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# HEAT TRANSFER

There are three modes of heat transfer: conduction, To Evaluate Surface or Intermediate Temperatures:
convection, and radiation. Boiling and condensation are T2 = T1 − QR1 ; T3 = T2 − QR2
classified as convection.
CONDUCTION Conduction through a cylindrical wall is given by
Fourier's Law of Conduction
Q = − kA(dT dx ). , where
Q = rate of heat transfer.
Conduction Through a Plane Wall:

2πkL(T1 − T2 )
Q=
ln (r2 r1 )
ln r2 r1 )
(
R=
2πkL
Q = − kA(T2 − T1 ) L , where CONVECTION
k = the thermal conductivity of the wall, Convection is determined using a convection coefficient
A = the wall surface area, (heat transfer coefficient) h.
L = the wall thickness, and Q = hA(Tw − T∞ ) , where
T1, T2 = the temperature on the near side and far side of A = the heat transfer area,
the wall respectively. Tw = wall temperature, and
Thermal resistance of the wall is given by T∞ = bulk fluid temperature.
R = L/(kA) Resistance due to convection is given by
R = 1/(hA)
Composite Walls: FINS: For a straight fin,
Q = hpkAc (Tb − T∞ ) tanh mLc , where
h = heat transfer coefficient,
p = exposed perimeter,
k = thermal conductivity,
Ac = cross-sectional area,
Tb = temperature at base of fin,
T∞ = fluid temperature,
Rtotal = R1 + R2, where
m = hp (kAc ) , and
R1 = L1/(k1A), and
R2 = L2/(k2A). Lc = L + Ac /p, corrected length.

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HEAT TRANSFER (continued)

The radiation emitted by a body is given by The overall heat-transfer coefficient for a shell-and-tube
heat exchanger is
Q = εσAT 4 , where
1 1 R fi t R fo 1
T = the absolute temperature (K or °R), = + + + + , where
UA hi Ai Ai kAavg Ao ho Ao
σ = 5.67 × 10–8 W/(m2⋅K4)
[0.173 × 10–8 Btu/(hr-ft2–°R4)], A = any convenient reference area (m2),
ε = the emissivity of the body, and Aavg = average of inside and outside area (for thin-walled
tubes) (m2),
A = the body surface area.
Ai = inside area of tubes (m2),
For a body (1) which is small compared to its surroundings
(2) Ao = outside area of tubes (m2),
( )
Q12 = εσA T14 − T24 , where hi = heat-transfer coefficient for inside of tubes
[W/(m2⋅K)],
Q12 = the net heat transfer rate from the body.
ho = heat-transfer coefficient for outside of tubes
A black body is defined as one which absorbs all energy [W/(m2⋅K)],
incident upon it. It also emits radiation at the maximum rate k = thermal conductivity of tube material [W/(m⋅K)],
for a body of a particular size at a particular temperature.
For such a body Rfi = fouling factor for inside of tube (m2⋅K/W),
α = ε = 1, where Rfo = fouling factor for outside of tube (m2⋅K/W),
α = the absorptivity (energy absorbed/incident energy). t = tube-wall thickness (m), and
A gray body is one for which α = ε, where U = overall heat-transfer coefficient based on area A and
the log mean temperature difference [W/(m2⋅K)].
0 < α < 1; 0 < ε < 1
The log mean temperature difference (LMTD) for
Real bodies are frequently approximated as gray bodies. countercurrent flow in tubular heat exchangers is
The net energy exchange by radiation between two black (THo − TCi ) − (THi − TCo )
bodies, which see each other, is given by ∆Tlm =
⎛ T − TCi ⎞
( )
Q12 = A1 F12 σ T14 − T24 , where ln⎜⎜ Ho ⎟

⎝ THi − TCo ⎠
F12 = the shape factor (view factor, configuration factor); The log mean temperature difference for concurrent
0 ≤ F12 ≤ 1. (parallel) flow in tubular heat exchangers is
For any body, α + ρ + τ = 1, where (THo − TCo ) − (THi − TCi )
∆Tlm = , where
α = absorptivity, ⎛ T − TCo ⎞
ln⎜⎜ Ho ⎟⎟
ρ = reflectivity (ratio of energy reflected to incident ⎝ THi − TCi ⎠
energy), and
∆Tlm = log mean temperature difference (K),
τ = transmissivity (ratio of energy transmitted to incident
energy). THi = inlet temperature of the hot fluid (K),
THo = outlet temperature of the hot fluid (K),
For an opaque body, α + ρ = 1
TCi = inlet temperature of the cold fluid (K), and
For a gray body, ε+ρ=1
TCo = outlet temperature of the cold fluid (K).
For individual heat-transfer coefficients of a fluid being
heated or cooled in a tube, one pair of temperatures (either
the hot or the cold) are the surface temperatures at the inlet
and outlet of the tube.

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HEAT TRANSFER (continued)

Heat exchanger effectiveness Heat-transfer for laminar flow (Re < 2,000) in a closed
actual heat transfer q conduit.
= =
max possible heat transfer q max 0.19Gz 0.8
Nu = 3.66 +
1 + 0.117Gz 0.467
C H (THi − THo )
ε= Heat-transfer for turbulent flow (Re > 104, Pr > 0.7) in a
C min (THi − TCi ) closed conduit (Sieder-Tate equation).
or
hiD
C (T − TCi ) Nu = = 0.023Re 0.8 Pr1 3 (µ b µ w )0.14 , where
ε = C Co kf
C min (THi − TCi )
µb = µ (Tb), and
Where Cmin = smaller of Cc or CH and C = mcp
µw = µ (Tw), and Re and Pr are evaluated at Tb.
UA For non-circular ducts, use the equivalent diameter.
Number of transfer units, NTU =
Cmin The equivalent diameter is defined as
At a cross-section in a tube where heat is being transferred 4 (cross - sectional area )
DH =
wetted perimeter
Q ⎡ ⎛ dt ⎞ ⎤
= h(Tw − Tb ) = ⎢k f ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ For a circular annulus (Do > Di) the equivalent diameter is
A ⎣ ⎝ dr ⎠ w ⎦ fluid
DH = Do – Di
⎡ ⎛ dt ⎞ ⎤ For liquid metals (0.003 < Pr < 0.05) flowing in closed
= ⎢k m ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ , where
⎣ ⎝ dr ⎠ w ⎦ metal conduits.
2
Nu = 6.3 + 0.0167Re0.85Pr0.93 (constant heat flux)
Q A = local inward radial heat flux (W/m ),
Nu = 7.0 + 0.025Re0.8Pr0.8 (constant wall temperature)
2
h = local heat-transfer coefficient [W/(m ⋅K)], Heat-transfer coefficient for condensation of a pure vapor on
kf = thermal conductivity of the fluid [W/(m⋅K)], a vertical surface.
km = thermal conductivity of the tube metal [W/(m⋅K)], 0.25
hL ⎛ L3ρ 2 gλ ⎞
(dt/dr)w = radial temperature gradient at the tube surface = 0.943⎜⎜ ⎟
(K/m), k ⎝ kµ (Tsv − T )
s ⎠

Tb = local bulk temperature of the fluid (K), and Properties other than λ are for the liquid and are evaluated at
Tw = local inside surface temperature of the tube (K). the average between Tsv and Ts.
For condensation outside horizontal tubes, change 0.943 to
RATE OF HEAT TRANSFER IN A TUBULAR HEAT 0.73 and replace L with the tube outside diameter.
EXCHANGER
For the equations below, the following definitions along HEAT TRANSFER TO/FROM BODIES IMMERSED
with definitions previously supplied are required. IN A LARGE BODY OF FLOWING FLUID
D = inside diameter In all cases, evaluate fluid properties at average temperature
between that of the body and that of the flowing fluid.
Gz = Graetz number [RePr (D/L)],
For flow parallel to a constant-temperature flat plate of
Nu = Nusselt number (hD/k),
length L (m)
Pr = Prandtl number (cPµ/k), Nu = 0.648Re0.5Pr1/3 (Re < 105)
A = area upon which U is based (m2), Nu = 0.0366Re0.8Pr1/3 (Re > 105)
F = configuration correction factor, Use the plate length in the evaluation of the Nusselt and
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2), Reynolds numbers.
L = heated (or cooled) length of conduit or surface (m), For flow perpendicular to the axis of a constant-temperature
circular cylinder
Q = inward rate of heat transfer (W),
Nu = cRenPr1/3 (values of c and n follow)
Ts = temperature of the surface (K),
Tsv = temperature of saturated vapor (K), and
λ = heat of vaporization (J/kg).
Q = UAF∆Tlm

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HEAT TRANSFER (continued)

## Use the cylinder diameter in the evaluation of the Nusselt 1 d ⎛ dT ⎞ Qgen

and Reynolds numbers. ⎜r ⎟+ =0
r dr ⎝ dr ⎠ k
Re n c Qgen r02 ⎛ 2 ⎞
T (r ) = ⎜1 − r ⎟ + T s
1–4 0.330 0.989 4k ⎜⎝ r02 ⎟⎠
4 – 40 0.385 0.911
40 – 4,000 0.466 0.683 Q ′ = πr02 Qgen , where
4,000 – 40,000 0.618 0.193
40,000 – 250,000 0.805 0.0266 Q′ = the heat-transfer rate from the cylinder per unit
length.
For flow past a constant-temperature sphere.
Transient Conduction Using the Lumped Capacitance
Nu = 2.0 + 0.60Re0.5Pr1/3 Method
(1 < Re < 70,000, 0.6 < Pr < 400)
Use the sphere diameter in the evaluation of the Nusselt and
Reynolds numbers.
Conductive Heat Transfer
Steady Conduction with Internal Energy Generation
For one-dimensional steady conduction, the equation is
d 2T/dx 2 + Qgen k = 0 , where
Qgen = the heat generation rate per unit volume, and If the temperature may be considered uniform within the
k = the thermal conductivity. body at any time, the change of body temperature is given
by
For a plane wall:
Q = hAs (T − T∞ ) = −ρc pV (dT dt )
The temperature variation with time is
− (hA / ρc V ) t
T – T∞ = (Ti – T∞) e s p
The total heat transferred up to time t is
Qtotal = ρcPV (Ti – T), where
ρ = density,
V = volume,
Qgen L2 ⎛ x 2 ⎞ ⎛ Ts 2 − Ts1 ⎞⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ Ts1 + Ts 2 ⎞ cP = heat capacity,
T (x ) = ⎜1 − ⎟+⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟
2k ⎜⎝ L2 ⎟⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ t = time,
As = surface area of the body,
Q1" + Q2" = 2Qgen L , where T = temperature, and
Q1" = k (dT dx )− L h = the heat-transfer coefficient.
Q"2 = −k (dT dx ) L The lumped capacitance method is valid if
Biot number = Bi = hV/kAs << 1
For a long circular cylinder:

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HEAT TRANSFER (continued)

## If the ambient fluid temperature varies periodically Radiation

according to the equation
Two-Body Problem
1
T∞ = T∞, mean +
2
(T∞ , max − T∞ , min ) cos ωt Applicable to any two diffuse-gray surfaces that form an
enclosure.
the temperature of the body, after initial transients have died
away, is Q12 =
(
σ T14 − T24)
1 − ε1 1 1 − ε2
βc2 ⎡ ω⎤ + +
T = cos ⎢ωt − tan −1 ⎥ + c1 , where ε1 A1 A1 F12 ε 2 A2
ω 2 + β2 ⎣ β⎦
Generalized Cases
c1 = T∞ ,mean

1
c2 =
2
(T∞ , max − T∞ , min )
hAs
β =
ρc pV
vertical cylinder of sufficiently large diameter) and a large
body of stationary fluid, One-dimensional geometry with low-emissivity shield
inserted between two parallel plates.
h = C (k/L) RaLn, where
L = the length of the plate in the vertical direction,
gβ(Ts − T∞ )L3
RaL = Rayleigh Number = Pr,
v2
Ts = surface temperature,
T∞ = fluid temperature,
2
β = coefficient of thermal expansion ( for an
Ts + T∞
ideal gas where T is absolute temperature), and
v = kinematic viscosity.
Range of RaL C n
104 – 109 0.59 1/4
109 – 1013 0.10 1/3
Q12 =
(
σ T14 − T24 )
1 − ε1 1 1 − ε 3,1 1 − ε 3,2 1 1 − ε2
For free convection between a long horizontal cylinder and + + + + +
a large body of stationary fluid ε1 A1 A1 F13 ε 3,1 A3 ε 3,2 A3 A3 F32 ε 2 A2

h = C (k D ) Ra nD , where

gβ(Ts − T∞ )D 3
Ra D = Pr
v2
10–3 – 102 1.02 0.148
102 – 104 0.850 0.188
104 – 107 0.480 0.250
107 – 1012 0.125 0.333

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HEAT TRANSFER (continued)

## Shape Factor Relations

Reciprocity relations:
AiFij = AjFji
Summation rule:
N
∑ Fij = 1
j =1