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INDUCTION MOTORS

STEPHEN WILLIAMSON and CATHERINE I. McCLAY

FELLOW, E E E

Department of Engineering, Cambridge Uiniversity

Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 IPZ, United Kingdom

Abstract-The paper describes the use of a formal optimisation proce- shapes of these slots have arisen largely as a result of evolu-

dure to determine the design of a rotor slot to obtain maximum efficiency. tion rather than revolution and there can be no certainty that

The method involves the use of an equivalent-circuit model coupled to

a finite-element field-model to calculate machine performance. Typical they are in any sen,sethe best for the specific task in hand.

results are given for a 37kW 4 pole motor designed for three particular The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a design

applications, and for a 150kW 2 pole general purpose motor. optimisation study in which the authors sought to discover the

‘best’ rotor slot shape to meet certain applications roles. The

I . INTRODUCTION best shape is taken, for the purposes of this study, to be that

which meets the performance specification whilst giving the

Induction motor manufacturers design machines for a wide highest efficiency.

range of applications with different performance require-

ments. Typical applications include drives for pumps, fans 11. APPROACHES

TO DESIGN

and compressors. If possible, the manufacturer will use a

general-purpose motor to meet the application requirements. Rotor slot design has traditionally been a process of evo-

National standards exist which provide a minimum perfor- lution; the designer begins with an existing slot shape and

mance specification for these general-purpose motors. In the alters the dimensicm until the performance specification is

UK the relevant standards authority is British Standards [ l ] met. This process usually results in slot shapes which are not

and in the USA it is NEMA [2] .These standards set a maxi- radically different from existing designs. In addition, the de-

mum value for the locked-rotor current and minimum values signer has no formid way of ensuring that further alterations

for the locked-rotor torque, pull-up torque and breakdown to the dimensions will not produce improved performance.

torque of a motor, dependent upon its rating. Designers often Much depends upon the skill and experience of the designer.

impose further performance requirements, frequently as a re- An alternative to this cut-and-try approach is to use a formal

sult of marketing considerations. Normally minimum values method in which the slot dimensions are altered determinis-

of power factor and efficiency are also specified and a tighter tically until the desired performance is achieved. Formal

specification may be placed upon the starting performance, techniques of this type are well-suited to the task of induction

pull-up torque and breakdown torque. Another common re- motor design. Appelbaum, Khan and Fuchs [3], Singh, Singh

quirement is that the efficiency is maximised whilst all other and Jha [4] and Fei, Fuchs and Huang [5] have all described

performance idices in the specification are met. the application of optimisation techniques to induction mo-

If a general-purpose motor is not suitable for the applica- tor design. More recent applications utilising this approach

tion a special motor must be designed. The performance of a include the design of energy efficient motors for irrigation

special motor is not governed by any standards but depends pumps by Shridhar, Singh, Jha, Singh and Murthy [6] and the

solely upon the application requirements. The specification design of a maximum torque motor by Poloujadoff, Christaki

will, however, usually contain the same performance indica- and Bergmann [7]. A general technique has been described

tors as that of a general-purpose motor. If a motor is designed by Williamson and Smith [8] who defined a ‘cost’ function in

to a particular standard its compliance will be flagged on the terms of the margin by which a particular design fails to meet

label. each specified index of performance. Selecting a suitable

The design of the rotor of an induction motor is critical in set of design parameters can the be equated with minimising

meeting the performance specification because the shape of this cost function. The procedure involved is summarised in

the torque speed curve is largely determined by the rotor de- Section 111. Before such a procedure can be employed, how-

sign. Manufacturers of cage induction motors with closed ro- ever, it is necessary to decide which design parameters are to

tor slots employ a limited repertoire of slot shapes. Typically, be varied. To this end the authors use the generic rotor slot

slots may be trapezoidal, rectangular, round or Boucherot. shown in Fig. 1.

The more intricate slot shapes successfully exploit skin effect The generic slot is divided into 13 sections, as shown. The

to obtain specific performance characteristics - such as a high widths w l , w2 . . .tu14 are all design variables that must be

starting torque or a high breakdown torque. However, the chosen, as are the bridge depth ( d l ) and the depth of the

111. DESIGN OPTIMISATION

Central to the deterministic design approach described by

Williamson and Smith [SI is the definition of an appropri-

ate cost function. This cost function is a measure of the

margin by which a particular design fails to meet the perfor-

mance specification. For the purposes of this paper the per-

formance specification requires that the full-load efficiency

is maximised, whilst other performance indices are met (or

exceeded). The performance indices chosen by the authors

are those commonly found in the BS and NEMA standards

and in design specifications. These are:

0 minimum locked-rotor torque, To

0 minimum pull-up torque, Tpu

minimum breakdown torque, Tbmzn

0 maximum breakdown torque, Tbmas

0 maximum locked-rotor current, Io

0 minimum full-load efficiency, q

0 minimum full-load power factor, cos

No economic factors are included in the performance spec-

ification as it is assumed here that the manufacturing and ma-

terial costs for all slots remain constant. If required, it would,

of course, be possible to include an index in the performance

specification to represent these economic considerations. The

minimum acceptable values of To,Tpu, and Tb and maxi-

mum acceptable values of I , and Tb will depend on the rele-

vant standards and the application (eg fan drive, pump drive).

These may be fixed in per-unit terms. The minimum power

factor, cos 4, is set at an acceptable level. The minimum full-

load efficiency is regarded as a ‘target’ value. It is initially

set at an achievable level and then raised progressively as

the optimisation proceeds. This procedure will be discussed

further below. Suppose now that a particular set of design

variables results in a macvne with a locked-rotor torque To

and locked-rotor current I,. The error in locked-rotor torque

may be defined by,

Fig. 1. Generic rotor slot

bottom section (dz). The depths of the upper sections of the This error will be zero if the design meets or exceeds the

slot are deemed to be fixed. The first 6 sections have depth do locked-rotor torque specification, but is proportional to the

and the next 6 have depth 2do, where do is equal to one twelfth relative deficiency in locked-rotor torque if it does not. The

of the skin depth of the rotor bar conductor at locked rotor. corresponding error in the locked-rotor current may be de-

There is therefore a total of 14 widths and 2 depths to choose, fined by,

giving 16 design parameters in all. It would be possible to

increase the number of variables to include all rotor and stator

design parameters. This would, however, result in a problem

that is intractable, even with the power of modern computers.

E2 =

i

7

:-I0

Io 16

I* L I:,

(2)

Furthermore, the focus of this investigation is on the shape less than, the maximum specified value. Similar expressions

of rotor slots. For these reasons the approach taken by the are used to define the error for each performance index in the

authors has been to choose industrially-designed machines specification using a relationship such as (1) if a minimum

and to seek to improve their performance by redesigning the value is specified and a relationship such as (2) if a maximum

rotor slots. value is specified. The errors are then summed to give the

508

cost function workstation, making the calculation of function gradients us-

ing finite differences unfeasible. The choice of optimisation

methods is therefore greatly reduced because many common

techniques require gradient information. There are several

The selection of a set of design variables which results optimisation methods which rely solely on function values.

in a machine that meets the performance specification and In recent years there has been much interest in the methods

achieves the target efficiency is clearly equivalent to reducing of Simulated Annealing [IO] and Genetic Algorithms [11],

C to zero. One of a variety of optimisation algorithms may which, if applied correctly, can obtain the global minimum of

be used to achieve this. If the algorithm successfully reduces a function. These methods are well-suited to problems where

C to zero the efficiency target is raised and the optimiser is there are a number of local minima which may trap tradi-

rerun. This process is repeated until the optimiser fails to tional search metholds and prevent the global minimum being

find a zero. This procedure ensures that the highest possible found. However, if these conditions do not exist a determinis-

efficiency is obtained. tic method will frequently converge more rapidly than either

The design process is an example of a constrained opti- of these stochastic methods. If necessary, the optimisation

misation problem. Limits on the slot dimensions exist from process can then ble repeated using a different set of initial

consideration of feasible geometries. For example, none of conditions to check; that the same minimum is achieved. In

the dimensions can be negative and a maximum value for the terms of the work in this paper, a new set of initial conditions

depth, d2, exists as the slot cannot extend into the shaft. In ad- equates to a new ‘start’ geometry for the slot. It was found

dition to these geometrical constraints further constraints on that for the range of slot optimisation problems investigateda

the dimensions are obtained from consideration of the man- deterministic optimisation method performed adequately and

ufacturing processes. A minimum value for the tooth width a stochasticmethod was not, therefore, required. The method

exisls if the laminations are to be punched reliably. Further- chosen by the authors for minimising C is Powell’s Method

more, the casting process requires that the aspect ratios of [121.

slot sections are not extreme, otherwise air bubbles may form

in the bar. These constraints on the design variables may be Iv. IMPLEMENTATION OF ROTORSLOT OPTIMISATION

introduced through the use of penalty functions. Suppose, for

example, that at an intermediate stage the optimisation algo- The process of rottor slot optimisation based on the generic

rithm chooses a set of dimensions which include a value for slot of Fig.l requires that values for 16 variables be chosen.

w1 which is less than its allowable minimum wl(mzn). The These variables are the widths w1,w2 . . .~ 1 and 4 the depths

cost function is calculated as if the limiting value, wl(mzn) dl ,d2. This process could be implemented as a 16 variable

had been chosen and it is then multiplied by a penalty factor, optimisation problem. However, such an approach was not

P where, adopted because the time taken for a 16 variable optimisation

P=1+4

(

Wl(mzn)

Wl(mzn)

- w1

l2 (4)

to converge was found to be excessive. lnstead a two-step

successive-refinement strategy was employed. In the first

step the entire rotor slot geometry is optimised to provide

The effect of P is to cause C to increase rapidly when a good estimates of thie values for the design variables. A more

‘forbidden’ value of w1 is chosen so that the optimiser will detailed optimisation of the top region of the slot is then per-

rapidly readjust w1 to an acceptable value. In a similar fash- formed. This approach was chosen because the performance

ion w1 will have a maximum permitted value and a penalty of the motor at starting is an important component of the per-

function can be used if the optimiser attempts to choose a formance specification. At starting, the rotor frequency is the

value of w1 greater than If more than one variable line frequency and so the skin depth is at its smallest value.

is chosen by the optimiser to lie outside its permitted lim- Therefore the performance of the motor at starting is largely

its the cost function is multiplied by the penalty factors for determined by the geometry of the top of the slot.

each such variable. As penalty functions are used to impose In the first step the widths w1, w3, wg, w7 . . . w14 and the

constraints an unconstrained method can be used to minimise depth d2 in Fig. 11 are the variables to be chosen by the

C. optimiser. The bridge depth, d l is fixed. To reduce the

There is a wide variety of optimisation methods available number of variables; in this optimisation step the widths 202,

for minimising an unconstrained function [9]. The choice of w4 and are not riot regarded as independent variables but

optirnisation method for minimising C is largely determined are chosen as the mean of their neighbours, ie

by the time taken to calculate a single value of the cost func-

tion. As will be explained below, machine performance is

evaluated using a finite-element model for the rotor. For each

new design it is necessary to generate a new mesh and carry The results obta.inedafter convergence of this first step are

out repeated finite element solutions. Consequently the cal- used to set the initial1conditions for the second step. This step

culation of C takes approximately 30 minutes on a Sparc 10 is essentially a ‘fine tuning’ process which optimises the top

509

section of the slot only. The widths w12, ~ 1 3~, 1 and 4 the

depth d2 are fixed at the values obtained from the previous

optimisation step. The design variables are now the bridge

depth, d l , and the widths w1 . . . w11.

The original 16 variable optimisation problem has therefore slot

been reduced to two optimisation problems, each with 12

variables. Throughout the process the stator design, core

length, rotor and shaft diameters and the number of rotor slots

remain constant as the stated objective of this investigation is

to examine the shape of rotor slots.

V. PERFORMANCE

CALCULATION

The key to the reliable operation of the optimisation pro-

cedure discussed in the preceding sections is the accurate

calculation of the performance of a machine with any given

combination of the design parameters. If the performance

calculation is not accurate the cost function will not be eval-

uated correctly and the procedure will result in a less than

Fig. 2. Single-slot rotor model

optimal design. For this reason the authors chose the steady-

state, chain-harmonic equivalent-circuit model as a basis for

performance calculation. Accurate performance prediction

depends, of course, on accurate calculation of the compo- The field solution is based on the two-dimensional integro-

nents of this equivalent-circuit model. differential equation proposed by Konrad [15], which allows

In the rotor, magnetic saturation clearly plays an impor- a specified bar current to redistribute under skin effect. As-

tant role. It might appear that a simple way of increasing suming all quantities vary sinusoidally with time

efficiency is to increase the rotor slot width, thereby reduc-

ing the rotor-bar resistance. However, widening the slot will

also increase the tooth saturation and may result in a per-

formance deterioration. It is therefore important that a rotor in which the overbars indicate the use of complex notation.

model which incorporates saturation is used. In addition, 1,is the mean (or d.c.) current distribution in the bar cross-

because an accurate prediction of the starting performance section and A, is the mean value of A over the bar cross-

is required, the model used must also include deep-bar ef- section. w is the rotor (ie slip) frequency. As saturation plays

fect. As finite-element analysis is capable of modelling both a key role in closed-slot induction motors, the reluctivity

these effects it is eminently suitable for calculating rotor pa- v in (6) must be allowed to vary with the local value of flux

rameters. However, an inherent draw-back of finite-element density. A suitable definition for this form of ‘a.c. reluctivity’

analysis is the time required for a solution to be obtained. If has been defined by Luomi, Niemenmaa and Arkkio. [ 161.

the design optimisation process is to be feasible it is essen- In the single-slot model, the presence of the rest of the rotor

tial that each performance calculation is carried out relatively is implied by the use of a periodic boundary condition on the

quickly because many such calculations are required by the radial boundaries. Thus if X and X ‘ are two corresponding

optimisation algorithm. Fortunately, the rotor of an induc- points on the radial boundaries (see Fig 2), the fields at these

tion motor is highly symmetrical, making it possible to use two points are related by

a reduced model spanning only one slot pitch. In this way a (7)

high degree of accuracy can still be obtained without incur-

ring an excessive time penalty. Williamson and Begg [ 131 where p is the number of pole pairs and Nb is the num-

and Williamson and Robinson [14] have described in detail ber of rotor bars. A suitable boundary condition must also

a suitable single-slot model which allows the rotor resistance be specified on the stator surface BC. The saturation in the

and leakage reactance per bar to be calculated for a given bar rotor depends not only on the rotor MMF but also on that

current and rotor frequency. of the stator. These two MMFs face each other across the

This single-slot model is shown in Fig.2. In the figure airgap, and are almost equal and opposite in magnitude. It is

BC represents the stator surface; AB and CD are radial lines the small difference between them (the magnetising MMF)

spanning one rotor slot pitch and AD is the interface between which drives the airgap flux. If only the MMF produced by

the shaft and the rotor lamination. The length of the airgap the rotor current were included in the model the airgap flux

that faces this single-slot sector of the rotor is equal to the would greatly exceed that present in the real machine and

clearance gap multiplied by Carter’s coefficient for the stator. consequently the rotor iron would be heavily saturated. The

510

presence of the stator MMF must therefore be included in flux, and then evaluate the iron loss in these regions using the

the model. It can be allowed for by placing a sinusoidal cur- same loss density expression as used in the rotor [18].

rent distribution on the arc BC. The magnitude of this current

sheet is initially estimated and is then adjusted iteratively un- VI. EXAMPLES

til there is just enough airgap flux to sustain the current in The techniques described in the previous sections have

the bar. At this point the appropriate air-gap field has been been used to optiimise rotor slots for two motors. In each

established and the saturation in the rotor will be correct. The case an existing motor design was used as the basis for the

values of bar resistance and inductance can then be obtained optimisation to ensure that the stator design and core-length

from the field solution [13] [14]. These values must be aug- used were realistic:. Some general information about the two

meinted by the end-ring resistance and reactance for use in an motors is contained in Table I.

equivalent-circuit model.

The procedure for including the finite-elementmodel in the

TABLE LDESIGN INFORMATION FOR MOTORS

performance calculation is relatively straightforward. The

stator components of the equivalent-circuit model are de- I Motor 1 1 Motor 2

termined using a combination of classical expressions and a I 37 1 150

simple reluctance network. The magnetising reactance is cal- Line voltage (V)

culated in part from the reluctance network and in part from Frequency (Hz)

the finite-element rotor model [14]. The rotor resistance and

reactance are calculated from the finite-elementsolution. All 48

Components of the equivalent circuit are now known, and the 40

circuit may be solved to determine the rotor current. This

calculated rotor current is referred to the rotor bars and com-

pared to the bar current that was used in the finite-element

solution. If the two are substantially in agreement, then the A. Motor I: 37 kW 4 pole

solution is deemed to have converged and the performance The rotor slot for motor one was optimised for three differ-

indices at that operating point may be calculated. If the rotor ent applications - a. general-purpose motor for use in the UK,

current calculated from the equivalent circuit differs from that a motor for a fan application and a motor for use on an oil rig.

used in the finite-element solution then a new finite-element In all 3 cases it was required that the efficiencyof the machine

solution is carried out, using the rotor current from the equiv- be maximised whilst all other specified performance indices

alent circuit to determine the mean bar current density ( j oin were met. The performance indices specified for each of the

(6)). This process is repeated until satisfactory convergence applications are lis,ted in Table 11. The special requirements

is achieved. This procedure ensures that the rotor parameters for each type of motor will now be considered in turn.

used in the equivalent circuit are compatible with the rotor

current. TABLE 11. SPECIFIED PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS FOR MOTOR 1

The accurate calculation of efficiency depends largely on

the accurate calculation of losses. Copper losses may be eval-

uated directly from the equivalent circuit but iron losses are

Performanceindex I General I FanLoad I OilRig I BS4999

more difficult to assess. In the rotor, the principal cause of Tomin (P.u.)

._ I 2.5 I . , I 2.0

0.5 (star) I 1.3

t

,

iron loss is the high-frequency fields of pole-pair numbers T,,, min (D.U.) I 2.5 I 0.5 (star) I 1.5 I 1.0

T b min (P.u.)

yN, fp , due to stator slotting. N,is the stator slot number,

T b max (P.u.) 4.0

p is the pole-pair number, and y is any integer. The pole-

pitch of these harmonics is relatively short, and time-stepped Io max (P.u.) M 10

finite-element studies have shown that they only penetrate a cos d min 0.85

short distance into the iron [17]. These harmonics are, in

fact, the principal cause of rotor surface loss. The authors The general-purpose motor is intended for use in the UK

evaluate this loss by calculating the flux density in a set of and must therefore imeet the performance specifiedby BS4999,

thin layers close to the rotor surface and then using the iron the relevant Britishi Standard [ 11. This performance specifi-

loss density expression proposed by Atallah, Zhu and Howe cation is also included in the final column of Table I1 for

[ 181. In the stator, iron losses arise as a result of both the fun- reference. Many manufacturers express the locked-rotor cur-

damental and the rotor slot-harmonic fluxes. The magnitude rent of a motor as ai per unit value of the full-load current. In

of the latter may be determined directly from the rotor finite- BS4999 the locked-rotorcurrent restriction is not specified in

element field solution, which automatically allows for both this way. Instead a maximum value of locked-rotor apparent

slotting-harmonicand permeance-harmonic effects. Broadly, power is specified, expressed as a per unit value of the rated

the authors subdivide the stator iron into regions of constant power. This ratio, unlike the current expressed in per unit

51 1

terms, is independent of full-load efficiency and can therefore

be used to compare the locked-rotor currents of motors with

different full-load efficiencies. In this paper all locked-rotor 1 skin depth

at 50Hz

current requirements are expressed as per unit values of the

full-load current, because this method is generally familiar to

designers. The per unit locked-rotor apparent power speci-

fied in BS4999 has therefore been converted to an equivalent

per unit locked-rotor current for inclusion in Table 11. In the

conversion it was assumed that the full-load efficiency was

~

ification has in fact been set for the general-purpose motor

than is required by BS4999. This enables a general-purpose

motor to be used for a wide range of applications, reducing

the need for special motors to be manufactured.

The second type of specification listed in Table I1 is for a

fan drive. Motors for fan applications only require low values

of locked-rotor torque and pull-up torque because the torque

required to accelerate a fan is approximately proportional

to the speed squared. Frequently star/delta starting is used

in applications to limit the magnitude of the locked-rotor

current. The authors therefore chose to optimise a motor for

use in a fan application requiring staddelta starting. When

staddelta starting is used the motor must produce the required

locked-rotor and pull-up torque when connected in star and

must also have a breakdown torque of at least 1.O p.u. in star,

otherwise the fan will not accelerate to full-load speed.

The final specification listed in Table I1 is for a motor

for use on an oil rig. The power supply on an oil rig is

generally less robust than the public supply so motors for use

in this type of application normally have a lower value of

starting current than a general-purpose motor. In addition,

correspondingly lower values of starting torque and pull-up

torque are specified so that it is still possible to design a

machine with an acceptable efficiency.

The optimised slots obtained for each application are shown

in Fig 3. Also included is the original slot which was used Original design

as the starting point for the optimisation procedure. The cal- General purpose motor

culated performance of the motor with each of these slots is ._.__._._.

Oil rig motor

given in Table 111. Fan motor

TABLE In. CALCULATED PERFORMANCE FOR MOTOR 1 AFTER OFTIMISA- Fig. 3. Optimised slots for motor 1

TION

Index , It can be seen that for all three applications the performance

rl(%’.> 92.28 93.04 I 93.14 92.58 specification has been met, with the optimisation process pro-

To(U .U. 2.2 2.5 I 0.5 (star) 2.0 ducing quite different slot shapes for each of the applications.

Some insights into the reasons for the shapes of the redesigned

slots may be gained by considering their cross-sectional areas,

2.5 (star) which are given in Table IV.

cos cp 0.86 0.88 0.89 0.87 The first observation is that all three of the new slot designs

0.0178 have approximately the same cross-sectional area, 150mm2 *

4%, which is 18% bigger than that of the original design. To

explore this further consider the expression for output power,

512

TABLE 1V. COMPARISON OF SLOTS AT FULL-LOAD

proportional to &b. Therefore,

w constant (12)

Original 2.515

2.533

The ratio is listed in Table V for each motor. The

Fan drive 2.556 ratio for the fan motor has been calculated as if the motor

Oil rig I 144 I 2.567 were delta connected so that it can be compared with the

other designs. The values given in Table V indicate the level

of approximation embodied in (12). An increase in Ab6 may

now be seen to be equal to a reduction in the ratio of the

starting torque to the square of the starting current. Ab6 is

therefore smaller for an oil rig motor which requires a high

At full load, the referred rotor resistance is approximately starting torque ancl low starting current than for a fan-drive

equal to the inverse of the bar cross-sectional area (neglecting motor which has it lower starting torque to starting current

end-ring resistance), so that ratio.

(9)

The rotor slot for motor 2 has been optimised for a general-

k is a constant, s is the full-load slip and Ab is the bar cross- purpose motor applicationfor use in the UK. The performance

sectional area. For a fixed pole number, supply frequency, specified for this application is listed in Table VI along with

voltage and output power the terms on the right hand side of the values stipulated by BS4999 and the calculated perfor-

(9) are approximately constant (given than all reasonable de- mance of the motor after rotor slot optimisation. As for

signs will have closely the same efficiencyand power factor), motor 1, the target specification is higher than that required

therefore by BS4999. The slot obtained from optimisation with this

sAb M constant (10) specification is shown in Fig 4, together with the slot used as

The product of full-load slip and bar cross-sectional area is the starting geometry for the optimisation.

given in Table IV for all four 37kW motors (ie original plus

three new designs). It is evident that SAb is indeed constant TABLE VI. TARGET AND CALCULATED PERFORMANCE FOR MOTOR 2

as indicated by (10). An increase in bar area can therefore

be simply equated to a reduction in full-load slip, leading to

a consequential increase in rotor efficiency.

Although all three redesigned slots have approximatelythe

same cross-sectional area, the proportion of this area which

lies within one locked-rotor skin-depth of the bar top is dif-

ferent for each slot. These areas are listed in Table V.

I 10 I 8.0

TABLE V. COMPARISON OF SLOTS AT LOCKED-ROTOR

I cos0 I >. 0.87 I - I 0.903

The results in Table VI show that the optimised design is

predicted to meet or exceed all performance requirements.

Original

The final slot outline selected by the optimiser is the well-

General Puruose 1.56

known ‘double-cage’ type of slot, albeit with a wider head

Fan drive 57 1.52

than is usual. Examination of the current distribution at

Oil rig 22 1.22

locked-rotor revealed that the current concentrates at the lat-

eral extremities of the slot head. The efficacy of this slot is

A similar analysis to that above may be carried out for still under investigation.

locked-rotor conditions. At locked rotor the torque is given,

VII. CONCLUSIONS

approximately, by

3I:R;,

To M ~

(1 1) The authors have described a general technique that is ca-

WS

pable of producing revolutionary, rather than evolutionary,

I

where R,, is the locked rotor resistance, referred to the changes to rotor slot designs. It has been used to improve

stator. Neglecting rotor end-ring resistance, Rio is inversely the design efficiencies of several cast-rotor machines and has

513

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Murthy. Design of an energy efficient motor for irri-

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