A
animals.
planting of shrubs is called shrubbery. Also
Known As: bush (especially a shrub with
branches rising from or near the root; but Topping (arboricultural term) To cut a tree back
"bush" can also refer to a cluster of shrubs, nearly to the trunk. Topping is sometimes used
as a less expensive alternative to the full removal
as in a "thicket")
of large old trees. It therefore has taken on a
utilitarian connotation. In contrast, "pollarding"
Softscape The animate, horticultural begins on young trees and is performed for
elements of landscaping, i.e., plants. aesthetic, not utilitarian reasons. Pollarding is an
Softscape elements are complemented by ongoing, artistic process; topping is a one-time,
hardscape elements, such as stone walls, desperate action.
tile patios and brick walkways.
Transition (landscape design terminology)
Staminate (plant reproduction terminology) Gradual change achieved by the
Literally, bearing stamens. Staminate plant manipulation of the basic design elements of
parts, or stamens are "male": i.e., they color, scale, line, form and texture.
produce pollen.
Tree (arboriculture term) Woody plant with
Stolon A shoot that bends to the ground or that one main trunk and a rather distinct and
grows horizontally above the ground and elevated head. If not altered through human
produces roots and shoots at the nodes; often intervention, a true tree, such as the elm
used in describing the botany of lawn grasses. tree, will generally reach a height of 15 feet
Rhizomes, by contrast, dwell underground. or more.
Uu Zz
Unity (landscape design terminology) The Zone The full wording for "zone" would be
effective use of elements in a design to convey a "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone." The United
theme. Unity is achieved by implementing a States and southern Canada comprise 11 of
design consistently over a landscape, through these zones: that is, regions based on a 10
mass planting or repetition. Whereas balance degree Fahrenheit difference in the average
(q.v.) is a term of comparison between two
segments of a landscape, unity pertains to the
annual minimum temperature. To put it in
overall picture of a landscape. Unity has been layman's terms, the higher the number, the
achieved when the viewer senses that all the warmer the climate for gardening in that
individual elements of a landscape fit together to region. For instance, parts of northern
form a coherent theme. Also Known As: Minnesota are considered to be in zones 2
harmony and 3; but central and southern Florida lie in
zones 9-11. The bulk of the U.S.A. lies in
zones 4-8. It is standard practice for seed
Vv dealers and nurseries to label their products
according to their zones -- that is, in what
Variegated Applied to a leaf which is two- zones you'll be successful at growing those
toned, i.e., blotched or bordered with a particular plants.
lighter color than that on the rest of the Landscaping enthusiasts plan their
plant. gardens carefully, and part of that planning
involves consulting USDA Plant Hardiness
Vernalization Providing plants prematurely Zone maps. Growing plants not suited to
and artificially with the warmer temperatures your region's climate is sometimes possible,
they require to grow, “forcing” (q.v.) them but not recommended for beginners. Those
to bloom earlier in the season than would experienced in gardening and landscaping,
normally happen. Also Known As: forcing however, often make use of what are known
as microclimates.
Vertebrate An animal with a backbone, i.e.,
a mammal, bird, fish, reptile, or amphibian.
Animal pests are usually categorized as
either invertebrate pests or vertebrate pests.

Vine A plant that is either a climber (q.v.) or


a creeper (q.v.).

Ww
Woody – Characterized by hard plant stems
and having buds that survive above ground
in winter.

Xx
Xeriscaping Landscaping designed
specifically for areas that are susceptible to
drought. Derived from the Greek "xeros,"
meaning dry, it is literally “dry landscaping.”
Pronunciation: ZERisCAPEing

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