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Aljalal-Phys101-Sept 2007-Ch3-page 1 Aljalal-Phys101-Sept 2007-Ch3-page 4

3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically


Equality of two vectors

Two vectors are equal if they have the same magnitude and point in the
same direction.

→ →
a=b → →
b a
Chapter 3
Vectors
In a diagram, a vector may be moved to a new position provided its
length and direction are not changed.
3-1 Vectors and Scalars
3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically
It is allowed to shift a →
3-3 Components of Vectors
vector to a position
a
3-4 Adding Vectors by Components →
3-5 Vectors and the Laws of Physics a parallel to itself.
3-6 Multiplying Vectors

Aljalal-Phys101-Sept 2007-Ch3-page 2 Aljalal-Phys101-Sept 2007-Ch3-page 5

3-1 Vectors and Scalars 3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically


Introduction Adding two vectors
Physical quantities →
→ →
Vector quantities Scalar quantities a+b=c
A vector quantity has a direction. A scalar quantity has no direction.
→ →
Wind's velocity is 3 m/s towards east. Temperature is 250 C.
b b

b →
c
A vector quantity is specified by A scalar quantity is specified by → → →
1- a value with appropriate unit a value with appropriate unit. a a a
(a magnitude)
2- a direction.

The magnitude of a vector is Scalars can be negative. → →


Temperature = - 20 C means that it is Shift vector b so that its The vector sum c is the
always positive quantity.
2 degrees below zero. This negative tail is at the head of vector drawn from the
→ → →
sign has noting to do with direction. vector a. tail of a to the head of b.

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3-1 Vectors and Scalars 3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically


Notations Example 1
A man walks due east for a distance of 2.50 km.
A vector quantity is denoted by an → Then he walks in a direction 690 north of east a distance of 4.27 km.
arrow placed over its symbol. a What is his total displacement?

Solution N
The magnitude (absolute value) of → → → →
a vector quantity is indicated by its
symbol without an arrow.
a =a y (km)

5
W E d = d1 + d2
S From the Graph
4
With a ruler and using the proper
On a graph, a vector quantity is drawn as an arrow. 3 scale of the figure, the magnitude
The length of the arrow is proportional to the → of the total displacement = 5.7 km
magnitude of the vector quantity. 2
d →
The arrow has the same direction as the vector d2 Using a protractor, the total
quantity direction. → displacement is 450 north of east.
a 1
→ (This also clear from the figure.)
450 d1 690
0 x (km)
1 2 3 4 5

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Aljalal-Phys101-Sept 2007-Ch3-page 7 Aljalal-Phys101-Sept 2007-Ch3-page 10

3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically 3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically


Commutative law Multiplying a vector by a scalar
r r
Multiplying a vector b by a scalar s produces a vector sb. The magnitude
r r r r r r
a+b=b+a of sb is the product of the magnitude of b and the absolute value of s.
r r
If s is positive, the direction of sb is the direction of b.
r r
b b
r r
b r r 2b
c a r
r r r 0.5 b
a a c
r
b r r
If s is negative, the direction of sb is the opposite direction of b.
r r r r r
a+b b+a b
r
-2 b
r
-0.5 b

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3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically 3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically


Associative law Checkpoint 1
r r r r r r Solution
(a + b) + c = a + (b + c) r r
When is the magnitude of the a b
sum of two vectors equal to the
r r r sum of their magnitudes? r r
b b b r r a+b
r r r a+b =a+b
c c c When they have the same direction.

r r r
a a a
When is the magnitude of the r r r
r r r r r r sum of two vectors equal to the a+b b
(a + b) + c a + (b + c) difference of their magnitudes? r
r r a
a+b =a-b When they have opposite directions.

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3-2 Adding Vectors Geometrically 3-3 Components of Vectors


Subtracting vectors Projecting a vector on an axis
To find the projection of a vector along an axis,
r r r r r draw perpendicular lines from the two ends of the vector to the axis.
The vector -b is a vector with
r
a - b = a + (-b) y y
the same magnitude as b but
the opposite direction.
r →
→ → →
r -b by b by b
b r
r r a
-b a → x → x
bx bx →
bx

→ →
bx + by = b
→ b →
→ →
bx + by = b by
→ →
by →
b

bx
The projection has the same direction along an axis as the vector.

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3-3 Components of Vectors 3-3 Components of Vectors


Checkpoint 2 Finding components
Indicate the correct projections. y

y → y → y →
bx bx bx ∧ → θ is the angle that the vector b makes

x x x
→ by j b with the positive direction of the x axis.
→ by →
by →
b

b

b by θ

x b x= b cos θ
Solution Wrong Wrong Correct bx i
b y= b sin θ
y y
bx
→ y →
bx b
x x x by
→ → → → θ b = b2x + b2y
by b → by by b

→ b bx b
bx
θ = tan-1 y
Solution Correct Wrong Correct bx

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3-3 Components of Vectors 3-3 Components of Vectors


Unit vectors Specifying a vector
A unit vector is a vector used to specify a direction. When working with a vector, you can use
It has a magnitude of one. its magnitude and direction or its components
It has no dimension and thus has no unit.
y y
y Two dimensions
∧ (a plane)
∧ i is a unit vector pointing in the positive x direction.
j ∧
∧ → ∧ →
i ∧
b b

k
x j is a unit vector pointing in the positive y direction. by j by j
θ θ

k is a unit vector pointing in the positive z direction.
z
y(m) y(m) ∧ x ∧ x

4 4 bx i bx i
3 3 → Magnitude and one angle Two components
→ b
2 b 2 b and θ x and y components
1 1 Three dimensions
x(m) x(m) (a space)
0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
Magnitude and two angles Three components
→ →
b = (2.0 m) i + (3.0 m) j b = (2.0 m) i + (-3.0 m) j b, θ and φ x, y, and z components

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3-3 Components of Vectors 3-3 Components of Vectors


Components of a vector Example 2
y A man walks 4.5 km in a direction making an angle of 350 east of due
north. How far east and north is the man from his starting point?

∧ → Solution We are given the magnitude and



b y= b y j b N the angle of a vector and need to
y(km) find the components of the vector.
W E
b y is the→component of x 5 θ = 90° - 35° = 55°
vector b on the y axis. → ∧ S

b y is the y →component
b x= b x i 4 dx = d cos θ = (4.5 km)(cos 55° )
of vector b. b x is the→component of = 2.6 km
vector b on the x axis. 3 →
b y can be negative.
b x is the x →component
d dy = d sin θ = (4.5 km)(sin 55° )
2
of vector b. = 3.7 km
→ ∧ ∧
b = bx i + by j b x can be negative. 1 350 The man is 2.6 km east and 3.7 km
θ north of his starting point.
We resolve a vector by finding its components. 0 x(km)
1 2 3 4 5

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3-3 Components of Vectors 3-4 Adding Vectors by Components


Example 3 Example 5
Find the magnitude and direction of the following displacement vector Each vector on the graph has a magnitude of 2.0 m. What are the
→ ∧ ∧
d = (-2.5 m) i + (3.5 m) j magnitude and angle of their vector sum?
Solution Solution
y(m) → → 70°
d = d2x + d2y = (2.5 m)2 + (3.5 m)2 a1x = 2.0 m a4 a3 70°
4 →
= 4.3 m a1y = 0
3 Using a

100°
40°
a2
2
calculator a2x = (2.0 m) cos 110° = -0.68 m r
126° a2y = (2.0 m) sin 110° = 1.9 m 138° 70° 110°
1 3.5 m
θ = tan-1 = - 54° →
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x(m) -2.5 m a3x = (2.0 m) cos (-140°) = -1.5 m a 1
-1 - 54° This answer is not consistent with a3y = (2.0 m) sin (-140°) = -1.3 m r = (-1.7 m)2 + (1.9 m)2 = 2.5 m
-2 the directions of the components. a4x = (2.0 m) cos 140° = -1.5 m
The correct answer is Using a calculator
-3 a4y = (2.0 m) sin 140° = 1.3 m
θ = - 54°+180° = 126° 1.9 m
-4 θ = tan -1
= - 42°
-1.7 m
rx = a1x + a2x + a3x + a4x = -1.7 m θ = - 42°+180° = 138°
3.5 m -3.5 m When taking the inverse of a trig function,
tan = tan
-2.5 m 2.5 m always check the validity of your answer! ry = a1y + a2y + a3y + a4y = 1.9 m r = 2.5 m at 138°

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3-4 Adding Vectors by Components 3-4 Adding Vectors by Components


Formulas Example 6
→ → →
rx = a x + b x b=a+c
→ → → Two vectors are equal if →
r =a+b their components are equal.
ry = a y + b y a has a magnitude of 20.0 units and it is -30.0o from the + x axis.

c has a magnitude of 15.0 units and its y component is positive.
y rz = az + bz →
b is in the positive direction of the x axis.

What is the magnitude of b?
Solution a x = 20.0 cos (-30.0°) = 17.3

by j ∧ → → a y = 20.0 sin (-30.0°) = -10.0
ry j r b
c x = 15.0 cos φ
→ 0 > φ > 180°
∧ a ∧ c y = 15.0 sin φ
ay j rx i
x bx = b
∧ ∧
by = 0
ax i bx i
b x = ax + c x b = 17.3 + 15 cos φ b = 17.3 + 15 cos 41.80 = 28.5
rx = a x - bx
→ → →
r =a-b ry = a y - by 10.0
b y = ay + c y 0 = - 10.0 + 15 sin φ φ =sin-1 = 41.8°
15.0
rz = az - bz

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3-4 Adding Vectors by Components 3-6 Multiplying Vectors


Example 4 Scalar Product
∧ ∧
→ →
Add the following three vectors: a = (3.0 m)i - (2.0 m)j → → b

b = (-2.0 m)i + (3.0 m)j
∧ ∧
a b = a b cos φ Scalar quantity
∧ → →
c = (-3.0 m)j Angle between a
Write your answer in unit-vector notation and in magnitude-angle notation. the two vectors φ
Solution
rx = a x + b x + c x → y(m) Scalar product is also called dot product and read as a dot b.
= 3.0 m - 2.0 m = 1.0 m b 3 → → → →
ry = a y + b y + c y 2 a b = a b cos φ a b = b a cos φ
→ →
= -2.0 m + 3.0 m - 3.0 m = -2.0 m 1 b b
∧ ∧
→ x(m) →
r = (1.0 m)i + (-2.0 m)j →
-3 -2 -1 0
-1
1 2 3
a a
The magnitude of the vector sum is
-2 → → φ φ
r a
r = (1.0 m)2 + (-2.0 m)2 = 2.2 m -3 →
c → →
The angle from the positive direction of x is The component of b The component of a →

-2.0 m r = 2.2 m at - 63° along the direction of a along the direction of b
θ = tan -1
= - 63°
1.0 m is b cos φ is a cos φ

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3-6 Multiplying Vectors 3-6 Multiplying Vectors


Scalar Product Vector Product
→ →
→ →
a b = a b cos φ b →
a× b=c
→ →
Vector quantity b

b

a 90°

a

b 180°

a c = a b sin φ →
a
→ → → → → →
The smaller angle of the two
→ → φ
ab=ab ab=0 a b=-ab angles between a and b
y
Vector product is also called cross product and read as a cross b.
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
→ → →
i i =1 i j=0 j ∧
The direction of c is perpendicular to the plane that contains a and b
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
∧ i x → → →
j j=1 i k= 0 If a and b are in the plane of the paper, c will be perpendicular to the paper .
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
k
k k= 1 k j=0 z
Right-hand rule Your thumb of your right hand points

∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
c along the direction of the cross

→ → product c if
a b = (a x i + a y j + azk ) (b x i + b y j + b zk ) → your index finger points along the
→ →
a b = a xb x + a yb y + azb z b →
direction of the first vector a
and
→ → right hand → your middle finger points along the
Magnitude of a vector: a= a =
2
a a = a2x + a2y + a2z a second vector b.

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3-6 Multiplying Vectors 3-6 Multiplying Vectors


Example 7 Vector Product
∧ ∧ → ∧ ∧ → →
→ Right-hand rule
What is the angle between a = 3.0i - 4.0j and b = -2.0i + 3.0k ? →

a× b=c
→ →
b a
c

Solution a
→ →

b → φ →
a b = a b cos φ c → φ b
→ →
a b = a xb x + a yb y + a zbz → c
right hand a Out of the page
→ →
Into of the page
a b = (3.0)(-2.0)+(-4.0)(0) +(0)(3.0) = -6.0
→ → an arrow comes
ab → → → → an arrow goes
cos φ = a× b =-b× a out of the page into the page
ab
a = 3.02 + (-4.0)2 = 5.0 → →
b b
b = (-2.0)2 + (3.0)2 = 3.6

- 6.0 φ →
a
φ = cos-1 = 110° → φ
(5.0)(3.6) → c
a

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3-6 Multiplying Vectors 3-6 Multiplying Vectors


Checkpoint 3 Vector Product
Two vectors have magnitudes of 5 m → → → →
a× b=c b
and 3 m respectively. What is the c = a b sin φ
angle between them if their dot → → 90°
→ → →
b a a b 180° a
product is
Solution c=0 c=ab c=0
y
(a) zero φ = 90°
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
i × i =0 i× j= k j ∧
(b)15 m2 φ = 0° ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ i x
j× j=0 j × k= i k
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
(c)-15 m2 φ = 180°
k × k= 0 k×i= j z
Note the order. Right-handed coordinate system
i always comes before j.
j always comes before k. x
k always comes before i.
If they are not in this order,
z
then the answer is negative. right hand y

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3-6 Multiplying Vectors


Vector Product in unit-vector notation

→ → ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
a × b = (a x i + a y j + a zk ) × (b x i + b y j + b zk )
→ → ∧ ∧ ∧
a × b = (a yb z -a zb y )i + (a zb x -a xb z )j + (a xb y -a yb x )k

∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
i × i =0 i× j= k
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
j× j=0 j × k= i
∧ ∧ ∧ ∧ ∧
k × k= 0 k×i= j

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3-6 Multiplying Vectors


Example 8
→ → → → ∧ ∧ → ∧ ∧
What is c = a × b if a = 3i - 4 j and b = -2i + 3k ?

Solution
→ → → ∧ ∧ ∧
c = a × b = (a yb z -a zb y )i + (a zb x -a xbz )j + (a xb y -a yb x )k
→ ∧ ∧ ∧
c = ((-4)(3)-(0)(0))i + ((0)(-2)-(3)(3))j + ((3)(0)-(-4)(-2))k
→ ∧ ∧ ∧
c = -12i - 9j - 8k
→ → →
Note that c is perpendicular to both a and b.
→ → → →
We check that by showing c a = 0 and c b = 0.
→ →
c a = c x a x + c y a y + c za z
→ →
c a = (-12)(3) + (-9)(-4) + (-8)(0) = 0
→ →
c b = c x b x + c yb y + c zb z
→ →
c b = (-12)(-2) + (0)(-4) + (-8)(3) = 0