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The history of the United States of

America Part 1
Prehistory, Pre-Colonial Period, and the Colonial Period
For thousands of years, America has been a land filled with beauty in culture
and in its geographic greatness. From its alleys to its mountains, America has
monumental topography. Now, it is the time to outline its full history from
the beginning to near 2020. The United States of America has the paradox as
being the most diverse nation in human history while still existing with the
issues of racism, economic inequality, xenophobia, and other problems.
America was founded with the original sins of slavery and the genocide of
the Native Americans. Many early Americans cared more for wealth and
prestige than for human justice. Likewise, other Americans (then and now)
fought vigorously for freedom & equality plus justice as well. In this series,
the unvarnished truth about the United States will be shown along with the
renewed call for tranquility and justice for all.
“The colour of the skin is in no way connected with
strength of the mind or intellectual powers.”
CONTENTS –-Benjamin Banneker

7 In the beginning
8 North American
indigenous peoples
9 Mesoamerican and
South American
12 European

This was Fort Mose in Florida being a free

black American town from centuries ago
during the 18th century. Many escaped slaves
came into the location to advance freedom.

2 4

14 The Old World and
the New World

19 Colonial conflicts

20 English Colonies

27 The origins of the

Revolutionary War

30 The start of the

American Revolution
Foreword (The Introduction)
When I think of the United States know of Muhammad Ali who and some of the most evil people
of America, I think of a stood up against an unjust war in human history. It is the most
multiplicity of things. It is the and advanced inspirational powerful nation militarily in
place of my birth and I know a confidence among black people. human history too. Today,
great deal of its history and Eleanor Roosevelt came about to America has over 325 million
culture. There is nothing like the travel the world to promote people living in its 50 states plus
United States. I live in America. I peace, women's rights, and racial other areas like Puerto Rico. It
have visited urban communities justice. Eugene Debs spoke up has the third most populous
and rural communities in real life publicly in favor of labor rights. country in the world. The Native
from Southampton County (in Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Ella Americans are the original
Virginia), Cambridge (in Baker, and Malcolm X inhabitants of the United States
Maryland), Richmond (in courageously organized who came here in ca. 15,000 years
Virginia), Cape Charles (in demonstrations and movements ago from Asia.
Virginia), and to Baltimore for equality and justice too.
including other locations. I have We have to learn about the
tasted foods that were Native Americans concretely
created by human beings if we desire to learn about
among many backgrounds. I America comprehensively.
have worked among people They formed diverse,
(in many jobs) of a diversity complex cultures (like the
of colors and creeds. In the Mound Cultures, the Mayan
United States of America, civilization, the Olmec
you see African Americans civilization, etc.) and
working in medicine greatly, Louis Armstrong, Sarah Vaughn, technological advances.
Samoan Americans caring for and Stevie Wonder promoted European colonization changed
their families, Latinx Americans jazz, soul music, R&B, and the Americas forever with
being judges, Asian Americans profound excellence in musical genocides, imperialism, slavery,
being engineers, Italian expression in general. Toni and other evils. My black
Americans advancing sociological Morrison, Edgar Allen Poe, Maya ancestors from Africa were
research, and other Americans Angelou, and Hemingway wrote involuntarily kidnapped and
contributing heavily in our some of the greatest literature brought here as slaves centuries
society. that the world has ever witnessed. ago. Literally, America was
Therefore, legends and developed by the blood of slaves
Therefore, America represents prominent people, who instituted and the genocide of the
the diversity of its people and the wide ranging change, are all part indigenous peoples.
necessity for the thriving to be of the repertoire of America.
better. As we all know, America's Our history has been
history is combination of good Unsung folks, who have characterized in a struggle
things plus bad things. We can't positively impacted the lives of between those who want to
be naive and sugarcoat the errors the world, outline the power of extend human rights to all people
of America. The original sins of America too. Some of the not-so- (including immigrants who
the United States of America are famous people include some of deserve their human rights to be
slavery and the genocide of the the most righteous people in respected) and those who want to
Native Americans. Likewise, American history. America is the restrict them (our people have
heroes are found in the United most diverse nation in human been involved in every U.S. war
States of America too. We know history. It has a combination of and in many social movements as
of Harriet Tubman who freed the some of the greatest people well). Our forebears defeated the
hundreds of black slaves. We traitorous Confederates during
the U.S. Civil War. We defeated where large corporate oligarchical freedom of speech, the separation
the Axis fascists during World interests dominate a large aspect of powers, the freedom of the
War II, and we will defeat the of our economy unfortunately. press, the right to assemble, the
reactionaries today as one of its separation of church and state,
leaders is the bigoted occupant of etc.) that we cherish are what we
the White House. His name is defend wholeheartedly. In this 12
Donald Trump. Right now, we part series, there will be no
witness the new era of the 21st sugarcoating. The culture and
century. America had 33.4% of histories of tons of backgrounds
the total wealth on Earth, and it will be outlined here in this series.
has the largest share of global I wanted to do this for a long
wealth concentrated in a single We are not silent. We abhor the time and Lord Willing, this series
country. will be historic.
Trump administration’s policy
of separating children
(including toddlers) from their Therefore, I live in the
This dual reality is that America
has been involved in imperial families. United States of
adventures overseas to the To reconcile this reality, we have America and I will
detriment of other human beings to make a distinction between
(especially poorer nations and Americans doing evil and
continue to believe in
peoples of color as tons of people Americans who are caring for the Dream too.
have been the victims of Western their families, who are fighting
colonialism and imperialism like for justice, and who possess a real
Africans, Asians, Latin conviction in believing in liberty
Americans, etc.) while being a plus justice for all. We don't
leading political, cultural, and desire reformism (which doesn't
scientific force internationally go far enough in establishing
(whose economy is post- freedom).
industrial with services and
knowledge-based activities along We desire revolutionary change
with a manufacturing sector). to help humanity. The same
America has a mixed economy democratic principles (i.e.

Liberty and justice for all is our credo.

Liberty will be defended here. America has many courageous human

beings who will stand up for the oppressed. This journey for freedom is not
over and the struggle continues. Likewise, our belief in human rights,
economic justice, and social justice are part of our souls forever. Right is
on our side and we shall prevail in the end.
After the Earth was formed, there was the Paleozoic era. What, is now North America, was found in the
southern hemisphere. Marine life existed. Many amphibians and early reptiles existed. The continents later
merged into Pangaea. Drier conditions came about. The Mesozoic era came about with dinosaurs. They
spread across North America. The area of Pangaea split up and North America drifted north and westward.
With the Cenozoic era, mammals dominated the area. The Eocene saw early camels and horses including
the creodonts (which are carnivorous) in the western states. The climate later cooled until the Pleistocene.
That was when glaciers spread. During this period, there were saber-toothed cats, wholly mammoths,
mastodons, and dire wolves. Humans came into the America via a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska.
They may have been involved in hunting many of these animals into extinction. Large mammals were
extinct at about 10,000 years ago.

Extinct Ice Age Animals

Mammoth Short-faced bear Ground Sloth Saber tooth-tiger

Native American cultures (in the Pre-Colonial Period)
Native American cultures flourished during the pre-colonial period of United States history. This period of
history lasted from the Upper Paleolithic period of the original human settlement of the Americas to the
era of European colonization in massive scale which was about 1492 (with the voyages of that imperialist
Christopher Columbus). The indigenous American cultures were complex. They were filled with diversity,
imaginative power, influential creativity, and powerful growth. These Native American civilizations included
cities, settlements, earthworks, art, architecture, and complex societal hierarchies. Archaeology, historical
studies, and other studies have discovered more information about these civilizations. Native Americans
came from Asian peoples. They entered the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge. It was called Beringia.
There is mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that found multiple genetic populations migrating from Asia into the
Americas. Over the millennia, Paleo-Native Americans spread across North and South America. The Clovis
culture dated to 13,000 years ago and older sites date back to 20,000 years ago. Genetic studies estimate
that the migration to the Americas dated between 40,000 and 13,000 years ago. Many scientists believe in
2 theories about how humans came into the America. One is called the short chronology theory, which
believes that humans went from Asia, into Alaska, and to the rest of the Americas no earlier than 14,000 to
17,000 years ago. The second belief is the long chronology theory. This believed that humans came into the
Americas possibly 50,000 to 40,000 years ago or earlier. Researchers found artifacts in North and South
America dated to 14,000 years ago. Many believe that the Eskimo peoples have arrived later in about 2,000
years ago moving across the ice from Siberia into Alaska and beyond.
In the Beginning

When the ice age ended, the North American climate stabilized by about 10,000 years ago. This time is
called the Archaic period. Many archaeological discoveries of cultures have been found during this era of
time as well. The Clovis culture lasted from ca. 9100 to 8850 B.C. It was found in North and South America.
It had people using a flaked flint spear point with a notched flute. It was inserted into a shaft. It was a
hunting culture. The Na-Dene speaking peoples entered North America from ca. 8,000 B.C. and reached the
Pacific Northwest by 5,000 B.C. Then, they traveled along the Pacific Coast and into the interior. They were
the ancestors of the Athabascan speaking peoples including the Navajo and Apache. The diversity of the
climate of the Americas caused the change of Native American cultures into many culturally distinct tribes.
The original Native Americans were hunter gatherers. They were small, mobile bands. Some existed in
groups of 20 to 50 people in extended families which moved from place to place to get resources. Many of
them hunted the extinct giant land animals like the mastodon and the ancient bison. Some had projectiles,
knives, and other tools for butchering and processing. North America is vastly diverse in its climate,
ecology, fauna, flora, and landforms. This influenced the development of many distinct linguistic and
cultural groups. Oral histories from the indigenous peoples dealt with many creation stories. These stories
outline interpretations about how the world was created. Many of them domesticated, bred, and cultivated
many plant species. These species were very nutritious and they make up 50-60% of all crops in cultivation

Hunters and gatherers continued to exist among Arctic, Subarctic, and coastal peoples. Agriculture was
used in more temperate plus sheltered regions. Plant cultivation grew population rates in the early
Americas. The Middle Archaic period came about in about 8,000 years ago. By 6,500 B.C., people in the
Lower Mississippi Valley at the Monte Santo site created complex earthwork mounds for possibly religious
reasons. Mound complexes were found in modern day Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida. Many
archaeologists discovered these sites by the late twentieth century. Hunter gatherer societies were
involved in the mound construction process. In ca. 3,400 B.C., there was Watson Brake. This was a large
group of complex 11 platform mounds. It was added to over 500 years. Ceramics flowed massively in the
region. The late Archaic period existed after 2,000 B.C. During this time, there was Poverty Point. It was
located in the Lower Mississippi Valley. It was created in ca. 1500 B.C. The Mississippi has many similar sites
too. The Poverty Point is known for its earthworks in the form of six concentric half-circles. It is divided by
radial aisles with small mounts. It is nearly a mile across. Mound Building flourished in other cultures in the
Mississippi and Ohio River valleys too. They had effigy mounds, conical and ridge mounds plus other
shapes. The Coles Creek culture is found in Louisiana. The Hohokam culture is found in the American
Southwest. The civilization was created along the middle Gila River. They raised beans, squash, and corn.
The ancestral Puebloan cultures are found in the four corners region of southern Utah, northern Arizona,
northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.

North American Indigenous peoples

From 1,000 B.C. to 1,000 A.D., there was the Woodland period in North American pre-Columbian cultures.
It dealt with the Adena culture and the Hopewell tradition. There were large earthwork architecture, many
exchanges plus trade networks, and mounds. Stone tools, leather working, cultivation, textile manufacture,
and shelter construction existed during this time. Many Woodland peoples used spears, atlatls, bows, and
arrows. The Mississippian culture is known for its mounds too. It spread from the Southeast and Midwest
to the Gulf of Mexico and Upper Midwest. It was a vast civilization. The culture grew maize and other crops.
Their trade networks were extensive. The Mississippian existed in ca 1000 A.D. One of the largest urban
sites of the Mississippian was the location of Cahokia. It is located near modern day East St. Louis,
Illinois. Its population reached as high as 20,000 human beings. There were other chiefdoms in the Great
Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. Cahokia was the most populous city of North America back then (except for
some cities in Mesoamerica and South America back then). The Monk’s Mound is the ceremonial center of
Cahokia which was the largest earthen construction of the prehistoric New World. It reached its zenith in
ca. 1200-1400 A.D. It declined by the arrival of Europeans. Many Mississippian peoples saw the expedition
of Hernando de Soto during the 1500’s. The expedition saw Spanish people struggling for supplies while the
Spanish expeditions in Mesoamerica conquered large empires with a few men. Diseases ended the
Mississippian civilizations. Many of their lands became inhabited for a time. Many Native American regions
include the Arctic (plus the Aleut, Inuit, and Yupik peoples), Subarctic, Northwestern Woodlands,
Southwestern Woodlands, Great Plains, Great Basin, Northwest Plateau, Northwest Coast, California, and
Southwest (Osasisamerica). There were the sedentary pre-Columbian cultures of Pueblo people, Mandan,
Hidatsa, etc.

Mesoamerican and South American Cultures

There was the democratic society of the Iroquois League of Nations. Mesoamerica had very complex
cultures like the Olmec, Aztec, Toltec, etc. stretching from Mexico to Costa Rica plus the rest of Central
America. Mesoamerican civilization had pyramid style temples, mathematics, astronomy, writing, medicine,
accurate calendars, arts, agriculture, an abacus calculator, complex theology, etc. Many of these cultures
had a base 20 and included 0. The largest Mesoamerican cities were Teotihuacan, Tenochtitlan, and
Cholula. They had trade routes and spread information quickly. The Olmec civilization was oldest complex
Mesoamerica civilization that grew from 2000 B.C. The Mayan civilization was at its peak from 250 B.C. to
650 A.D. The Aztec civilization was very powerful too. South American Native Americans tribes had
geoglyphs and the Inca civilization (whose capital was the cougar shaped city of Cuzco. It existed heavily in
its zenith from 1438 to 1533. It had a road system, cities built precisely with stone and terrace farming used
for agriculture. Brain surgery and metalwork were also found in the Inca Empire).

Some theorize South Pacific Oceanic contact with South America. Some believe that domesticated chickens
were introduced to South America via Polynesia by the late pre-Columbian times. The Norte Chico
civilization existed in Peru as early as 3,000 B.C. (which is about the same time as urbanization growth in
Mesopotamia). Norte Chico or Caral is the oldest known complex civilization in the Americas. It existed until
1,800 B.C. The Valdivia culture transpired in the coast of Ecuador. They had fishing and farming being
sedimentary people. Scholars found that Valdivians cultivated maize, kidney beans, squash, cassava, hot
peppers, and cotton plants, the last of which was used to make clothing. Valdivian pottery initially was
rough and practical, but it became showy, delicate, and big over time. They generally used red and gray
colors; and the polished dark red pottery is characteristic of the Valdivia period. In its ceramics and stone
works, the Valdivia culture shows a progression from the simplest to much more complicated works.

The Tiwanaku Empire was from 300 to 1000 A.D. It is found from western Bolivia to Peru and Chile. There
is the Gate of the Sun gate in Tiwanaku. In Hawaii, it was inhabited originated by the Polynesians between
the 1st century and the 10th century. Around 1200 A.D., Tahitian explorers found and began settling the
area as well. This became the rise of the Hawaiian civilization. Captain James Cook from England came into
the Hawaii Islands in 1778. The founder of the Kingdom of Hawaii was Kamehameha I.

This is the iconic Machu Picchu. It represents the essence of the Inca civilization, which
was found in South America.
The Aztec
Tenochtitlan was a large Mexican city-state and it was the capital of the calendar
Moctezuma I was a system was
powerful Aztec Empire. It is now presently in the center of Mexico City. June
famous ruler of complex with
20, 1325 was the date of its founding on an island (on then Lake Texcoco) in
Tenochtitlan. He lived a sacred
the Valley of Mexico. It grew so large that it was the largest city of the Pre-
from ca. 1398 to 1469. calendar with
Columbian Americas. Once having a population between 200,000 and 400,000
He strengthened people, it was larger than London and any other European city during that time
13 months of
Aztec rule. He allowed 20 days and
period. Canals and complex road systems surrounded Tenochtitlan extensively.
the levee of an
Canoes were used in order to allow people to travel from residential districts agricultural
Nezahualcoyotl was to the city center (i.e. downtown area). The market place of Tlatelolco had or solar
crated, reputedly people buying avocadoes, beans, chili peppers, corn, squash, and tomatoes. calendar with
designed by Temples, palaces, and governmental buildings were in the center of the city 18 months of
Nezahualcoyotl. too. The city was divided into four zones or camps. Each camp had 20 districts. 20 days. This
The city’s architecture was just beautiful. comes to
360 days.
They added
This map shows 5 more days
the western side (called
of the Lake
Texcoco. unlucky
Tenochtitlan is days) to get
found in the 365 days.
southern part of
the main island
(under the red
line). The The Templo Mayor was the main temple of the
northern part is Aztecs in the capital city of Tenochtitlan. Its
Tlatelolco. The architecture is part of the Postclassic period of
area is about a Mesoamerica. The temple was called the Huēyi
little over 5 Teōcalli [we:ˈi teoːˈkali] in the Nahuatl language
square miles. and dedicated simultaneously to two gods,
Huitzilopochtli, god of war, and Tlaloc, god of
rain and agriculture, each of which had a shrine
Herman Cortes was the Spanish at the top of the pyramid with separate
conquistador who was responsible staircases. The spire in the center of the image
above was devoted to Quetzalcoatl in his form
for the destruction of Tenochtitlan. as the wind god, Ehecatl. The Great Temple
He talked with Moctezuma II devoted to Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc, measuring
before he executed a 75 day siege approximately 100 by 80 m (328 by 262 ft.) at its
against the city. Many Native base, dominated the Sacred Precinct.
Americans died by murder and
famine. The city was leveled and
conquered by Spanish murderous
Early Native American Culture

This is called the Monks Mound of Cahokia. It is part This is part of the Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National
of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. The concrete Park. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This
stair case follows the approximate course of the location was part of the Pueblo civilization.
ancient wooden stairs. This mound is part of the
Mississippian culture in America.

This engraved stone palette from Moundville shown The image above shows the Great House at the Casa
two horned rattlesnakes. Some believe that it Grande Ruins National Monument.
referred to the Great Serpent of the Southeastern
Ceremonial Complex.
European Exploration

The Vikings had a long history. By the year of 985 A.D., the Viking Erik the Red was believed to have been
the first European to have discovered Greenland in 985 A.D. after being exiled from Iceland for murder in
982. He returned with 14 surviving ships as he left with 25 ships in his expedition. The Vikings were in
Greenland during a warm period. So, they raised sheep and cattle for food, wool, and hides. They exported
walrus ivory. By the 1300’s, settlements grew and gradually faded away. The Inuit Native Americans were
called skraelings (which is a bigoted word) by the Vikings. A Norwegian ship's captain named Bjarni
Herjólfsson first came across a part of the North American continent ca. 985 when he was blown off course
sailing to Greenland from Iceland. Leif Ericson also explored North America beyond Greenland. Some
traded with Native American Inuit groups. There was a short lived settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows in the
northern part of Newfoundland, Canada. Since 2012, five other potential settlements have been discovered
ranging from Tanfield Valley in the north to Point Rosee in the south. They or the Vikings traded with the
Native Americans. They were amazed at how different each other were. The Vikings left the area because
of conflicts. The Native Americans had advanced weaponry of bows and arrows. The Newfoundland area
was called Vinland by the Vikings. Vikings may have visited Svalbard as early as the 12th century. Various
foods found in the Americas include corn, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, onions, peanuts,
strawberries, blueberries, papaya, avocados, cocoa beans, etc. Over two-thirds of all types of food crops
grown worldwide came from the Americas.
The Colonial period
The Colonial period from 1492 to 1776 changed the world forever. It was a time where European, African,
and Native American cultures interacted with each other. It was the time of massive European exploitation
of the Americas for a diversity of reasons. Some Europeans wanted to control resources via imperialism and
mercantilism. Some Europeans wanted to advance the evil scourge of slavery. Other Europeans wanted to
have religious freedom or organize businesses. Europeans brought with them horses, cattle, and hogs to
the Americas. They brought back to Europe maize, turkeys, potatoes, tobacco, beans, and squash. This
existence of the exchange of goods among the Old World and the New World is called the Columbian
Exchange. Also, millions of black Africans slaves were kidnapped from the Motherland of Africa and sent
into the Americas. Most African slaves were in South America and the Caribbean not North America. Many
Native Americans died by smallpox and measles (when they had no immunity to them) plus genocides. To
understand the colonial period, we have to look at these realities chronologically.
The Old World and the New World

The first Europeans of the colonial period who explored were from Spain and Portugal. Christopher
Columbus was Italian, but he worked for Spain. His first voyage was started on August 3, 1492 when he left
Spain with 3 ships (called the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina). He reached the Bahamas by October
1492 and later to Hispaniola. During his second expedition, he reached Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493
(after he sat sail from Cadiz on September 1493 with 17 ships). He reached Florida in 1513. It is a historical
fact that Columbus and his imperialist allies used murder, abuse, rape, and other heinous acts against the
Native American peoples of the Caribbean like the Arawak peoples, the Taino, and the Lucayan. Spanish
explorers reached the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon, and the Great
Plains. By 1497, John Cabot landed in Newfoundland. This started the British colonial presence in the
continental North America. In 1513, Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and saw the
Pacific Ocean. In that same year, Juan Ponce de León defeats Tlaxcala, a small state neighboring the Aztec
Empire. The Spanish began the conquest of the Maya civilization during the 1520’s and in 1521, Hernan
Cortes destroyed the Aztec empire. By 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano (working for France) explored the
coastline from present day Maine to North Carolina. In 1540, Hernando de Soto explored the Southwest.
Many other Spanish explorers investigated the Chesapeake Bay too by the 1500’s.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explored places from Arizona to central Kansas. Spanish settlements grew
to be major cities like San Antonio (in Texas), Albuquerque (in New Mexico), Tucson (in Arizona), Los
Angeles (in California), and San Francisco (in California). During the year of 1565, Admiral Pedro Menéndez
de Avilés founds St. Augustine, Florida the first Spanish settlement in the New World, and is the oldest
continuously occupied European settlement in the continental United States. The Iroquois Confederacy was
created during the 1570’s. Sir Walter Raleigh founds Roanoke Colony or the first English settlement in the
United States. It was deserted by 1590 under mysterious circumstances.
The Middle Passage was extremely brutal. Criminals Mother Africa has always had
kidnapped and shipped enslaved Africans throughout complex, great ancient
the Americas including the Caribbean and South civilizations. Ancient Ghana Olaudah Equiano
America. The journey took from 3 weeks to three had massive gold trading and (1745-1797) was
months depending on the weather and wind. Many complex governments. Mali, a victim of the
people died in the ships. Rape and violence done by the Maafa. He was
Songhai, and other empires
slave owners were commonplace. kidnapped at 11,
were well known for their
became free, and
power and cultural influences
was a powerful
abolitionist. His
book entitled,

Remembering the Maafa “The Interesting

Narrative of the
Life of Olaudah
Equiano” gives a
In essence, the Maafa was the worst form of slavery in human history. Black literal first-hand
Africans were kidnapped by criminals and shipped into the Americas and other account of the
places of the world from the Middle East to India. The criminals involved in Maafa.
such terrorism include Europeans, sellout Africans, and some Arabic people.
European imperialists organized the plans, the ships, the chains, and the murder
plus rape of African peoples. The Middle Passage involved massive crowded
Sister Nanny of
Jamaica was a
conditions, abuse, assault, horrendous conditions, and total mayhem. Most
hero who people of black African descent in the Americas have West plus Central African
resisted slavery. ancestry. The Portuguese were the first Europeans involved in the Trans-
She represented Atlantic slave trade. Later, the Spanish, the British, the French, the Dutch
one out of many Empires, and other people had involvement in the slave trade. About 12 million
people who Africans were shipped across the Atlantic. It would only be in the early 21st She was Sister
fought against century when many governments issued apologies for the transatlantic slave
Hagar Brown or
tyranny. trade. Black people also revolted against such evil every step of the way. One
message that should resonate is the following: Never Again and Never Forget. a former slave at
the Oaks
Ominira (freedom in Yoruba) plantation in
County, South

There were many local African rulers who

allowed Europeans to build slaveholding
compounds. Africans, who were captured, This image shows slaves in Brazil
Black slaves were tortured
marched to those compounds. As early as the creating manioc. It is important to
and forced to wear torture
1400’s, Portuguese travelers used deception in note that most of the African slaves devices like neck braces,
getting the slave trade expanded. were sent into Brazil. To this day, wooden boards, and other
millions of Afro-Brazilians are still objects on their bodies.
fighting for justice and black
liberation in Brazil.
The 17th century Dutch colony called New Netherlands was created around New York City and the Hudson
River Valley. The Dutch traded furs with the Native Americans to the north. The colony was used as a
barrier to expansion from New England. The Dutch Calvinists and built the Reformed Church in America,
and they were tolerant of other religions and cultures. In 1664, the British took over the Dutch colony in
New York State. The Dutch Colony greatly influenced American history. Many people back then were
religious and secular. Some embraced mercantilism and rural life. Many Americans of Dutch descent are
Martin Van Buren, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt, and the Frelinghuysens.
New France was the area colonized by France in America from 1534 to 1763. It has been found in Quebec,
Acadia, and in other places of the Great Lakes plus the Midwest. The French traded with Native Americans
in the Great Lakes and the Midwest. French villages grew along the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. In those
places, there were farming and a granary for Gulf Coast settlements. The French created plantations in
Louisiana and they settled in New Orleans, Mobile, and Biloxi. The Wabanaki Confederacy was the military
Native American allies of New France. This was done during the four French and Indian Wars while the
British colonies were allied with the Iroquois Confederacy.
Anti-Slavery Rebellions against Tyranny (during the colonial period)

The Gaspar Yanga rebellion of The 1712 New York Slave Revolt The Stono Rebellion of 1739
ca. 1570 was about the leader was about black people wanting an existed in South Carolina. It was
and black man Gaspar Yanga end to slavery. Back then, a slave the largest slave uprising in the
fighting for independence in market existed near modern day British mainland colonies. The
Veracruz, Mexico. He was Wall Street. About 20 percent of leaders of this rebellion most
working with a maroon group the population of New York City probably came from the Central
of people in order to form back then was enslaved black African Kingdom of Kongo as
their own self-rule. To this very people. 70 black people were some of the people involved
day, Yanga is a national hero arrested and jailed after the spoke Portuguese. Jemmy was
of Mexico. rebellion. Of these 27 were put on the leader. They wanted to go
trial and 21 were convicted and into Spanish Florida, which was a
executed. place for escapees, but they
were stopped by a militia. After
the end of the rebellion, South
Carolina passed some of the
harshest pro-slavery laws in the
nation, but by 1865, the
Confederacy would be rightfully
A Timeline of Early Colonial American History

1607 1608
England The 1680
created French Georgia
found Bacon’s Pueblo became a
Quebec Rebellion Revolt royal colony

1600 1650 1700 1750 1800

The Jamestown colony, starting in 1607, changed America forever.

English settlers encountered Powhatan Native Americans (who spoke
an Algonquian language) and tons of events including conflicts would
Colonial Conflicts

The French and Indian War was about Britain and France fighting for the control of resources in North
America. It was also part of the overall Seven Years’ War among European countries. During the war, New
England fought successfully against French Acadia. The British removed Acadians from Acadia (Nova Scotia)
and replaced them with New England Planters. Eventually, some Acadians resettled in Louisiana, where
they developed a distinctive rural Cajun culture that still exists to this very day. They became American
citizens in 1803 with the Louisiana Purchase. Other French villages along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers
were absorbed when the Americans started arriving after 1770, or settlers moved west to escape them.
French influence and language in New Orleans, Louisiana and the Gulf Coast was more enduring.
Additionally, New Orleans was notable for its large population of free people of color before the Civil War.

English colonies

British Colonization grew by the late 1500’s and early 1600’s. The East Coast of America was heavily settled
by English colonists during the 17th century along with smaller number of the Dutch and Swedes (plus the
Scots-Irish). Colonial America had a large labor shortage, slavery, and indentured servitude. British elites
used the policy of benign neglect. Over half of all European immigrants into colonial America arrived as
indentured servants. The Roanoke Colony failed during the 1500’s via mysterious circumstances. The first
successful English colony was Jamestown (or the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jamestown was found in the Colony of Virginia). It was established in 1607. I visited Jamestown in early
November of 2017, which was 410 years after 1607. While I was there, I saw reconstructions of houses,
churches (with religious documents), ships, and one fort. Jamestown is found on the James River in Virginia.
Jamestown suffered hardships for decades until new settlers arrived in the late 17th century. They formed
commercial agriculture, which was based in tobacco. The British shipped between 50,000 to 120,000
convicts to the Americans colonies between the late 1610’s and the Revolution. The Native Americans were
increasingly stripped of their lands, raped, murdered, and forcibly converted to Christianity (when a person
has the right to be Christian or non-Christian voluntarily without forced conversion). The Dutch claimed
New Netherland in 1614. Slavery was introduced into the Colony of Virginia in 1619 as this was the time
when black Africans were forcibly sent into Virginia. The 1622 Powhatan uprising in Virginia resulted in
hundreds of English settlers to die. Likewise, millions of Native Americans would die of disease and
genocide by evil European imperialists in the Americas. The largest conflicts between Native Americans and
English settlers in the 17th century were King Philip's War in New England and the Yamasee War in South

New England was settled by the Puritans by the 1600’s. The Pilgrims formed a settlement in 1620 at
Plymouth Colony (after the Mayflower Compact was signed). New Amsterdam was founded by 1625 and it
would be New York City during the future. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was created in 1630 by the
Puritans. The Pilgrims (who were mostly working class people. William Bradford and William Brewster were
famous Pilgrims) were Separatists. They want to break from the Church of England to form their own
church. The Puritans (who were mostly middle to upper class people. They wanted to form a strict
theocracy) wanted to purify the Church of England from within (in eliminating Roman Catholic influences in
the Anglican Church. John Winthrop, John Endicott, and Miles Standish were famous Puritans). By 1640,
John Punch, a black indentured servant, ran away with two white indentured servants, James, Gregory, and
Victor. After the three were captured, Punch was sentenced to serve Virginia planter Hugh Gwyn for life.
This made John Punch the first legally documented slave in Virginia (and the U.S.). In 1654, John Casor, a
black man who claimed to have completed his term of indenture, became the first legally recognized slave-
for-life in a civil case in the Virginia colony. The court ruled with the slave owner who said he had an
indefinite servitude for life. In 1672, the Royal African Company is founded in England, allowing slaves to be
shipped from Africa to the colonies in North America and the Caribbean. England entered the slave trade in
a higher level.

Bacon's Rebellion took place in 1676. It was one of the most important events of American history. It was
about white settlers and black indentured servants uniting to fight to expand into western frontiers (against
the wishes of the rule of Colonial Governor William Berkeley who refused to retaliate against Native
American attacks against colonists). The Bacon's Rebellion was complex in many people in it did the wrong
thing in attacking Native Americans, but it represented one major fight against the English imperial power
structure. Nathaniel Bacon led the Bacon's Rebellion too. Bacon's forces (in about 300-500 people) burnt
down Jamestown to the ground. Later, Berkeley took over and defeated the rebellious forces. He allowed
the hanging of 24 men. The alliance between indentured servants and Africans (most enslaved until death
or freed), united by their bond-servitude, disturbed the ruling class, who responded by hardening the racial
caste of slavery in an attempt to divide the two races from subsequent united uprisings with the passage of
the Virginia Slave Codes of 1705. After the Bacon's Rebellion, slavery was further expanded viciously in the
American colonies.
By 1702, East Jersey and West Jersey became crown colonies. Blackbeard (or a famous pirate) was killed by
Lieutenant Robert Maynard in the waters off the Province of North Carolina. Pirates were rogue people
who sailed the seas in search of money, power, and wealth in general. They can be compared to criminal
gangs in our time. The Middle Colonies had religious, political, and ethnic diversity. They were found in the
states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The first attempted English settlement south
of Virginia was the Province of Carolina, with Georgia Colony – the last of the Thirteen Colonies –
established in 1733. The Southern Colonies (as found in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
and Georgia) were heavily influenced by the Church of England except Maryland with a strong Catholic
presence. The colonies were mostly people of Christianity and Judaism among the settlers. Many Jewish
people came into America to escape religious persecution. Many Jewish people owned slaves and other
Jewish people were famous abolitionists. Native Americans had their own religions. Africans back then
were non-Christians heavily. Some were Muslims or followers of African religions. Later, most Africans in
America would be Christians. Congregationalists were in New England, German and Dutch Reformed were
in the Middle Colonies, and Catholics were found in Maryland. Scots-Irish Presbyterians were found on the
frontier. Sephardic Jewish people were early settlers in the cities of New England and the South. Many
immigrants like the French Huguenots were religious refugees. They were found in New York, Virginia, and
the Carolinas. Huguenots are French Calvinists. Royal officials and merchants were heavily Anglicans.
By September 9, 1739, in the Stono Rebellion, South Carolina slaves gathered at the Stono River to plan an
armed march for freedom.
Around the 1740’s, the First Great Awakening took place. It was about a religious revival led by preachers
like Jonathan Edwards and George Whitfield. It was about American Evangelicals back then saying that the
outpouring of the Holy Spirit caused lives to be changed. This was one major event that caused many
people to convert to Christianity, both white people and black people. These revivals were commonplace in
America as we have to understand religion in order to understand American history and culture. In
1753, Benjamin Banneker designed and built the first clock in the British American colonies. He also
created a series of almanacs. He corresponded with Thomas Jefferson and wrote that "blacks were
intellectually equal to whites." Banneker worked with Pierre L'Enfant to survey and design a street and
urban plan for Washington, D.C. The Second Great Awakening happened by the late 1790’s. Evangelicals in
the South like Methodists and Baptists preached. Many slaves were converted. Some preachers preached
for religious freedom and the abolition of slavery because back then many Baptists and other religious
minorities were persecuted in America. Also, many of the most vicious slave owners back then were
Baptists and Methodists.

The 13 colonies in America were ruled by a governor in each colony. The governor was appointed from
London. That governor ruled the legislature on voting and making laws. Many Americans in colonies grew
rapidly with large supplies of land and food. The colonies were richer than most parts of Britain back then.
More immigrants and indentured servants traveled into America. Slavery grew and tobacco and rice
plantations used African slaves in America and the West Indies. By the 1770's, African slaves comprised a
fifth of the American population. The question of independence from Britain did not arise as long as the
colonies needed British military support against the French and Spanish powers. Those threats were gone
by 1765. London regarded the American colonies as existing for the benefit of the mother country. This
policy is known as mercantilism. America was built heavily by slave labor. The wealthy class owned the
plantations and ruled the political systems of the 13 colonies. Some even ruled many of the churches from
South Carolina to Virginia. Wealthy Dutch proprietors were getting money from Dutch tenant farmers in
upstate New York. Pennsylvania had another system.
The Regions of the Thirteen Colonies
New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies
States represented Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland, North
Connecticut, and New Hampshire Pennsylvania, and Delaware Carolina, South Carolina, and

Economic Activity They worked in fishing, They worked with livestock, The Southern colonies produced
shipbuilding, using naval supplies, grains, and fish. They relied tobacco, rice, cotton, indigo, and
using metal tools, plus other on the Southern colonies for forest products (like lumber, tar,
equipment. They depended on rice, cotton, indigo, etc. They and pitch). They depended on
Southern colonies for tobacco, rice, trade with the New England the New England colonies for
cotton, and indigo (plus lumber, colonies for metal tools and manufactured goods. They
tar, and pitch). They depended on equipment. depended on the Middle
the Middle colonies for livestock colonies for agricultural colonies
and grains. not produced in the South.
Cities and Towns Boston, Quincy, Plymouth, Salem, New York City, Albany, Jamestown, Williamsburg,
Lexington, Concord, Providence, Wilmington, Trenton, Richmond, Norfolk, Baltimore,
Portsmouth, Newport, Hartford, Princeton, Philadelphia, Annapolis, Brunswick Town,
New Haven, Wethersfield, Lancaster, and York. Raleigh, Charleston, Savannah,
Windsor, Dover, and Exeter. Hardwicke, Charleston, and

Religions found in Puritan and other Protestant Quakers, the Jewish religion, Anglicans, Baptists, and some
the region groups. Lutherans, Baptists, Roman Catholics (in Maryland)
Catholics, Anglicans, etc.
Geography and They have Appalachian Mountains, They exist with the They have Appalachian
Climate the Boston harbor, hilly terrain, Appalachians, coastal Mountains, the Piedmont, the
rocky soil, and a jagged coastline. lowlands, harbors, and bays. Atlantic Coastal Plain, good
They have a moderate summer and They have mild winters and a harbors, and rivers. Their climate
cold winters. moderate climate with wide is humid with mild winters and
plus deep rivers. hot summers.

Natural Resources: timber, Natural resources: rich Natural Resources: fertile

fish, and deep harbors farmlands, and rivers farmlands, rivers, and
Human Resources: skilled Human Resources: harbors
craftsmen, shopkeepers, unskilled and skilled Human resources: farmers
and shipbuilders workers, fishermen Capital resources: tools,
Capital resources: tools, Capital resources: tools, buildings, etc.
buildings, etc. buildings, etc.
Social/Political They had villages, churches, and Villages and cities are found They were filled with slavery with
Life slavery. Religious reformers and in the region with diverse plantations, fewer cities, and
separatists were abundant. Town religions, colors, and social fewer schools. The Church of
meetings existed too. backgrounds. Market towns England dominated its religion
existed including slavery. along with the Crown. Counties
were part of its civic life too.
The French and Indian War (1754-1763) changed colonial America forever. It was a big moment in world
history. It was also part of the overall Seven Years’ War. Britain battled France over territories (found in the
Midwest and Canada) and Britain won. The French were allies of many the Native Americans, because it is
no secret that the British Empire cruelly murdered many Native Americans peoples. Both the French and
the British desired the control of the fertile Ohio River valley. That region was largely unsettled by
Europeans. The French built Fort Duquesne in that area or in western Pennsylvania. This new fort angered
the British governor of Virginia named Robert Dinwiddie. So, he sent a young Virginian named George
Washington to evict the French from the fort. Washington and his troops defeated some of the French on
May 28, 1754. He later built Fort Necessity. Yet, Washington
surrendered when the French struck back. This caused the French and
Indian War that spread worldwide in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the West
Indies. By 1755, the British defeated the French at Nova Scotia. They
evicted the French people there called the Acadians. General Edward
Braddock had a defeat after being ambushed by French and Native
American forces at Fort Duquesne. Braddock died and Washington saved
much of his army. French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm destroyed
British forts on Lake Ontario and Lake George. Native Americans raided
British frontier settlements in Virginia and Pennsylvania. From 1758 to
1759, the British started to win more battles against the French. William
Pitt allowed supplies from Britain to come into America and he supports
colonists who fought on the British side. Supplies from France to

This picture shows a young America declined, so more Native Americans started to ally with the
George Washington who was British. The British conquered Louisbourg via Amherst on May 28, 1758.
greatly once in support of the The British general James Wolfe fought in Quebec in 1759. Montcalm
British (during the French and (who was French) and Wolfe, the commanding generals of both armies,
Indian war). He was born in perish in battle. The French surrendered Quebec on September 13,
Westmoreland County, 1759. The British controlled Montreal by September 8, 1760 and the war
Virginia and would go onward was soon a British victory. The French surrendered Great Lakes areas as
ironically to fight the British well.
later on.
This is a picture of the war council that showed the famous council on April 27,
1763. During that council, Pontiac urged listeners rise up against the British.
The Treaty of Paris in 1763 (on February 10, 1763) ended the French and Indian War. It was a great benefit
for the British. The French were gone from North America, except in the Caribbean. The British won
victories in West Africa, the Philippines, and the Caribbean including India. The Native Americans didn’t
take the British victory lying down. They knew that the British on average were much crueler against them
than the French. The British military commander Lord Jeffrey Amherst cut off goods to Native Americans.
The British formed an agreement with the Cherokee peoples on 1761. The Native Americans who suffered
from this were the Mississauga, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Ojibwa, Wyandot, Miami, Kickapoo, Mascouten,
Delaware, Shawnee, and Seneca. So, many Native Americans started to fight the British to lure the French
back into North America. This new attack strategy was called Pontiac’s Rebellion. Pontiac was one Ottawa
chief who fought in Detroit. Pontiac’s War was very brutal and it lasted from 1763 to 1766 By 1764, the
Native American rebellion ended since they ran out of supplies. Amherst was criticized by the British
government and he was replaced by Thomas Gage. The British made more peace treaties with the Native
Americans after Pontiac’s Rebellion. The British created the Proclamation of 1763 (on October of 1763)
which banned settlers from traveling west of the Appalachian Mountains (to restrain settlers and cause
more peace with Native Americans). Of course the settlers continued to violate the Proclamation of 1763. It
was hard to enforce since there were too few British troops to enforce it. The British calling on the colonists
to pay for the large debt caused by the French and Indian War ultimately created more tensions among the
colonies (which ultimately developed into the Revolutionary War). The irony is that the French and Indian
War was a huge factor in causing the Revolutionary War.

Afterwards, New France declined in their land. The Thirteen Colonies grew in size. The American Colonies
supported the British during the French and Indian War with the Albany Congress. Benjamin Franklin
wanted the colonies to Join or Die in that war. Franklin promoted the concept of the United States of
America before 1776.
“… What do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The
Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts
of the people…This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the
people was the real American Revolution.”

-John Adams, February 13, 1818

The Origins of the American Revolutionary War

The American colonists were protected by Britain during the French and Indian war, but they paid very little
of the cost of that war. They profited from trade in dealing with the British Empire. The colonists have due
process of common law, trial by jury, and the freedom of the press without censorship. They could pay no
tax unless it as levied by their representatives. The British government had the monarch being part of the
executive branch back then. The legislative power of the British Empire had the two houses of Parliament
of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Aristocrats had seats in the House of Lords and some
common people were in the House of Commons. Colonial America had governors and colonial legislatures
like the Upper House and the Assembly or Lower House. King George III of England issued the Royal
Proclamation of 1763. That meant that the colonial settlers couldn’t travel west of the Appalachian
Mountains. Some settlers violated this proclamation. The lands of the Native Americans were increasingly
being stripped. The French and Indian war caused huge debts in Britain. So, the British wanted the
American colonies to pay money to them to end the debt from the French and Indian War. This was one
reason why the American Revolutionary War existed in the first place. The colonists refused to do this
because they wanted representation in the British legislature. Prime Minister George Grenville by 1764
wanted more money in collecting duties. The law of Sugar Act was placed to lower the duty of foreign

The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act of 1765, imposing a tax on the colonies without going through
the colonial legislatures. The issue was drawn: did Parliament have this right to tax Americans who were
not represented in it? Crying "No taxation without representation", the colonists refused to pay the taxes
as tensions escalated in the late 1760's and early 1770's. Some colonists wanted total independence.
Boston was one place where pro-independence sentiment was very large. In 1765, the British government
passed the unpopular law of the Quartering Act. It required colonies to provide housing and supplies for
the British troops stationed there after the French and Indian war. Colonists didn’t like but mostly accepted
it as a means to deal with trade and defense. Many colonists resisted these laws by protest, by using papers
to show intellectual arguments in opposing these policies, and by resistance. John Adams and Patrick Henry
believed that the colonial assemblies only had the right to tax the colonists. By 1765, boycotts of goods
imported from Britain existed which were called nonimportation agreements. This threatened British
manufactures. Women in the Daughters of Liberty groups were involved in colonist efforts to oppose the
Stamp Act too. The Stamp Act was repealed in 1766. The British responded to the colonists again by
creating the Townshend Acts in 1767 to tax goods like glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. Violence soon
erupted in Boston in opposition to the laws. In March of 1770, colonists threw snowballs and rocks at
British soldiers guarding the Customs House. The soldiers fired at them and killed 5 colonists. One of the
dead was Crispus Attucks, who was a sailor (of African descent) who may have been an escaped slave.
Samuel Adams condemned the killings as the Boston Massacre. The British left Boston and ended most of
the Townshend duties. The British later taxed tea to help the British East India Company.

The Boston Tea Party in December 16, 1773 was about activists in Boston protesting a new tax on tea.
White men dressed up (as Native Americans) and they enacted the Boston Tea Party by throwing tea into
the Boston Harbor. The Parliament of England retaliated by passing the 1774 Coercive Acts. This stripped
Massachusetts of its historic right of self-government and putting it under army rule, which sparked
outrage and resistance in all thirteen colonies. Also, in 1774, the first black Baptist congregations are
organized in the South: Silver Bluff Baptist Church in South Carolina, and First African Baptist Church near
Petersburg, Virginia. There were the Intolerable Acts too which was executed by the British. Patriot leaders
from all 13 colonies convened the First Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance to the Coercive
Acts (or the Intolerable acts). The Congress called for a boycott of British trade, published a list of rights and
grievances, and petitioned the king for redress of those grievances. Patrick Henry, form Virginia, is famous
for giving he famous speech of saying “Give me liberty or give me death” at the first Continental Congress
as he was a militant Patriot seeking independence.

The appeal to the Crown had no effect, and so the Second Continental Congress was convened in 1775 to
organize the defense of the colonies against the British Army. Many early Americans fought against the
British even though they didn’t know about the ideological rationales for this resistance. Many wanted their
rights to have local autonomy, fair dealing, and government by consent. They didn’t want tyranny, but
slavery is the height of tyranny. The British Army came into Boston and many colonists viewed them as
colonizers. Many Patriots viewed God as being on their side and some wanted revenge.
The Sons of Liberty was an organization
(which was created by the Thirteen
Colonies) that fought for the rights of the
colonists and they opposed taxation by the
British government. This group lasted from
1765 to 1776. They opposed the Stamp
Act in 1765. Their members included
Samuel Adams, Benedict Arnold, John
Hancock, Patrick Henry, James Otis Jr.,
Paul Revere, James Swan, Alexander
McDougall, Benjamin Rush, Charles
Thomson, Haym Solomon, Isaac Sears,
and other people. Their motto became,
“No taxation without representation.”

Unsung Leaders of the American Revolution

Edmund Jennings John Paul Jones was Horatio Gates was a Friedrich Wilhem von John Dickinson was a
Randolph was an the first known naval retired British soldier Steuben was the politician who was a
American attorney commander during who was an American American military member of the First
and a politician. He the American general during the leader from Prussia Continental Congress.
was the seventh Revolutionary War. Revolutionary War. who helped to train He also wrote the
Governor of Virginia, He was born in He was involved in American troops via final draft of the 1775
the second Secretary Scotland and he was a the victorious military drills at Valley Declaration of the
of State, and the first sailor for a time. He American victory of Forge. He was a Causes and Necessity
United States came into Virginia to the Battles of Major General after of Taking Up Arms. He
Attorney General. He join the Continental Saratoga back in he was an Inspector attended the
was a Freemason and Navy in fighting the 1777. After the war, General. Constitutional
involved in the British Empire. he lived his life in Convention of 1787.
Constitutional New York City until He lived in
Convention. his passing in 1806 (at Philadelphia and
the age of 78). Delaware.
The image on the left shows the Boston Massacre and the image on the
rights shows the Battle of Lexington and Concord.

The Start of the American Revolution

By early 1775, the British government wanted General Thomas Gage to be the governor of Massachusettes.
Gage was about to arrest John Hancock and Samuel Adams and seize the Patriot weapons stockpiled in
Concord. The American Revolution War started at Lexington and Concord in April 19, 1775. It was when the
British wanted to get ammunition supplies and arrest the Patriot leaders. The Patriots resisted (with shots
that broke out in Lexington, Massachusetts. 8 colonists died) and sent the British out of the area. The
Americans promoted Republicanism. The British failed to find their targets in Concord, and as they
retreated back to Boston, the British came under continuous assault by upwards of 3,800 militia who had
prepared an ambush. The Battle of Lexington and Concord ignited the American Revolutionary War. As
news spread, local shadow governments (called "committees of correspondence") in each of the 13
colonies drove out royal officials and sent militiamen to Boston to besiege the British there. They or the
early colonists opposed aristocracy and wanted to use civic duty. Many early Founders believed in this view
of Republicanism, but contradicted themselves since many of them owned slaves. The May 10th, 1775
Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The thirteen colonies had representatives
there. They started to organize themselves as one central government with control over the army and
diplomacy. The 2nd Continental Congress instructed the colonies to write constitutions for themselves as

On June 1775, George Washington, who was a Virginian political leader with combat experience From the
French and Indian War, was unanimously appointed commander of the newly organized Continental Army.
He took command in Boston. He also sent for artillery to barrage the British. In every state, there was a
minority of people who professed loyalty to the King (called Loyalists), but they didn’t have massive power.
The Loyalists were watched by the standing Committees of Safety, which was created by the Provincial
Congresses. Loyalists are people who believed in following the British Empire along with the King of
England. The unwritten rule was such people could remain silent, but vocal or financial or military support
for the King would not be tolerated. The estates of outspoken Loyalists were seized; they fled to British-
controlled territory, especially New York City. During the winter of 1775-1776, there was an attempt by the
Patriots to capture Quebec. It failed and there was a buildup of British forces at Halifax, Nova Scotia. This
precluded the colony of Quebec from joining the 13 colonies. The Americans captured a British fort at
Ticonderoga, New York. It dragged its cannon over the snow to the outskirts of Boston. The appearance of
troops and cannon on Dorchester Heights outside of Boston led the British Army to evacuate Boston on
March 17, 1776. By January 10, 1776, Thomas Paine published Common Sense. It was an intellectual guide
to support the American independence movement. Common Sense, in essence, was a pamphlet that
advocated total independence of the thirteen colonies from the British Empire.

At the height of the Revolutionary War, there were 133,000 troops on

the British side and 96,000 Continental troops. As many as 25,000
black people fought among both sides. At least 50,000 people died
during the war.

Thomas Paine wrote eloquently in favor of the forming of an egalitarian form of government. It or Common
Sense sold greatly and was very popular in colonial America and today in our time in 2018. Taverns,
churches, meeting places, and homes all had in their possession pamphlets of Common Sense. Paine
proposed his own style of a constitutional framework and he was influenced by Enlightenment thinking
which was prevalent during that time. Thomas Paine wrote in favor of Deism, supported the French
Revolution, and advanced the American Revolution enthusiastically. Henry Knox reached Boston on January
24, 1776. Henry Knox was the commander of the Continental Army (and later leader of the U.S. Army). The
Raid of Nassau (March 3–4, 1776) was a naval operation and amphibious assault by Colonial forces against
the British port of Nassau, Bahamas, during the American Revolutionary War (also known as the American
War of Independence). The battle is considered one of the first engagements of the newly established
Continental Navy and the Continental Marines, the respective progenitors of the United States Navy and
Marine Corps. The action was also the Marines' first amphibious landing. It is sometimes known as the
"Battle of Nassau." The Patriots won the battle and occupied Nassau for 2 weeks.

By Timothy
The next part of this series will describe the
American Revolutionary War and the early
years of the American nation.